Articles | Volume 12, issue 11
Research article 11 Jun 2015
Research article | 11 Jun 2015
Synoptic-scale analysis of mechanisms driving surface chlorophyll dynamics in the North Atlantic
A. S. A. Ferreira et al.
No articles found.
Ingo Bethke, Yiguo Wang, François Counillon, Noel Keenlyside, Madlen Kimmritz, Filippa Fransner, Annette Samuelsen, Helene Langehaug, Lea Svendsen, Ping-Gin Chiu, Leilane Passos, Mats Bentsen, Chuncheng Guo, Alok Gupta, Jerry Tjiputra, Alf Kirkevåg, Dirk Olivié, Øyvind Seland, Julie Solsvik Vågane, Yuanchao Fan, and Tor Eldevik
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The Norwegian Climate Prediction Model version 1 (NorCPM1) is a new research tool for performing climate reanalyses and seasonal-to-decadal climate predictions. It adds data assimilation capability to the Norwegian Earth System Model version 1 (NorESM1) and has contributed output to the Decadal Climate Prediction Project (DCPP) as part of the sixth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). We describe the system and evaluate its baseline, reanalysis and prediction performance.
Bogi Hansen, Karin Margretha Húsgarð Larsen, Hjálmar Hátún, Steingrímur Jónsson, Sólveig Rósa Ólafsdóttir, Andreas Macrander, William Johns, N. Penny Holliday, and Steffen Malskær Olsen
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Compared to other freshwater sources, runoff from Iceland is small and usually flows into the Nordic Seas. Under certain wind conditions, it can, however, flow into the Iceland Basin and this occurred after 2014, when this region had already freshened from other causes. This explains why the surface freshening in this area became so extreme. The local and shallow character of this runoff allows it to have a disproportionate effect on vertical mixing, winter convection, and biological production.
Jiping Xie, François Counillon, and Laurent Bertino
The Cryosphere, 12, 3671–3691,Short summary
We use the winter sea-ice thickness dataset CS2SMOS merged from two satellites SMOS and CryoSat-2 for assimilation into an ice–ocean reanalysis of the Arctic, complemented by several other ocean and sea-ice measurements, using an Ensemble Kalman Filter. The errors of sea-ice thickness are reduced by 28% and the improvements persists through the summer when observations are unavailable. Improvements of ice drift are however limited to the Central Arctic.
Bogi Hansen, Turið Poulsen, Karin Margretha Húsgarð Larsen, Hjálmar Hátún, Svein Østerhus, Elin Darelius, Barbara Berx, Detlef Quadfasel, and Kerstin Jochumsen
Ocean Sci., 13, 873–888,Short summary
On its way towards the Arctic, an important branch of warm Atlantic water passes through the Faroese Channels, but, in spite of more than a century of investigations, the detailed flow pattern through this channel system has not been resolved. This has strong implications for estimates of oceanic heat transport towards the Arctic. Here, we combine observations from various sources, which together paint a coherent picture of the Atlantic water flow and heat transport through this channel system.
Jiping Xie, Laurent Bertino, François Counillon, Knut A. Lisæter, and Pavel Sakov
Ocean Sci., 13, 123–144,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean plays an important role in the global climate system, but the concerned interpretation about its changes is severely hampered by the sparseness of the observations of sea ice and ocean. The focus of this study is to provide a quantitative assessment of the performance of the TOPAZ4 reanalysis for ocean and sea ice variables in the pan-Arctic region (north of 63 °N) in order to guide the user through its skills and limitations.
Bogi Hansen, Karin Margretha Húsgarð Larsen, Hjálmar Hátún, and Svein Østerhus
Ocean Sci., 12, 1205–1220,Short summary
The Faroe Bank Channel is one of the main passages for the flow of cold dense water from the Arctic into the depths of the world ocean where it feeds the deep branch of the AMOC. Based on in situ measurements, we show that the volume transport of this flow has been stable from 1995 to 2015. The water has warmed, but salinity increase has maintained its high density. Thus, this branch of the AMOC did not weaken during the last 2 decades, but increased its heat transport into the deep ocean.
Jiping Xie, François Counillon, Laurent Bertino, Xiangshan Tian-Kunze, and Lars Kaleschke
The Cryosphere, 10, 2745–2761,Short summary
As a potentially operational daily product, the SMOS-Ice can improve the statements of sea ice thickness and concentration. In this study, focusing on the SMOS-Ice data assimilated into the TOPAZ system, the quantitative evaluation for the impacts and the concerned comparison with the present observation system are valuable to understand the further improvement of the accuracy of operational ocean forecasting system.
B. Hansen, K. M. H. Larsen, H. Hátún, R. Kristiansen, E. Mortensen, and S. Østerhus
Ocean Sci., 11, 743–757,Short summary
The Faroe Current is the main ocean current transporting warm Atlantic water into the Arctic region and an important transporter of heat towards the Arctic. This study documents observed transport variations over two decades, from 1993 to 2013. It shows that the volume transport of Atlantic water in this current increased by 9% over the period, whereas the heat transport increased by 18%. This increase will have contributed to the observed warming and sea ice decline in the Arctic.
F. Fendereski, M. Vogt, M. R. Payne, Z. Lachkar, N. Gruber, A. Salmanmahiny, and S. A. Hosseini
Biogeosciences, 11, 6451–6470,
P. Landschützer, N. Gruber, D. C. E. Bakker, U. Schuster, S. Nakaoka, M. R. Payne, T. P. Sasse, and J. Zeng
Biogeosciences, 10, 7793–7815,
M. Vogt, T. Hashioka, M. R. Payne, E. T. Buitenhuis, C. Le Quéré, S. Alvain, M. N. Aita, L. Bopp, S. C. Doney, T. Hirata, I. Lima, S. Sailley, and Y. Yamanaka
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
Related subject area
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function: MarineThe Bouraké semi-enclosed lagoon (New Caledonia) – a natural laboratory to study the lifelong adaptation of a coral reef ecosystem to extreme environmental conditionsPopulation dynamics and reproduction strategies of planktonic foraminifera in the open oceanAtypical, high-diversity assemblages of foraminifera in a mangrove estuary in northern BrazilPermanent ectoplasmic structures in deep-sea Cibicides and Cibicidoides taxa – long-term observations at in situ pressureIdeas and perspectives: Ushering the Indian Ocean into the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (UNDOSSD) through marine ecosystem research and operational services – an early career's takePersistent effects of sand extraction on habitats and associated benthic communities in the German BightSpatial patterns of ectoenzymatic kinetics in relation to biogeochemical properties in the Mediterranean Sea and the concentration of the fluorogenic substrate usedEnhanced chlorophyll-a concentration in the wake of Sable Island, eastern Canada, revealed by two decades of satellite observations: a response to grey seal population dynamics?A 2-decade (1988–2009) record of diatom fluxes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling: impact of low-frequency forcing and a two-step shift in the species compositionReview and syntheses: Impacts of turbidity flows on deep-sea benthic communitiesIdeas and perspectives: When ocean acidification experiments are not the same, repeatability is not testedThe effect of the salinity, light regime and food source on carbon and nitrogen uptake in a benthic foraminiferChanges in population depth distribution and oxygen stratification are involved in the current low condition of the eastern Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua)Effects of spatial variability on the exposure of fish to hypoxia: a modeling analysis for the Gulf of MexicoPlant genotype determines biomass response to flooding frequency in tidal wetlandsFactors controlling the competition between Phaeocystis and diatoms in the Southern Ocean and implications for carbon export fluxesCharacterization of particle-associated and free-living bacterial and archaeal communities along the water columns of the South China SeaAdult life strategy affects distribution patterns in abyssal isopods – implications for conservation in Pacific nodule areasDiversity and distribution of nitrogen fixation genes in the oxygen minimum zones of the world oceansStructure and function of epipelagic mesozooplankton and their response to dust deposition events during the spring PEACETIME cruise in the Mediterranean SeaDistribution of planktonic foraminifera in the subtropical South Atlantic: depth hierarchy of controlling factorsTechnical note: Estimating light-use efficiency of benthic habitats using underwater O2 eddy covarianceOcean acidification reduces growth and grazing impact of Antarctic heterotrophic nanoflagellatesDynamics of environmental conditions during the decline of a Cymodocea nodosa meadowMegafauna community assessment of polymetallic-nodule fields with cameras: platform and methodology comparisonA meta-analysis on environmental drivers of marine phytoplankton C : N : PSpatial and temporal variability in the response of phytoplankton and prokaryotes to B-vitamin amendments in an upwelling systemBiogeography and community structure of abyssal scavenging Amphipoda (Crustacea) in the Pacific OceanAre seamounts refuge areas for fauna from polymetallic nodule fields?Ocean deoxygenation and copepods: coping with oxygen minimum zone variabilityUnexpected high abyssal ophiuroid diversity in polymetallic nodule fields of the northeast Pacific Ocean and implications for conservationPopulation dynamics of modern planktonic foraminifera in the western Barents SeaForaminiferal community response to seasonal anoxia in Lake Grevelingen (the Netherlands)Light availability modulates the effects of warming in a marine N2 fixerSiR-actin-labelled granules in foraminifera: patterns, dynamics, and hypothesesAlpha and beta diversity patterns of polychaete assemblages across the nodule province of the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (equatorial Pacific)Dimensions of marine phytoplankton diversityThe Arctic picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla benefits from ocean acidification under constant and dynamic lightFlux variability of phyto- and zooplankton communities in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling between 2003 and 2008Environmental factors influencing benthic communities in the oxygen minimum zones on the Angolan and Namibian marginsHypoxia in mangroves: occurrence and impact on valuable tropical fish habitatCalcification and latitudinal distribution of extant coccolithophores across the Drake Passage during late austral summer 2016Distribution of free-living marine nematodes in the Clarion–Clipperton Zone: implications for future deep-sea mining scenariosCharacterizing photosymbiosis in modern planktonic foraminiferaIdentifying areas prone to coastal hypoxia – the role of topographyObservations of deep-sea fishes and mobile scavengers from the abyssal DISCOL experimental mining areaOcean acidification and high irradiance stimulate the photo-physiological fitness, growth and carbon production of the Antarctic cryptophyte Geminigera cryophilaRates and drivers of Red Sea plankton community metabolismReviews and syntheses: Insights into deep-sea food webs and global environmental gradients revealed by stable isotope (δ15N, δ13C) and fatty acid trophic biomarkersLight-dependent calcification in Red Sea giant clam Tridacna maxima
Federica Maggioni, Mireille Pujo-Pay, Jérome Aucan, Carlo Cerrano, Barbara Calcinai, Claude Payri, Francesca Benzoni, Yves Letourneur, and Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa
Biogeosciences, 18, 5117–5140,Short summary
Based on current experimental evidence, climate change will affect up to 90 % of coral reefs worldwide. The originality of this study arises from our recent discovery of an exceptional study site where environmental conditions (temperature, pH, and oxygen) are even worse than those forecasted for the future. While these conditions are generally recognized as unfavorable for marine life, we found a rich and abundant coral reef thriving under such extreme environmental conditions.
Julie Meilland, Michael Siccha, Maike Kaffenberger, Jelle Bijma, and Michal Kucera
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Planktonic foraminifera population dynamics has long been assumed to be controlled by synchronous reproduction and ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM). Due to contradictory observations, this concept became controversial. We here test it in the Atlantic ocean for four species of foraminifera representing the main clades. Our observations support the existence of synchronised reproduction and OVM but show that more than half of the population does not follow the canonical trajectory.
Nisan Sariaslan and Martin R. Langer
Biogeosciences, 18, 4073–4090,Short summary
Analyses of foraminiferal assemblages from the Mamanguape mangrove estuary (northern Brazil) revealed highly diverse, species-rich, and structurally complex biotas. The atypical fauna resembles shallow-water offshore assemblages and are interpreted to be the result of highly saline ocean waters penetrating deep into the estuary. The findings contrast with previous studies, have implications for the fossil record, and provide novel perspectives for reconstructing mangrove environments.
Jutta E. Wollenburg, Jelle Bijma, Charlotte Cremer, Ulf Bickmeyer, and Zora Mila Colomba Zittier
Biogeosciences, 18, 3903–3915,Short summary
Cultured at in situ high-pressure conditions Cibicides and Cibicidoides taxa develop lasting ectoplasmic structures that cannot be retracted or resorbed. An ectoplasmic envelope surrounds their test and may protect the shell, e.g. versus carbonate aggressive bottom water conditions. Ectoplasmic roots likely anchor the specimens in areas of strong bottom water currents, trees enable them to elevate themselves above ground, and twigs stabilize and guide the retractable pseudopodial network.
Biogeosciences, 18, 3631–3635,Short summary
The Indian Ocean Rim hosts many of the underdeveloped and emerging economies that depend on ocean resources for the livelihood of millions. Operational ocean information services cater to the requirements of resource managers and end-users to efficiently harness resources, mitigate threats and ensure safety. This paper outlines existing tools and explores the ongoing research that has the potential to convert the findings into operational services in the near- to midterm.
Finn Mielck, Rune Michaelis, H. Christian Hass, Sarah Hertel, Caroline Ganal, and Werner Armonies
Biogeosciences, 18, 3565–3577,Short summary
Marine sand mining is becoming more and more important to nourish fragile coastlines that face global change. We investigated the largest sand extraction site in the German Bight. The study reveals that after more than 35 years of mining, the excavation pits are still detectable on the seafloor while the sediment composition has largely changed. The organic communities living in and on the seafloor were strongly decimated, and no recovery is observable towards previous conditions.
France Van Wambeke, Elvira Pulido, Philippe Catala, Julie Dinasquet, Kahina Djaoudi, Anja Engel, Marc Garel, Sophie Guasco, Barbara Marie, Sandra Nunige, Vincent Taillandier, Birthe Zäncker, and Christian Tamburini
Biogeosciences, 18, 2301–2323,Short summary
Michaelis–Menten kinetics were determined for alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase in the Mediterranean Sea. Although the ectoenzymatic-hydrolysis contribution to heterotrophic prokaryotic needs was high in terms of N, it was low in terms of C. This study points out the biases in interpretation of the relative differences in activities among the three tested enzymes in regard to the choice of added concentrations of fluorogenic substrates.
Emmanuel Devred, Andrea Hilborn, and Cornelia den Heyer
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
A plume of high primary productivity around Sable Island (SI), eastern Canada, has increased in magnitude and surface area over the last twenty years as shown by satellite ocean color. At the same time, hauling of grey seals on SI increased from 100,000 to 360,000 individuals during the winter. Nitrogen fertilization by seal excretion explains the seasonal cycle and trends of phytoplankton biomass. The results highlight the positive feedback of marine mammal conservation on the marine ecosystem.
Oscar E. Romero, Simon Ramondenc, and Gerhard Fischer
Biogeosciences, 18, 1873–1891,Short summary
Upwelling intensity along NW Africa varies on the interannual to decadal timescale. Understanding its changes is key for the prediction of future changes of CO2 sequestration in the northeastern Atlantic. Based on a multiyear (1988–2009) sediment trap experiment at the site CBmeso, fluxes and the species composition of the diatom assemblage are presented. Our data help in establishing the scientific basis for forecasting and modeling future states of this ecosystem and its decadal changes.
Katharine T. Bigham, Ashley A. Rowden, Daniel Leduc, and David A. Bowden
Biogeosciences, 18, 1893–1908,Short summary
Turbidity flows – underwater avalanches – are large-scale physical disturbances believed to have profound impacts on productivity and diversity of benthic communities in the deep sea. We reviewed published studies and found that current evidence for changes in productivity is ambiguous at best, but the influence on regional and local diversity is clearer. We suggest study design criteria that may lead to a better understanding of large-scale disturbance effects on deep-sea benthos.
Phillip Williamson, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Steve Widdicombe, and Jean-Pierre Gattuso
Biogeosciences, 18, 1787–1792,Short summary
The reliability of ocean acidification research was challenged in early 2020 when a high-profile paper failed to corroborate previously observed impacts of high CO2 on the behaviour of coral reef fish. We now know the reason why: the
replicatedstudies differed in many ways. Open-minded and collaborative assessment of all research results, both negative and positive, remains the best way to develop process-based understanding of the impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms.
Michael Lintner, Bianca Lintner, Wolfgang Wanek, Nina Keul, and Petra Heinz
Biogeosciences, 18, 1395–1406,Short summary
Foraminifera are unicellular marine organisms that play an important role in the marine element cycle. Changes of environmental parameters such as salinity or temperature have a significant impact on the faunal assemblages. Our experiments show that changes in salinity immediately influence the foraminiferal activity. Also the light regime has a significant impact on carbon or nitrogen processing in foraminifera which contain no kleptoplasts.
Michele Casini, Martin Hansson, Alessandro Orio, and Karin Limburg
Biogeosciences, 18, 1321–1331,Short summary
In the past 20 years the condition of the eastern Baltic cod has dropped, with large implications for the fishery. Our results show that simultaneously the cod population has moved deeper while low-oxygenated waters detrimental for cod growth have become shallower. Cod have thus dwelled more in detrimental waters, explaining the drop in its condition. This study, using long-term fish and hydrological monitoring data, evidences the impact of deoxygenation on fish biology and fishing.
Elizabeth D. LaBone, Kenneth A. Rose, Dubravko Justic, Haosheng Huang, and Lixia Wang
Biogeosciences, 18, 487–507,Short summary
The hypoxic zone is an area of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Gulf of Mexico. Fish can be killed by exposure to hypoxia and can be negatively impacted by exposure to low, nonlethal DO concentrations (sublethal DO). We found that high sublethal area resulted in higher exposure and DO variability had a small effect on exposure. There was a large variation in exposure among individuals, which when combined with spatial variability of DO, can result in an underestimation of exposure when averaged.
Svenja Reents, Peter Mueller, Hao Tang, Kai Jensen, and Stefanie Nolte
Biogeosciences, 18, 403–411,Short summary
By conducting a flooding experiment with two genotypes of the salt-marsh grass Elymus athericus, we show considerable differences in biomass response to flooding within the same species. As biomass production plays a major role in sedimentation processes and thereby salt-marsh accretion, we emphasise the importance of taking intraspecific differences into account when evaluating ecosystem resilience to accelerated sea level rise.
Cara Nissen and Meike Vogt
Biogeosciences, 18, 251–283,Short summary
Using a regional Southern Ocean ecosystem model, we find that the relative importance of Phaeocystis and diatoms at high latitudes is controlled by iron and temperature variability, with light levels controlling the seasonal succession in coastal areas. Yet, biomass losses via aggregation and grazing matter as well. We show that the seasonal succession of Phaeocystis and diatoms impacts the seasonality of carbon export fluxes with ramifications for nutrient cycling and food web dynamics.
Jiangtao Li, Lingyuan Gu, Shijie Bai, Jie Wang, Lei Su, Bingbing Wei, Li Zhang, and Jiasong Fang
Biogeosciences, 18, 113–133,Short summary
Few studies have focused on the particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) microbes of the deep ocean. Here we determined PA and FL microbial communities along depth profiles of the SCS. PA and FL fractions accommodated divergent microbial compositions, and most of them are potentially generalists with PA and FL dual lifestyles. A potential vertical connectivity between surface-specific microbes and those in the deep ocean was indicated, likely through microbial attachment to sinking particles.
Saskia Brix, Karen J. Osborn, Stefanie Kaiser, Sarit B. Truskey, Sarah M. Schnurr, Nils Brenke, Marina Malyutina, and Pedro Martinez Arbizu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6163–6184,Short summary
The Clarion–Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ) located in the Pacific is commercially the most important area of proposed manganese nodule mining. Extraction of this will influence the life and distribution of small deep-sea invertebrates like peracarid crustaceans, of which >90 % are undescribed species new to science. We are doing a species delimitation approach as baseline for an ecological interpretation of species distribution and discuss the results in light of future deep-sea conservation.
Amal Jayakumar and Bess B. Ward
Biogeosciences, 17, 5953–5966,Short summary
Diversity and community composition of nitrogen-fixing microbes in the three main oxygen minimum zones of the world ocean were investigated using nifH clone libraries. Representatives of three main clusters of nifH genes were detected. Sequences were most diverse in the surface waters. The most abundant OTUs were affiliated with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. The sequences were biogeographically distinct and the dominance of a few OTUs was commonly observed in OMZs in this (and other) studies.
Guillermo Feliú, Marc Pagano, Pamela Hidalgo, and François Carlotti
Biogeosciences, 17, 5417–5441,Short summary
The impact of Saharan dust deposition events on the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem was studied during a basin-scale survey (PEACETIME cruise, May–June 2017). Short-term responses of the zooplankton community were observed after episodic dust deposition events, highlighting the impact of these events on productivity up to the zooplankton level in the poorly fertilized pelagic ecosystems of the southern Mediterranean Sea.
Douglas Lessa, Raphaël Morard, Lukas Jonkers, Igor M. Venancio, Runa Reuter, Adrian Baumeister, Ana Luiza Albuquerque, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 17, 4313–4342,Short summary
We observed that living planktonic foraminifera had distinct vertically distributed communities across the Subtropical South Atlantic. In addition, a hierarchic alternation of environmental parameters was measured to control the distribution of planktonic foraminifer's species depending on the water depth. This implies that not only temperature but also productivity and subsurface processes are signed in fossil assemblages, which could be used to perform paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Karl M. Attard and Ronnie N. Glud
Biogeosciences, 17, 4343–4353,Short summary
Light-use efficiency defines the ability of primary producers to convert sunlight energy to primary production. This report provides a framework to compute hourly and daily light-use efficiency using underwater eddy covariance, a recent technological development that produces habitat-scale rates of primary production for many different habitat types. The approach, tested on measured flux data, provides a useful means to compare habitat productivity across time and space.
Stacy Deppeler, Kai G. Schulz, Alyce Hancock, Penelope Pascoe, John McKinlay, and Andrew Davidson
Biogeosciences, 17, 4153–4171,Short summary
Our study showed how ocean acidification can exert both direct and indirect influences on the interactions among trophic levels within the microbial loop. Microbial grazer abundance was reduced at CO2 concentrations at and above 634 µatm, while microbial communities increased in abundance, likely due to a reduction in being grazed. Such changes in predator–prey interactions with ocean acidification could have significant effects on the food web and biogeochemistry in the Southern Ocean.
Mirjana Najdek, Marino Korlević, Paolo Paliaga, Marsej Markovski, Ingrid Ivančić, Ljiljana Iveša, Igor Felja, and Gerhard J. Herndl
Biogeosciences, 17, 3299–3315,Short summary
The response of Cymodocea nodosa to environmental changes was reported during a 15-month period. The meadow decline was triggered in spring by the simultaneous reduction of available light in the water column and the creation of anoxic conditions in the rooted area. This disturbance was critical for the plant since it took place during its recruitment phase when metabolic needs are maximal and stored reserves minimal. The loss of such habitat-forming seagrass is a major environmental concern.
Timm Schoening, Autun Purser, Daniel Langenkämper, Inken Suck, James Taylor, Daphne Cuvelier, Lidia Lins, Erik Simon-Lledó, Yann Marcon, Daniel O. B. Jones, Tim Nattkemper, Kevin Köser, Martin Zurowietz, Jens Greinert, and Jose Gomes-Pereira
Biogeosciences, 17, 3115–3133,Short summary
Seafloor imaging is widely used in marine science and industry to explore and monitor areas of interest. The selection of the most appropriate imaging gear and deployment strategy depends on the target application. This paper compares imaging platforms like autonomous vehicles or towed camera frames and different deployment strategies of those in assessing the megafauna abundance of polymetallic-nodule fields. The deep-sea mining industry needs that information for robust impact monitoring.
Tatsuro Tanioka and Katsumi Matsumoto
Biogeosciences, 17, 2939–2954,Short summary
We conducted an extensive literature survey (meta-analysis) on how the C : N : P ratio varies with change in key environmental drivers. We found that the expected reduction in nutrients and warming under the future climate change scenario is likely to result in increased C : P and C : N of marine phytoplankton. Further, our findings highlight the greater stoichiometric plasticity of eukaryotes over prokaryotes, which provide us insights on how to understand and model plankton.
Vanessa Joglar, Antero Prieto, Esther Barber-Lluch, Marta Hernández-Ruiz, Emilio Fernández, and Eva Teira
Biogeosciences, 17, 2807–2823,Short summary
Coastal marine ecosystems are among the most ecologically and economically productive areas providing a large fraction of ecosystem goods and services to human populations, and B vitamins have long been considered important growth factors for phytoplankton. Our findings indicate that the responses of microbial plankton to B-vitamin supply are mainly driven by the bacterial community composition and that microbial plankton in this area seems to be well adapted to cope with B-vitamin shortage.
Tasnim Patel, Henri Robert, Cedric D'Udekem D'Acoz, Koen Martens, Ilse De Mesel, Steven Degraer, and Isa Schön
Biogeosciences, 17, 2731–2744,Short summary
Exploitation of deep-sea resources in one of the largest ecosystems on the planet has rendered research of its biodiversity more urgent than ever before. We investigated the known habitats and connectivity of deep-sea scavenging amphipods and obtained important knowledge about several species. We also demonstrated that a long-term disturbance experiment has possibly reduced amphipod biodiversity. These data and further sampling expeditions are instrumental for formulating sustainable policies.
Daphne Cuvelier, Pedro A. Ribeiro, Sofia P. Ramalho, Daniel Kersken, Pedro Martinez Arbizu, and Ana Colaço
Biogeosciences, 17, 2657–2680,Short summary
Polymetallic nodule mining will remove hard substrata from the abyssal deep-sea floor. The only neighbouring ecosystems featuring hard substratum are seamounts, and their inhabiting fauna could aid in recovery post-mining. Nevertheless, first observations of seamount megafauna were very different from nodule-associated megafauna and showed little overlap. The possible uniqueness of these ecosystems implies that they should be included in management plans for the conservation of biodiversity.
Karen F. Wishner, Brad Seibel, and Dawn Outram
Biogeosciences, 17, 2315–2339,Short summary
Increasing deoxygenation and oxygen minimum zone expansion are consequences of global warming. Copepod species had different vertical distribution strategies and physiologies associated with oxygen profile variability (0–1000 m). Species (1) changed vertical distributions and maximum abundance depth, (2) shifted diapause depth, (3) changed diel vertical migration depths, or (4) changed epipelagic depth range in the aerobic mixed layer. Present-day variability helps predict future scenarios.
Magdalini Christodoulou, Timothy O'Hara, Andrew F. Hugall, Sahar Khodami, Clara F. Rodrigues, Ana Hilario, Annemiek Vink, and Pedro Martinez Arbizu
Biogeosciences, 17, 1845–1876,Short summary
Unexpectedly high diversity was revealed in areas licenced for polymetallic nodule mining exploration in the Pacific Ocean. For the first time, a comprehensive reference library including 287 novel ophiuroid sequences allocated to 43 species was produced. Differences in food availability along the nodule province of CCZ were reflected in the biodiversity patterns observed. The APEI3's dissimilarity with the exploration contract areas questions its ability to serve as a biodiversity reservoir.
Julie Meilland, Hélène Howa, Vivien Hulot, Isaline Demangel, Joëlle Salaün, and Thierry Garlan
Biogeosciences, 17, 1437–1450,Short summary
This study reports on planktonic foraminifera (PF) diversity and distribution in the Barents Sea. The species Globigerinita uvula and Turborotalita quinqueloba dominate the water column while surface sediments are dominated by Neogloboquadrina pachyderma. We hypothesize the unusual dominance of G. uvula in the water to be a seasonal signal or a result of climate forcing. Size-normalized-protein concentrations of PF show a northward decrease, suggesting biomass to vary with the environment.
Julien Richirt, Bettina Riedel, Aurélia Mouret, Magali Schweizer, Dewi Langlet, Dorina Seitaj, Filip J. R. Meysman, Caroline P. Slomp, and Frans J. Jorissen
Biogeosciences, 17, 1415–1435,Short summary
The paper presents the response of benthic foraminiferal communities to seasonal absence of oxygen coupled with the presence of hydrogen sulfide, considered very harmful for several living organisms. Our results suggest that the foraminiferal community mainly responds as a function of the duration of the adverse conditions. This knowledge is especially useful to better understand the ecology of benthic foraminifera but also in the context of palaeoceanographic interpretations.
Xiangqi Yi, Fei-Xue Fu, David A. Hutchins, and Kunshan Gao
Biogeosciences, 17, 1169–1180,Short summary
Combined effects of warming and light intensity were estimated in N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Its physiological responses to warming were significantly modulated by light, with growth peaking at 27 °C under the light-saturating condition but being non-responsive across the range of 23–31 °C under the light-limiting condition. Light shortage also weakened the acclimation ability of Trichodesmium to warming, making light-limited Trichodesmium more sensitive to acute temperature change.
Jan Goleń, Jarosław Tyszka, Ulf Bickmeyer, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 17, 995–1011,Short summary
We studied the organisation and dynamics of actin in foraminifera. Actin is one of the key structural proteins in most lifeforms. Our investigations show that in foraminifera it forms small granules, around 1 µm in diameter, that display rapid movement. This granularity is unusual in comparison to other organisms. We suppose that these granules are most likely involved in the formation of all types of pseudopods responsible for movement, food capturing, biomineralisation, and other functions.
Paulo Bonifácio, Pedro Martínez Arbizu, and Lénaïck Menot
Biogeosciences, 17, 865–886,Short summary
The patterns observed in the composition of polychaete assemblages were attributed to variations in food supply at the regional scale and nodule density at the local scale. The high levels of species replacement were mainly driven by rare species, leading to regional species pool estimates between 498 and 240 000 species. The high proportion of singletons seems reflect an under-sampling bias that is currently preventing the assessment of potential biodiversity loss due to nodule mining.
Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Pedro Cermeno, Oliver Jahn, Michael J. Follows, Anna E. Hickman, Darcy A. A. Taniguchi, and Ben A. Ward
Biogeosciences, 17, 609–634,Short summary
Phytoplankton are an essential component of the marine food web and earth's carbon cycle. We use observations, ecological theory and a unique trait-based ecosystem model to explain controls on patterns of marine phytoplankton biodiversity. We find that different dimensions of diversity (size classes, biogeochemical functional groups, thermal norms) are controlled by a disparate combination of mechanisms. This may explain why previous studies of phytoplankton diversity had conflicting results.
Emily White, Clara J. M. Hoppe, and Björn Rost
Biogeosciences, 17, 635–647,Short summary
The Arctic picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla was acclimated to two pCO2 levels under a constant and a dynamic light, simulating more realistic light fields. M. pusilla was able to benefit from ocean acidification with an increase in growth rate, irrespective of the light regime. In dynamic light M. pusilla optimised its photophysiology for effective light usage during both low- and high-light periods. This highlights M. pusilla is likely to cope well with future conditions in the Arctic Ocean.
Oscar E. Romero, Karl-Heinz Baumann, Karin A. F. Zonneveld, Barbara Donner, Jens Hefter, Bambaye Hamady, Vera Pospelova, and Gerhard Fischer
Biogeosciences, 17, 187–214,Short summary
Monitoring of the multiannual evolution of populations representing different trophic levels allows for obtaining insights into the impact of climate variability in marine coastal upwelling ecosystems. By using a multiyear, continuous (1,900 d) sediment trap record, we assess the dynamics and fluxes of calcareous, organic and siliceous microorganisms off Mauritania (NW Africa). The experiment allowed for the recognition of a general sequence of seasonal variations of the main populations.
Ulrike Hanz, Claudia Wienberg, Dierk Hebbeln, Gerard Duineveld, Marc Lavaleye, Katriina Juva, Wolf-Christian Dullo, André Freiwald, Leonardo Tamborrino, Gert-Jan Reichart, Sascha Flögel, and Furu Mienis
Biogeosciences, 16, 4337–4356,Short summary
Along the Namibian and Angolan margins, low oxygen conditions do not meet environmental ranges for cold–water corals and hence are expected to be unsuitable habitats. Environmental conditions show that tidal movements deliver water with more oxygen and high–quality organic matter, suggesting that corals compensate unfavorable conditions with availability of food. With the expected expansion of oxygen minimum zones in the future, this study provides an example how ecosystems cope with extremes.
Alexia Dubuc, Ronald Baker, Cyril Marchand, Nathan J. Waltham, and Marcus Sheaves
Biogeosciences, 16, 3959–3976,Short summary
Little is known about how hypoxia influences mangrove fish assemblages. In situ video observations reveal species-specific avoidance strategies in response to developing hypoxia in a mangrove forest. Taxa commonly using mangroves could withstand hypoxia, while others usually associated with reef habitats were not recorded below 70 % saturation. These results suggest that hypoxia is an important factor shaping mangrove fish assemblages and could explain the low species richness usually observed.
Mariem Saavedra-Pellitero, Karl-Heinz Baumann, Miguel Ángel Fuertes, Hartmut Schulz, Yann Marcon, Nele Manon Vollmar, José-Abel Flores, and Frank Lamy
Biogeosciences, 16, 3679–3702,Short summary
Open ocean phytoplankton include coccolithophore algae, a key element in carbon cycle regulation with important feedbacks to the climate system. We document latitudinal variability in both coccolithophore assemblage and the mass variation in one particular species, Emiliania huxleyi, for a transect across the Drake Passage (in the Southern Ocean). Coccolithophore abundance, diversity and maximum depth habitat decrease southwards, coinciding with changes in the predominant E. huxleyi morphotypes.
Freija Hauquier, Lara Macheriotou, Tania N. Bezerra, Great Egho, Pedro Martínez Arbizu, and Ann Vanreusel
Biogeosciences, 16, 3475–3489,Short summary
Future mining operations in the deep sea provide a source of scientific uncertainty and call for detailed study of the ecosystem. We investigated one of the most diverse and abundant taxa present in deep-sea sediments, nematodes, and demonstrate the importance of sediment attributes for their communities. Especially species that are less common and have a limited spatial distribution will be vulnerable to mining-induced changes. Our findings can serve as a reference for future impact studies.
Haruka Takagi, Katsunori Kimoto, Tetsuichi Fujiki, Hiroaki Saito, Christiane Schmidt, Michal Kucera, and Kazuyoshi Moriya
Biogeosciences, 16, 3377–3396,Short summary
Photosymbiosis (endosymbiosis with algae) is an evolutionary important ecology for many marine organisms but has poorly been identified among planktonic foraminifera. In this study, we identified and characterized photosymbiosis of various species of planktonic foraminifera by focusing on their photosynthesis–related features. We finally proposed a new framework showing a potential strength of photosymbiosis, which will serve as a basis for future ecological studies of planktonic foraminifera.
Elina A. Virtanen, Alf Norkko, Antonia Nyström Sandman, and Markku Viitasalo
Biogeosciences, 16, 3183–3195,Short summary
Our understanding of the drivers of hypoxia fundamentally hinges on patterns of water circulation and vertical mixing that can be difficult to resolve in coastal regions. We identified areas prone to oxygen loss in a complex marine area without knowledge of biogeochemical properties, using only parameters which describe the enclosed seafloors with restricted water exchange. Our approach could help nutrient abatement measures and pinpoint areas where management actions are most urgently needed.
Jeffrey C. Drazen, Astrid B. Leitner, Sage Morningstar, Yann Marcon, Jens Greinert, and Autun Purser
Biogeosciences, 16, 3133–3146,Short summary
We investigated the fish and scavenger community after a deep seafloor disturbance experiment intended to simulate the effects of deep-sea mining. Fish density returned to background levels after several years; however the dominant fish was rarely found in ploughed habitat after 26 years. Given the significantly larger scale of industrial mining, these results could translate to population-level effects. The abyssal fish community at the site was similar to that in the Clarion–Clipperton Zone.
Scarlett Trimborn, Silke Thoms, Pascal Karitter, and Kai Bischof
Biogeosciences, 16, 2997–3008,Short summary
Ecophysiological studies on Antarctic cryptophytes to assess whether climatic changes such as ocean acidification and enhanced stratification affect their growth in Antarctic coastal waters in the future are lacking so far. Our results reveal beneficial effects of ocean acidification in conjunction with enhanced irradiance on growth and photosynthesis of the Antarctic cyrptophyte Geminigera cryophila. Hence, cryptophytes such as G. cryophila may be potential winners of these climatic changes.
Daffne C. López-Sandoval, Katherine Rowe, Paloma Carillo-de-Albonoz, Carlos M. Duarte, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 16, 2983–2995,Short summary
We addressed how the intertwined effect of temperature and nutrients modulates the metabolic response of planktonic communities in the Red Sea, one of the warmest seas on earth. Our study unveiled that photosynthesis increases at a faster pace than respiration rates for this group of organisms formed by microalgae, bacteria, and drifting animals. This anomaly is likely due to the nature of the basin where the warmest waters are frequently enriched with nutrients, which favours microalgae growth.
Camilla Parzanini, Christopher C. Parrish, Jean-François Hamel, and Annie Mercier
Biogeosciences, 16, 2837–2856,Short summary
This review synthesized current knowledge of deep-sea food webs and provided a preliminary analysis of global geographic patterns in the biochemical composition of deep-water organisms. Our results revealed both latitudinal and depth wise trends in the biochemical composition of deep-sea animals. In addition, the link across latitudes between surface primary production and deep-water communities was highlighted, which has important implications in the face of global climate change.
Susann Rossbach, Vincent Saderne, Andrea Anton, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 16, 2635–2650,Short summary
Giant clams including the species Tridacna maxima are unique among bivalves as they live in symbiosis with unicellular algae and generally function as net photoautotrophs. Light is therefore crucial for these species to thrive. We show that net calcification and photosynthetic rates of T. maxima are light dependent, with maximum rates at conditions comparable to 4 m water depth, reflected also in the depth-related distribution in the Red Sea with maximum abundances in shallow sunlit coral reefs.
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Our main objective was to assess which bottom-up processes can best predict changes in phytoplankton surface spring blooms in the North Atlantic. We applied new phenology algorithms to satellite-derived data and compared four different metrics based on physical drivers of phytoplankton. We show that there is a dominant physical mechanism - mixed layer shoaling - and that different regions are governed by different physical phenomena.
Our main objective was to assess which bottom-up processes can best predict changes in...