Articles | Volume 13, issue 2
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Map-based prediction of organic carbon in headwater streams improved by downstream observations from the river outlet
Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Research Department, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden
C. von Brömssen
Unit of applied statistics and mathematics, Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Department of Biological Sciences and Department of Geography, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
Department of Geography, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
Centre for Climate and Safety, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
No articles found.
Jana Erdbrügger, Ilja van Meerveld, Jan Seibert, and Kevin Bishop
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 1779–1800,Short summary
Groundwater can respond quickly to precipitation and is the main source of streamflow in most catchments in humid, temperate climates. To better understand shallow groundwater dynamics, we installed a network of groundwater wells in two boreal headwater catchments in Sweden. We recorded groundwater levels in 75 wells for 2 years and sampled the water and analyzed its chemical composition in one summer. This paper describes these datasets.
Gustaf Granath, Christopher D. Evans, Joachim Strengbom, Jens Fölster, Achim Grelle, Johan Strömqvist, and Stephan J. Köhler
Biogeosciences, 18, 3243–3261,Short summary
We measured element losses and impacts on water quality following a wildfire in Sweden. We observed the largest carbon and nitrogen losses during the fire and a strong pulse of elements 1–3 months after the fire that showed a fast (weeks) and a slow (months) release from the catchments. Total carbon export through water did not increase post-fire. Overall, we observed a rapid recovery of the biogeochemical cycling of elements within 3 years but still an annual net release of carbon dioxide.
Martin Erlandsson Lampa, Harald U. Sverdrup, Kevin H. Bishop, Salim Belyazid, Ali Ameli, and Stephan J. Köhler
SOIL, 6, 231–244,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrate how new equations describing base cation release from mineral weathering can reproduce patterns in observations from stream and soil water. This is a major step towards modeling base cation cycling on the catchment scale, which would be valuable for defining the highest sustainable rates of forest harvest and levels of acidifying deposition.
Roger D. Finlay, Shahid Mahmood, Nicholas Rosenstock, Emile B. Bolou-Bi, Stephan J. Köhler, Zaenab Fahad, Anna Rosling, Håkan Wallander, Salim Belyazid, Kevin Bishop, and Bin Lian
Biogeosciences, 17, 1507–1533,Short summary
Effects of biological activity on mineral weathering operate at scales ranging from short-term, microscopic interactions to global, evolutionary timescale processes. Microorganisms have had well-documented effects at large spatio-temporal scales, but to establish the quantitative significance of microscopic measurements for field-scale processes, higher-resolution studies of liquid chemistry at local weathering sites and improved upscaling to soil-scale dissolution rates are still required.
Nicholas P. Rosenstock, Johan Stendahl, Gregory van der Heijden, Lars Lundin, Eric McGivney, Kevin Bishop, and Stefan Löfgren
SOIL, 5, 351–366,Short summary
Biofuel harvests from forests involve large removals of available nutrients, necessitating accurate measurements of soil nutrient stocks. We found that dilute hydrochloric acid extractions from soils released far more Ca, Na, and K than classical salt–extracted exchangeable nutrient pools. The size of these acid–extractable pools may indicate that forest ecosystems could sustain greater biomass extractions of Ca, Mg, and K than are predicted from salt–extracted exchangeable base cation pools.
Cecilia Akselsson, Salim Belyazid, Johan Stendahl, Roger Finlay, Bengt A. Olsson, Martin Erlandsson Lampa, Håkan Wallander, Jon Petter Gustafsson, and Kevin Bishop
Biogeosciences, 16, 4429–4450,Short summary
The release of elements from soil through weathering is an important process, controlling nutrient availability for plants and recovery from acidification. However, direct measurements cannot be done, and present estimates are burdened with high uncertainties. In this paper we use different approaches to quantify weathering rates in different scales in Sweden and discuss the pros and cons. The study contributes to more robust assessments of sustainable harvesting of forest biomass.
Barbara Blumenthal, Jan Haas, and Jan-Olov Andersson
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further review
Lixin Wang, Xiaohua Wei, Kevin Bishop, Alison D. Reeves, Nadia Ursino, and Rita Winkler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1731–1734,
S. Osterwalder, J. Fritsche, C. Alewell, M. Schmutz, M. B. Nilsson, G. Jocher, J. Sommar, J. Rinne, and K. Bishop
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 509–524,Short summary
Human activities have increased mercury (Hg) cycling between land and atmosphere. To define landscapes as sinks or sources of Hg we have developed an advanced REA system for long-term measurements of gaseous elemental Hg exchange. It was tested in two contrasting environments: above Basel, Switzerland, and a peatland in Sweden. Both landscapes showed net Hg emission (15 and 3 ng m−2 h−1, respectively). The novel system will help to advance our understanding of Hg exchange on an ecosystem scale.
F. I. Leith, K. J. Dinsmore, M. B. Wallin, M. F. Billett, K. V. Heal, H. Laudon, M. G. Öquist, and K. Bishop
Biogeosciences, 12, 1881–1892,Short summary
Carbon dioxide transport between the terrestrial and aquatic systems was dominated by export from the near-stream riparian zone. Over the year, riparian export was highest during autumn storms and the spring snowmelt event. This resulted in high downstream export during these periods with vertical evasion from the stream surface accounting for 60% of the total stream water export, highlighting the importance of evasion to carbon export via the aquatic conduit.
A. M. Ågren, I. Buffam, D. M. Cooper, T. Tiwari, C. D. Evans, and H. Laudon
Biogeosciences, 11, 1199–1213,
J. L. J. Ledesma, T. Grabs, M. N. Futter, K. H. Bishop, H. Laudon, and S. J. Köhler
Biogeosciences, 10, 3849–3868,
S. K. Oni, M. N. Futter, K. Bishop, S. J. Köhler, M. Ottosson-Löfvenius, and H. Laudon
Biogeosciences, 10, 2315–2330,
Related subject area
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forested catchments under high nitrogen saturationNitrogen isotopes reveal a particulate-matter-driven biogeochemical reactor in a temperate estuaryHigh-resolution vertical biogeochemical profiles in the hyporheic zone reveal insights into microbial methane cyclingOrganic matter transformations are disconnected between surface water and the hyporheic zoneCO2 emissions from peat-draining rivers regulated by water pHEffects of peatland management on aquatic carbon concentrations and fluxesResistance and resilience of stream metabolism to high flow disturbancesEnhanced bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in human-disturbed streams in Alpine fluvial networksSpatial and temporal variability of pCO2 and CO2 emissions from the Dong River in south ChinaFluvial carbon dioxide emission from the Lena River basin during the spring floodDiel patterns in stream nitrate concentration produced by in-stream processesComplex interactions of in-stream dissolved organic matter and nutrient spiralling unravelled by Bayesian regression analysisSpatial–temporal variations in riverine carbon strongly influenced by local hydrological events in an alpine catchmentRapid soil organic carbon decomposition in river systems: effects of the aquatic microbial community and hydrodynamical disturbanceIncreased carbon capture by a silicate-treated forested watershed affected by acid depositionThermokarst amplifies fluvial inorganic carbon cycling and export across watershed scales on the Peel Plateau, CanadaTemporary and net sinks of atmospheric CO2 due to chemical weathering in subtropical catchment with mixing carbonate and silicate lithologyFrom canals to the coast: dissolved organic matter and trace metal composition in rivers draining degraded tropical peatlands in IndonesiaDistribution and flux of dissolved iron in the peatland-draining rivers and estuaries of Sarawak, Malaysian BorneoComparisons of dissolved organic matter and its optical characteristics in small low and high 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(Vietnam)Stable isotopes of nitrate reveal different nitrogen processing mechanisms in streams across a land use gradient during wet and dry periodsRiverine carbon export in the arid to semiarid Wuding River catchment on the Chinese Loess PlateauUse of argon to measure gas exchange in turbulent mountain streamsReviews and syntheses: Anthropogenic perturbations to carbon fluxes in Asian river systems – concepts, emerging trends, and research challengesShifts in stream hydrochemistry in responses to typhoon and non-typhoon precipitationQUAL-NET, a high temporal-resolution eutrophication model for large hydrographic networksDiel fluctuations of viscosity-driven riparian inflow affect streamflow DOC concentrationA comprehensive biogeochemical record and annual flux estimates for the Sabaki River (Kenya)Hydro-ecological controls on dissolved carbon dynamics in groundwater and export to streams in a temperate pine forestRegional-scale lateral carbon transport and CO2 evasion in temperate stream catchmentsCarbon and nutrient export regimes from headwater catchments to downstream reachesInfluence of infrastructure on water quality and greenhouse gas dynamics in urban streamsHydromorphological restoration stimulates river ecosystem metabolismQuantifying nutrient fluxes with a new hyporheic passive flux meter (HPFM)Sources, cycling and export of nitrogen on the Greenland Ice Sheet
Nele Lehmann, Hugues Lantuit, Michael Ernst Böttcher, Jens Hartmann, Antje Eulenburg, and Helmuth Thomas
Biogeosciences, 20, 3459–3479,Short summary
Riverine alkalinity in the silicate-dominated headwater catchment at subarctic Iskorasfjellet, northern Norway, was almost entirely derived from weathering of minor carbonate occurrences in the riparian zone. The uphill catchment appeared limited by insufficient contact time of weathering agents and weatherable material. Further, alkalinity increased with decreasing permafrost extent. Thus, with climate change, alkalinity generation is expected to increase in this permafrost-degrading landscape.
Jancoba Dorley, Joel Singley, Tim Covino, Kamini Singha, Michael Gooseff, David Van Horn, and Ricardo González-Pinzón
Biogeosciences, 20, 3353–3366,Short summary
We quantified how microbial respiration is controlled by discharge and the supply of C, N, and P in a stream. We ran two rounds of experiments adding a conservative tracer, an indicator of aerobic respiration, and nutrient treatments: a) N, b) N+C, c) N+P, and d) C+N+P. Microbial respiration remained similar between rounds and across nutrient treatments. This suggests that complex interactions between hydrology, resource supply, and biological community drive in-stream respiration.
Paolo Peruzzo, Matteo Cappozzo, Nicola Durighetto, and Gianluca Botter
Biogeosciences, 20, 3261–3271,Short summary
Small cascades greatly enhance mountain stream gas emissions through the turbulent energy dissipation rate and air bubbles entrained into the water. We numerically studied the local contribution of these mechanisms driving gas transfer velocity used to quantify the outgassing. The gas evasion is primarily due to bubbles concentrated in irregular spots of limited area. Consequently, the gas exchange velocity is scale-dependent and unpredictable, posing concerns about its use in similar scenarios.
Philipp Maurischat, Michael Seidel, Thorsten Dittmar, and Georg Guggenberger
Biogeosciences, 20, 3011–3026,Short summary
Production and consumption of organic matter (OM) on the Tibetan Plateau are important for this sensitive ecosystem. We investigated the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter and the most mobile fraction of OM in glaciers, wetlands, and groundwater as well as in the rivers and a large terminal lake. Our data show that the sources differ in the molecular composition of OM, that the stream is influenced by agriculture, and that the lake strongly changes the inflowing organic matter.
James C. Stegen, Vanessa A. Garayburu-Caruso, Robert E. Danczak, Amy E. Goldman, Lupita Renteria, Joshua M. Torgeson, and Jacqueline Hager
Biogeosciences, 20, 2857–2867,Short summary
Chemical reactions in river sediments influence how clean the water is and how much greenhouse gas comes out of a river. Our study investigates why some sediments have higher rates of chemical reactions than others. We find that to achieve high rates, sediments need to have two things: only a few different kinds of molecules, but a lot of them. This result spans about 80 rivers such that it could be a general rule, helpful for predicting the future of rivers and our planet.
Andrew L. Robison, Nicola Deluigi, Camille Rolland, Nicolas Manetti, and Tom Battin
Biogeosciences, 20, 2301–2316,Short summary
Climate change is affecting mountain ecosystems intensely, including the loss of glaciers and the uphill migration of plants. How these changes will affect the streams draining these landscapes is unclear. We sampled streams across a gradient of glacier and vegetation cover in Switzerland and found glacier loss reduced the carbon dioxide sink from weathering, while vegetation cover increased dissolved organic carbon in the stream. These changes are important to consider for mountains globally.
Olga Ogneva, Gesine Mollenhauer, Bennet Juhls, Tina Sanders, Juri Palmtag, Matthias Fuchs, Hendrik Grotheer, Paul J. Mann, and Jens Strauss
Biogeosciences, 20, 1423–1441,Short summary
Arctic warming accelerates permafrost thaw and release of terrestrial organic matter (OM) via rivers to the Arctic Ocean. We compared particulate organic carbon (POC), total suspended matter, and C isotopes (δ13C and Δ14C of POC) in the Lena delta and Lena River along a ~1600 km transect. We show that the Lena delta, as an interface between the Lena River and the Arctic Ocean, plays a crucial role in determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of OM discharged into the Arctic Ocean.
Weitian Ding, Urumu Tsunogai, Fumiko Nakagawa, Takashi Sambuichi, Masaaki Chiwa, Tamao Kasahara, and Ken'ichi Shinozuka
Biogeosciences, 20, 753–766,Short summary
By monitoring the concentration and Δ17O of stream nitrate in three forested streams, the new nitrogen saturation index of forested catchments (Matm/Datm ratio) was estimated. We found that (1) the unprocessed atmospheric nitrate in our studied forested stream (FK1 catchment) was the highest ever reported in forested streams; (2) the Matm/Datm ratio can be used as a robust index for evaluating nitrogen saturation in forested catchments as the Matm/Datm ratio is independent of the precipitation.
Kirstin Dähnke, Tina Sanders, Yoana Voynova, and Scott D. Wankel
Biogeosciences, 19, 5879–5891,Short summary
Nitrogen is an important macronutrient that fuels algal production in rivers and coastal regions. We investigated the production and removal of nitrogen-bearing compounds in the freshwater section of the tidal Elbe Estuary and found that particles in the water column are key for the production and removal of water column nitrate. Using a stable isotope approach, we pinpointed regions where additional removal of nitrate or input from sediments plays an important role in estuarine biogeochemistry.
Tamara Michaelis, Anja Wunderlich, Ömer K. Coskun, William Orsi, Thomas Baumann, and Florian Einsiedl
Biogeosciences, 19, 4551–4569,Short summary
The greenhouse gas methane (CH4) drives climate change. Microorganisms in river sediments produce CH4 when degrading organic matter, but the contribution of rivers to atmospheric CH4 concentrations is uncertain. To better understand riverine CH4 cycling, we measured concentration profiles of CH4 and relevant reactants that might influence the CH4 cycle. We found substantial CH4 production, especially in fine, organic-rich sediments during summer and signs of microbial CH4 consumption.
James C. Stegen, Sarah J. Fansler, Malak M. Tfaily, Vanessa A. Garayburu-Caruso, Amy E. Goldman, Robert E. Danczak, Rosalie K. Chu, Lupita Renteria, Jerry Tagestad, and Jason Toyoda
Biogeosciences, 19, 3099–3110,Short summary
Rivers are vital to Earth, and in rivers, organic matter (OM) is an energy source for microbes that make greenhouse gas and remove contaminants. Predicting Earth’s future requires understanding how and why river OM is transformed. Our results help meet this need. We found that the processes influencing OM transformations diverge between river water and riverbed sediments. This can be used to build new models for predicting the future of rivers and, in turn, the Earth system.
Alexandra Klemme, Tim Rixen, Denise Müller-Dum, Moritz Müller, Justus Notholt, and Thorsten Warneke
Biogeosciences, 19, 2855–2880,Short summary
Tropical peat-draining rivers contain high amounts of carbon. Surprisingly, measured carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from those rivers are comparatively moderate. We compiled data from 10 Southeast Asian rivers and found that CO2 production within these rivers is hampered by low water pH, providing a natural threshold for CO2 emissions. Furthermore, we find that enhanced carbonate input, e.g. caused by human activities, suspends this natural threshold and causes increased CO2 emissions.
Amy E. Pickard, Marcella Branagan, Mike F. Billett, Roxane Andersen, and Kerry J. Dinsmore
Biogeosciences, 19, 1321–1334,Short summary
Peatlands have been subject to a range of land management regimes over the past century. This has affected the amount of carbon that drains into surrounding streams and rivers. In our study, we measured carbon concentrations in streams draining from drained, non-drained, and restored areas of the Flow Country blanket bog in N Scotland. We found that drained peatland had higher concentrations and fluxes of carbon relative to non-drained areas. Restored peatland areas were highly variable.
Brynn O'Donnell and Erin R. Hotchkiss
Biogeosciences, 19, 1111–1134,Short summary
A stream is defined by flowing water, but higher flow from storms is also a frequent disturbance. This paper tests how higher flow changes stream metabolism (respiration and photosynthesis, R and P). P was less resistant to changes in flow compared to R, and P took longer to recover from storms than R (2.2 versus 0.6 d). Further work on metabolic responses to flow disturbance is critical given projected increases in storms and the influence of higher flows on ecosystem health and functioning.
Thibault Lambert, Pascal Perolo, Nicolas Escoffier, and Marie-Elodie Perga
Biogeosciences, 19, 187–200,Short summary
The bacterial mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in inland waters contributes to CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Human activities affect DOM sources. However, the implications on DOM mineralization are poorly known. Combining sampling and incubations, we showed that higher bacterial respiration in agro-urban streams related to a labile pool from aquatic origin. Therefore, human activities may have a limited impact on the net carbon exchanges between inland waters and atmosphere.
Boyi Liu, Mingyang Tian, Kaimin Shih, Chun Ngai Chan, Xiankun Yang, and Lishan Ran
Biogeosciences, 18, 5231–5245,Short summary
Spatial and temporal patterns of pCO2 in the subtropical Dong River basin were mainly affected by C inputs and in-stream metabolism, both of which varied due to differential catchment settings, land cover, and hydrological conditions. CO2 fluxes in the wet season were 2-fold larger than in the dry season due to high pCO2 and turbulence caused by high flow velocity. The absence of high CO2 fluxes in small rivers could be associated with the depletion effect caused by abundant precipitation.
Sergey N. Vorobyev, Jan Karlsson, Yuri Y. Kolesnichenko, Mikhail A. Korets, and Oleg S. Pokrovsky
Biogeosciences, 18, 4919–4936,Short summary
In order to quantify riverine carbon (C) exchange with the atmosphere in permafrost regions, we report a first assessment of CO2 and CH4 concentration and fluxes of the largest permafrost-affected river, the Lena River, during the peak of spring flow. The results allowed identification of environmental factors controlling GHG concentrations and emission in the Lena River watershed; this new knowledge can be used for foreseeing future changes in C balance in permafrost-affected Arctic rivers.
Jan Greiwe, Markus Weiler, and Jens Lange
Biogeosciences, 18, 4705–4715,Short summary
We analyzed variability in diel nitrate patterns at three locations in a lowland stream. Comparison of time lags between monitoring sites with water travel time indicated that diel patterns were created by in-stream processes rather than transported downstream from an upstream point of origin. Most of the patterns (70 %) could be explained by assimilatory nitrate uptake. The remaining patterns suggest seasonally varying dominance and synchronicity of different biochemical processes.
Matthias Pucher, Peter Flödl, Daniel Graeber, Klaus Felsenstein, Thomas Hein, and Gabriele Weigelhofer
Biogeosciences, 18, 3103–3122,Short summary
Dissolved organic matter is an important carbon source in aquatic ecosystems, yet the uptake processes are not totally understood. We found evidence for the release of degradation products, efficiency loss in the uptake with higher concentrations, stimulating effects, and quality-dependent influences from the benthic zone. To conduct this analysis, we included interactions in the equations of the nutrient spiralling concept and solve it with a Bayesian non-linear fitting algorithm.
Xin Wang, Ting Liu, Liang Wang, Zongguang Liu, Erxiong Zhu, Simin Wang, Yue Cai, Shanshan Zhu, and Xiaojuan Feng
Biogeosciences, 18, 3015–3028,Short summary
We show a comprehensive monitoring dataset on the discharge and carbon transport in a small alpine river on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, where riverine carbon increased downstream in the pre-monsoon season due to an increasing contribution of organic matter derived from seasonal permafrost thaw while it fluctuated in the monsoon season induced by sporadic precipitation. These results indicate a high sensitivity of riverine carbon in alpine headwater catchments to local hydrological events.
Man Zhao, Liesbet Jacobs, Steven Bouillon, and Gerard Govers
Biogeosciences, 18, 1511–1523,Short summary
We investigate the relative importance of two individual factors (hydrodynamical disturbance and aquatic microbial community) that possibly control SOC decomposition rates in river systems. We found aquatic microbial organisms led to rapid SOC decomposition, while effect of mechanical disturbance is relative minor. We propose a simple conceptual model: hydrodynamic disturbance is only important when soil aggregates are strong enough to withstand the disruptive forces imposed by water immersions.
Lyla L. Taylor, Charles T. Driscoll, Peter M. Groffman, Greg H. Rau, Joel D. Blum, and David J. Beerling
Biogeosciences, 18, 169–188,Short summary
Enhanced rock weathering (ERW) is a carbon dioxide removal (CDR) strategy involving soil amendments with silicate rock dust. Over 15 years, a small silicate application led to net CDR of 8.5–11.5 t CO2/ha in an acid-rain-impacted New Hampshire forest. We accounted for the total carbon cost of treatment and compared effects with an adjacent, untreated forest. Our results suggest ERW can improve the greenhouse gas balance of similar forests in addition to mitigating acid rain effects.
Scott Zolkos, Suzanne E. Tank, Robert G. Striegl, Steven V. Kokelj, Justin Kokoszka, Cristian Estop-Aragonés, and David Olefeldt
Biogeosciences, 17, 5163–5182,Short summary
High-latitude warming thaws permafrost, exposing minerals to weathering and fluvial transport. We studied the effects of abrupt thaw and associated weathering on carbon cycling in western Canada. Permafrost collapse affected < 1 % of the landscape yet enabled carbonate weathering associated with CO2 degassing in headwaters and increased bicarbonate export across watershed scales. Weathering may become a driver of carbon cycling in ice- and mineral-rich permafrost terrain across the Arctic.
Yingjie Cao, Yingxue Xuan, Changyuan Tang, Shuai Guan, and Yisheng Peng
Biogeosciences, 17, 3875–3890,Short summary
About half of the global CO2 sequestration due to chemical weathering occurs in warm and high-runoff regions. To evaluate the temporary and net sinks of atmospheric CO2 due to chemical weathering, we selected a typical subtropical catchment as our study area and did fieldwork to sample surface water along the main channel and major tributaries in 1 hydrological year. The result of mass balance calculation showed that human activities dramatically decreased the CO2 net sink.
Laure Gandois, Alison M. Hoyt, Stéphane Mounier, Gaël Le Roux, Charles F. Harvey, Adrien Claustres, Mohammed Nuriman, and Gusti Anshari
Biogeosciences, 17, 1897–1909,Short summary
Worldwide, peatlands are important sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and trace metals (TMs) to surface waters, and these fluxes may increase with peatland degradation. In Southeast Asia, tropical peatlands are being rapidly deforested and drained. This work aims to address the fate of organic carbon and its role as a trace metal carrier in drained peatlands of Indonesia.
Xiaohui Zhang, Moritz Müller, Shan Jiang, Ying Wu, Xunchi Zhu, Aazani Mujahid, Zhuoyi Zhu, Mohd Fakharuddin Muhamad, Edwin Sien Aun Sia, Faddrine Holt Ajon Jang, and Jing Zhang
Biogeosciences, 17, 1805–1819,Short summary
This study offered detailed information on dFe concentrations, distribution and the magnitude of yield in the Rajang River, the largest river in Malaysia. Three blackwater rivers, draining from peatlands, were also included in our study. Compared with the Rajang River, the dFe concentrations and yield from three blackwater rivers were much higher. The precipitation and agricultural activities, such as palm oil plantations, may markedly increase the concentration dFe in these tropical rivers.
Caroline Coch, Bennet Juhls, Scott F. Lamoureux, Melissa J. Lafrenière, Michael Fritz, Birgit Heim, and Hugues Lantuit
Biogeosciences, 16, 4535–4553,Short summary
Climate change affects Arctic ecosystems. This includes thawing of permafrost (ground below 0 °C) and an increase in rainfall. Both have substantial impacts on the chemical composition of river water. We compared the composition of small rivers in the low and high Arctic with the large Arctic rivers. In comparison, dissolved organic matter in the small rivers is more susceptible to degradation; thus, it could potentially increase carbon dioxide emissions. Rainfall events have a similar effect.
Benedikt J. Werner, Andreas Musolff, Oliver J. Lechtenfeld, Gerrit H. de Rooij, Marieke R. Oosterwoud, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Biogeosciences, 16, 4497–4516,Short summary
Increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in streams can pose a threat to downstream water resources. Analyzing data from an in-stream probe we found that hydroclimatic and hydrological drivers can describe up to 72 % of the observed DOC concentration and composition variability. Variability was found to be highest during discharge events with warm and dry preconditions. The findings suggest an impact of climate change on DOC exports and thus also on downstream water quality.
Shan Jiang, Moritz Müller, Jie Jin, Ying Wu, Kun Zhu, Guosen Zhang, Aazani Mujahid, Tim Rixen, Mohd Fakharuddin Muhamad, Edwin Sien Aun Sia, Faddrine Holt Ajon Jang, and Jing Zhang
Biogeosciences, 16, 2821–2836,Short summary
Three cruises were conducted in the Rajang River estuary, Malaysia. The results revealed that the decomposition of terrestrial organic matter and the subsequent soil leaching were the main sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the fresh river water. Porewater exchange and ammonification enhanced DIN concentrations in the estuary water, while intensities of DIN addition varied between seasons. The riverine DIN flux could reach 101.5 ton(N) / d, supporting the coastal primary producers.
Edwin Sien Aun Sia, Jing Zhang, Shan Jiang, Zhuoyi Zhu, Gonzalo Carrasco, Faddrine Holt Jang, Aazani Mujahid, and Moritz Müller
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Nutrient loads carried by large rivers and discharged into the continental shelf and coastal waters are vital to support primary production. Our knowledge of tropical river systems is fragmented with very few seasonal studies available for Southeast Asia (SEA). We present data from three sampling campaigns on the longest river in Malaysia, the Rajang river. Our results show the generalization of SEA as a nutrient hotspot might not hold true for all regions and requires further investigation.
Brian C. Doyle, Elvira de Eyto, Mary Dillane, Russell Poole, Valerie McCarthy, Elizabeth Ryder, and Eleanor Jennings
Biogeosciences, 16, 1053–1071,Short summary
This study explores the drivers of variation in the water colour of rivers, and hence organic carbon export, in a blanket peatland catchment. We used 6 years of weekly river water colour data (2011 to 2016) from three proximate river sub-catchments in western Ireland. in tandem with a range of topographical, hydrological and climate data, to discover the principle environmental drivers controlling changes in colour concentration in the rivers.
Manab Kumar Dutta, Sanjeev Kumar, Rupa Mukherjee, Prasun Sanyal, and Sandip Kumar Mukhopadhyay
Biogeosciences, 16, 289–307,Short summary
The study focused on understanding C biogeochemistry of two adjacently located estuaries undergoing different levels of anthropogenic stresses. Different parameters related to C cycling were measured in an anthropogenically influenced and a mangrove-dominated estuary. Although the entire estuarine system acted as a source of carbon dioxide to the regional atmosphere, emission approximately 17 times higher was noticed from the anthropogenically affected estuary compared to mangrove-dominated one.
Ivan V. Krickov, Artem G. Lim, Rinat M. Manasypov, Sergey V. Loiko, Liudmila S. Shirokova, Sergey N. Kirpotin, Jan Karlsson, and Oleg S. Pokrovsky
Biogeosciences, 15, 6867–6884,Short summary
We tested the effect of climate, permafrost and physio-geographical landscape parameters on particulate C, N and P concentrations in small- and medium- sized rivers in the Western Siberian Lowland (WSL). We discovered a maximum of particulate C and N concentrations at the beginning of the permafrost appearance. A northward shift of permafrost boundaries may increase the particulate C and N export by WSL rivers to the Arctic Ocean by a factor of 2.
Wenjing Liu, Zhifang Xu, Huiguo Sun, Tong Zhao, Chao Shi, and Taoze Liu
Biogeosciences, 15, 4955–4971,Short summary
The southeastern coastal region is the top acid-rain-impacted area in China. It is worth evaluating the acid deposition impacts on chemical weathering and CO2 consumption there. River water geochemistry evidenced an overestimation of CO2 sequestration if H2SO4/HNO3 involvement was ignored, which accounted for 33.6 % of the total flux by silicate weathering in this area. This study quantitatively highlights the anthropogenic acid effects on chemical weathering and associated CO2 consumption.
Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Cyril Marchand, Cuong Tu Ho, Nhu Da Le, Thi Thuy Duong, XiXi Lu, Phuong Kieu Doan, Trung Kien Nguyen, Thi Mai Huong Nguyen, and Duy An Vu
Biogeosciences, 15, 4799–4814,Short summary
The Red River is a typical south-east Asian river, strongly affected by climate and human activity. This study showed the spatial and seasonal variability of CO2 emissions at the water–air interface of the lower part of this river due to natural conditions (meteo-hydrological-geomorphological characteristics) and human activities (dam impoundment, population, land use). The Red River water was supersaturated with CO2, providing a mean water–air CO2 ﬂux of 530 ± 17 mmol m−2 d−1.
Wei Wen Wong, Jesse Pottage, Fiona Y. Warry, Paul Reich, Keryn L. Roberts, Michael R. Grace, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 15, 3953–3965,Short summary
Over-enrichment of nitrate can pose substantial risk to the quality of freshwater ecosystems. Hence, understanding the dynamics of nitrate is the key to better management of waterways. This study evaluates the relationship between the effects of land use and rainfall on the major sources and processing of nitrate within and between five streams in five catchments spanning an agricultural land use gradient. We found that rainfall exerted significant control over the fate of nitrate.
Lishan Ran, Mingyang Tian, Nufang Fang, Suiji Wang, Xixi Lu, Xiankun Yang, and Frankie Cho
Biogeosciences, 15, 3857–3871,Short summary
We systematically assessed the transport and fate of riverine carbon in the moderate-sized Wuding catchment on the Chinese Loess Plateau by constructing a riverine carbon budget and further relating it to terrestrial ecosystem productivity. The riverine carbon export accounted for 16 % of the catchment's net ecosystem production (NEP). It seems that a significant fraction of terrestrial NEP in this catchment is laterally transported from the terrestrial biosphere to the drainage network.
Robert O. Hall Jr. and Hilary L. Madinger
Biogeosciences, 15, 3085–3092,Short summary
Streams exchange oxygen with the atmosphere, but this rate is difficult to measure. We added argon to small mountain streams to estimate gas exchange. We compared these rates with sulfur hexafluoride, an intense greenhouse gas. Argon worked well to measure gas exchange, but had higher-than-predicted rates than sulfur hexafluoride. Argon exchange is more likely to represent that for oxygen because they share similar physical properties. We suggest argon to measure gas exchange in small streams.
Ji-Hyung Park, Omme K. Nayna, Most S. Begum, Eliyan Chea, Jens Hartmann, Richard G. Keil, Sanjeev Kumar, Xixi Lu, Lishan Ran, Jeffrey E. Richey, Vedula V. S. S. Sarma, Shafi M. Tareq, Do Thi Xuan, and Ruihong Yu
Biogeosciences, 15, 3049–3069,Short summary
Human activities are drastically altering water and material flows in river systems across Asia. This review provides a conceptual framework for assessing the human impacts on Asian river C fluxes and an update on anthropogenic alterations of riverine C fluxes, focusing on the impacts of water pollution and river impoundments on CO2 outgassing from the rivers draining South, Southeast, and East Asian regions that account for the largest fraction of river discharge and C exports from Asia.
Chung-Te Chang, Jr-Chuan Huang, Lixin Wang, Yu-Ting Shih, and Teng-Chiu Lin
Biogeosciences, 15, 2379–2391,Short summary
Our analysis of ion input–output budget illustrates that hydrochemical responses to typhoon storms are distinctly different from those of regular storms. In addition, even mild land use change may have large impacts on nutrient exports/losses. We propose that hydrological models should separate hydrochemical processes into regular and extreme conditions to better capture the whole spectrum of hydrochemical responses to a variety of climate conditions.
Camille Minaudo, Florence Curie, Yann Jullian, Nathalie Gassama, and Florentina Moatar
Biogeosciences, 15, 2251–2269,Short summary
We developed the model QUALity-NETwork (QUAL-NET) to simulate water quality variations in large drainage networks. This model is accurate enough to represent processes occurring over short periods of time such as storm events and helps to fully understand water quality variations in stream networks in the context of climate change and varying human pressures. It was tested on the Loire River and provided good performances and a new understanding of the functioning of the river.
Michael P. Schwab, Julian Klaus, Laurent Pfister, and Markus Weiler
Biogeosciences, 15, 2177–2188,Short summary
We studied the diel fluctuations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in a small stream in Luxembourg. We identified an increased proportion of DOC from terrestrial sources as responsible for the peaks in DOC in the afternoon. Warmer water temperatures in the riparian zone in the afternoon increased the amount of water flowing towards the stream. Consequently, an increased amount of DOC-rich water from the riparian zone was entering the stream.
Trent R. Marwick, Fredrick Tamooh, Bernard Ogwoka, Alberto V. Borges, François Darchambeau, and Steven Bouillon
Biogeosciences, 15, 1683–1700,Short summary
A 2-year biogeochemical record provides annual sediment and element flux estimates for the non-dammed Sabaki River, Kenya, establishing a baseline for future research in light of impending construction of the first major upstream reservoir. Over 80 % of material fluxes occur across the wet season, with annual yields comparable to the adjacent, and dammed, Tana River. Observations at low-flow periods suggest large mammalian herbivores may be vectors of terrestrial subsidies to the water column.
Loris Deirmendjian, Denis Loustau, Laurent Augusto, Sébastien Lafont, Christophe Chipeaux, Dominique Poirier, and Gwenaël Abril
Biogeosciences, 15, 669–691,Short summary
Carbon leaching to streams represents a very small (~ 2 %) fraction of forest net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Such weak export of carbon from forest ecosystems, at least in temperate regions, is at odds with recent studies that attempt to integrate the contribution of inland waters in the continent carbon budget. Understanding why local and global carbon mass balances strongly diverge on the proportion of land NEE exported to aquatic systems is a major challenge for research in this field.
Katrin Magin, Celia Somlai-Haase, Ralf B. Schäfer, and Andreas Lorke
Biogeosciences, 14, 5003–5014,Short summary
We analyzed the relationship between terrestrial net primary production (NPP) and the rate at which carbon is exported from catchments in a temperate stream network. The carbon exported by streams and rivers corresponds to 2.7 % of the terrestrial NPP. CO2 evasion and downstream transport contribute about equally to this flux. A review of existing studies suggests that the catchment-specific carbon export varies in a relatively narrow range across different study regions and spatial scales.
Rémi Dupas, Andreas Musolff, James W. Jawitz, P. Suresh C. Rao, Christoph G. Jäger, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Michael Rode, and Dietrich Borchardt
Biogeosciences, 14, 4391–4407,Short summary
Carbon and nutrient export regimes were analyzed from archetypal headwater catchments to downstream reaches. In headwater catchments, land use and lithology determine land-to-stream C, N and P transfer processes. The crucial role of riparian zones in C, N and P coupling was investigated. In downstream reaches, point-source contributions and in-stream processes alter C, N and P export regimes.
Rose M. Smith, Sujay S. Kaushal, Jake J. Beaulieu, Michael J. Pennino, and Claire Welty
Biogeosciences, 14, 2831–2849,Short summary
Urban streams receive excess nitrogen from numerous sources. We hypothesized that variations in carbon availability and subsurface infrastructure influence emissions of N2O and other greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) as excess N is utilized by microbes. We sampled eight streams draining four categories of stormwater and sanitary infrastructure. Dissolved nitrogen concentration was the strongest predictor of CO2 and N2O concentrations, while C : N ratio was the strongest predictor of CH4 in streams.
Benjamin Kupilas, Daniel Hering, Armin W. Lorenz, Christoph Knuth, and Björn Gücker
Biogeosciences, 14, 1989–2002,Short summary
Modern ecosystem restoration should consider a wide range of environmental characteristics, including functional ones, such as rates and patterns of ecosystem metabolism. We show that hydromorphological river restoration enhanced habitat availability and abundance of macrophytes, promoting river primary productivity and respiration. Incorporating ecosystem functioning into monitoring programs enables a more holistic assessment of river health and a better understanding of restoration effects.
Julia Vanessa Kunz, Michael D. Annable, Jaehyun Cho, Wolf von Tümpling, Kirk Hatfield, Suresh Rao, Dietrich Borchardt, and Michael Rode
Biogeosciences, 14, 631–649,Short summary
The hyporheic zone, the subsurface region of streams, is a key compartment for in-stream nutrient retention. Knowledge on actual hyporheic processing rates is still limited due to methodological restrictions which are mainly related to the high local and temporal variability of subsurface flow patterns and nutrient transformation processes. We present a new device which allows quantitative assessment of hyporheic nutrient fluxes and demonstrate its advantages in an exemplary field testing.
Jemma Louise Wadham, Jonathan Hawkings, Jon Telling, Dave Chandler, Jon Alcock, Emily O'Donnell, Preeti Kaur, Elizabeth Bagshaw, Martyn Tranter, Andre Tedstone, and Peter Nienow
Biogeosciences, 13, 6339–6352,Short summary
Fjord and continental shelf environments in the polar regions are host to some of the planet's most productive ecosystems and support economically important fisheries. A key limiting nutrient for many of these marine phytoplankton is nitrogen. Here we evaluate the potential for a melting Greenland Ice Sheet to supply nitrogen to Arctic coastal ecosystems. We show nitrogen fluxes of a similar order of magnitude to one large Arctic river but yields that are double those typical of Arctic rivers.
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In this study we test whether river outlet chemistry can be used as an additional source of information to improve the prediction of the total organic carbon (TOC) of headwaters, relative to models based on map information alone. Including river outlet TOC as a predictor in the models gave 5-15 % lower prediction errors than using map information alone. Thus, data on water chemistry measured at river outlets offer information which can complement GIS-based modelling of headwaters chemistry.
In this study we test whether river outlet chemistry can be used as an additional source of...