Articles | Volume 12, issue 5
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Rapid acidification of mode and intermediate waters in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean
L. A. Salt
Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Landsdiep 4, 1797 SZ, Texel, the Netherlands
now at: CNRS, UMR7144, Equipe Chimie Marine, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France
S. M. A. C. van Heuven
Centre for Isotope Research, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, the Netherlands
now at: Alfred Wegner Institute, Climate Sciences Department, Postfach 120161, 27515 Bremerhaven, Germany
M. E. Claus
Department of Ocean Ecosystems, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG, Groningen, the Netherlands
E. M. Jones
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 120161, 27515, Bremerhaven, Germany
H. J. W. de Baar
Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Landsdiep 4, 1797 SZ, Texel, the Netherlands
Department of Ocean Ecosystems, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG, Groningen, the Netherlands
P. Marrec, T. Cariou, E. Macé, P. Morin, L. A. Salt, M. Vernet, B. Taylor, K. Paxman, and Y. Bozec
Biogeosciences, 12, 5371–5391,
Foteini Stavropoulou, Katarina Vinković, Bert Kers, Marcel de Vries, Steven van Heuven, Piotr Korbeń, Martina Schmidt, Julia Wietzel, Pawel Jagoda, Jaroslav M. Necki, Jakub Bartyzel, Hossein Maazallahi, Malika Menoud, Carina van der Veen, Sylvia Walter, Béla Tuzson, Jonas Ravelid, Randulph Paulo Morales, Lukas Emmenegger, Dominik Brunner, Michael Steiner, Arjan Hensen, Ilona Velzeboer, Pim van den Bulk, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Antonio Delre, Maklawe Essonanawe Edjabou, Charlotte Scheutz, Marius Corbu, Sebastian Iancu, Denisa Moaca, Alin Scarlat, Alexandru Tudor, Ioana Vizireanu, Andreea Calcan, Magdalena Ardelean, Sorin Ghemulet, Alexandru Pana, Aurel Constantinescu, Lucian Cusa, Alexandru Nica, Calin Baciu, Cristian Pop, Andrei Radovici, Alexandru Mereuta, Horatiu Stefanie, Alexandru Dandocsi, Bas Hermans, Stefan Schwietzke, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Huilin Chen, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10399–10412,Short summary
In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions from onshore oil production sites in Romania at source and facility level using a combination of ground- and drone-based measurement techniques. We show that the total CH4 emissions in our studied areas are much higher than the emissions reported to UNFCCC, and up to three-quarters of the detected emissions are related to operational venting. Our results suggest that oil and gas production infrastructure in Romania holds a massive mitigation potential.
Alessandro Zanchetta, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Steven van Heuven, Andrea Scifo, Hubertus A. Scheeren, Ivan Mammarella, Ute Karstens, Jin Ma, Maarten Krol, and Huilin Chen
Biogeosciences, 20, 3539–3553,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been suggested as a tool to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake by plants during photosynthesis. However, understanding its sources and sinks is critical to preventing biases in this estimate. Combining observations and models, this study proves that regional sources occasionally influence the measurements at the 60 m tall Lutjewad tower (1 m a.s.l.; 53°24′ N, 6°21′ E) in the Netherlands. Moreover, it estimates nighttime COS fluxes to be −3.0 ± 2.6 pmol m−2 s−1.
Alice E. Webb, Didier M. de Bakker, Karline Soetaert, Tamara da Costa, Steven M. A. C. van Heuven, Fleur C. van Duyl, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Lennart J. de Nooijer
Biogeosciences, 18, 6501–6516,Short summary
The biogeochemical behaviour of shallow reef communities is quantified to better understand the impact of habitat degradation and species composition shifts on reef functioning. The reef communities investigated barely support reef functions that are usually ascribed to conventional coral reefs, and the overall biogeochemical behaviour is found to be similar regardless of substrate type. This suggests a decrease in functional diversity which may therefore limit services provided by this reef.
Siv K. Lauvset, Nico Lange, Toste Tanhua, Henry C. Bittig, Are Olsen, Alex Kozyr, Marta Álvarez, Susan Becker, Peter J. Brown, Brendan R. Carter, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha, Richard A. Feely, Steven van Heuven, Mario Hoppema, Masao Ishii, Emil Jeansson, Sara Jutterström, Steve D. Jones, Maren K. Karlsen, Claire Lo Monaco, Patrick Michaelis, Akihiko Murata, Fiz F. Pérez, Benjamin Pfeil, Carsten Schirnick, Reiner Steinfeldt, Toru Suzuki, Bronte Tilbrook, Anton Velo, Rik Wanninkhof, Ryan J. Woosley, and Robert M. Key
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5565–5589,Short summary
GLODAP is a data product for ocean inorganic carbon and related biogeochemical variables measured by the chemical analysis of water bottle samples from scientific cruises. GLODAPv2.2021 is the third update of GLODAPv2 from 2016. The data that are included have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of measurement biases. This version contains data from 989 hydrographic cruises covering the world's oceans from 1972 to 2020.
Are Olsen, Nico Lange, Robert M. Key, Toste Tanhua, Henry C. Bittig, Alex Kozyr, Marta Álvarez, Kumiko Azetsu-Scott, Susan Becker, Peter J. Brown, Brendan R. Carter, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha, Richard A. Feely, Steven van Heuven, Mario Hoppema, Masao Ishii, Emil Jeansson, Sara Jutterström, Camilla S. Landa, Siv K. Lauvset, Patrick Michaelis, Akihiko Murata, Fiz F. Pérez, Benjamin Pfeil, Carsten Schirnick, Reiner Steinfeldt, Toru Suzuki, Bronte Tilbrook, Anton Velo, Rik Wanninkhof, and Ryan J. Woosley
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3653–3678,Short summary
GLODAP is a data product for ocean inorganic carbon and related biogeochemical variables measured by chemical analysis of water bottle samples at scientific cruises. GLODAPv2.2020 is the second update of GLODAPv2 from 2016. The data that are included have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of measurement biases. This version contains data from 946 hydrographic cruises covering the world's oceans from 1972 to 2019.
Are Olsen, Nico Lange, Robert M. Key, Toste Tanhua, Marta Álvarez, Susan Becker, Henry C. Bittig, Brendan R. Carter, Leticia Cotrim da Cunha, Richard A. Feely, Steven van Heuven, Mario Hoppema, Masao Ishii, Emil Jeansson, Steve D. Jones, Sara Jutterström, Maren K. Karlsen, Alex Kozyr, Siv K. Lauvset, Claire Lo Monaco, Akihiko Murata, Fiz F. Pérez, Benjamin Pfeil, Carsten Schirnick, Reiner Steinfeldt, Toru Suzuki, Maciej Telszewski, Bronte Tilbrook, Anton Velo, and Rik Wanninkhof
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1437–1461,Short summary
GLODAP is a data product for ocean inorganic carbon and related biogeochemical variables measured by chemical analysis of water bottle samples at scientific cruises. GLODAPv2.2019 is the first update of GLODAPv2 from 2016. The data that are included have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of measurement biases. This version contains data from 840 hydrographic cruises covering the world's oceans from 1972 to 2017.
Daniel Broullón, Fiz F. Pérez, Antón Velo, Mario Hoppema, Are Olsen, Taro Takahashi, Robert M. Key, Toste Tanhua, Melchor González-Dávila, Emil Jeansson, Alex Kozyr, and Steven M. A. C. van Heuven
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1109–1127,Short summary
In this work, we are contributing to the knowledge of the consequences of climate change in the ocean. We have focused on a variable related to this process: total alkalinity. We have designed a monthly climatology of total alkalinity using artificial intelligence techniques, that is, a representation of the average capacity of the ocean in the last decades to decelerate the consequences of climate change. The climatology is especially useful to infer the evolution of the ocean through models.
Sayaka Yasunaka, Eko Siswanto, Are Olsen, Mario Hoppema, Eiji Watanabe, Agneta Fransson, Melissa Chierici, Akihiko Murata, Siv K. Lauvset, Rik Wanninkhof, Taro Takahashi, Naohiro Kosugi, Abdirahman M. Omar, Steven van Heuven, and Jeremy T. Mathis
Biogeosciences, 15, 1643–1661,Short summary
We estimated monthly air–sea CO2 fluxes in the Arctic Ocean and its adjacent seas north of 60° N from 1997 to 2014, after mapping pCO2 in the surface water using a self-organizing map technique. The addition of Chl a as a parameter enabled us to improve the estimate of pCO2 via better representation of its decline in spring. The uncertainty in the CO2 flux estimate was reduced, and a net annual Arctic Ocean CO2 uptake of 180 ± 130 Tg C y−1 was determined to be significant.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Julia Pongratz, Andrew C. Manning, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Thomas A. Boden, Pieter P. Tans, Oliver D. Andrews, Vivek K. Arora, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Leticia Barbero, Meike Becker, Richard A. Betts, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Catherine E. Cosca, Jessica Cross, Kim Currie, Thomas Gasser, Ian Harris, Judith Hauck, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Christopher W. Hunt, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Markus Kautz, Ralph F. Keeling, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Ivan Lima, Danica Lombardozzi, Nicolas Metzl, Frank Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Yukihiro Nojiri, X. Antonio Padin, Anna Peregon, Benjamin Pfeil, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Janet Reimer, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Benjamin D. Stocker, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Steven van Heuven, Nicolas Viovy, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Watson, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Sönke Zaehle, and Dan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 405–448,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2017 describes data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. It is the 12th annual update and the 6th published in this journal.
Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Benjamin Pfeil, Camilla S. Landa, Nicolas Metzl, Kevin M. O'Brien, Are Olsen, Karl Smith, Cathy Cosca, Sumiko Harasawa, Stephen D. Jones, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Yukihiro Nojiri, Ute Schuster, Tobias Steinhoff, Colm Sweeney, Taro Takahashi, Bronte Tilbrook, Chisato Wada, Rik Wanninkhof, Simone R. Alin, Carlos F. Balestrini, Leticia Barbero, Nicholas R. Bates, Alejandro A. Bianchi, Frédéric Bonou, Jacqueline Boutin, Yann Bozec, Eugene F. Burger, Wei-Jun Cai, Robert D. Castle, Liqi Chen, Melissa Chierici, Kim Currie, Wiley Evans, Charles Featherstone, Richard A. Feely, Agneta Fransson, Catherine Goyet, Naomi Greenwood, Luke Gregor, Steven Hankin, Nick J. Hardman-Mountford, Jérôme Harlay, Judith Hauck, Mario Hoppema, Matthew P. Humphreys, Christopher W. Hunt, Betty Huss, J. Severino P. Ibánhez, Truls Johannessen, Ralph Keeling, Vassilis Kitidis, Arne Körtzinger, Alex Kozyr, Evangelia Krasakopoulou, Akira Kuwata, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Claire Lo Monaco, Ansley Manke, Jeremy T. Mathis, Liliane Merlivat, Frank J. Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Akihiko Murata, Timothy Newberger, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Kristina Paterson, David Pearce, Denis Pierrot, Lisa L. Robbins, Shu Saito, Joe Salisbury, Reiner Schlitzer, Bernd Schneider, Roland Schweitzer, Rainer Sieger, Ingunn Skjelvan, Kevin F. Sullivan, Stewart C. Sutherland, Adrienne J. Sutton, Kazuaki Tadokoro, Maciej Telszewski, Matthias Tuma, Steven M. A. C. van Heuven, Doug Vandemark, Brian Ward, Andrew J. Watson, and Suqing Xu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 383–413,Short summary
Version 3 of the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (www.socat.info) has 14.5 million CO2 (carbon dioxide) values for the years 1957 to 2014 covering the global oceans and coastal seas. Version 3 is an update to version 2 with a longer record and 44 % more CO2 values. The CO2 measurements have been made on ships, fixed moorings and drifting buoys. SOCAT enables quantification of the ocean carbon sink and ocean acidification, as well as model evaluation, thus informing climate negotiations.
Are Olsen, Robert M. Key, Steven van Heuven, Siv K. Lauvset, Anton Velo, Xiaohua Lin, Carsten Schirnick, Alex Kozyr, Toste Tanhua, Mario Hoppema, Sara Jutterström, Reiner Steinfeldt, Emil Jeansson, Masao Ishii, Fiz F. Pérez, and Toru Suzuki
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 297–323,Short summary
The GLODAPv2 data product collects data from more than 700 hydrographic cruises into a global and internally calibrated product. It provides access to the data from almost all ocean carbon cruises carried out since the 1970s and is a unique resource for marine science, in particular regarding the ocean carbon cycle. GLODAPv2 will form the foundation for future routine synthesis of hydrographic data of the same sort.
Siv K. Lauvset, Robert M. Key, Are Olsen, Steven van Heuven, Anton Velo, Xiaohua Lin, Carsten Schirnick, Alex Kozyr, Toste Tanhua, Mario Hoppema, Sara Jutterström, Reiner Steinfeldt, Emil Jeansson, Masao Ishii, Fiz F. Perez, Toru Suzuki, and Sylvain Watelet
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 325–340,Short summary
This paper describes the mapped climatologies that are part of the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project Version 2 (GLODAPv2). GLODAPv2 is a uniformly calibrated open ocean data product on inorganic carbon and carbon-relevant variables. Global mapped climatologies of the total dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, saturation state of calcite and aragonite, anthropogenic carbon, preindustrial carbon content, inorganic macronutrients, oxygen, salinity, and temperature have been created.
P. Marrec, T. Cariou, E. Macé, P. Morin, L. A. Salt, M. Vernet, B. Taylor, K. Paxman, and Y. Bozec
Biogeosciences, 12, 5371–5391,
C. Le Quéré, G. P. Peters, R. J. Andres, R. M. Andrew, T. A. Boden, P. Ciais, P. Friedlingstein, R. A. Houghton, G. Marland, R. Moriarty, S. Sitch, P. Tans, A. Arneth, A. Arvanitis, D. C. E. Bakker, L. Bopp, J. G. Canadell, L. P. Chini, S. C. Doney, A. Harper, I. Harris, J. I. House, A. K. Jain, S. D. Jones, E. Kato, R. F. Keeling, K. Klein Goldewijk, A. Körtzinger, C. Koven, N. Lefèvre, F. Maignan, A. Omar, T. Ono, G.-H. Park, B. Pfeil, B. Poulter, M. R. Raupach, P. Regnier, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, J. Schwinger, J. Segschneider, B. D. Stocker, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, S. van Heuven, N. Viovy, R. Wanninkhof, A. Wiltshire, and S. Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 235–263,
D. C. E. Bakker, B. Pfeil, K. Smith, S. Hankin, A. Olsen, S. R. Alin, C. Cosca, S. Harasawa, A. Kozyr, Y. Nojiri, K. M. O'Brien, U. Schuster, M. Telszewski, B. Tilbrook, C. Wada, J. Akl, L. Barbero, N. R. Bates, J. Boutin, Y. Bozec, W.-J. Cai, R. D. Castle, F. P. Chavez, L. Chen, M. Chierici, K. Currie, H. J. W. de Baar, W. Evans, R. A. Feely, A. Fransson, Z. Gao, B. Hales, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, M. Hoppema, W.-J. Huang, C. W. Hunt, B. Huss, T. Ichikawa, T. Johannessen, E. M. Jones, S. D. Jones, S. Jutterström, V. Kitidis, A. Körtzinger, P. Landschützer, S. K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. B. Manke, J. T. Mathis, L. Merlivat, N. Metzl, A. Murata, T. Newberger, A. M. Omar, T. Ono, G.-H. Park, K. Paterson, D. Pierrot, A. F. Ríos, C. L. Sabine, S. Saito, J. Salisbury, V. V. S. S. Sarma, R. Schlitzer, R. Sieger, I. Skjelvan, T. Steinhoff, K. F. Sullivan, H. Sun, A. J. Sutton, T. Suzuki, C. Sweeney, T. Takahashi, J. Tjiputra, N. Tsurushima, S. M. A. C. van Heuven, D. Vandemark, P. Vlahos, D. W. R. Wallace, R. Wanninkhof, and A. J. Watson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 69–90,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Open OceanSeasonal cycles of biogeochemical fluxes in the Scotia Sea, Southern Ocean: a stable isotope approachAbsence of photophysiological response to iron addition in autumn phytoplankton in the Antarctic sea-ice zoneOptimal parameters for the ocean's nutrient, carbon, and oxygen cycles compensate for circulation biases but replumb the biological pumpImportance of multiple sources of iron for the upper-ocean biogeochemistry over the northern Indian OceanExploring the role of different data types and timescales in the quality of marine biogeochemical model calibrationAll about nitrite: exploring nitrite sources and sinks in the eastern tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zoneFossil coccolith morphological attributes as a new proxy for deep ocean carbonate chemistryReconstructing ocean carbon storage with CMIP6 Earth system models and synthetic Argo observationsUsing machine learning and Biogeochemical-Argo (BGC-Argo) floats to assess biogeochemical models and optimize observing system designThe representation of alkalinity and the carbonate pump from CMIP5 to CMIP6 Earth system models and implications for the carbon cycleModel estimates of metazoans' contributions to the biological carbon pumpReconstructing the ocean’s mesopelagic zone carbon budget: sensitivity and estimation of parameters associated with prokaryotic remineralizationTracing differences in iron supply to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge valley between hydrothermal vent sites: implications for the addition of iron to the deep oceanNitrite cycling in the primary nitrite maxima of the eastern tropical North PacificThe Fingerprint of Climate Variability on the Surface Ocean Cycling of Iron and its IsotopesHotspots and drivers of compound marine heatwaves and low net primary production extremesEcosystem impacts of marine heat waves in the northeast PacificTracing the role of Arctic shelf processes in Si and N cycling and export through the Fram Strait: insights from combined silicon and nitrate isotopesControls on the relative abundances and rates of nitrifying microorganisms in the oceanThe response of diazotrophs to nutrient amendment in the South China Sea and western North PacificSeasonal dynamics and annual budget of dissolved inorganic carbon in the northwestern Mediterranean deep convection regionInfluence of GEOTRACES data distribution and misfit function choice on objective parameter retrieval in a marine zinc cycle modelPhysiological flexibility of phytoplankton impacts modelled chlorophyll and primary production across the North Pacific OceanObservation-constrained estimates of the global ocean carbon sink from Earth system modelsEarly winter barium excess in the southern Indian Ocean as an annual remineralisation proxy (GEOTRACES GIPr07 cruise)Controlling factors on the global distribution of a representative marine non-cyanobacterial diazotroph phylotype (Gamma A)Summer trends and drivers of sea surface fCO2 and pH changes observed in the southern Indian 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Anna Belcher, Sian F. Henley, Katharine Hendry, Marianne Wootton, Lisa Friberg, Ursula Dallman, Tong Wang, Christopher Coath, and Clara Manno
Biogeosciences, 20, 3573–3591,Short summary
The oceans play a crucial role in the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide, particularly the Southern Ocean. The biological pumping of carbon from the surface to the deep ocean is key to this. Using sediment trap samples from the Scotia Sea, we examine biogeochemical fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and biogenic silica and their stable isotope compositions. We find phytoplankton community structure and physically mediated processes are important controls on particulate fluxes to the deep ocean.
Asmita Singh, Susanne Fietz, Sandy J. Thomalla, Nicolas Sanchez, Murat V. Ardelan, Sébastien Moreau, Hanna M. Kauko, Agneta Fransson, Melissa Chierici, Saumik Samanta, Thato N. Mtshali, Alakendra N. Roychoudhury, and Thomas J. Ryan-Keogh
Biogeosciences, 20, 3073–3091,Short summary
Despite the scarcity of iron in the Southern Ocean, seasonal blooms occur due to changes in nutrient and light availability. Surprisingly, during an autumn bloom in the Antarctic sea-ice zone, the results from incubation experiments showed no significant photophysiological response of phytoplankton to iron addition. This suggests that ambient iron concentrations were sufficient, challenging the notion of iron deficiency in the Southern Ocean through extended iron-replete post-bloom conditions.
Benoît Pasquier, Mark Holzer, Matthew A. Chamberlain, Richard J. Matear, Nathaniel L. Bindoff, and François W. Primeau
Biogeosciences, 20, 2985–3009,Short summary
Modeling the ocean's carbon and oxygen cycles accurately is challenging. Parameter optimization improves the fit to observed tracers but can introduce artifacts in the biological pump. Organic-matter production and subsurface remineralization rates adjust to compensate for circulation biases, changing the pathways and timescales with which nutrients return to the surface. Circulation biases can thus strongly alter the system’s response to ecological change, even when parameters are optimized.
Biogeosciences, 20, 2613–2643,Short summary
This study shows that atmospheric deposition is the most important source of iron to the upper northern Indian Ocean for phytoplankton growth. This is followed by iron from continental-shelf sediment. Phytoplankton increase following iron addition is possible only with high background levels of nitrate. Vertical mixing is the most important physical process supplying iron to the upper ocean in this region throughout the year. The importance of ocean currents in supplying iron varies seasonally.
Iris Kriest, Julia Getzlaff, Angela Landolfi, Volkmar Sauerland, Markus Schartau, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 20, 2645–2669,Short summary
Global biogeochemical ocean models are often subjectively assessed and tuned against observations. We applied different strategies to calibrate a global model against observations. Although the calibrated models show similar tracer distributions at the surface, they differ in global biogeochemical fluxes, especially in global particle flux. Simulated global volume of oxygen minimum zones varies strongly with calibration strategy and over time, rendering its temporal extrapolation difficult.
John C. Tracey, Andrew R. Babbin, Elizabeth Wallace, Xin Sun, Katherine L. DuRussel, Claudia Frey, Donald E. Martocello III, Tyler Tamasi, Sergey Oleynik, and Bess B. Ward
Biogeosciences, 20, 2499–2523,Short summary
Nitrogen (N) is essential for life; thus, its availability plays a key role in determining marine productivity. Using incubations of seawater spiked with a rare form of N measurable on a mass spectrometer, we quantified microbial pathways that determine marine N availability. The results show that pathways that recycle N have higher rates than those that result in its loss from biomass and present new evidence for anaerobic nitrite oxidation, a process long thought to be strictly aerobic.
Amanda Gerotto, Hongrui Zhang, Renata Hanae Nagai, Heather M. Stoll, Rubens César Lopes Figueira, Chuanlian Liu, and Iván Hernández-Almeida
Biogeosciences, 20, 1725–1739,Short summary
Based on the analysis of the response of coccolithophores’ morphological attributes in a laboratory dissolution experiment and surface sediment samples from the South China Sea, we proposed that the thickness shape (ks) factor of fossil coccoliths together with the normalized ks variation, which is the ratio of the standard deviation of ks (σ) over the mean ks (σ/ks), is a robust and novel proxy to reconstruct past changes in deep ocean carbon chemistry.
Katherine E. Turner, Doug M. Smith, Anna Katavouta, and Richard G. Williams
Biogeosciences, 20, 1671–1690,Short summary
We present a new method for reconstructing ocean carbon using climate models and temperature and salinity observations. To test this method, we reconstruct modelled carbon using synthetic observations consistent with current sampling programmes. Sensitivity tests show skill in reconstructing carbon trends and variability within the upper 2000 m. Our results indicate that this method can be used for a new global estimate for ocean carbon content.
Alexandre Mignot, Hervé Claustre, Gianpiero Cossarini, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Elodie Gutknecht, Julien Lamouroux, Paolo Lazzari, Coralie Perruche, Stefano Salon, Raphaëlle Sauzède, Vincent Taillandier, and Anna Teruzzi
Biogeosciences, 20, 1405–1422,Short summary
Numerical models of ocean biogeochemistry are becoming a major tool to detect and predict the impact of climate change on marine resources and monitor ocean health. Here, we demonstrate the use of the global array of BGC-Argo floats for the assessment of biogeochemical models. We first detail the handling of the BGC-Argo data set for model assessment purposes. We then present 23 assessment metrics to quantify the consistency of BGC model simulations with respect to BGC-Argo data.
Alban Planchat, Lester Kwiatkowski, Laurent Bopp, Olivier Torres, James R. Christian, Momme Butenschön, Tomas Lovato, Roland Séférian, Matthew A. Chamberlain, Olivier Aumont, Michio Watanabe, Akitomo Yamamoto, Andrew Yool, Tatiana Ilyina, Hiroyuki Tsujino, Kristen M. Krumhardt, Jörg Schwinger, Jerry Tjiputra, John P. Dunne, and Charles Stock
Biogeosciences, 20, 1195–1257,Short summary
Ocean alkalinity is critical to the uptake of atmospheric carbon and acidification in surface waters. We review the representation of alkalinity and the associated calcium carbonate cycle in Earth system models. While many parameterizations remain present in the latest generation of models, there is a general improvement in the simulated alkalinity distribution. This improvement is related to an increase in the export of biotic calcium carbonate, which closer resembles observations.
Jérôme Pinti, Tim DeVries, Tommy Norin, Camila Serra-Pompei, Roland Proud, David A. Siegel, Thomas Kiørboe, Colleen M. Petrik, Ken H. Andersen, Andrew S. Brierley, and André W. Visser
Biogeosciences, 20, 997–1009,Short summary
Large numbers of marine organisms such as zooplankton and fish perform daily vertical migration between the surface (at night) and the depths (in the daytime). This fascinating migration is important for the carbon cycle, as these organisms actively bring carbon to depths where it is stored away from the atmosphere for a long time. Here, we quantify the contributions of different animals to this carbon drawdown and storage and show that fish are important to the biological carbon pump.
Chloé Baumas, Robin Fuchs, Marc Garel, Jean-Christophe Poggiale, Laurent Memery, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, and Christian Tamburini
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Through the sink of particles in the ocean, carbon (C) is exported and sequestered when reaching 1000 m. Attempts to quantify the C exported versus consumed by heterotrophs have increased. Yet, most of the conducted estimations have led to C demands several times higher than C export. The choice of parameters greatly impact the results. As theses parameters are overlooked, non-accurate values are often used. In this study we show that C budgets can be well balanced when using appropriate values.
Alastair J. M. Lough, Alessandro Tagliabue, Clément Demasy, Joseph A. Resing, Travis Mellett, Neil J. Wyatt, and Maeve C. Lohan
Biogeosciences, 20, 405–420,Short summary
Iron is a key nutrient for ocean primary productivity. Hydrothermal vents are a source of iron to the oceans, but the size of this source is poorly understood. This study examines the variability in iron inputs between hydrothermal vents in different geological settings. The vents studied release different amounts of Fe, resulting in plumes with similar dissolved iron concentrations but different particulate concentrations. This will help to refine modelling of iron-limited ocean productivity.
Nicole M. Travis, Colette L. Kelly, Margaret R. Mulholland, and Karen L. Casciotti
Biogeosciences, 20, 325–347,Short summary
The primary nitrite maximum is a ubiquitous upper ocean feature where nitrite accumulates, but we still do not understand its formation and the co-occurring microbial processes involved. Using correlative methods and rates measurements, we found strong spatial patterns between environmental conditions and depths of the nitrite maxima, but not the maximum concentrations. Nitrification was the dominant source of nitrite, with occasional high nitrite production from phytoplankton near the coast.
Daniela König and Alessandro Tagliabue
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Using model simulations, we show that natural and anthropogenic changes in the global climate leave a distinct fingerprint in the isotopic signatures of iron in the surface ocean. We find that these climate effects on iron isotopes are often caused by the redistribution of iron from different external sources to the ocean, due to changes in ocean currents, and by changes in algal growth, which take up iron. Thus, isotopes may help detect climate-induced changes in iron supply and algal uptake.
Natacha Le Grix, Jakob Zscheischler, Keith B. Rodgers, Ryohei Yamaguchi, and Thomas L. Frölicher
Biogeosciences, 19, 5807–5835,Short summary
Compound events threaten marine ecosystems. Here, we investigate the potentially harmful combination of marine heatwaves with low phytoplankton productivity. Using satellite-based observations, we show that these compound events are frequent in the low latitudes. We then investigate the drivers of these compound events using Earth system models. The models share similar drivers in the low latitudes but disagree in the high latitudes due to divergent factors limiting phytoplankton production.
Abigale M. Wyatt, Laure Resplandy, and Adrian Marchetti
Biogeosciences, 19, 5689–5705,Short summary
Marine heat waves (MHWs) are a frequent event in the northeast Pacific, with a large impact on the region's ecosystems. Large phytoplankton in the North Pacific Transition Zone are greatly affected by decreased nutrients, with less of an impact in the Alaskan Gyre. For small phytoplankton, MHWs increase the spring small phytoplankton population in both regions thanks to reduced light limitation. In both zones, this results in a significant decrease in the ratio of large to small phytoplankton.
Margot C. F. Debyser, Laetitia Pichevin, Robyn E. Tuerena, Paul A. Dodd, Antonia Doncila, and Raja S. Ganeshram
Biogeosciences, 19, 5499–5520,Short summary
We focus on the exchange of key nutrients for algae production between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans through the Fram Strait. We show that the export of dissolved silicon here is controlled by the availability of nitrate which is influenced by denitrification on Arctic shelves. We suggest that any future changes in the river inputs of silica and changes in denitrification due to climate change will impact the amount of silicon exported, with impacts on Atlantic algal productivity and ecology.
Emily J. Zakem, Barbara Bayer, Wei Qin, Alyson E. Santoro, Yao Zhang, and Naomi M. Levine
Biogeosciences, 19, 5401–5418,Short summary
We use a microbial ecosystem model to quantitatively explain the mechanisms controlling observed relative abundances and nitrification rates of ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms in the ocean. We also estimate how much global carbon fixation can be associated with chemoautotrophic nitrification. Our results improve our understanding of the controls on nitrification, laying the groundwork for more accurate predictions in global climate models.
Zuozhu Wen, Thomas J. Browning, Rongbo Dai, Wenwei Wu, Weiying Li, Xiaohua Hu, Wenfang Lin, Lifang Wang, Xin Liu, Zhimian Cao, Haizheng Hong, and Dalin Shi
Biogeosciences, 19, 5237–5250,Short summary
Fe and P are key factors controlling the biogeography and activity of marine N2-fixing microorganisms. We found lower abundance and activity of N2 fixers in the northern South China Sea than around the western boundary of the North Pacific, and N2 fixation rates switched from Fe–P co-limitation to P limitation. We hypothesize the Fe supply rates and Fe utilization strategies of each N2 fixer are important in regulating spatial variability in community structure across the study area.
Caroline Ulses, Claude Estournel, Patrick Marsaleix, Karline Soetaert, Marine Fourrier, Laurent Coppola, Dominique Lefèvre, Franck Touratier, Catherine Goyet, Véronique Guglielmi, Fayçal Kessouri, Pierre Testor, and Xavier Durrieu de Madron
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Deep convection plays a key role in the circulation, thermodynamics and biogeochemical cycles in the Mediterranean Sea, considered as a hotspot of biodiversity and climate change. In this study, we investigate the seasonal cycle and annual budget of dissolved inorganic carbon in the deep convection area of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.
Claudia Eisenring, Sophy E. Oliver, Samar Khatiwala, and Gregory F. de Souza
Biogeosciences, 19, 5079–5106,Short summary
Given the sparsity of observational constraints on micronutrients such as zinc (Zn), we assess the sensitivities of a framework for objective parameter optimisation in an oceanic Zn cycling model. Our ensemble of optimisations towards synthetic data with varying kinds of uncertainty shows that deficiencies related to model complexity and the choice of the misfit function generally have a greater impact on the retrieval of model Zn uptake behaviour than does the limitation of data coverage.
Yoshikazu Sasai, Sherwood Lan Smith, Eko Siswanto, Hideharu Sasaki, and Masami Nonaka
Biogeosciences, 19, 4865–4882,Short summary
We have investigated the adaptive response of phytoplankton growth to changing light, nutrients, and temperature over the North Pacific using two physical-biological models. We compare modeled chlorophyll and primary production from an inflexible control model (InFlexPFT), which assumes fixed carbon (C):nitrogen (N):chlorophyll (Chl) ratios, to a recently developed flexible phytoplankton functional type model (FlexPFT), which incorporates photoacclimation and variable C:N:Chl ratios.
Jens Terhaar, Thomas L. Frölicher, and Fortunat Joos
Biogeosciences, 19, 4431–4457,Short summary
Estimates of the ocean sink of anthropogenic carbon vary across various approaches. We show that the global ocean carbon sink can be estimated by three parameters, two of which approximate the ocean ventilation in the Southern Ocean and the North Atlantic, and one of which approximates the chemical capacity of the ocean to take up carbon. With observations of these parameters, we estimate that the global ocean carbon sink is 10 % larger than previously assumed, and we cut uncertainties in half.
Natasha René van Horsten, Hélène Planquette, Géraldine Sarthou, Thomas James Ryan-Keogh, Nolwenn Lemaitre, Thato Nicholas Mtshali, Alakendra Roychoudhury, and Eva Bucciarelli
Biogeosciences, 19, 3209–3224,Short summary
The remineralisation proxy, barite, was measured along 30°E in the southern Indian Ocean during early austral winter. To our knowledge this is the first reported Southern Ocean winter study. Concentrations throughout the water column were comparable to observations during spring to autumn. By linking satellite primary production to this proxy a possible annual timescale is proposed. These findings also suggest possible carbon remineralisation from satellite data on a basin scale.
Zhibo Shao and Ya-Wei Luo
Biogeosciences, 19, 2939–2952,Short summary
Non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs (NCDs) may be an important player in fixing N2 in the ocean. By conducting meta-analyses, we found that a representative marine NCD phylotype, Gamma A, tends to inhabit ocean environments with high productivity, low iron concentration and high light intensity. It also appears to be more abundant inside cyclonic eddies. Our study suggests a niche differentiation of NCDs from cyanobacterial diazotrophs as the latter prefers low-productivity and high-iron oceans.
Coraline Leseurre, Claire Lo Monaco, Gilles Reverdin, Nicolas Metzl, Jonathan Fin, Claude Mignon, and Léa Benito
Biogeosciences, 19, 2599–2625,Short summary
Decadal trends of fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (AT), total carbon (CT) and pH in surface waters are investigated in different domains of the southern Indian Ocean (45°S–57°S) from ongoing and station observations regularly conducted in summer over the period 1998–2019. The fCO2 increase and pH decrease are mainly driven by anthropogenic CO2 estimated just below the summer mixed layer, as well as by a warming south of the polar front or in the fertilized waters near Kerguelen Island.
Priscilla Le Mézo, Jérôme Guiet, Kim Scherrer, Daniele Bianchi, and Eric Galbraith
Biogeosciences, 19, 2537–2555,Short summary
This study quantifies the role of commercially targeted fish biomass in the cycling of three important nutrients (N, P, and Fe), relative to nutrients otherwise available in water and to nutrients required by primary producers, and the impact of fishing. We use a model of commercially targeted fish biomass constrained by fish catch and stock assessment data to assess the contributions of fish at the global scale, at the time of the global peak catch and prior to industrial fishing.
Rebecca Chmiel, Nathan Lanning, Allison Laubach, Jong-Mi Lee, Jessica Fitzsimmons, Mariko Hatta, William Jenkins, Phoebe Lam, Matthew McIlvin, Alessandro Tagliabue, and Mak Saito
Biogeosciences, 19, 2365–2395,Short summary
Dissolved cobalt is present in trace amounts in seawater and is a necessary nutrient for marine microbes. On a transect from the Alaskan coast to Tahiti, we measured seawater concentrations of dissolved cobalt. Here, we describe several interesting features of the Pacific cobalt cycle including cobalt sources along the Alaskan coast and Hawaiian vents, deep-ocean particle formation, cobalt activity in low-oxygen regions, and how our samples compare to a global biogeochemical model’s predictions.
Nicolas Metzl, Claire Lo Monaco, Coraline Leseurre, Céline Ridame, Jonathan Fin, Claude Mignon, Marion Gehlen, and Thi Tuyet Trang Chau
Biogeosciences, 19, 1451–1468,Short summary
During an oceanographic cruise conducted in January 2020 in the south-western Indian Ocean, we observed very low CO2 concentrations associated with a strong phytoplankton bloom that occurred south-east of Madagascar. This biological event led to a strong regional CO2 ocean sink not previously observed.
Darren R. Clark, Andrew P. Rees, Charissa M. Ferrera, Lisa Al-Moosawi, Paul J. Somerfield, Carolyn Harris, Graham D. Quartly, Stephen Goult, Glen Tarran, and Gennadi Lessin
Biogeosciences, 19, 1355–1376,Short summary
Measurements of microbial processes were made in the sunlit open ocean during a research cruise (AMT19) between the UK and Chile. These help us to understand how microbial communities maintain the function of remote ecosystems. We find that the nitrogen cycling microbes which produce nitrite respond to changes in the environment. Our insights will aid the development of models that aim to replicate and ultimately project how marine environments may respond to ongoing climate change.
Martí Galí, Marcus Falls, Hervé Claustre, Olivier Aumont, and Raffaele Bernardello
Biogeosciences, 19, 1245–1275,Short summary
Part of the organic matter produced by plankton in the upper ocean is exported to the deep ocean. This process, known as the biological carbon pump, is key for the regulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and global climate. However, the dynamics of organic particles below the upper ocean layer are not well understood. Here we compared the measurements acquired by autonomous robots in the top 1000 m of the ocean to a numerical model, which can help improve future climate projections.
Marie Barbieux, Julia Uitz, Alexandre Mignot, Collin Roesler, Hervé Claustre, Bernard Gentili, Vincent Taillandier, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Hubert Loisel, Antoine Poteau, Edouard Leymarie, Christophe Penkerc'h, Catherine Schmechtig, and Annick Bricaud
Biogeosciences, 19, 1165–1194,Short summary
This study assesses marine biological production in two Mediterranean systems representative of vast desert-like (oligotrophic) areas encountered in the global ocean. We use a novel approach based on non-intrusive high-frequency in situ measurements by two profiling robots, the BioGeoChemical-Argo (BGC-Argo) floats. Our results indicate substantial yet variable production rates and contribution to the whole water column of the subsurface layer, typically considered steady and non-productive.
Filippa Fransner, Friederike Fröb, Jerry Tjiputra, Nadine Goris, Siv K. Lauvset, Ingunn Skjelvan, Emil Jeansson, Abdirahman Omar, Melissa Chierici, Elizabeth Jones, Agneta Fransson, Sólveig R. Ólafsdóttir, Truls Johannessen, and Are Olsen
Biogeosciences, 19, 979–1012,Short summary
Ocean acidification, a direct consequence of the CO2 release by human activities, is a serious threat to marine ecosystems. In this study, we conduct a detailed investigation of the acidification of the Nordic Seas, from 1850 to 2100, by using a large set of samples taken during research cruises together with numerical model simulations. We estimate the effects of changes in different environmental factors on the rate of acidification and its potential effects on cold-water corals.
Guorong Zhong, Xuegang Li, Jinming Song, Baoxiao Qu, Fan Wang, Yanjun Wang, Bin Zhang, Xiaoxia Sun, Wuchang Zhang, Zhenyan Wang, Jun Ma, Huamao Yuan, and Liqin Duan
Biogeosciences, 19, 845–859,Short summary
A predictor selection algorithm was constructed to decrease the predicting error in the surface ocean partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) mapping by finding better combinations of pCO2 predictors in different regions. Compared with previous research using the same combination of predictors in all regions, using different predictors selected by the algorithm in different regions can effectively decrease pCO2 predicting errors.
Shantelle Smith, Katye E. Altieri, Mhlangabezi Mdutyana, David R. Walker, Ruan G. Parrott, Sedick Gallie, Kurt A. M. Spence, Jessica M. Burger, and Sarah E. Fawcett
Biogeosciences, 19, 715–741,Short summary
Ammonium is a crucial yet poorly understood component of the Southern Ocean nitrogen cycle. We attribute our finding of consistently high ammonium concentrations in the winter mixed layer to limited ammonium consumption and sustained ammonium production, conditions under which the Southern Ocean becomes a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. From similar data collected over an annual cycle, we propose a seasonal cycle for ammonium in shallow polar waters – a first for the Southern Ocean.
Jannes Koelling, Dariia Atamanchuk, Johannes Karstensen, Patricia Handmann, and Douglas W. R. Wallace
Biogeosciences, 19, 437–454,Short summary
In this study, we investigate oxygen variability in the deep western boundary current in the Labrador Sea from multiyear moored records. We estimate that about half of the oxygen taken up in the interior Labrador Sea by air–sea gas exchange during deep water formation is exported southward the same year. Our results underline the complexity of the oxygen uptake and export in the Labrador Sea and highlight the important role this region plays in supplying oxygen to the deep ocean.
Céline Ridame, Julie Dinasquet, Søren Hallstrøm, Estelle Bigeard, Lasse Riemann, France Van Wambeke, Matthieu Bressac, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Vincent Taillandier, Fréderic Gazeau, Antonio Tovar-Sanchez, Anne-Claire Baudoux, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 19, 415–435,Short summary
We show that in the Mediterranean Sea spatial variability in N2 fixation is related to the diazotrophic community composition reflecting different nutrient requirements among species. Nutrient supply by Saharan dust is of great importance to diazotrophs, as shown by the strong stimulation of N2 fixation after a simulated dust event under present and future climate conditions; the magnitude of stimulation depends on the degree of limitation related to the diazotrophic community composition.
Matthew P. Humphreys, Erik H. Meesters, Henk de Haas, Szabina Karancz, Louise Delaigue, Karel Bakker, Gerard Duineveld, Siham de Goeyse, Andreas F. Haas, Furu Mienis, Sharyn Ossebaar, and Fleur C. van Duyl
Biogeosciences, 19, 347–358,Short summary
A series of submarine sinkholes were recently discovered on Luymes Bank, part of Saba Bank, a carbonate platform in the Caribbean Netherlands. Here, we investigate the waters inside these sinkholes for the first time. One of the sinkholes contained a body of dense, low-oxygen and low-pH water, which we call the
acid lake. We use measurements of seawater chemistry to work out what processes were responsible for forming the acid lake and discuss the consequences for the carbonate platform.
Gerhard Fischer, Oscar E. Romero, Johannes Karstensen, Karl-Heinz Baumann, Nasrollah Moradi, Morten Iversen, Götz Ruhland, Marco Klann, and Arne Körtzinger
Biogeosciences, 18, 6479–6500,Short summary
Low-oxygen eddies in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic can form an oasis for phytoplankton growth. Here we report on particle flux dynamics at the oligotrophic Cape Verde Ocean Observatory. We observed consistent flux patterns during the passages of low-oxygen eddies. We found distinct flux peaks in late winter, clearly exceeding background fluxes. Our findings suggest that the low-oxygen eddies sequester higher organic carbon than expected for oligotrophic settings.
Matthieu Bressac, Thibaut Wagener, Nathalie Leblond, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Céline Ridame, Vincent Taillandier, Samuel Albani, Sophie Guasco, Aurélie Dufour, Stéphanie H. M. Jacquet, François Dulac, Karine Desboeufs, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 6435–6453,Short summary
Phytoplankton growth is limited by the availability of iron in about 50 % of the ocean. Atmospheric deposition of desert dust represents a key source of iron. Here, we present direct observations of dust deposition in the Mediterranean Sea. A key finding is that the input of iron from dust primarily occurred in the deep ocean, while previous studies mainly focused on the ocean surface. This new insight will enable us to better represent controls on global marine productivity in models.
Léo Berline, Andrea Michelangelo Doglioli, Anne Petrenko, Stéphanie Barrillon, Boris Espinasse, Frederic A. C. Le Moigne, François Simon-Bot, Melilotus Thyssen, and François Carlotti
Biogeosciences, 18, 6377–6392,Short summary
While the Ionian Sea is considered a nutrient-depleted and low-phytoplankton biomass area, it is a crossroad for water mass circulation. In the central Ionian Sea, we observed a strong contrast in particle distribution across a ~100 km long transect. Using remote sensing and Lagrangian simulations, we suggest that this contrast finds its origin in the long-distance transport of particles from the north, west and east of the Ionian Sea, where phytoplankton production was more intense.
Anna Teruzzi, Giorgio Bolzon, Laura Feudale, and Gianpiero Cossarini
Biogeosciences, 18, 6147–6166,Short summary
During summer, maxima of phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration (DCM) occur in the subsurface of the Mediterranean Sea and can play a relevant role in carbon sequestration into the ocean interior. A numerical model based on in situ and satellite observations provides insights into the range of DCM conditions across the relatively small Mediterranean Sea and shows a western DCM that is 25 % shallower and with a higher phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration than in the eastern Mediterranean.
Elvira Pulido-Villena, Karine Desboeufs, Kahina Djaoudi, France Van Wambeke, Stéphanie Barrillon, Andrea Doglioli, Anne Petrenko, Vincent Taillandier, Franck Fu, Tiphanie Gaillard, Sophie Guasco, Sandra Nunige, Sylvain Triquet, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 5871–5889,Short summary
We report on phosphorus dynamics in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea. Highly sensitive phosphate measurements revealed vertical gradients above the phosphacline. The relative contribution of diapycnal fluxes to total external supply of phosphate to the mixed layer decreased towards the east, where atmospheric deposition dominated. Taken together, external sources of phosphate contributed little to total supply, which was mainly sustained by enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphorus.
Zouhair Lachkar, Michael Mehari, Muchamad Al Azhar, Marina Lévy, and Shafer Smith
Biogeosciences, 18, 5831–5849,Short summary
This study documents and quantifies a significant recent oxygen decline in the upper layers of the Arabian Sea and explores its drivers. Using a modeling approach we show that the fast local warming of sea surface is the main factor causing this oxygen drop. Concomitant summer monsoon intensification contributes to this trend, although to a lesser extent. These changes exacerbate oxygen depletion in the subsurface, threatening marine habitats and altering the local biogeochemistry.
France Van Wambeke, Vincent Taillandier, Karine Desboeufs, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Julie Dinasquet, Anja Engel, Emilio Marañón, Céline Ridame, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 5699–5717,Short summary
Simultaneous in situ measurements of (dry and wet) atmospheric deposition and biogeochemical stocks and fluxes in the sunlit waters of the open Mediterranean Sea revealed complex physical and biological processes occurring within the mixed layer. Nitrogen (N) budgets were computed to compare the sources and sinks of N in the mixed layer. The transitory effect observed after a wet dust deposition impacted the microbial food web down to the deep chlorophyll maximum.
Frédéric Gazeau, France Van Wambeke, Emilio Marañón, Maria Pérez-Lorenzo, Samir Alliouane, Christian Stolpe, Thierry Blasco, Nathalie Leblond, Birthe Zäncker, Anja Engel, Barbara Marie, Julie Dinasquet, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 5423–5446,Short summary
Our study shows that the impact of dust deposition on primary production depends on the initial composition and metabolic state of the tested community and is constrained by the amount of nutrients added, to sustain both the fast response of heterotrophic prokaryotes and the delayed one of phytoplankton. Under future environmental conditions, heterotrophic metabolism will be more impacted than primary production, therefore reducing the capacity of surface waters to sequester anthropogenic CO2.
Loes J. A. Gerringa, Martha Gledhill, Indah Ardiningsih, Niels Muntjewerf, and Luis M. Laglera
Biogeosciences, 18, 5265–5289,Short summary
For 3 decades, competitive ligand exchange–adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry was used to estimate the Fe-binding capacity of organic matter in seawater. In this paper the performance of the competing ligands is compared through the analysis of a series of model ligands. The main finding of this paper is that the determined speciation parameters are not independent of the application, making interpretation of Fe speciation data more complex than it was thought before.
Frédéric Gazeau, Céline Ridame, France Van Wambeke, Samir Alliouane, Christian Stolpe, Jean-Olivier Irisson, Sophie Marro, Jean-Michel Grisoni, Guillaume De Liège, Sandra Nunige, Kahina Djaoudi, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, Philippe Catala, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 5011–5034,Short summary
This paper shows that the impacts of Saharan dust deposition in different Mediterranean basins are as strong as those observed in coastal waters but differed substantially between the three tested stations, differences attributed to variable initial metabolic states. A stronger impact of warming and acidification on mineralization suggests a decreased capacity of Mediterranean surface communities to sequester CO2 following the deposition of atmospheric particles in the coming decades.
Carolin R. Löscher
Biogeosciences, 18, 4953–4963,Short summary
The Bay of Bengal (BoB) is classically seen as an ocean region with low primary production, which has been predicted to decrease even further. Here, the importance of such a trend is used to explore what could happen to the BoB's low-oxygen core waters if primary production decreases. Lower biological production leads to less oxygen loss in deeper waters by respiration; thus it could be that oxygen will not further decrease and the BoB will not become anoxic, different to other low-oxygen areas.
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Álvarez, M., Tanhua, T., Brix, H., Lo Monaco, C., Metzl, N., McDonagh, E. L., and Bryden H. L.: Decadal biogeochemical changes in the subtropical Indian Ocean associated with Subantarctic Mode Water, J. Geophys. Res., 116, C09016, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JC006475, 2011.
Álvarez, M., Sanleón-Bartolomé, H., Tanhua, T., Mintrop, L., Luchetta, A., Cantoni, C., Schroeder, K., and Civitarese, G.: The CO2 system in the Mediterranean Sea: a basin wide perspective, Ocean Sci., 10, 69–92, https://doi.org/10.5194/os-10-69-2014, 2014.
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The increase in anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide is mitigated by uptake by the world ocean, which alters the pH of the water. In the South Atlantic we find the highest rates of acidification relative to increase in anthropogenic carbon (Cant) found in Subantarctic Mode Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water. The moderate rates of increase in Cant combined with low buffering capacities, due to low salinity and alkalinity values, have caused rapid acidification in the Subantarctic Zone.
The increase in anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide is mitigated by uptake by the world...