Articles | Volume 10, issue 3
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Forcing of dissolved organic carbon release by phytoplankton by anticyclonic mesoscale eddies in the subtropical NE Atlantic Ocean
Global Change Research Department, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Miquel Marqués 21, 07190 Esporles, Spain
Instituto Universitario de Oceanografía y Cambio Global (IOCAG-ULPGC), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
Instituto Universitario de Oceanografía y Cambio Global (IOCAG-ULPGC), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
C. M. Duarte
Global Change Research Department, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Miquel Marqués 21, 07190 Esporles, Spain
The UWA Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, 6009 Crawley, Australia
Global Change Research Department, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Miquel Marqués 21, 07190 Esporles, Spain
The UWA Oceans Institute and School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, 6009 Crawley, Australia
S. Lasternas and S. Agustí
Biogeosciences, 11, 6377–6387,
Christian Lønborg, Cátia Carreira, Gwenaël Abril, Susana Agustí, Valentina Amaral, Agneta Andersson, Javier Arístegui, Punyasloke Bhadury, Mariana Bernardi Bif, Alberto V. Borges, Steven Bouillon, Maria Ll. Calleja, Luiz C. Cotovicz Jr., Stefano Cozzi, Maryló Doval, Carlos M. Duarte, Bradley Eyre, Cédric G. Fichot, E. Elena García-Martín, Alexandra Garzon-Garcia, Michele Giani, Rafael Gonçalves-Araujo, Renee Gruber, Dennis A. Hansell, Fuminori Hashihama, Ding He, Johnna M. Holding, William R. Hunter, J. Severino P. Ibánhez, Valeria Ibello, Shan Jiang, Guebuem Kim, Katja Klun, Piotr Kowalczuk, Atsushi Kubo, Choon Weng Lee, Cláudia B. Lopes, Federica Maggioni, Paolo Magni, Celia Marrase, Patrick Martin, S. Leigh McCallister, Roisin McCallum, Patricia M. Medeiros, Xosé Anxelu G. Morán, Frank Muller-Karger, Allison Myers-Pigg, Marit Norli, Joanne M. Oakes, Helena Osterholz, Hyekyung Park, Maria Lund Paulsen, Judith A. Rosentreter, Digna Rueda-Roa, Chiara Santinelli, Yuan Shen, Eva Teira, Tinkara Tinta, Guenther Uher, Masahide Wakita, Nicholas Ward, Kenta Watanabe, Yu Xin, Youhei Yamashita, Liyang Yang, Jacob Yeo, Huamao Yuan, Qiang Zheng, and Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
In this paper, we present the first edition of a global database compiling previously published and unpublished measurements of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) collected in coastal waters (CoastDOM v.1). Overall, the CoastDOM v.1 dataset will be useful to identify global spatial and temporal patterns and to facilitate reuse in studies aimed at e.g., better characterising local biogeochemical processes and in identifying a baseline for modelling future changes in coastal waters.
Afrah Alothman, Daffne López-Sandoval, Carlos M. Duarte, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 20, 3613–3624,Short summary
This study investigates bacterial dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation in the Red Sea, an oligotrophic ecosystem, using stable-isotope labeling and spectroscopy. The research reveals that bacterial DIC fixation significantly contributes to total DIC fixation, in the surface and deep water. The study demonstrates that as primary production decreases, the role of bacterial DIC fixation increases, emphasizing its importance with photosynthesis in estimating oceanic carbon dioxide production.
Nadia Burgoa, Francisco Machín, Ángeles Marrero-Díaz, Ángel Rodríguez-Santana, Antonio Martínez-Marrero, Javier Arístegui, and Carlos Manuel Duarte
Ocean Sci., 16, 483–511,Short summary
The main objective of the study is to analyze the export of carbon to the open ocean from the rich waters of the upwelling system of North Africa. South of the Canary Islands, permanent upwelling interacts with other physical processes impacting the main biogeochemical processes. Taking advantage of data from two cruises combined with the outputs of models, important conclusions from the differences observed between seasons are obtained, largely related to changes in the CVFZ in this area.
Celina Burkholz, Neus Garcias-Bonet, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 1717–1730,Short summary
Seagrass meadows store carbon in their biomass and sediments, but they have also been shown to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). We experimentally investigated the effect of warming and prolonged darkness on CO2 and CH4 fluxes in Red Sea seagrass (Halophila stipulacea) communities. Our results indicated that sublethal warming may lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases from seagrass meadows which may contribute to further enhance global warming.
Kimberlee Baldry, Vincent Saderne, Daniel C. McCorkle, James H. Churchill, Susana Agusti, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 423–439,Short summary
The carbon cycling of coastal ecosystems over large spatial scales is not well measured relative to the open ocean. In this study we measure the carbonate system in the three habitats, to measure ecosystem-driven changes compared to offshore waters. We find (1) 70 % of seagrass meadows and mangrove forests show large ecosystem-driven changes, and (2) mangrove forests show strong and consistent trends over large scales, while seagrass meadows display more variability.
Miguel Agulles, Gabriel Jordà, Burt Jones, Susana Agustí, and Carlos M. Duarte
Ocean Sci., 16, 149–166,Short summary
The Red Sea holds one of the most diverse marine ecosystems in the world, although fragile and vulnerable to ocean warming. To better understand the long-term variability and trends of temperature in the whole water column, we produce a 3-D gridded temperature product (TEMPERSEA) for the period 1958–2017, based on a large number of in situ observations, covering the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden.
Susana Agustí, Jeffrey W. Krause, Israel A. Marquez, Paul Wassmann, Svein Kristiansen, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 35–45,Short summary
We found that 24 % of the total diatoms community in the Arctic water column (450 m depth) was located below the photic layer. Healthy diatom communities in active spring–bloom stages remained in the photic layer. Dying diatom communities exported a large fraction of the biomass to the aphotic zone, fuelling carbon sequestration and benthic ecosystems in the Arctic. The results of the study conform to a conceptual model where diatoms grow during the bloom until silicic acid stocks are depleted.
Daffne C. López-Sandoval, Katherine Rowe, Paloma Carillo-de-Albonoz, Carlos M. Duarte, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 16, 2983–2995,Short summary
We addressed how the intertwined effect of temperature and nutrients modulates the metabolic response of planktonic communities in the Red Sea, one of the warmest seas on earth. Our study unveiled that photosynthesis increases at a faster pace than respiration rates for this group of organisms formed by microalgae, bacteria, and drifting animals. This anomaly is likely due to the nature of the basin where the warmest waters are frequently enriched with nutrients, which favours microalgae growth.
Susann Rossbach, Vincent Saderne, Andrea Anton, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 16, 2635–2650,Short summary
Giant clams including the species Tridacna maxima are unique among bivalves as they live in symbiosis with unicellular algae and generally function as net photoautotrophs. Light is therefore crucial for these species to thrive. We show that net calcification and photosynthetic rates of T. maxima are light dependent, with maximum rates at conditions comparable to 4 m water depth, reflected also in the depth-related distribution in the Red Sea with maximum abundances in shallow sunlit coral reefs.
Neus Garcias-Bonet, Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer, Carlos M. Duarte, and Núria Marbà
Biogeosciences, 16, 167–175,Short summary
We assess the impact of warming on nitrogen fixation in three key Mediterranean macrophytes by experimentally measuring sediment nitrogen fixation rates at current and projected seawater temperature by 2100 under a scenario of moderate greenhouse gas emissions. The temperature dependence of nitrogen fixation could potentially increase rates by 37 % by the end of the century, with important consequences for primary production in coastal ecosystems.
Neus Garcias-Bonet, Marco Fusi, Muhammad Ali, Dario R. Shaw, Pascal E. Saikaly, Daniele Daffonchio, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 15, 7333–7346,Short summary
Nitrogen (N) loads are detrimental for coastal ecosystems. We measured the balance between N losses and gains in a Red Sea seagrass. The N loss was higher than N2 fixed, pointing out the importance of seagrasses in removing N from the system. N2 losses increased with temperature. Therefore, the forecasted warming could increase the N2 flux to the atmosphere, potentially impacting seagrass productivity and their capacity to mitigate climate change but also enhancing their potential N removal.
Ariane Arias-Ortiz, Pere Masqué, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, Oscar Serrano, Inés Mazarrasa, Núria Marbà, Catherine E. Lovelock, Paul S. Lavery, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 15, 6791–6818,Short summary
Efforts to include tidal marsh, mangrove and seagrass ecosystems in existing carbon mitigation strategies are limited by a lack of estimates of carbon accumulation rates (CARs). We discuss the use of 210Pb dating to determine CARs in these habitats, which are often composed of heterogeneous sediments and affected by sedimentary processes. Results show that obtaining reliable geochronologies in these systems is ambitious, but estimates of mean 100-year CARs are mostly secure within 20 % error.
Jeffrey W. Krause, Carlos M. Duarte, Israel A. Marquez, Philipp Assmy, Mar Fernández-Méndez, Ingrid Wiedmann, Paul Wassmann, Svein Kristiansen, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 15, 6503–6517,Short summary
Diatoms can dominate the Arctic Ocean spring bloom, the key annual event for regional food webs. Diatom growth requires silicon and this nutrient has been declining in the European Arctic. This study communicates an unprecedented combination of silicon-cycling measurements around Svalbard during the spring and shows that dissolved silicon can limit diatom production. These results suggest an important coupling of silicon and carbon cycling during the spring bloom in the European Arctic.
Mallory A. Sea, Neus Garcias-Bonet, Vincent Saderne, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 15, 5365–5375,Short summary
Mangroves are capable of storing carbon in their roots, leaves, and in the sediment; however they can also emit carbon as greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere. In this study, we collected sediment cores and calculated GHG flux rates from mangrove forests along the Red Sea coastline. Using flux rates reported in this study, we determined that Red Sea mangroves are net carbon sinks, storing more carbon than they emit. This study provides rationale to conserve and expand Red Sea mangroves.
Aisling Fontanini, Alexandra Steckbauer, Sam Dupont, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 15, 3717–3729,Short summary
Invertebrate species of the Gullmar Fjord (Sweden) were exposed to four different treatments (high/low oxygen and low/high CO2) and respiration measured. Respiration responses of species of contrasting habitats and life-history strategies to single and multiple stressors was evaluated. Results show that the responses of the respiration were highly species specific as we observed both synergetic as well as antagonistic responses, and neither phylum nor habitat explained trends in respiration.
Francesca Iuculano, Carlos Maria Duarte, Núria Marbà, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 14, 5069–5075,
Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 14, 301–310,Short summary
Vegetated coastal habitats (mangroves, seagrass meadows, salt marshes and macroalgal beds) are key contributors to the marine carbon budget, but remain hidden in the representation of the coastal carbon budget. While they have been acknowledged to play an important role in carbon burial, this is small compared to the export flow, which may lead to carbon sequestration beyond these habitats. The carbon fluxes supported by vegetated coastal habitats are globally relevant.
Alexandra Coello-Camba and Susana Agustí
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We demonstrated that the effects of increased temperature and pCO2 on the silicification process in diatoms are interactive, showing a temperature dependent capacity of increased pCO2 to buffer the negative effects of warming. Therefore, as long as the increase in temperature does not surpass the buffering capacity of pCO2, the increase of this latter stressor will help diatoms to retain their sinking properties, preserving their role in the biogeochemical cycles of silica and carbon.
Oscar Serrano, Paul S. Lavery, Carlos M. Duarte, Gary A. Kendrick, Antoni Calafat, Paul H. York, Andy Steven, and Peter I. Macreadie
Biogeosciences, 13, 4915–4926,Short summary
We explored the relationship between organic carbon and mud (i.e. silt and clay) contents in seagrass ecosystems to address whether mud can be used to predict soil C content, thereby enabling robust scaling up exercises at a low cost as part of blue carbon stock assessments. We show that mud is not a universal proxy for blue carbon content in seagrass ecosystems, but it can be used to estimate soil Corg content when low biomass seagrass species (i.e. Zostera, Halodule and Halophila) are present.
Oscar Serrano, Aurora M. Ricart, Paul S. Lavery, Miguel Angel Mateo, Ariane Arias-Ortiz, Pere Masque, Mohammad Rozaimi, Andy Steven, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 13, 4581–4594,Short summary
The recent focus on carbon (C) trading has intensified interest in "Blue Carbon" – C sequestered by coastal vegetation. However, the factors influencing C storage are poorly understood. The patterns found in this study support that C storage in Posidonia seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological, chemical and physical factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.
D. Krause-Jensen, C. M. Duarte, I. E. Hendriks, L. Meire, M. E. Blicher, N. Marbà, and M. K. Sejr
Biogeosciences, 12, 4895–4911,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification (OA), but very little information is available on natural variability of pH in the Arctic coastal zone. We report pH variability at various scales in a Greenland fjord. Variability ranged up to 0.2-0.3 pH units horizontally and vertically in the fjord, between seasons and on diel basis in kelp forests and was extreme in tidal pools. Overall, primary producers played a fundamental role in producing mosaics of pH.
A. N. Schwier, C. Rose, E. Asmi, A. M. Ebling, W. M. Landing, S. Marro, M.-L. Pedrotti, A. Sallon, F. Iuculano, S. Agusti, A. Tsiola, P. Pitta, J. Louis, C. Guieu, F. Gazeau, and K. Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7961–7976,Short summary
The effect of ocean acidification and changing water conditions on primary (and secondary) marine aerosol emissions is not well understood on a regional or a global scale. To investigate this effect, we deployed mesocosms in the Mediterranean Sea for several weeks during both winter pre-bloom and summer oligotrophic conditions and subjected them to various levels of CO2. We observed larger effects due to the differences between a pre-bloom and oligotrophic environment than due to CO2 levels.
S. Lasternas and S. Agustí
Biogeosciences, 11, 6377–6387,
L. S. García-Corral, E. Barber, A. Regaudie-de-Gioux, S. Sal, J. M. Holding, S. Agustí, N. Navarro, P. Serret, P. Mozetič, and C. M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 11, 4529–4540,
S. Ruiz-Halpern, M. Ll. Calleja, J. Dachs, S. Del Vento, M. Pastor, M. Palmer, S. Agustí, and C. M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 11, 2755–2770,
I. E. Hendriks, Y. S. Olsen, L. Ramajo, L. Basso, A. Steckbauer, T. S. Moore, J. Howard, and C. M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 11, 333–346,
R. Vaquer-Sunyer, C. M. Duarte, J. Holding, A. Regaudie-de-Gioux, L. S. García-Corral, M. Reigstad, and P. Wassmann
Biogeosciences, 10, 1451–1469,
M. Alcaraz, R. Almeda, E. Saiz, A. Calbet, C. M. Duarte, S. Agustí, R. Santiago, and A. Alonso
Biogeosciences, 10, 689–697,
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Biogeosciences, 20, 4323–4338,Short summary
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Roxane Tzortzis, Andrea M. Doglioli, Monique Messié, Stéphanie Barrillon, Anne A. Petrenko, Lloyd Izard, Yuan Zhao, Francesco d'Ovidio, Franck Dumas, and Gérald Gregori
Biogeosciences, 20, 3491–3508,Short summary
We studied a finescale frontal structure in order to highlight its influence on the dynamics and distribution of phytoplankton communities. We computed the growth rates of several phytoplankton groups identified by flow cytometry in two water masses separated by the front. We found contrasted phytoplankton dynamics on the two sides of the front, consistent with the distribution of their abundances. Our study gives new insights into the physical and biological coupling on a finescale front.
Inès Mangolte, Marina Lévy, Clément Haëck, and Mark D. Ohman
Biogeosciences, 20, 3273–3299,Short summary
Ocean fronts are ecological hotspots, associated with higher diversity and biomass for many marine organisms, from bacteria to whales. Using in situ data from the California Current Ecosystem, we show that far from being limited to the production of diatom blooms, fronts are the scene of complex biophysical couplings between biotic interactions (growth, competition, and predation) and transport by currents that generate planktonic communities with an original taxonomic and spatial structure.
Jing-Ying Wu, Siou-Yan Lin, Jung-Fu Huang, Chen-Tung Arthur Chen, Jia-Jang Hung, Shao-Hung Peng, and Li-Lian Liu
Biogeosciences, 20, 2693–2706,Short summary
The shallow-water hydrothermal vents off the Kueishan Island, Taiwan, have the most extreme records of pH values (1.52), temperatures (116 °C), and H2S concentrations (172.4 mmol mol−1) in the world. White and yellow vents differ in the color and physical and chemical characteristics of emitted plumes. We found that the feeding habits of the endemic vent crabs (Xenograpsus testudinatus) are adapted to their resident vent types at a distance of 100 m, and the trans-vent movement is uncommon.
Sam Ditkovsky, Laure Resplandy, and Julius Busecke
The global ocean is losing oxygen due to warming. The Indian Ocean is however gaining oxygen in large parts of the basin, and its naturally occurring oxygen minimum zone is not expanding. This rather unexpected response is explained by the unique ocean circulation of the Indian Ocean, which is bounded by a continent to the north but connected to the Pacific Ocean by the Indonesian Throughflow.
Clément Haëck, Marina Lévy, Inès Mangolte, and Laurent Bopp
Biogeosciences, 20, 1741–1758,Short summary
Phytoplankton vary in abundance in the ocean over large regions and with the seasons but also because of small-scale heterogeneities in surface temperature, called fronts. Here, using satellite imagery, we found that fronts enhance phytoplankton much more where it is already growing well, but despite large local increases the enhancement for the region is modest (5 %). We also found that blooms start 1 to 2 weeks earlier over fronts. These effects may have implications for ecosystems.
Cédric Bacour, Natasha MacBean, Frédéric Chevallier, Sébastien Léonard, Ernest N. Koffi, and Philippe Peylin
Biogeosciences, 20, 1089–1111,Short summary
The impact of assimilating different dataset combinations on regional to global-scale C budgets is explored with the ORCHIDEE model. Assimilating simultaneously multiple datasets is preferable to optimize the values of the model parameters and avoid model overfitting. The challenges in constraining soil C disequilibrium using atmospheric CO2 data are highlighted for an accurate prediction of the land sink distribution.
Matti Kämäräinen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Markku Kulmala, Ivan Mammarella, Juha Aalto, Henriikka Vekuri, Annalea Lohila, and Anna Lintunen
Biogeosciences, 20, 897–909,Short summary
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Stéphanie Barrillon, Robin Fuchs, Anne A. Petrenko, Caroline Comby, Anthony Bosse, Christophe Yohia, Jean-Luc Fuda, Nagib Bhairy, Frédéric Cyr, Andrea M. Doglioli, Gérald Grégori, Roxane Tzortzis, Francesco d'Ovidio, and Melilotus Thyssen
Biogeosciences, 20, 141–161,Short summary
Extreme weather events can have a major impact on ocean physics and biogeochemistry, but their study is challenging. In May 2019, an intense storm occurred in the north-western Mediterranean Sea, during which in situ multi-platform measurements were performed. The results show a strong impact on the surface phytoplankton, highlighting the need for high-resolution measurements coupling physics and biology during these violent events that may become more common in the context of global change.
Darren C. McKee, Scott C. Doney, Alice Della Penna, Emmanuel S. Boss, Peter Gaube, Michael J. Behrenfeld, and David M. Glover
Biogeosciences, 19, 5927–5952,Short summary
As phytoplankton (small, drifting photosynthetic organisms) drift with ocean currents, biomass accumulation rates should be evaluated in a Lagrangian (observer moves with a fluid parcel) as opposed to an Eulerian (observer is stationary) framework. Here, we use profiling floats and surface drifters combined with satellite data to analyse time and length scales of chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for biomass) and of velocity to quantify how phytoplankton variability is related to water motion.
Karo Michaelian and Aleksandar Simeonov
Biogeosciences, 19, 4029–4034,Short summary
We reply to Lars Björn's critique of our article concerning the importance of photon dissipation to the origin and evolution of the biosphere. Björn doubts our assertion that organic pigments, ecosystems, and the biosphere arose out of a non-equilibrium thermodynamic imperative to increase global photon dissipation. He shows that the albedo of some non-living material is less than that of living material. We point out, however, that photon dissipation involves other factors besides albedo.
Reint Fischer, Delphine Lobelle, Merel Kooi, Albert Koelmans, Victor Onink, Charlotte Laufkötter, Linda Amaral-Zettler, Andrew Yool, and Erik van Sebille
Biogeosciences, 19, 2211–2234,Short summary
Since current estimates show that only about 1 % of the all plastic that enters the ocean is floating at the surface, we look at subsurface processes that can cause vertical movement of (micro)plastic. We investigate how modelled algal attachment and the ocean's vertical movement can cause particles to sink and oscillate in the open ocean. Particles can sink to depths of > 5000 m in regions with high wind intensity and mainly remain close to the surface with low winds and biological activity.
Michelle Viswanathan, Tobias K. D. Weber, Sebastian Gayler, Juliane Mai, and Thilo Streck
Biogeosciences, 19, 2187–2209,Short summary
We analysed the evolution of model parameter uncertainty and prediction error as we updated parameters of a maize phenology model based on yearly observations, by sequentially applying Bayesian calibration. Although parameter uncertainty was reduced, prediction quality deteriorated when calibration and prediction data were from different maize ripening groups or temperature conditions. The study highlights that Bayesian methods should account for model limitations and inherent data structures.
Jessica Kolbusz, Tim Langlois, Charitha Pattiaratchi, and Simon de Lestang
Biogeosciences, 19, 517–539,Short summary
Western rock lobster larvae spend up to 11 months in offshore waters before ocean currents and their ability to swim transport them back to the coast. In 2008, there was a reduction in the number of puerulus (larvae) settling into the fishery. We use an oceanographic model to see how the environment may have contributed to the reduction. Our results show that a combination of effects from local currents and a widespread quiet period in the ocean off WA likely led to less puerulus settlement.
Rémy Asselot, Frank Lunkeit, Philip B. Holden, and Inga Hense
Biogeosciences, 19, 223–239,Short summary
Previous studies show that phytoplankton light absorption can warm the atmosphere, but how this warming occurs is still unknown. We compare the importance of air–sea heat versus CO2 flux in the phytoplankton-induced atmospheric warming and determine the main driver. To shed light on this research question, we conduct simulations with a climate model of intermediate complexity. We show that phytoplankton mainly warms the atmosphere by increasing the air–sea CO2 flux.
Roxane Tzortzis, Andrea M. Doglioli, Stéphanie Barrillon, Anne A. Petrenko, Francesco d'Ovidio, Lloyd Izard, Melilotus Thyssen, Ananda Pascual, Bàrbara Barceló-Llull, Frédéric Cyr, Marc Tedetti, Nagib Bhairy, Pierre Garreau, Franck Dumas, and Gérald Gregori
Biogeosciences, 18, 6455–6477,Short summary
This work analyzes an original high-resolution data set collected in the Mediterranean Sea. The major result is the impact of a fine-scale frontal structure on the distribution of phytoplankton groups, in an area of moderate energy with oligotrophic conditions. Our results provide an in situ confirmation of the findings obtained by previous modeling studies and remote sensing about the structuring effect of the fine-scale ocean dynamics on the structure of the phytoplankton community.
Johannes Vogel, Eva Paton, and Valentin Aich
Biogeosciences, 18, 5903–5927,Short summary
This study investigates extreme ecosystem impacts evoked by temperature and soil moisture in the Mediterranean Basin for the time span 1999–2019 with a specific focus on seasonal variations. The analysis showed that ecosystem vulnerability is caused by several varying combinations of both drivers during the yearly cycle. The approach presented here helps to provide insights on the specific phenological stage of the year in which ecosystem vulnerability to a certain climatic condition occurs.
Mara Freilich, Alexandre Mignot, Glenn Flierl, and Raffaele Ferrari
Biogeosciences, 18, 5595–5607,Short summary
Observations reveal that in some regions phytoplankton biomass increases during the wintertime when growth conditions are sub-optimal, which has been attributed to a release from grazing during mixed layer deepening. Measurements of grazer populations to support this theory are lacking. We demonstrate that a release from grazing when the winter mixed layer is deepening holds only for certain grazing models, extending the use of phytoplankton observations to make inferences about grazer dynamics.
Shuangling Chen, Mark L. Wells, Rui Xin Huang, Huijie Xue, Jingyuan Xi, and Fei Chai
Biogeosciences, 18, 5539–5554,Short summary
Subduction transports surface waters to the oceanic interior, which can supply significant amounts of carbon and oxygen to the twilight zone. Using a novel BGC-Argo dataset covering the western North Pacific, we successfully identified the imprints of episodic shallow subduction patches. These subduction patches were observed mainly in spring and summer (70.6 %), and roughly half of them extended below ~ 450 m, injecting carbon- and oxygen-enriched waters into the ocean interior.
Pierre Damien, Julio Sheinbaum, Orens Pasqueron de Fommervault, Julien Jouanno, Lorena Linacre, and Olaf Duteil
Biogeosciences, 18, 4281–4303,Short summary
The Gulf of Mexico deep waters are relatively poor in phytoplankton biomass due to low levels of nutrients in the upper layers. Using modeling techniques, we find that the long-living anticyclonic Loop Current eddies that are shed episodically from the Yucatan Channel strongly shape the distribution of phytoplankton and, more importantly, stimulate their growth. This results from the contribution of multiple mechanisms of physical–biogeochemical interactions discussed in this study.
Sergey V. Stanichny, Elena A. Kubryakova, and Arseny A. Kubryakov
Biogeosciences, 18, 3173–3188,Short summary
In this paper, we show that the short-term impact of tropical cyclones can trigger the intense, long-term bloom of coccolithophores, which are major marine calcifiers playing an important role in the balance and fluxes of inorganic carbon in the ocean. In our paper, we describe the evolution of and physical reasons for such an unusual bloom observed in autumn 2005 in the Black Sea on the basis of satellite data.
Fengshan Liu, Ying Chen, Nini Bai, Dengpan Xiao, Huizi Bai, Fulu Tao, and Quansheng Ge
Biogeosciences, 18, 2275–2287,Short summary
The sowing date is key to the surface biophysical processes in the winter dormancy period. The climate effect of the sowing date shift is therefore very interesting and may contribute to the mitigation of climate change. An earlier sowing date always had a higher LAI but a higher temperature in the dormancy period and a lower temperature in the growth period. The main reason was the relative contributions of the surface albedo and energy partitioning processes.
Peter Aartsma, Johan Asplund, Arvid Odland, Stefanie Reinhardt, and Hans Renssen
Biogeosciences, 18, 1577–1599,Short summary
In the literature, it is generally assumed that alpine lichen heaths keep their direct environment cool due to their relatively high albedo. However, we reveal that the soil temperature and soil heat flux are higher below lichens than below shrubs during the growing season, despite a lower net radiation for lichens. We also show that the differences in microclimatic conditions between these two vegetation types are more pronounced during warm and sunny days than during cold and cloudy days.
Oleg Sizov, Ekaterina Ezhova, Petr Tsymbarovich, Andrey Soromotin, Nikolay Prihod'ko, Tuukka Petäjä, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, and Kajar Köster
Biogeosciences, 18, 207–228,Short summary
In changing climate, tundra is expected to turn into shrubs and trees, diminishing reindeer pasture and increasing risks of tick-borne diseases. However, this transition may require a disturbance. Fires in Siberia are increasingly widespread. We studied wildfire dynamics and tundra–forest transition over 60 years in northwest Siberia near the Arctic Circle. Based on satellite data analysis, we found that transition occurs in 40 %–85 % of burned tundra compared to 5 %–15 % in non-disturbed areas.
Kaveh Purkiani, André Paul, Annemiek Vink, Maren Walter, Michael Schulz, and Matthias Haeckel
Biogeosciences, 17, 6527–6544,Short summary
There has been a steady increase in interest in mining of deep-sea minerals in the eastern Pacific Ocean recently. The ocean state in this region is known to be highly influenced by rotating bodies of water (eddies), some of which can travel long distances in the ocean and impact the deeper layers of the ocean. Better insight into the variability of eddy activity in this region is of great help to mitigate the impact of the benthic ecosystem from future potential deep-sea mining activity.
Jing Yan, Nathaniel A. Bogie, and Teamrat A. Ghezzehei
Biogeosciences, 17, 6377–6392,Short summary
An uneven supply of water and nutrients in soils often drives how plants behave. We observed that plants extract all their required nutrients from dry soil patches in sufficient quantity, provided adequate water is available elsewhere in the root zone. Roots in nutrient-rich dry patches facilitate the nutrient acquisition by extensive growth, water release, and modifying water retention in their immediate environment. The findings are valuable in managing nutrient losses in agricultural systems.
Onur Kerimoglu, Yoana G. Voynova, Fatemeh Chegini, Holger Brix, Ulrich Callies, Richard Hofmeister, Knut Klingbeil, Corinna Schrum, and Justus E. E. van Beusekom
Biogeosciences, 17, 5097–5127,Short summary
In this study, using extensive field observations and a numerical model, we analyzed the physical and biogeochemical structure of a coastal system following an extreme flood event. Our results suggest that a number of anomalous observations were driven by a co-occurrence of peculiar meteorological conditions and increased riverine discharges. Our results call for attention to the combined effects of hydrological and meteorological extremes that are anticipated to increase in frequency.
Amandine Erktan, Matthias C. Rillig, Andrea Carminati, Alexandre Jousset, and Stefan Scheu
Biogeosciences, 17, 4961–4980,Short summary
Soil aggregation is crucial for soil functioning. While the role of bacteria and fungi in soil aggregation is well established, how predators feeding on microbes modify soil aggregation has hardly been investigated. We showed for the first time that protists modify soil aggregation, presumably through changes in the production of bacterial mucilage, and that collembolans reduce soil aggregation, presumably by reducing the abundance of saprotrophic fungi.
Wei Hu, Kotaro Murata, Chunlan Fan, Shu Huang, Hiromi Matsusaki, Pingqing Fu, and Daizhou Zhang
Biogeosciences, 17, 4477–4487,Short summary
This paper reports the first estimate of the status of bacteria in long-distance-transported Asian dust, demonstrating that airborne dust, which can carry viable and nonviable bacteria on particle surfaces, is an efficient medium for constantly spreading bacteria at regional and even global scales. Such data are essential to better model and understand the roles and activities of bioaerosols in environmental evolution and climate change and the potential risks of bioaerosols to human health.
Inge Grünberg, Evan J. Wilcox, Simon Zwieback, Philip Marsh, and Julia Boike
Biogeosciences, 17, 4261–4279,Short summary
Based on topsoil temperature data for different vegetation types at a low Arctic tundra site, we found large small-scale variability. Winter temperatures were strongly influenced by vegetation through its effects on snow. Summer temperatures were similar below most vegetation types and not consistently related to late summer permafrost thaw depth. Given that vegetation type defines the relationship between winter and summer soil temperature and thaw depth, it controls permafrost vulnerability.
Long Jiang, Theo Gerkema, Jacco C. Kromkamp, Daphne van der Wal, Pedro Manuel Carrasco De La Cruz, and Karline Soetaert
Biogeosciences, 17, 4135–4152,Short summary
A seaward increasing chlorophyll-a gradient is observed during the spring bloom in a Dutch tidal bay. Biophysical model runs indicate the roles of bivalve grazing and tidal import in shaping the gradient. Five common spatial phytoplankton patterns are summarized in global estuarine–coastal ecosystems: seaward increasing, seaward decreasing, concave with a chlorophyll maximum, weak spatial gradients, and irregular patterns.
Emil De Borger, Justin Tiano, Ulrike Braeckman, Tom Ysebaert, and Karline Soetaert
Biogeosciences, 17, 1701–1715,Short summary
By applying a novel technique to quantify organism-induced sediment–water column fluid exchange (bioirrigation), we show that organisms in subtidal (permanently submerged) areas have similar bioirrigation rates as those that inhabit intertidal areas (not permanently submerged), but organisms in the latter irrigate deeper burrows in this study. Our results expand on traditional methods to quantify bioirrigation rates and broaden the pool of field measurements of bioirrigation rates.
Sheila N. Estrada-Allis, Julio Sheinbaum Pardo, Joao M. Azevedo Correia de Souza, Cecilia Elizabeth Enríquez Ortiz, Ismael Mariño Tapia, and Jorge A. Herrera-Silveira
Biogeosciences, 17, 1087–1111,Short summary
Continental shelves are the most productive areas in the ocean and can have an important impact on the nutrient cycle as well as the climate system. The one in Yucatán is the largest shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. However, its nutrient budget remains unidentifiable. Here we propose not only a general nutrient budget for the Yucatán Shelf but also the physical processes responsible for its pathway modulation through a physical–biogeochemical coupled model of the whole Gulf of Mexico.
Ashley Dubnick, Martin Sharp, Brad Danielson, Alireza Saidi-Mehrabad, and Joel Barker
Biogeosciences, 17, 963–977,Short summary
We found that glaciers with basal temperatures near the melting point mobilize more solutes, nutrients, and microbes from the underlying substrate and are more likely to promote in situ biogeochemical activity than glaciers with basal temperatures well below the melting point. The temperature at the base of glaciers is therefore an important control on the biogeochemistry of ice near glacier beds, and, ultimately, the potential solutes, nutrients, and microbes exported from glaciated watersheds.
Audrey Delpech, Anna Conchon, Olivier Titaud, and Patrick Lehodey
Biogeosciences, 17, 833–850,Short summary
Micronekton is an important, yet poorly known, component of the trophic chain, which partly contributes to the storage of CO2 in the deep ocean thanks to biomass vertical migrations. In this study, we characterize the ideal sampling regions to estimate the amount of biomass that undergoes theses migrations. We find that observations made in warm, nondynamic and productive waters reduce the error of the estimation by 20 %. This result should likely serve for future in situ network deployment.
Filippos Tagklis, Takamitsu Ito, and Annalisa Bracco
Biogeosciences, 17, 231–244,Short summary
Deoxygenation of the oceans is potentially one of the most severe ecosystem stressors resulting from global warming given the high sensitivity of dissolved oxygen to ocean temperatures. Climate models suggest that despite the thermodynamic tendency of the oceans to lose oxygen, certain regions experience significant changes in the biologically driven O2 consumption, resulting in a resistance against deoxygenation. Overturning circulation changes are responsible for such a behavior.
Mohammad Abdul Halim, Han Y. H. Chen, and Sean C. Thomas
Biogeosciences, 16, 4357–4375,Short summary
Using field data collected over 4 years across a range of stand ages, we investigated how seasonal surface albedo in boreal forest varies with stand age, stand structure, and composition. Our results indicate that successional change in species composition is a key driver of age–related patterns in albedo, with hardwood species associated with higher albedo. The patterns described have important implications for both climate modeling and
climate–smartboreal forest management.
Paul A. Moore, Maxwell C. Lukenbach, Dan K. Thompson, Nick Kettridge, Gustaf Granath, and James M. Waddington
Biogeosciences, 16, 3491–3506,Short summary
Using very-high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), we assessed the basic structure and microtopographic variability of hummock–hollow plots at boreal and hemi-boreal sites primarily in North America. Using a simple model of peatland biogeochemical function, our results suggest that both surface heating and moss productivity may not be adequately resolved in models which only consider idealized hummock–hollow units.
Renee K. Gruber, Ryan J. Lowe, and James L. Falter
Biogeosciences, 16, 1921–1935,Short summary
Researchers from the University of Western Australia's Oceans Institute are studying large tides (up to 12 m range) that occur in the Kimberley region of Australia. These tides flush coral reefs with water rich in nutrients, which supports the growth of reef organisms. In this paper, we show how tidal cycles and seasons control nutrient availability on reefs. This study is among the first published accounts of reefs and water quality data in the remote and pristine Kimberley region.
Sergey A. Marakushev and Ol'ga V. Belonogova
Biogeosciences, 16, 1817–1828,Short summary
Among the existing theories of the autotrophic origin of life, CO2 is usually considered to be the carbon source for nascent autotrophic metabolism. However, ancestral carbon used in metabolism may have been derived from CH4 if the outflow of magma fluid to the surface of the Earth consisted mainly of methane. The hydrothermal system model is considered in the form of a phase diagram, which demonstrates the area of redox and P and T conditions favorable to development of primary methanotroph.
Venugopal Thushara, Puthenveettil Narayana Menon Vinayachandran, Adrian J. Matthews, Benjamin G. M. Webber, and Bastien Y. Queste
Biogeosciences, 16, 1447–1468,Short summary
Chlorophyll distribution in the ocean remains to be explored in detail, despite its climatic significance. Here, we document the vertical structure of chlorophyll in the Bay of Bengal using observations and a model. The shape of chlorophyll profiles, characterized by prominent deep chlorophyll maxima, varies in dynamically different regions, controlled by the monsoonal forcings. The present study provides new insights into the vertical distribution of chlorophyll, rarely observed by satellites.
Soeren Thomsen, Johannes Karstensen, Rainer Kiko, Gerd Krahmann, Marcus Dengler, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 16, 979–998,Short summary
Physical and biogeochemical observations from an autonomous underwater vehicle in combination with ship-based measurements are used to investigate remote and local drivers of the oxygen and nutrient variability off Mauritania. Beside the transport of oxygen and nutrients characteristics from remote areas towards Mauritania also local remineralization of organic material close to the seabed seems to be important for the distribution of oxygen and nutrients.
Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Yannis Cuypers, Andrea Doglioli, Mathieu Caffin, Christophe Yohia, Alain de Verneil, Anne Petrenko, Dominique Lefèvre, Hervé Le Goff, Gilles Rougier, Marc Picheral, and Thierry Moutin
Biogeosciences, 15, 7485–7504,Short summary
The OUTPACE cruise took place between New Caledonia and French Polynesia. The main purpose was to understand how micro-organisms can survive in a very poor environment. One main source of nutrients is at depth, below the euphotic layer where micro-organisms live. The purpose of the turbulence measurements was to determine to which extent turbulence may
upliftnutrients into the euphotic layer. The origin of the turbulence that was found contrasted along the transect was also determined.
Daniel D. Richter, Sharon A. Billings, Peter M. Groffman, Eugene F. Kelly, Kathleen A. Lohse, William H. McDowell, Timothy S. White, Suzanne Anderson, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Steve Banwart, Susan Brantley, Jean J. Braun, Zachary S. Brecheisen, Charles W. Cook, Hilairy E. Hartnett, Sarah E. Hobbie, Jerome Gaillardet, Esteban Jobbagy, Hermann F. Jungkunst, Clare E. Kazanski, Jagdish Krishnaswamy, Daniel Markewitz, Katherine O'Neill, Clifford S. Riebe, Paul Schroeder, Christina Siebe, Whendee L. Silver, Aaron Thompson, Anne Verhoef, and Ganlin Zhang
Biogeosciences, 15, 4815–4832,Short summary
As knowledge in biology and geology explodes, science becomes increasingly specialized. Given the overlap of the environmental sciences, however, the explosion in knowledge inevitably creates opportunities for interconnecting the biogeosciences. Here, 30 scientists emphasize the opportunities for biogeoscience collaborations across the world’s remarkable long-term environmental research networks that can advance science and engage larger scientific and public audiences.
Ivy Frenger, Matthias Münnich, and Nicolas Gruber
Biogeosciences, 15, 4781–4798,Short summary
Although mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous in the Southern Ocean (SO), their regional and seasonal association with phytoplankton has not been quantified. We identify over 100 000 eddies and determine the associated phytoplankton biomass anomalies using satellite-based chlorophyll (Chl) as a proxy. The emerging Chl anomalies can be explained largely by lateral advection of Chl by eddies. This impact of eddies on phytoplankton may implicate downstream effects on SO biogeochemical properties.
Yi Sun, Xiong Z. He, Fujiang Hou, Zhaofeng Wang, and Shenghua Chang
Biogeosciences, 15, 4233–4243,Short summary
To investigate how grazing alters litter composition, quality and decomposition, we collected litter from grazing (GP) and grazing exclusion paddocks (GEP) and incubated them in situ and across sites. Grazing increased litter N and grazing exclusion increased litter mass of palatable species and promoted SOC. Litter decomposed faster in GP and N was opposite. Site environment had more impact on litter decomposition. Results may be helpful in developing strategies to restore degraded grasslands.
Louise Rousselet, Alain de Verneil, Andrea M. Doglioli, Anne A. Petrenko, Solange Duhamel, Christophe Maes, and Bruno Blanke
Biogeosciences, 15, 2411–2431,Short summary
The patterns of the large- and fine-scale surface circulation on biogeochemical and biological distributions are examined in the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) in the context of the OUTPACE oceanographic cruise. The combined use of in situ and satellite data allows for the identification of water mass transport pathways and fine-scale structures, such as fronts, that drive surface distribution of tracers and microbial community structures.
Alain de Verneil, Louise Rousselet, Andrea M. Doglioli, Anne A. Petrenko, Christophe Maes, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, and Thierry Moutin
Biogeosciences, 15, 2125–2147,Short summary
Oceanographic campaigns to measure biogeochemical processes popularly deploy drifters with onboard incubations to stay in a single body of water. Here, we aggregate physical data taken during such a cruise, OUTPACE, to independently test in a new approach whether the drifter really stayed in what can be considered a single biological or chemical environment. This study concludes that future campaigns would benefit from similar data collection and analysis to validate their sampling strategy.
Susan L. Brantley, David M. Eissenstat, Jill A. Marshall, Sarah E. Godsey, Zsuzsanna Balogh-Brunstad, Diana L. Karwan, Shirley A. Papuga, Joshua Roering, Todd E. Dawson, Jaivime Evaristo, Oliver Chadwick, Jeffrey J. McDonnell, and Kathleen C. Weathers
Biogeosciences, 14, 5115–5142,Short summary
This review represents the outcome from an invigorating workshop discussion that involved tree physiologists, geomorphologists, ecologists, geochemists, and hydrologists and developed nine hypotheses that could be tested. We argue these hypotheses point to the essence of issues we must explore if we are to understand how the natural system of the earth surface evolves, and how humans will affect its evolution. This paper will create discussion and interest both before and after publication.
Johanne H. Rydsaa, Frode Stordal, Anders Bryn, and Lena M. Tallaksen
Biogeosciences, 14, 4209–4227,Short summary
We investigate the atmospheric sensitivity to an expansion in shrub and tree cover in the northern Fennoscandia region. We applied a regional weather and climate model in evaluating biophysical effects of increased shrub cover at a fine resolution. We find that shrub cover increase causes a warming that is sensitive to the shrub and tree heights. Cooling effects include increased snow cover, cloud cover, and precipitation. We show that the net warming will likely increase in the future.
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