Articles | Volume 19, issue 10
30 May 2022
Research article | 30 May 2022
Mass concentration measurements of autumn bioaerosol using low-cost sensors in a mature temperate woodland free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiment: investigating the role of meteorology and carbon dioxide levels
Aileen B. Baird et al.
No articles found.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, David C. S. Beddows, Ajit Singh, Molly Haugen, Sebastián Diez, Pete M. Edwards, Adam Boies, Roy M. Harrison, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4047–4061,Short summary
In the last decade, low-cost sensors have revolutionised the field of air quality monitoring. This paper extends the ability of low-cost sensors to not only measure air pollution, but also to understand where the pollution comes from. This "source apportionment" is a critical step in air quality management to allow for the mitigation of air pollution. The techniques developed in this paper have the potential for great impact in both research and industrial applications.
Tony Bush, Nick Papaioannou, Felix Leach, Francis D. Pope, Ajit Singh, G. Neil Thomas, Brian Stacey, and Suzanne Bartington
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3261–3278,Short summary
Poor air quality is a human health risk which demands high-spatiotemporal-resolution monitoring data to manage. Low-cost air quality sensors present a convenient pathway to delivering these needs, compared to traditional methods, but bring methodological challenges which can limit operational ability. In this study within Oxford, UK, we develop machine learning methods to improve the quality of low-cost sensors for NO2, PM10 (particulate matter) and PM2.5 and demonstrate their effectiveness.
Edward J. Bannister, Mike Jesson, Nicholas J. Harper, Kris M. Hart, Giulio Curioni, Xiaoming Cai, and A. Rob MacKenzie
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In forests, air-parcel residence times influence canopy chemistry and atmospheric exchange. However, there have been few field observations. We use long-term open-air CO2 enrichment measurements to show median daytime residence times are twice as long when the trees are in leaf versus when they are not. Residence times increase with increasing atmospheric stability and scale inversely with turbulence. Robust parametrisations for large-scale models are available using common distributions.
Andrea Mazzeo, Michael Burrow, Andrew Quinn, Eloise A. Marais, Ajit Singh, David Ng'ang'a, Michael J. Gatari, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The modelling system for meteorology and chemistry-transport processes WRF-CHIMERE has been tested and validated for three conurbations of East Africa using the most up-to-date anthropogenic emissions available. Results show that the model is able to reproduce hourly and daily temporal variability of aerosol concentrations close to observations both in urban and rural environments encouraging the adoption of numerical modelling as a tool for air quality management in East Africa.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Francis D. Pope, Chris Reed, James D. Lee, Lucy J. Carpenter, Lloyd D. J. Hollis, Stephen M. Ball, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18213–18225,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key source of atmospheric oxidants. We evaluate if the ocean surface is a source of HONO for the marine boundary layer, using measurements from two contrasting coastal locations. We observed no evidence for a night-time ocean surface source, in contrast to previous work. This points to significant geographical variation in the predominant HONO formation mechanisms in marine environments, reflecting possible variability in the sea-surface microlayer composition.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Francis D. Pope, David C. S. Beddows, Manuel Dall'Osto, Andreas Massling, Jakob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Tuukka Petäjä, Noemi Perez, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11905–11925,Short summary
Formation of new particles is a key process in the atmosphere. New particle formation events arising from nucleation of gaseous precursors have been analysed in extensive datasets from 13 sites in five European countries in terms of frequency, nucleation rate, and particle growth rate, with several common features and many differences identified. Although nucleation frequencies are lower at roadside sites, nucleation rates and particle growth rates are typically higher.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Ajit Singh, Molly Haugen, David C. S. Beddows, Sebastián Diez, Killian L. Murphy, Pete M. Edwards, Adam Boies, Roy M. Harrison, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4139–4155,Short summary
Measurement and source apportionment of atmospheric pollutants are crucial for the assessment of air quality and the implementation of policies for their improvement. This study highlights the current capability of low-cost sensors in source identification and differentiation using clustering approaches. Future directions towards particulate matter source apportionment using low-cost OPCs are highlighted.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, James Brean, Francis D. Pope, Manuel Dall'Osto, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Noemi Perez, Tuukka Petäjä, Andreas Massling, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3345–3370,Short summary
New particle formation events from 16 sites over Europe have been studied, and the influence of meteorological and atmospheric composition variables has been investigated. Some variables, like solar radiation intensity and temperature, have a positive effect on the occurrence of these events, while others have a negative effect, affecting different aspects such as the rate at which particles are formed or grow. This effect varies depending on the site type and magnitude of these variables.
Clarissa Baldo, Paola Formenti, Sophie Nowak, Servanne Chevaillier, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Claudia Di Biagio, Jean-Francois Doussin, Konstantin Ignatyev, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, A. Robert MacKenzie, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13521–13539,Short summary
We showed that Icelandic dust has a fundamentally different chemical and mineralogical composition from low-latitude dust. In particular, magnetite is as high as 1 %–2 % of the total dust mass. Our results suggest that Icelandic dust may have an important impact on the radiation balance in the subpolar and polar regions.
Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh R. Crilley, Thomas J. Adams, Stephen M. Ball, Francis D. Pope, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5231–5248,Short summary
HONO is a large source of OH radicals, which can drive VOC oxidation, leading to the formation of ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Here we investigate primary vehicle emissions of HONO from measurements in a road tunnel in Birmingham, UK. A HONO/NOx emission ratio was detemined and compared to previous studies. Results indicate HONO/NOx has not varied much over the last two decades and technologies aimed at reducing NO2 may have also resulted in a reduction in direct HONO vehicle emissions.
Leigh R. Crilley, Ajit Singh, Louisa J. Kramer, Marvin D. Shaw, Mohammed S. Alam, Joshua S. Apte, William J. Bloss, Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz, Pingqing Fu, Weiqi Fu, Shahzad Gani, Michael Gatari, Evgenia Ilyinskaya, Alastair C. Lewis, David Ng'ang'a, Yele Sun, Rachel C. W. Whitty, Siyao Yue, Stuart Young, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1181–1193,Short summary
There is considerable interest in using low-cost optical particle counters (OPCs) for particle mass measurements; however, there is no agreed upon method with respect to calibration. Here we exploit a number of datasets globally to demonstrate that particle composition and relative humidity are the key factors affecting measured concentrations from a low-cost OPC, and we present a simple correction methodology that corrects for this influence.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Francis D. Pope, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5679–5694,Short summary
New particle formation events are identified at three sites in southern England, including a roadside and urban background site within London and a rural regional background site. The conditions favouring new particle formation events are identified and compared between the sites. Although a higher degree of pollution presents a greater condensation sink, it appears to be largely compensated for by faster particle growth rates.
Irina Nikolova, Xiaoming Cai, Mohammed Salim Alam, Soheil Zeraati-Rezaei, Jian Zhong, A. Rob MacKenzie, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17143–17155,Short summary
There are increasing health concerns about the smallest airborne particles found in polluted urban atmospheres. These particles are composed of a mixture of oil-derived substances, but the exact composition is not known and is likely to be very complicated. We provide a way to compute how these particles change as their chemical make-up changes. We also outline the range of particle compositions that reproduce the behaviour of the smallest particles seen in field measurements.
Francis D. Pope, Michael Gatari, David Ng'ang'a, Alexander Poynter, and Rhiannon Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15403–15418,Short summary
Low- and middle-income countries face an increasing threat from poor air quality, stemming from rapid urbanization, population growth, and rises in fuel and motorization use. This paper presents high temporal resolution particulate matter (PM) data, using low-cost sensors, for the exemplar city of Nairobi, Kenya, where PM levels are found to be much greater than WHO recommendations. The study shows that calibrated low-cost sensors can be successfully used to measure PM in cities like Nairobi.
Mohammed S. Alam, Soheil Zeraati-Rezaei, Zhirong Liang, Christopher Stark, Hongming Xu, A. Rob MacKenzie, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3047–3058,Short summary
Diesel fuel, lubricating oil and diesel exhaust emissions all contain a very complex mixture of chemical compounds with diverse molecular structures. The GC × GC-ToF-MS analytical method is a very powerful way of separating and identifying those compounds. This paper describes the allocation of compounds into groups with similar molecular structures and chemical properties, which facilitates the intercomparison of very complex mixtures such as are found in diesel fuel, oil and emissions.
Leigh R. Crilley, Marvin Shaw, Ryan Pound, Louisa J. Kramer, Robin Price, Stuart Young, Alastair C. Lewis, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 709–720,Short summary
The affordability and small size of low-cost particle sensors make them attractive for air pollution experiments that require multiple instruments, or take place in hard-to-access locations or low-income countries. For any sensor to be useful, its accuracy and precision need to be known. We evaluate the Alphasense OPC-N2 for monitoring airborne particles at typical UK urban background sites. The devices were found to be accurate provided they are correctly calibrated.
Ajit Singh, William J. Bloss, and Francis D. Pope
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2085–2101,Short summary
Reduced visibility can indicate poor air quality. Using long-term visibility measurements, we explore the combined influence of aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology on long-term visibility. The measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. This approach allows for estimation of historic aerosol properties where measurements are not available.
Suad S. Al-Kindi, Francis D. Pope, David C. Beddows, William J. Bloss, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15561–15579,Short summary
Oleic acid is a chemical substance which is emitted from cooking processes and is present as tiny particles in the atmosphere. The oleic acid in the particles reacts chemically with atmospheric ozone, causing substantial changes to the composition of the particles. This paper uses new techniques to explore these chemical reactions and the effect of humidity upon them. The significance of the results for the atmosphere is considered.
Mingjin Tang, James Keeble, Paul J. Telford, Francis D. Pope, Peter Braesicke, Paul T. Griffiths, N. Luke Abraham, James McGregor, I. Matt Watson, R. Anthony Cox, John A. Pyle, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15397–15412,Short summary
We have investigated for the first time the heterogeneous hydrolysis of ClONO2 on TiO2 and SiO2 aerosol particles at room temperature and at different relative humidities (RHs), using an aerosol flow tube. The kinetic data reported in our current and previous studies have been included in the UKCA chemistry–climate model to assess the impact of TiO2 injection on stratospheric chemistry and stratospheric ozone in particular.
J. G. Levine, A. R. MacKenzie, O. J. Squire, A. T. Archibald, P. T. Griffiths, N. L. Abraham, J. A. Pyle, D. E. Oram, G. Forster, J. F. Brito, J. D. Lee, J. R. Hopkins, A. C. Lewis, S. J. B. Bauguitte, C. F. Demarco, P. Artaxo, P. Messina, J. Lathière, D. A. Hauglustaine, E. House, C. N. Hewitt, and E. Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
This study explores our ability to simulate atmospheric chemistry stemming from isoprene emissions—a reactive gas emitted from vegetation—in pristine and polluted regions of the Amazon basin. We explore how two contrasting models fare in reproducing recent airborne measurements in the region. Their differing treatments of transport and mixing are found to: profoundly affect their performance; and yield very different pictures of the exposure of the rainforest to harmful ozone concentrations.
K. P. Wyche, P. S. Monks, K. L. Smallbone, J. F. Hamilton, M. R. Alfarra, A. R. Rickard, G. B. McFiggans, M. E. Jenkin, W. J. Bloss, A. C. Ryan, C. N. Hewitt, and A. R. MacKenzie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8077–8100,Short summary
This paper describes a new ensemble methodology for the statistical analysis of atmospheric gas- & particle-phase composition data sets. The methodology reduces the huge amount of data derived from many chamber experiments to show that organic reactivity & resultant particle formation can be mapped into unique clusters in statistical space. The model generated is used to map more realistic plant mesocosm oxidation data, the projection of which gives insight into reactive pathways & precursors.
A. C. Valach, B. Langford, E. Nemitz, A. R. MacKenzie, and C. N. Hewitt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7777–7796,Short summary
Concentrations and fluxes of selected volatile organic compounds were measured over a 5-month period in central London as part of the ClearfLo project using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. Emission sources within the city were inferred from spatio-temporal patterns and showed a detectable biogenic source during warmer months, which was modelled using the Guenther 95 algorithm. Comparisons were made with the local emissions inventories showing mostly underestimated emissions.
H.-J. Tong, B. Ouyang, N. Nikolovski, D. M. Lienhard, F. D. Pope, and M. Kalberer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1183–1195,Short summary
This paper describes a newly designed cold electrodynamic balance (EDB) which can be used to study the evaporation kinetics and freezing properties of aerosols at temperatures down to -40˚C. The abilities of the new EDB are exemplified through the study of the immersion freezing properties of water droplets containing extracts of water birch pollen (Betula fontinalis occidentalis). Protein-rich pollen extracts are found to be significantly more ice-active than non-proteinaceous extracts.
K. P. Wyche, A. C. Ryan, C. N. Hewitt, M. R. Alfarra, G. McFiggans, T. Carr, P. S. Monks, K. L. Smallbone, G. Capes, J. F. Hamilton, T. A. M. Pugh, and A. R. MacKenzie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12781–12801,
M. J. Tang, P. J. Telford, F. D. Pope, L. Rkiouak, N. L. Abraham, A. T. Archibald, P. Braesicke, J. A. Pyle, J. McGregor, I. M. Watson, R. A. Cox, and M. Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6035–6048,
M. von Hobe, S. Bekki, S. Borrmann, F. Cairo, F. D'Amato, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Dörnbrack, A. Ebersoldt, M. Ebert, C. Emde, I. Engel, M. Ern, W. Frey, S. Genco, S. Griessbach, J.-U. Grooß, T. Gulde, G. Günther, E. Hösen, L. Hoffmann, V. Homonnai, C. R. Hoyle, I. S. A. Isaksen, D. R. Jackson, I. M. Jánosi, R. L. Jones, K. Kandler, C. Kalicinsky, A. Keil, S. M. Khaykin, F. Khosrawi, R. Kivi, J. Kuttippurath, J. C. Laube, F. Lefèvre, R. Lehmann, S. Ludmann, B. P. Luo, M. Marchand, J. Meyer, V. Mitev, S. Molleker, R. Müller, H. Oelhaf, F. Olschewski, Y. Orsolini, T. Peter, K. Pfeilsticker, C. Piesch, M. C. Pitts, L. R. Poole, F. D. Pope, F. Ravegnani, M. Rex, M. Riese, T. Röckmann, B. Rognerud, A. Roiger, C. Rolf, M. L. Santee, M. Scheibe, C. Schiller, H. Schlager, M. Siciliani de Cumis, N. Sitnikov, O. A. Søvde, R. Spang, N. Spelten, F. Stordal, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, A. Ulanovski, J. Ungermann, S. Viciani, C. M. Volk, M. vom Scheidt, P. von der Gathen, K. Walker, T. Wegner, R. Weigel, S. Weinbruch, G. Wetzel, F. G. Wienhold, I. Wohltmann, W. Woiwode, I. A. K. Young, V. Yushkov, B. Zobrist, and F. Stroh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9233–9268,
A. M. Horseman, T. Richardson, A. T. Boardman, W. Tych, R. Timmis, and A. R. MacKenzie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1371–1379,
Related subject area
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function: TerrestrialMonitoring post-fire recovery of various vegetation biomes using multi-wavelength satellite remote sensingUpdated estimation of forest biomass carbon pools in China, 1977–2018Estimating dry biomass and plant nitrogen concentration in pre-Alpine grasslands with low-cost UAS-borne multispectral data – a comparison of sensors, algorithms, and predictor setsFire in lichen-rich subarctic tundra changes carbon and nitrogen cycling between ecosystem compartments but has minor effects on stocksPhosphorus stress strongly reduced plant physiological activity, but only temporarily, in a mesocosm experiment with Zea mays colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungiEffects of alternative crop-livestock management scenarios on selected ecosystem services in smallholder farming – a landscape perspectiveMain drivers of plant diversity patterns of rubber plantations in the Greater Mekong SubregionImportance of the forest state in estimating biomass losses from tropical forests: combining dynamic forest models and remote sensingExamining the role of environmental memory in the predictability of carbon and water fluxes across Australian ecosystemsWater uptake patterns of pea and barley responded to drought but not to cropping systemsGeodiversity and biodiversity on a volcanic island: the role of scattered phonolites for plant diversity and performanceContrasting strategies of nutrient demand and use between savanna and forest ecosystems in a Neotropical transition zoneThe role of cover crops for cropland soil carbon, nitrogen leaching, and agricultural yields – a global simulation study with LPJmL (V. 5.0-tillage-cc)The biogeographic pattern of microbial communities inhabiting terrestrial mud volcanoes across the Eurasian continentThirty-eight years of CO2 fertilization has outpaced growing aridity to drive greening of Australian woody ecosystemsNet soil carbon balance in afforested peatlands and separating autotrophic and heterotrophic soil CO2 effluxesBioaerosols and atmospheric ice nuclei in a Mediterranean dryland: community changes related to rainfallStrong temporal variation in treefall and branchfall rates in a tropical forest is related to extreme rainfall: results from 5 years of monthly drone data for a 50 ha plotNitrogen restricts future sub-arctic treeline advance in an individual-based dynamic vegetation modelStrong influence of trees outside forest in regulating microclimate of intensively modified Afromontane landscapesSpatial patterns of aboveground phytogenic Si stocks in a grass-dominated catchment – results from UAS-based high-resolution remote sensingPatterns in recent and Holocene pollen accumulation rates across Europe – the Pollen Monitoring Programme Database as a tool for vegetation reconstructionCapturing functional strategies and compositional dynamics in vegetation demographic modelsDrought effects on leaf fall, leaf flushing and stem growth in the Amazon forest: reconciling remote sensing 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occupied by prairie dogs using Pleiades imagery
Emma Bousquet, Arnaud Mialon, Nemesio Rodriguez-Fernandez, Stéphane Mermoz, and Yann Kerr
Biogeosciences, 19, 3317–3336,Short summary
Pre- and post-fire values of four climate variables and four vegetation variables were analysed at the global scale, in order to observe (i) the general fire likelihood factors and (ii) the vegetation recovery trends over various biomes. The main result of this study is that L-band vegetation optical depth (L-VOD) is the most impacted vegetation variable and takes the longest to recover over dense forests. L-VOD could then be useful for post-fire vegetation recovery studies.
Chen Yang, Yue Shi, Wenjuan Sun, Jiangling Zhu, Chengjun Ji, Yuhao Feng, Suhui Ma, Zhaodi Guo, and Jingyun Fang
Biogeosciences, 19, 2989–2999,Short summary
Quantifying China's forest biomass C pool is important in understanding C cycling in forests. However, most of studies on forest biomass C pool were limited to the period of 2004–2008. Here, we used a biomass expansion factor method to estimate C pool from 1977 to 2018. The results suggest that afforestation practices, forest growth, and environmental changes were the main drivers of increased C sink. Thus, this study provided an essential basis for achieving China's C neutrality target.
Anne Schucknecht, Bumsuk Seo, Alexander Krämer, Sarah Asam, Clement Atzberger, and Ralf Kiese
Biogeosciences, 19, 2699–2727,Short summary
Actual maps of grassland traits could improve local farm management and support environmental assessments. We developed, assessed, and applied models to estimate dry biomass and plant nitrogen (N) concentration in pre-Alpine grasslands with drone-based multispectral data and canopy height information. Our results indicate that machine learning algorithms are able to estimate both parameters but reach a better level of performance for biomass.
Ramona J. Heim, Andrey Yurtaev, Anna Bucharova, Wieland Heim, Valeriya Kutskir, Klaus-Holger Knorr, Christian Lampei, Alexandr Pechkin, Dora Schilling, Farid Sulkarnaev, and Norbert Hölzel
Biogeosciences, 19, 2729–2740,Short summary
Fires will probably increase in Arctic regions due to climate change. Yet, the long-term effects of tundra fires on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks and cycling are still unclear. We investigated the long-term fire effects on C and N stocks and cycling in soil and aboveground living biomass. We found that tundra fires did not affect total C and N stocks because a major part of the stocks was located belowground in soils which were largely unaltered by fire.
Melanie S. Verlinden, Hamada AbdElgawad, Arne Ven, Lore T. Verryckt, Sebastian Wieneke, Ivan A. Janssens, and Sara Vicca
Biogeosciences, 19, 2353–2364,Short summary
Zea mays grows in mesocosms with different soil nutrition levels. At low phosphorus (P) availability, leaf physiological activity initially decreased strongly. P stress decreased over the season. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) symbiosis increased over the season. AMF symbiosis is most likely responsible for gradual reduction in P stress.
Mirjam Pfeiffer, Munir Paul Hoffmann, Simon Scheiter, William Nelson, Johannes Isselstein, Kingsley Kwabena Ayisi, Jude Odhiambo, and Reimund Paul Rötter
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Smallholder farmers face challenges due to poor land management and climate change. We linked the APSIM crop model and the aDGVM2 vegetation model to investigate integrated management options that enhance ecosystem functions and services. Sustainable intensification moderately increased yields. Crop residue grazing reduced feed gaps, but not for dry-to-wet season transitions. Measures to improve soil water and nutrient status are recommended. Landscape-level ecosystem management is essential.
Guoyu Lan, Bangqian Chen, Chuan Yang, Rui Sun, Zhixiang Wu, and Xicai Zhang
Biogeosciences, 19, 1995–2005,Short summary
Little is known about the impact of rubber plantations on diversity of the Great Mekong Subregion. In this study, we uncovered latitudinal gradients of plant diversity of rubber plantations. Exotic species with high dominance result in loss of plant diversity of rubber plantations. Not all exotic species would reduce plant diversity of rubber plantations. Much more effort should be made to balance agricultural production with conservation goals in this region.
Ulrike Hiltner, Andreas Huth, and Rico Fischer
Biogeosciences, 19, 1891–1911,Short summary
Quantifying biomass loss rates due to stem mortality is important for estimating the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle. We analyse the consequences of long-term elevated stem mortality for tropical forest dynamics and biomass loss. Based on simulations, we developed a statistical model to estimate biomass loss rates of forests in different successional states from forest attributes. Assuming a doubling of tree mortality, biomass loss increased from 3.2 % yr-1 to 4.5 % yr-1.
Jon Cranko Page, Martin G. De Kauwe, Gab Abramowitz, Jamie Cleverly, Nina Hinko-Najera, Mark J. Hovenden, Yao Liu, Andy J. Pitman, and Kiona Ogle
Biogeosciences, 19, 1913–1932,Short summary
Although vegetation responds to climate at a wide range of timescales, models of the land carbon sink often ignore responses that do not occur instantly. In this study, we explore the timescales at which Australian ecosystems respond to climate. We identified that carbon and water fluxes can be modelled more accurately if we include environmental drivers from up to a year in the past. The importance of antecedent conditions is related to ecosystem aridity but is also influenced by other factors.
Qing Sun, Valentin H. Klaus, Raphaël Wittwer, Yujie Liu, Marcel G. A. van der Heijden, Anna K. Gilgen, and Nina Buchmann
Biogeosciences, 19, 1853–1869,Short summary
Drought is one of the biggest challenges for future food production globally. During a simulated drought, pea and barley mainly relied on water from shallow soil depths, independent of different cropping systems.
David Kienle, Anna Walentowitz, Leyla Sungur, Alessandro Chiarucci, Severin D. H. Irl, Anke Jentsch, Ole R. Vetaas, Richard Field, and Carl Beierkuhnlein
Biogeosciences, 19, 1691–1703,Short summary
Volcanic islands consist mainly of basaltic rocks. Additionally, there are often occurrences of small phonolite rocks differing in color and surface. On La Palma (Canary Islands), phonolites appear to be more suitable for plants than the omnipresent basalts. Therefore, we expected phonolites to be species-rich with larger plant individuals compared to the surrounding basaltic areas. Indeed, as expected, we found more species on phonolites and larger plant individuals in general.
Marina Corrêa Scalon, Imma Oliveras Menor, Renata Freitag, Karine Silva Peixoto, Sami W. Rifai, Beatriz Schwantes Marimon, Ben Hur Marimon, and Yadvinder Malhi
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We investigated dynamic nutrient flow and demand in a typical savanna and a transition forest to understand how similar soils and the same climate dominated by savanna vegetation can also support forest-like formations. Savanna relied in nutrient resorption from wood, and nutrient demand was equally partitioned between leaves, wood and fine roots. Transition forest relied on resorption from the canopy biomass and nutrient demand was predominantly driven by leaves.
Vera Porwollik, Susanne Rolinski, Jens Heinke, Werner von Bloh, Sibyll Schaphoff, and Christoph Müller
Biogeosciences, 19, 957–977,Short summary
The study assesses impacts of grass cover crop cultivation on cropland during main-crop off-season periods applying the global vegetation model LPJmL (V.5.0-tillage-cc). Compared to simulated bare-soil fallowing practices, cover crops led to increased soil carbon content and reduced nitrogen leaching rates on the majority of global cropland. Yield responses of main crops following cover crops vary with location, duration of altered management, crop type, water regime, and tillage practice.
Tzu-Hsuan Tu, Li-Ling Chen, Yi-Ping Chiu, Li-Hung Lin, Li-Wei Wu, Francesco Italiano, J. Bruce H. Shyu, Seyed Naser Raisossadat, and Pei-Ling Wang
Biogeosciences, 19, 831–843,Short summary
This investigation of microbial biogeography in terrestrial mud volcanoes (MVs) covers study sites over a geographic distance of up to 10 000 km across the Eurasian continent. It compares microbial community compositions' coupling with geochemical data across a 3D space. We demonstrate that stochastic processes operating at continental scales and environmental filtering at local scales drive the formation of patchy habitats and the pattern of diversification for microbes in terrestrial MVs.
Sami W. Rifai, Martin G. De Kauwe, Anna M. Ukkola, Lucas A. Cernusak, Patrick Meir, Belinda E. Medlyn, and Andy J. Pitman
Biogeosciences, 19, 491–515,Short summary
Australia's woody ecosystems have experienced widespread greening despite a warming climate and repeated record-breaking droughts and heat waves. Increasing atmospheric CO2 increases plant water use efficiency, yet quantifying the CO2 effect is complicated due to co-occurring effects of global change. Here we harmonized a 38-year satellite record to separate the effects of climate change, land use change, and disturbance to quantify the CO2 fertilization effect on the greening phenomenon.
Renée Hermans, Rebecca McKenzie, Roxane Andersen, Yit Arn Teh, Neil Cowie, and Jens-Arne Subke
Biogeosciences, 19, 313–327,Short summary
Peatlands are a significant global carbon store, which can be compromised by drainage and afforestation. We measured the peat decomposition under a 30-year-old drained forest plantation: 115 ± 16 g C m−2 yr−1, ca. 40 % of total soil respiration. Considering input of litter from trees, our results indicate that the soils in these 30-year-old drained and afforested peatlands are a net sink for C, since substantially more C enters the soil as organic matter than is decomposed heterotrophically.
Kai Tang, Beatriz Sánchez-Parra, Petya Yordanova, Jörn Wehking, Anna T. Backes, Daniel A. Pickersgill, Stefanie Maier, Jean Sciare, Ulrich Pöschl, Bettina Weber, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Biogeosciences, 19, 71–91,Short summary
Metagenomic sequencing and freezing experiments of aerosol samples collected on Cyprus revealed rain-related short-term changes of bioaerosol and ice nuclei composition. Filtration experiments showed a rain-related enhancement of biological ice nuclei > 5 µm and < 0.1 µm. The observed effects of rainfall on the composition of atmospheric bioaerosols and ice nuclei may influence the hydrological cycle as well as the health effects of air particulate matter (pathogens, allergens).
Raquel Fernandes Araujo, Samuel Grubinger, Carlos Henrique Souza Celes, Robinson I. Negrón-Juárez, Milton Garcia, Jonathan P. Dandois, and Helene C. Muller-Landau
Biogeosciences, 18, 6517–6531,Short summary
Our study contributed to improving the understanding of temporal variation and climate correlates of canopy disturbances mainly caused by treefalls and branchfalls. We used a unique dataset of 5 years of approximately monthly drone-acquired RGB (red–green–blue) imagery for 50 ha of mature tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. We found that canopy disturbance rates were highly temporally variable, were higher in the wet season, and were related to extreme rainfall events.
Adrian Gustafson, Paul A. Miller, Robert G. Björk, Stefan Olin, and Benjamin Smith
Biogeosciences, 18, 6329–6347,Short summary
We performed model simulations of vegetation change for a historic period and a range of climate change scenarios at a high spatial resolution. Projected treeline advance continued at the same or increased rates compared to our historic simulation. Temperature isotherms advanced faster than treelines, revealing a lag in potential vegetation shifts that was modulated by nitrogen availability. At the year 2100 projected treelines had advanced by 45–195 elevational metres depending on the scenario.
Iris Johanna Aalto, Eduardo Eiji Maeda, Janne Heiskanen, Eljas Kullervo Aalto, and Petri Kauko Emil Pellikka
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Tree canopies are strong moderators of understory climatic conditions. In tropical areas, trees cool down the microclimates. We show using remote sensing and field measurements how even intermediate canopy cover and agroforestry trees contributed to buffering the hottest temperatures in Kenya. The cooling effect was the greatest during hot days and in lowland areas, where the ambient temperatures were high. Adopting agroforestry practices in the area could assist in mitigating climate change.
Marc Wehrhan, Daniel Puppe, Danuta Kaczorek, and Michael Sommer
Biogeosciences, 18, 5163–5183,Short summary
UAS remote sensing provides a promising tool for new insights into Si biogeochemistry at catchment scale. Our study on an artificial catchment shows surprisingly high silicon stocks in the biomass of two grass species (C. epigejos, 7 g m−2; P. australis, 27 g m−2). The distribution of initial sediment properties (clay, Tiron-extractable Si, nitrogen, plant-available potassium) controlled the spatial distribution of C. epigejos. Soil wetness determined the occurrence of P. australis.
Vojtěch Abraham, Sheila Hicks, Helena Svobodová-Svitavská, Elissaveta Bozilova, Sampson Panajiotidis, Mariana Filipova-Marinova, Christin Eldegard Jensen, Spassimir Tonkov, Irena Agnieszka Pidek, Joanna Święta-Musznicka, Marcelina Zimny, Eliso Kvavadze, Anna Filbrandt-Czaja, Martina Hättestrand, Nurgül Karlıoğlu Kılıç, Jana Kosenko, Maria Nosova, Elena Severova, Olga Volkova, Margrét Hallsdóttir, Laimdota Kalniņa, Agnieszka M. Noryśkiewicz, Bożena Noryśkiewicz, Heather Pardoe, Areti Christodoulou, Tiiu Koff, Sonia L. Fontana, Teija Alenius, Elisabeth Isaksson, Heikki Seppä, Siim Veski, Anna Pędziszewska, Martin Weiser, and Thomas Giesecke
Biogeosciences, 18, 4511–4534,Short summary
We present a continental dataset of pollen accumulation rates (PARs) collected by pollen traps. This absolute measure of pollen rain (grains cm−2 yr−1) has a positive relationship to current vegetation and latitude. Trap and fossil PARs have similar values within one region, so it opens up possibilities for using fossil PARs to reconstruct past changes in plant biomass and primary productivity. The dataset is available in the Neotoma Paleoecology Database.
Polly C. Buotte, Charles D. Koven, Chonggang Xu, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Michael L. Goulden, Samuel Levis, Jessica Katz, Junyan Ding, Wu Ma, Zachary Robbins, and Lara M. Kueppers
Biogeosciences, 18, 4473–4490,Short summary
We present an approach for ensuring the definitions of plant types in dynamic vegetation models are connected to the underlying ecological processes controlling community composition. Our approach can be applied regionally or globally. Robust resolution of community composition will allow us to use these models to address important questions related to future climate and management effects on plant community composition, structure, carbon storage, and feedbacks within the Earth system.
Thomas Janssen, Ype van der Velde, Florian Hofhansl, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Kim Naudts, Bart Driessen, Katrin Fleischer, and Han Dolman
Biogeosciences, 18, 4445–4472,Short summary
Satellite images show that the Amazon forest has greened up during past droughts. Measurements of tree stem growth and leaf litterfall upscaled using machine-learning algorithms show that leaf flushing at the onset of a drought results in canopy rejuvenation and green-up during drought while simultaneously trees excessively shed older leaves and tree stem growth declines. Canopy green-up during drought therefore does not necessarily point to enhanced tree growth and improved forest health.
Boris Sakschewski, Werner von Bloh, Markus Drüke, Anna Amelia Sörensson, Romina Ruscica, Fanny Langerwisch, Maik Billing, Sarah Bereswill, Marina Hirota, Rafael Silva Oliveira, Jens Heinke, and Kirsten Thonicke
Biogeosciences, 18, 4091–4116,Short summary
This study shows how local adaptations of tree roots across tropical and sub-tropical South America explain patterns of biome distribution, productivity and evapotranspiration on this continent. By allowing for high diversity of tree rooting strategies in a dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM), we are able to mechanistically explain patterns of mean rooting depth and the effects on ecosystem functions. The approach can advance DGVMs and Earth system models.
Toby D. Jackson, Sarab Sethi, Ebba Dellwik, Nikolas Angelou, Amanda Bunce, Tim van Emmerik, Marine Duperat, Jean-Claude Ruel, Axel Wellpott, Skip Van Bloem, Alexis Achim, Brian Kane, Dominick M. Ciruzzi, Steven P. Loheide II, Ken James, Daniel Burcham, John Moore, Dirk Schindler, Sven Kolbe, Kilian Wiegmann, Mark Rudnicki, Victor J. Lieffers, John Selker, Andrew V. Gougherty, Tim Newson, Andrew Koeser, Jason Miesbauer, Roger Samelson, Jim Wagner, Anthony R. Ambrose, Andreas Detter, Steffen Rust, David Coomes, and Barry Gardiner
Biogeosciences, 18, 4059–4072,Short summary
We have all seen trees swaying in the wind, but did you know that this motion can teach us about ecology? We summarized tree motion data from many different studies and looked for similarities between trees. We found that the motion of trees in conifer forests is quite similar to each other, whereas open-grown trees and broadleaf forests show more variation. It has been suggested that additional damping or amplification of tree motion occurs at high wind speeds, but we found no evidence of this.
Alexander Kuhn-Régnier, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Peer Nowack, Matthias Forkel, I. Colin Prentice, and Sandy P. Harrison
Biogeosciences, 18, 3861–3879,Short summary
Along with current climate, vegetation, and human influences, long-term accumulation of biomass affects fires. Here, we find that including the influence of antecedent vegetation and moisture improves our ability to predict global burnt area. Additionally, the length of the preceding period which needs to be considered for accurate predictions varies across regions.
Jessie M. Creamean, Julio E. Ceniceros, Lilyanna Newman, Allyson D. Pace, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Matthew E. Rhodes
Biogeosciences, 18, 3751–3762,Short summary
Microorganisms have the unique ability to form ice in clouds at relatively warm temperatures, especially specific types of plant bacteria. However, to date, members of the domain Archaea have not been evaluated for their cloud-forming capabilities. Here, we show the first results of Haloarchaea that have the ability to form cloud ice at moderate supercooled temperatures that are found in hypersaline environments on Earth.
Kamel Soudani, Nicolas Delpierre, Daniel Berveiller, Gabriel Hmimina, Jean-Yves Pontailler, Lou Seureau, Gaëlle Vincent, and Éric Dufrêne
Biogeosciences, 18, 3391–3408,Short summary
We present an exhaustive comparative survey of eight proximal methods to estimate forest phenology. We focused on methodological aspects and thoroughly assessed deviations between predicted and observed phenological dates and pointed out their main causes. We show that proximal methods provide robust phenological metrics. They can be used to retrieve long-term phenological series at flux measurement sites and help interpret the interannual variability and trends of mass and energy exchanges.
Iuliia Shevtsova, Ulrike Herzschuh, Birgit Heim, Luise Schulte, Simone Stünzi, Luidmila A. Pestryakova, Evgeniy S. Zakharov, and Stefan Kruse
Biogeosciences, 18, 3343–3366,Short summary
In the light of climate changes in subarctic regions, notable general increase in above-ground biomass for the past 15 years (2000 to 2017) was estimated along a tundra–taiga gradient of central Chukotka (Russian Far East). The greatest increase occurred in the northern taiga in the areas of larch closed-canopy forest expansion with Cajander larch as a main contributor. For the estimations, we used field data (taxa-separated plant biomass, 2018) and upscaled it based on Landsat satellite data.
Dushyant Kumar, Mirjam Pfeiffer, Camille Gaillard, Liam Langan, and Simon Scheiter
Biogeosciences, 18, 2957–2979,Short summary
In this paper, we investigated the impact of climate change and rising CO2 on biomes using a vegetation model in South Asia, an often neglected region in global modeling studies. Understanding these impacts guides ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation. Our results indicate that savanna regions are at high risk of woody encroachment and transitioning into the forest, and the bioclimatic envelopes of biomes need adjustments to account for shifts caused by climate change and CO2.
Christopher Krich, Mirco Migliavacca, Diego G. Miralles, Guido Kraemer, Tarek S. El-Madany, Markus Reichstein, Jakob Runge, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 18, 2379–2404,Short summary
Ecosystems and the atmosphere interact with each other. These interactions determine e.g. the water and carbon fluxes and thus are crucial to understand climate change effects. We analysed the interactions for many ecosystems across the globe, showing that very different ecosystems can have similar interactions with the atmosphere. Meteorological conditions seem to be the strongest interaction-shaping factor. This means that common principles can be identified to describe ecosystem behaviour.
Shawn D. Taylor and Dawn M. Browning
Biogeosciences, 18, 2213–2220,Short summary
Grasslands in North America provide multiple ecosystem services and drive the production of a lot of grain, beef, and other staples. We evaluated a grassland productivity model using nearly 500 years of grassland camera data and found the areas where the model worked well and locations where it did not. Long-term productivity projections for the suitable locations can be made immediately with the current model, while other areas, such as the southwest, will need further model development.
Kathryn I. Wheeler and Michael C. Dietze
Biogeosciences, 18, 1971–1985,Short summary
Monitoring leaf phenology (i.e., seasonality) allows for tracking the progression of climate change and seasonal variations in a variety of organismal and ecosystem processes. Recent versions of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites allow for the monitoring of a phenological-sensitive index at a high temporal frequency (5–10 min) throughout most of the western hemisphere. Here we show the high potential of these new data to measure the phenology of deciduous forests.
Jürgen Homeier and Christoph Leuschner
Biogeosciences, 18, 1525–1541,Short summary
We studied aboveground productivity in humid tropical montane old-growth forests in two highly diverse Andean regions with large geological and topographic heterogeneity and related productivity to tree diversity and climatic, edaphic and stand structural factors. From our results we conclude that the productivity of highly diverse Neotropical montane forests is primarily controlled by thermal and edaphic factors and stand structural properties, while tree diversity is of minor importance.
Florian Beyer, Florian Jansen, Gerald Jurasinski, Marian Koch, Birgit Schröder, and Franziska Koebsch
Biogeosciences, 18, 917–935,Short summary
Increasing drought frequency can jeopardize the restoration of the CO2 sink function in degraded peatlands. We explored the effect of the summer drought in 2018 on vegetation development and CO2 exchange in a rewetted fen. Drought triggered a rapid spread of new vegetation whose CO2 assimilation could partially outweigh the drought-related rise in respiratory CO2 loss. Our study shows important regulatory mechanisms of a rewetted fen to maintain its net CO2 sink function even in a very dry year.
Shunli Yu, Guoxun Wang, Ofir Katz, Danfeng Li, Qibing Wang, Ming Yue, and Canran Liu
Biogeosciences, 18, 655–667,Short summary
As key traits of plants, the mechanisms of diversity of fruit sizes and seed sizes have not been solved completely until now. Therefore, the research related to them will continue to be done in the future. Our research, combined with future works, will provide a profound basis for solving the origin of fleshy-fruited species and seed size diversity.
Jan Pisek, Angela Erb, Lauri Korhonen, Tobias Biermann, Arnaud Carrara, Edoardo Cremonese, Matthias Cuntz, Silvano Fares, Giacomo Gerosa, Thomas Grünwald, Niklas Hase, Michal Heliasz, Andreas Ibrom, Alexander Knohl, Johannes Kobler, Bart Kruijt, Holger Lange, Leena Leppänen, Jean-Marc Limousin, Francisco Ramon Lopez Serrano, Denis Loustau, Petr Lukeš, Lars Lundin, Riccardo Marzuoli, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Matthias Peichl, Corinna Rebmann, Eva Rubio, Margarida Santos-Reis, Crystal Schaaf, Marius Schmidt, Guillaume Simioni, Kamel Soudani, and Caroline Vincke
Biogeosciences, 18, 621–635,Short summary
Understory vegetation is the most diverse, least understood component of forests worldwide. Understory communities are important drivers of overstory succession and nutrient cycling. Multi-angle remote sensing enables us to describe surface properties by means that are not possible when using mono-angle data. Evaluated over an extensive set of forest ecosystem experimental sites in Europe, our reported method can deliver good retrievals, especially over different forest types with open canopies.
Peiqi Yang, Christiaan van der Tol, Petya K. E. Campbell, and Elizabeth M. Middleton
Biogeosciences, 18, 441–465,Short summary
Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has the potential to facilitate the monitoring of photosynthesis from space. This study presents a systematic analysis of the physical and physiological meaning of the relationship between fluorescence and photosynthesis at both leaf and canopy levels. We unravel the individual effects of incoming light, vegetation structure and leaf physiology and highlight their joint effects on the relationship between canopy fluorescence and photosynthesis.
Aurelio Guevara-Escobar, Enrique González-Sosa, Mónica Cervantes-Jiménez, Humberto Suzán-Azpiri, Mónica Elisa Queijeiro-Bolaños, Israel Carrillo-Ángeles, and Víctor Hugo Cambrón-Sandoval
Biogeosciences, 18, 367–392,Short summary
All vegetation types can sequester carbon dioxide. We compared ground measurements (eddy covariance) with remotely sensed data (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS) and machine learning ensembles of primary production in a semiarid scrub in Mexico. The annual carbon sink for this vegetation type was −283.5 g C m−2 y−1; MODIS underestimated the primary productivity, and the machine learning modeling was better locally.
Simone Maria Stuenzi, Julia Boike, William Cable, Ulrike Herzschuh, Stefan Kruse, Luidmila A. Pestryakova, Thomas Schneider von Deimling, Sebastian Westermann, Evgenii S. Zakharov, and Moritz Langer
Biogeosciences, 18, 343–365,Short summary
Boreal forests in eastern Siberia are an essential component of global climate patterns. We use a physically based model and field measurements to study the interactions between forests, permanently frozen ground and the atmosphere. We find that forests exert a strong control on the thermal state of permafrost through changing snow cover dynamics and altering the surface energy balance, through absorbing most of the incoming solar radiation and suppressing below-canopy turbulent fluxes.
Milan Flach, Alexander Brenning, Fabian Gans, Markus Reichstein, Sebastian Sippel, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 18, 39–53,Short summary
Drought and heat events affect the uptake and sequestration of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. We study the impact of droughts and heatwaves on the uptake of CO2 of different vegetation types at the global scale. We find that agricultural areas are generally strongly affected. Forests instead are not particularly sensitive to the events under scrutiny. This implies different water management strategies of forests but also a lack of sensitivity to remote-sensing-derived vegetation activity.
Robinson I. Negrón-Juárez, Jennifer A. Holm, Boris Faybishenko, Daniel Magnabosco-Marra, Rosie A. Fisher, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Alessandro C. de Araujo, William J. Riley, and Jeffrey Q. Chambers
Biogeosciences, 17, 6185–6205,Short summary
The temporal variability in the Landsat satellite near-infrared (NIR) band captured the dynamics of forest regrowth after disturbances in Central Amazon. This variability was represented by the dynamics of forest regrowth after disturbances were properly represented by the ELM-FATES model (Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) in the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) Land Model (ELM)).
Nina Löbs, David Walter, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Sebastian Brill, Rodrigo P. Alves, Gabriela R. Cerqueira, Marta de Oliveira Sá, Alessandro C. de Araújo, Leonardo R. de Oliveira, Florian Ditas, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Ana Paula Pires Florentino, Stefan Wolff, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Sylvia Mota de Oliveira, Meinrat O. Andreae, Christopher Pöhlker, and Bettina Weber
Biogeosciences, 17, 5399–5416,Short summary
Cryptogamic organisms, such as bryophytes, lichens, and algae, cover major parts of vegetation in the Amazonian rain forest, but their relevance in biosphere–atmosphere exchange, climate processes, and nutrient cycling is largely unknown. Over the duration of 2 years we measured their water content, temperature, and light conditions to get better insights into their physiological activity patterns and thus their potential impact on local, regional, and even global biogeochemical processes.
Maitane Iturrate-Garcia, Monique M. P. D. Heijmans, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Fritz H. Schweingruber, Pascal A. Niklaus, and Gabriela Schaepman-Strub
Biogeosciences, 17, 4981–4998,Short summary
Changes on plant traits associated with climate warming might alter vegetation–climate interactions. We investigated experimentally the effects of enhanced permafrost thaw and soil nutrients on a wide set of tundra shrub traits. We found a coordinated trait response to some treatments, which suggests a shift in shrub resource, growth and defence strategies. This shift might feed back into permafrost thaw – through mechanisms associated with water demand – and into carbon and energy fluxes.
Juergen Kreyling, Rhena Schumann, and Robert Weigel
Biogeosciences, 17, 4103–4117,Short summary
Temperate forest soils (sites dominated by European beech, Fagus sylvatica) from cold and snowy sites in northern Poland release more nitrogen and phosphorus after soil freeze–thaw cycles (FTCs) than soils from warmer, snow-poor conditions in northern Germany. Our data suggest that previously cold sites, which will lose their protective snow cover during climate change, are most vulnerable to increasing FTC frequency and magnitude, resulting in strong shifts in nitrogen leaching.
Eric R. Beamesderfer, M. Altaf Arain, Myroslava Khomik, Jason J. Brodeur, and Brandon M. Burns
Biogeosciences, 17, 3563–3587,Short summary
Temperate forests play a major role in the global carbon and water cycles, sequestering atmospheric CO2 on annual timescales. This research examined the annual carbon and water dynamics of two similar (age, soil, climate, etc.) eastern North American temperate forests of different species composition (i.e., broadleaf vs. needleleaf). Ultimately, fluxes of the deciduous forest were found to be less sensitive to temperature and water limitations – conditions expected with future climate warming.
Thomas Janssen, Katrin Fleischer, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Kim Naudts, and Han Dolman
Biogeosciences, 17, 2621–2645,Short summary
The frequency and severity of droughts are expected to increase in the tropics, impacting the functioning of tropical forests. Here, we synthesized observed responses to drought in Neotropical forests. We find that, during drought, trees generally close their leaf stomata, resulting in reductions in photosynthesis, growth and transpiration. However, on the ecosystem scale, these responses are not visible. This indicates that resistance to drought increases from the leaf to ecosystem scale.
Jessica Hetzer, Andreas Huth, Thorsten Wiegand, Hans Jürgen Dobner, and Rico Fischer
Biogeosciences, 17, 1673–1683,Short summary
Due to limited accessibility in tropical regions, only small parts of the forest landscape can be surveyed in forest plots. Since there is an ongoing debate about how representative estimations based on samples are at larger scales, this study analyzes how many plots are needed to quantify the biomass of the entire South American tropical forest. Through novel computational and statistical investigations we show that the spatial plot positioning is crucial for continent-wide biomass estimations.
Jameson R. Brennan, Patricia S. Johnson, and Niall P. Hanan
Biogeosciences, 17, 1281–1292,Short summary
Prairie dogs have been described as a keystone species and are important for grassland conservation, yet concerns exist over the impact of prairie dogs on livestock production. The aim of this study was to classify plant communities on and off prairie dog towns in South Dakota and determine the utility of using remote sensing to identity prairie dog colony extent. The results show that remote sensing is effective at determining prairie dog colony boundaries.
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Forest environments contain a wide variety of airborne biological particles (bioaerosols) important for plant and animal health and biosphere–atmosphere interactions. Using low-cost sensors and a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) experiment, we monitor the impact of enhanced CO2 on airborne particles. No effect of the enhanced CO2 treatment on total particle concentrations was observed, but a potential suppression of high concentration bioaerosol events was detected under enhanced CO2.
Forest environments contain a wide variety of airborne biological particles (bioaerosols)...