Articles | Volume 15, issue 22
Research article 22 Nov 2018
Research article | 22 Nov 2018
Factors controlling coccolithophore biogeography in the Southern Ocean
Cara Nissen et al.
Cara Nissen and Meike Vogt
Biogeosciences, 18, 251–283,Short summary
Using a regional Southern Ocean ecosystem model, we find that the relative importance of Phaeocystis and diatoms at high latitudes is controlled by iron and temperature variability, with light levels controlling the seasonal succession in coastal areas. Yet, biomass losses via aggregation and grazing matter as well. We show that the seasonal succession of Phaeocystis and diatoms impacts the seasonality of carbon export fluxes with ramifications for nutrient cycling and food web dynamics.
Sebastian Landwehr, Michele Volpi, F. Alexander Haumann, Charlotte M. Robinson, Iris Thurnherr, Valerio Ferracci, Andrea Baccarini, Jenny Thomas, Irina Gorodetskaya, Christian Tatzelt, Silvia Henning, Rob L. Modini, Heather J. Forrer, Yajuan Lin, Nicolas Cassar, Rafel Simó, Christel Hassler, Alireza Moallemi, Sarah E. Fawcett, Neil Harris, Ruth Airs, Marzieh H. Derkani, Alberto Alberello, Alessandro Toffoli, Gang Chen, Pablo Rodríguez-Ros, Marina Zamanillo, Pau Cortés-Greus, Lei Xue, Conor G. Bolas, Katherine C. Leonard, Fernando Perez-Cruz, David Walton, and Julia Schmale
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 1295–1369,Short summary
The Antarctic Circumnavigation Expedition surveyed a large number of variables describing the dynamic state of ocean and atmosphere, freshwater cycle, atmospheric chemistry, ocean biogeochemistry, and microbiology in the Southern Ocean. To reduce the dimensionality of the dataset, we apply a sparse principal component analysis and identify temporal patterns from diurnal to seasonal cycles, as well as geographical gradients and
hotspotsof interaction. Code and data are open access.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Matthew W. Jones, Michael O'Sullivan, Robbie M. Andrew, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Judith Hauck, Corinne Le Quéré, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Rob B. Jackson, Simone R. Alin, Peter Anthoni, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Nicolas Bellouin, Laurent Bopp, Thi T. T. Chau, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Margot Cronin, Kim I. Currie, Bertrand Decharme, Laique Djeutchouang, Xinyu Dou, Wiley Evans, Richard A. Feely, Liang Feng, Thomas Gasser, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Giacomo Grassi, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Özgür Gürses, Ian Harris, Richard A. Houghton, George C. Hurtt, Yosuke Iida, Tatiana Ilyina, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Atul K. Jain, Steve D. Jones, Etsushi Kato, Daniel Kennedy, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jürgen Knauer, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Sebastian Lienert, Junjie Liu, Gregg Marland, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Tsuneo Ono, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Thais M. Rosan, Jörg Schwinger, Clemens Schwingshackl, Roland Séférian, Adrienne J. Sutton, Colm Sweeney, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco Tubiello, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Chisato Wada, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Chao Yue, Xu Yue, Sönke Zaehle, and Jiye Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2021 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Amanda R. Fay, Luke Gregor, Peter Landschützer, Galen A. McKinley, Nicolas Gruber, Marion Gehlen, Yosuke Iida, Goulven G. Laruelle, Christian Rödenbeck, Alizée Roobaert, and Jiye Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4693–4710,Short summary
The movement of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the ocean is estimated using surface ocean carbon (pCO2) measurements and an equation including variables such as temperature and wind speed; the choices of these variables lead to uncertainties. We introduce the SeaFlux ensemble which provides carbon flux maps calculated in a consistent manner, thus reducing uncertainty by using common choices for wind speed and a set definition of "global" coverage.
Tessa Sophia van der Voort, Thomas Michael Blattmann, Muhammed Usman, Daniel Montluçon, Thomas Loeffler, Maria Luisa Tavagna, Nicolas Gruber, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2135–2146,Short summary
Ocean sediments form the largest and longest-term storage of organic carbon. Despite their global importance, information on these sediments is often scattered, incomplete or inaccessible. Here we present MOSAIC (Modern Ocean Sediment Archive and Inventory of Carbon, mosaic.ethz.ch), a (radio)carbon-centric database that addresses this information gap. This database provides a platform for assessing the transport, deposition and storage of carbon in ocean surface sediments.
Giulia Bonino, Elisa Lovecchio, Nicolas Gruber, Matthias Münnich, Simona Masina, and Doroteaciro Iovino
Biogeosciences, 18, 2429–2448,Short summary
Seasonal variations of processes such as upwelling and biological production that happen along the northwestern African coast can modulate the temporal variability of the biological activity of the adjacent open North Atlantic hundreds of kilometers away from the coast thanks to the lateral transport of coastal organic carbon. This happens with a temporal delay, which is smaller than a season up to roughly 500 km from the coast due to the intense transport by small-scale filaments.
Luke Gregor and Nicolas Gruber
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 777–808,Short summary
Ocean acidification (OA) has altered the ocean's carbonate chemistry, with consequences for marine life. Yet, no observation-based data set exists that permits us to study changes in OA. We fill this gap with a global data set of relevant surface ocean parameters over the period 1985–2018. This data set, OceanSODA-ETHZ, was created by using satellite and other data to extrapolate ship-based measurements of carbon dioxide and total alkalinity from which parameters for OA were computed.
Anne-Marie Wefing, Núria Casacuberta, Marcus Christl, Nicolas Gruber, and John N. Smith
Ocean Sci., 17, 111–129,Short summary
Atlantic Water that carries heat and anthropogenic carbon into the Arctic Ocean plays an important role in the Arctic sea-ice cover decline, but its pathways and travel times remain unclear. Here we used two radionuclides of anthropogenic origin (129I and 236U) to track Atlantic-derived waters along their way through the Arctic Ocean, estimating their travel times and mixing properties. Results help to understand how future changes in Atlantic Water properties will spread through the Arctic.
Derara Hailegeorgis, Zouhair Lachkar, Christoph Rieper, and Nicolas Gruber
Biogeosciences, 18, 303–325,Short summary
Using a Lagrangian modeling approach, this study provides a quantitative analysis of water and nitrogen offshore transport in the Canary Current System. We investigate the timescales, reach and structure of offshore transport and demonstrate that the Canary upwelling is a key source of nutrients to the open North Atlantic Ocean. Our findings stress the need for improving the representation of the Canary system and other eastern boundary upwelling systems in global coarse-resolution models.
Cara Nissen and Meike Vogt
Biogeosciences, 18, 251–283,Short summary
Using a regional Southern Ocean ecosystem model, we find that the relative importance of Phaeocystis and diatoms at high latitudes is controlled by iron and temperature variability, with light levels controlling the seasonal succession in coastal areas. Yet, biomass losses via aggregation and grazing matter as well. We show that the seasonal succession of Phaeocystis and diatoms impacts the seasonality of carbon export fluxes with ramifications for nutrient cycling and food web dynamics.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone Alin, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Almut Arneth, Vivek Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Selma Bultan, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Wiley Evans, Liesbeth Florentie, Piers M. Forster, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Ian Harris, Kerstin Hartung, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Vassilis Kitidis, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Adam J. P. Smith, Adrienne J. Sutton, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3269–3340,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2020 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Damiano Righetti, Meike Vogt, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Michael D. Guiry, and Nicolas Gruber
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 907–933,Short summary
Phytoplankton sustain marine life, as they are the principal primary producers in the global ocean. Despite their ecological importance, their distribution and diversity patterns are poorly known, mostly due to data limitations. We present a global dataset that synthesizes over 1.3 million occurrences of phytoplankton from public archives. It is easily extendable. This dataset can be used to characterize phytoplankton distribution and diversity in current and future oceans.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Matthew W. Jones, Michael O'Sullivan, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Peter Anthoni, Leticia Barbero, Ana Bastos, Vladislav Bastrikov, Meike Becker, Laurent Bopp, Erik Buitenhuis, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Kim I. Currie, Richard A. Feely, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S. Goll, Nicolas Gruber, Sören Gutekunst, Ian Harris, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Jed O. Kaplan, Etsushi Kato, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Craig Neill, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Anna Peregon, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Roland Séférian, Jörg Schwinger, Naomi Smith, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Andrew J. Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1783–1838,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2019 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Riley X. Brady, Nicole S. Lovenduski, Michael A. Alexander, Michael Jacox, and Nicolas Gruber
Biogeosciences, 16, 329–346,
Elisa Lovecchio, Nicolas Gruber, and Matthias Münnich
Biogeosciences, 15, 5061–5091,Short summary
We find that the ocean's flow on scales of a few tens to a few hundred km has a central role in the lateral redistribution of the organic carbon from the coast to the open ocean. Narrow coastal filaments drive the offshore flux of organic carbon and strongly enhance its availability up to 1000 km from the coast. Eddies extend the flux up to 2000 km offshore containing 30 % of the organic matter in the open waters. Resolving these scales is essential to capture the coastal/open ocean coupling.
Ivy Frenger, Matthias Münnich, and Nicolas Gruber
Biogeosciences, 15, 4781–4798,Short summary
Although mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous in the Southern Ocean (SO), their regional and seasonal association with phytoplankton has not been quantified. We identify over 100 000 eddies and determine the associated phytoplankton biomass anomalies using satellite-based chlorophyll (Chl) as a proxy. The emerging Chl anomalies can be explained largely by lateral advection of Chl by eddies. This impact of eddies on phytoplankton may implicate downstream effects on SO biogeochemical properties.
Elisabeth Schlosser, F. Alexander Haumann, and Marilyn N. Raphael
The Cryosphere, 12, 1103–1119,Short summary
The atmospheric influence on the unusually early and strong decrease in Antarctic sea ice in the austral spring 2016 was investigated using data from the global forecast model of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. Weather situations related to warm, northerly flow conditions in the regions with large negative anomalies in sea ice extent and area were frequent and explain to a large part the observed melting. Additionally, oceanic influences might play a role.
Yu Liu, Nicolas Gruber, and Dominik Brunner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14145–14169,Short summary
We analyze fossil fuel signals in atmospheric CO2 over Europe using a high-resolution atmospheric transport model and diurnal emission data. We find that fossil fuel CO2 accounts for more than half of the atmospheric CO2 variations, mainly at diurnal timescales. The covariance of diurnal emission and transport also leads to a substantial rectification effect. Thus, the consideration of diurnal emissions and high-resolution transport is paramount for accurately modeling the fossil fuel signal.
Goulven G. Laruelle, Peter Landschützer, Nicolas Gruber, Jean-Louis Tison, Bruno Delille, and Pierre Regnier
Biogeosciences, 14, 4545–4561,
Jakob Zscheischler, Miguel D. Mahecha, Valerio Avitabile, Leonardo Calle, Nuno Carvalhais, Philippe Ciais, Fabian Gans, Nicolas Gruber, Jens Hartmann, Martin Herold, Kazuhito Ichii, Martin Jung, Peter Landschützer, Goulven G. Laruelle, Ronny Lauerwald, Dario Papale, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Poulter, Deepak Ray, Pierre Regnier, Christian Rödenbeck, Rosa M. Roman-Cuesta, Christopher Schwalm, Gianluca Tramontana, Alexandra Tyukavina, Riccardo Valentini, Guido van der Werf, Tristram O. West, Julie E. Wolf, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 14, 3685–3703,Short summary
Here we synthesize a wide range of global spatiotemporal observational data on carbon exchanges between the Earth surface and the atmosphere. A key challenge was to consistently combining observational products of terrestrial and aquatic surfaces. Our primary goal is to identify today’s key uncertainties and observational shortcomings that would need to be addressed in future measurement campaigns or expansions of in situ observatories.
Elisa Lovecchio, Nicolas Gruber, Matthias Münnich, and Zouhair Lachkar
Biogeosciences, 14, 3337–3369,Short summary
We find that a big portion of the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detrital organic matter produced near the northern African coast is laterally transported towards the open North Atlantic. This offshore flux sustains a relevant part of the biological activity in the open sea and reaches as far as the middle of the North Atlantic. Our results, obtained with a state-of-the-art model, highlight the fundamental role of the narrow but productive coastal ocean in sustaining global marine life.
Corinne Le Quéré, Erik T. Buitenhuis, Róisín Moriarty, Séverine Alvain, Olivier Aumont, Laurent Bopp, Sophie Chollet, Clare Enright, Daniel J. Franklin, Richard J. Geider, Sandy P. Harrison, Andrew G. Hirst, Stuart Larsen, Louis Legendre, Trevor Platt, I. Colin Prentice, Richard B. Rivkin, Sévrine Sailley, Shubha Sathyendranath, Nick Stephens, Meike Vogt, and Sergio M. Vallina
Biogeosciences, 13, 4111–4133,Short summary
We present a global biogeochemical model which incorporates ecosystem dynamics based on the representation of ten plankton functional types, and use the model to assess the relative roles of iron vs. grazing in determining phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean. Our results suggest that observed low phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean during summer is primarily explained by the dynamics of the Southern Ocean zooplankton community, despite iron limitation of phytoplankton growth.
Charlotte Laufkötter, Meike Vogt, Nicolas Gruber, Olivier Aumont, Laurent Bopp, Scott C. Doney, John P. Dunne, Judith Hauck, Jasmin G. John, Ivan D. Lima, Roland Seferian, and Christoph Völker
Biogeosciences, 13, 4023–4047,Short summary
We compare future projections in marine export production, generated by four ecosystem models under IPCC's high-emission scenario RCP8.5. While all models project decreases in export, they differ strongly regarding the drivers. The formation of sinking particles of organic matter is the most uncertain process with models not agreeing on either magnitude or the direction of change. Changes in diatom concentration are a strong driver for export in some models but of low significance in others.
C. Rödenbeck, D. C. E. Bakker, N. Gruber, Y. Iida, A. R. Jacobson, S. Jones, P. Landschützer, N. Metzl, S. Nakaoka, A. Olsen, G.-H. Park, P. Peylin, K. B. Rodgers, T. P. Sasse, U. Schuster, J. D. Shutler, V. Valsala, R. Wanninkhof, and J. Zeng
Biogeosciences, 12, 7251–7278,Short summary
This study investigates variations in the CO2 uptake of the ocean from year to year. These variations have been calculated from measurements of the surface-ocean carbon content by various different interpolation methods. The equatorial Pacific is estimated to be the region with the strongest year-to-year variations, tied to the El Nino phase. The global ocean CO2 uptake gradually increased from about the year 2000. The comparison of the interpolation methods identifies these findings as robust.
C. Laufkötter, M. Vogt, N. Gruber, M. Aita-Noguchi, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, E. Buitenhuis, S. C. Doney, J. Dunne, T. Hashioka, J. Hauck, T. Hirata, J. John, C. Le Quéré, I. D. Lima, H. Nakano, R. Seferian, I. Totterdell, M. Vichi, and C. Völker
Biogeosciences, 12, 6955–6984,Short summary
We analyze changes in marine net primary production (NPP) and its drivers for the 21st century in 9 marine ecosystem models under the RCP8.5 scenario. NPP decreases in 5 models and increases in 1 model; 3 models show no significant trend. The main drivers include stronger nutrient limitation, but in many models warming-induced increases in phytoplankton growth outbalance the nutrient effect. Temperature-driven increases in grazing and other loss processes cause a net decrease in biomass and NPP.
R. Arruda, P. H. R. Calil, A. A. Bianchi, S. C. Doney, N. Gruber, I. Lima, and G. Turi
Biogeosciences, 12, 5793–5809,Short summary
We investigate surface ocean pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes climatological variability through biogeochemical modeling in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Surface ocean pCO2 spatio-temporal variability was found to be controlled mainly by temperature and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC). Biological production, physical transport and solubility are the main controlling processes. With different behaviors on subtropical and subantarctic open ocean, and on inner/outer continental shelves.
B. Oney, S. Henne, N. Gruber, M. Leuenberger, I. Bamberger, W. Eugster, and D. Brunner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11147–11164,Short summary
We present a detailed analysis of a new greenhouse gas measurement network in the Swiss Plateau, situated between the Jura mountains and the Alps. We find the network's measurements to be information rich and suitable for studying surface carbon fluxes of the study region. However, we are limited by the high-resolution (2km) atmospheric transport model's ability to simulate meteorology at the individual measurement stations, especially at those situated in rough terrain.
A. Jahn, K. Lindsay, X. Giraud, N. Gruber, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, Z. Liu, and E. C. Brady
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2419–2434,Short summary
Carbon isotopes have been added to the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1). This paper describes the details of how the abiotic 14C tracer and the biotic 13C and 14C tracers were added to the existing ocean model of the CESM. In addition, it shows the first results of the new model features compared to observational data for the 1990s.
J. Martinez-Rey, L. Bopp, M. Gehlen, A. Tagliabue, and N. Gruber
Biogeosciences, 12, 4133–4148,
S. K. Lauvset, N. Gruber, P. Landschützer, A. Olsen, and J. Tjiputra
Biogeosciences, 12, 1285–1298,Short summary
This paper utilizes the SOCATv2 data product to calculate surface ocean pH. The pH data are divided into 17 biomes, and a linear regression is used to derive the long-term trend of pH in each biome. The results are consistent with the trends observed at time series stations. The uncertainties are too large for a mechanistic understanding of the driving forces behind the trend, but there are indications that concurrent changes in chemistry create spatial variability.
S. Sitch, P. Friedlingstein, N. Gruber, S. D. Jones, G. Murray-Tortarolo, A. Ahlström, S. C. Doney, H. Graven, C. Heinze, C. Huntingford, S. Levis, P. E. Levy, M. Lomas, B. Poulter, N. Viovy, S. Zaehle, N. Zeng, A. Arneth, G. Bonan, L. Bopp, J. G. Canadell, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, R. Ellis, M. Gloor, P. Peylin, S. L. Piao, C. Le Quéré, B. Smith, Z. Zhu, and R. Myneni
Biogeosciences, 12, 653–679,
F. Fendereski, M. Vogt, M. R. Payne, Z. Lachkar, N. Gruber, A. Salmanmahiny, and S. A. Hosseini
Biogeosciences, 11, 6451–6470,
P. Ciais, A. J. Dolman, A. Bombelli, R. Duren, A. Peregon, P. J. Rayner, C. Miller, N. Gobron, G. Kinderman, G. Marland, N. Gruber, F. Chevallier, R. J. Andres, G. Balsamo, L. Bopp, F.-M. Bréon, G. Broquet, R. Dargaville, T. J. Battin, A. Borges, H. Bovensmann, M. Buchwitz, J. Butler, J. G. Canadell, R. B. Cook, R. DeFries, R. Engelen, K. R. Gurney, C. Heinze, M. Heimann, A. Held, M. Henry, B. Law, S. Luyssaert, J. Miller, T. Moriyama, C. Moulin, R. B. Myneni, C. Nussli, M. Obersteiner, D. Ojima, Y. Pan, J.-D. Paris, S. L. Piao, B. Poulter, S. Plummer, S. Quegan, P. Raymond, M. Reichstein, L. Rivier, C. Sabine, D. Schimel, O. Tarasova, R. Valentini, R. Wang, G. van der Werf, D. Wickland, M. Williams, and C. Zehner
Biogeosciences, 11, 3547–3602,
G. Turi, Z. Lachkar, and N. Gruber
Biogeosciences, 11, 671–690,
P. Landschützer, N. Gruber, D. C. E. Bakker, U. Schuster, S. Nakaoka, M. R. Payne, T. P. Sasse, and J. Zeng
Biogeosciences, 10, 7793–7815,
C. Laufkötter, M. Vogt, and N. Gruber
Biogeosciences, 10, 7373–7393,
M. Vogt, T. Hashioka, M. R. Payne, E. T. Buitenhuis, C. Le Quéré, S. Alvain, M. N. Aita, L. Bopp, S. C. Doney, T. Hirata, I. Lima, S. Sailley, and Y. Yamanaka
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
T. Hashioka, M. Vogt, Y. Yamanaka, C. Le Quéré, E. T. Buitenhuis, M. N. Aita, S. Alvain, L. Bopp, T. Hirata, I. Lima, S. Sailley, and S. C. Doney
Biogeosciences, 10, 6833–6850,
F. A. Haumann, A. M. Batenburg, G. Pieterse, C. Gerbig, M. C. Krol, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9401–9413,
A. Schmittner, N. Gruber, A. C. Mix, R. M. Key, A. Tagliabue, and T. K. Westberry
Biogeosciences, 10, 5793–5816,
E. T. Buitenhuis, M. Vogt, R. Moriarty, N. Bednaršek, S. C. Doney, K. Leblanc, C. Le Quéré, Y.-W. Luo, C. O'Brien, T. O'Brien, J. Peloquin, R. Schiebel, and C. Swan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 227–239,
C. J. O'Brien, J. A. Peloquin, M. Vogt, M. Heinle, N. Gruber, P. Ajani, H. Andruleit, J. Arístegui, L. Beaufort, M. Estrada, D. Karentz, E. Kopczyńska, R. Lee, A. J. Poulton, T. Pritchard, and C. Widdicombe
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 259–276,
A. Lenton, B. Tilbrook, R. M. Law, D. Bakker, S. C. Doney, N. Gruber, M. Ishii, M. Hoppema, N. S. Lovenduski, R. J. Matear, B. I. McNeil, N. Metzl, S. E. Mikaloff Fletcher, P. M. S. Monteiro, C. Rödenbeck, C. Sweeney, and T. Takahashi
Biogeosciences, 10, 4037–4054,
S. Khatiwala, T. Tanhua, S. Mikaloff Fletcher, M. Gerber, S. C. Doney, H. D. Graven, N. Gruber, G. A. McKinley, A. Murata, A. F. Ríos, and C. L. Sabine
Biogeosciences, 10, 2169–2191,
J. Peloquin, C. Swan, N. Gruber, M. Vogt, H. Claustre, J. Ras, J. Uitz, R. Barlow, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, H. Dierssen, G. Ditullio, E. Fernandez, C. Gallienne, S. Gibb, R. Goericke, L. Harding, E. Head, P. Holligan, S. Hooker, D. Karl, M. Landry, R. Letelier, C. A. Llewellyn, M. Lomas, M. Lucas, A. Mannino, J.-C. Marty, B. G. Mitchell, F. Muller-Karger, N. Nelson, C. O'Brien, B. Prezelin, D. Repeta, W. O. Jr. Smith, D. Smythe-Wright, R. Stumpf, A. Subramaniam, K. Suzuki, C. Trees, M. Vernet, N. Wasmund, and S. Wright
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 109–123,
R. Wanninkhof, G. -H. Park, T. Takahashi, C. Sweeney, R. Feely, Y. Nojiri, N. Gruber, S. C. Doney, G. A. McKinley, A. Lenton, C. Le Quéré, C. Heinze, J. Schwinger, H. Graven, and S. Khatiwala
Biogeosciences, 10, 1983–2000,
U. Schuster, G. A. McKinley, N. Bates, F. Chevallier, S. C. Doney, A. R. Fay, M. González-Dávila, N. Gruber, S. Jones, J. Krijnen, P. Landschützer, N. Lefèvre, M. Manizza, J. Mathis, N. Metzl, A. Olsen, A. F. Rios, C. Rödenbeck, J. M. Santana-Casiano, T. Takahashi, R. Wanninkhof, and A. J. Watson
Biogeosciences, 10, 607–627,
C. Hauri, N. Gruber, M. Vogt, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, Z. Lachkar, A. Leinweber, A. M. P. McDonnell, M. Munnich, and G.-K. Plattner
Biogeosciences, 10, 193–216,
Y. Yara, M. Vogt, M. Fujii, H. Yamano, C. Hauri, M. Steinacher, N. Gruber, and Y. Yamanaka
Biogeosciences, 9, 4955–4968,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Open OceanPhosphorus cycling in the upper waters of the Mediterranean Sea (PEACETIME cruise): relative contribution of external and internal sourcesFast local warming is the main driver of recent deoxygenation in the northern Arabian SeaInfluence of atmospheric deposition on biogeochemical cycles in an oligotrophic ocean systemImpact of dust addition on the metabolism of Mediterranean plankton communities and carbon export under present and future conditions of pH and temperatureComparing CLE-AdCSV applications using SA and TAC to determine the Fe-binding characteristics of model ligands in seawaterImpact of dust addition on Mediterranean plankton communities under present and future conditions of pH and temperature: an experimental overviewReviews and syntheses: Trends in primary production in the Bay of Bengal – is it at a tipping point?N2 fixation in the Mediterranean Sea related to the composition of the diazotrophic community, and impact of dust under present and future environmental conditionsIncorporating the stable carbon isotope 13C in the ocean biogeochemical component of the Max Planck Institute Earth System ModelSeasonal cycling of zinc and cobalt in the south-eastern Atlantic along the GEOTRACES GA10 sectionCarbon export and fate beneath a dynamic upwelled filament off the California coastSeasonal flux patterns and carbon transport from low oxygen eddies at the Cape Verde Ocean Observatory: lessons learned from a time series sediment trap study (2009–2016)Contrasted release of insoluble elements (Fe, Al, rare earth elements, Th, Pa) after dust deposition in seawater: a tank experiment approachDeep chlorophyll maximum and nutricline in the Mediterranean Sea: emerging properties from a multi-platform assimilated biogeochemical model experimentSubsurface iron accumulation and rapid aluminium removal in the Mediterranean following African dust depositionOn the barium–oxygen consumption relationship in the Mediterranean Sea: implications for mesopelagic marine snow remineralizationCompound high-temperature and low-chlorophyll extremes in the ocean over the satellite periodCan machine learning extract the mechanisms controlling phytoplankton growth from large-scale observations? – A proof-of-concept studyReviews and syntheses: The biogeochemical cycle of silicon in the modern oceanOxygen budget of the north-western Mediterranean deep- convection regionCross-basin differences in the nutrient assimilation characteristics of induced phytoplankton blooms in the subtropical Pacific watersDynamics of the deep chlorophyll maximum in the Black Sea as depicted by BGC-Argo floatsNitrate assimilation and regeneration in the Barents Sea: insights from nitrate isotopesLong distance particle transport to the central Ionian SeaAssimilating synthetic Biogeochemical-Argo and ocean colour observations into a global ocean model to inform observing system designSouthern Ocean Biogeochemical Argo detect under-ice phytoplankton growth before sea ice retreatA new intermittent regime of convective ventilation threatens the Black Sea oxygenation statusReviews and syntheses: Present, past, and future of the oxygen minimum zone in the northern Indian OceanParticulate rare earth element behavior in the North Atlantic (GEOVIDE cruise)Elevated sources of cobalt in the Arctic OceanIncrease in ocean acidity variability and extremes under increasing atmospheric CO2Can ocean community production and respiration be determined by measuring high-frequency oxygen profiles from autonomous floats?Assessing the value of biogeochemical Argo profiles versus ocean color observations for biogeochemical model optimization in the Gulf of MexicoThe Southern Annular Mode (SAM) influences phytoplankton communities in the seasonal ice zone of the Southern OceanProfiling float observation of thermohaline staircases in the western Mediterranean Sea and impact on nutrient fluxesOcean carbonate system variability in the North Atlantic Subpolar surface water (1993–2017)Characterizing the surface microlayer in the Mediterranean Sea: trace metal concentrations and microbial plankton abundanceSpatial variations in silicate-to-nitrate ratios in Southern Ocean surface waters are controlled in the short term by physics rather than biologyPhytoplankton and dimethylsulfide dynamics at two contrasting Arctic ice edgesExperiment design and bacterial abundance control extracellular H2O2 concentrations during four series of mesocosm experimentsDissolved iron in the North Atlantic Ocean and Labrador Sea along the GEOVIDE section (GEOTRACES section GA01)No nitrogen fixation in the Bay of Bengal?Trends and decadal oscillations of oxygen and nutrients at 50 to 300 m depth in the equatorial and North PacificPhysical drivers of the nitrate seasonal variability in the Atlantic cold tongueCoccolithophore biodiversity controls carbonate export in the Southern OceanArctic (Svalbard islands) active and exported diatom stocks and cell health statusHow will the key marine calcifier Emiliania huxleyi respond to a warmer and more thermally variable ocean?Ideas and perspectives: Is dark carbon fixation relevant for oceanic primary production estimates?Sensitivity of ocean biogeochemistry to the iron supply from the Antarctic Ice Sheet explored with a biogeochemical modelIsotopic fractionation of carbon during uptake by phytoplankton across the South Atlantic subtropical convergence
Elvira Pulido-Villena, Karine Desboeufs, Kahina Djaoudi, France Van Wambeke, Stéphanie Barrillon, Andrea Doglioli, Anne Petrenko, Vincent Taillandier, Franck Fu, Tiphanie Gaillard, Sophie Guasco, Sandra Nunige, Sylvain Triquet, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 5871–5889,Short summary
We report on phosphorus dynamics in the surface layer of the Mediterranean Sea. Highly sensitive phosphate measurements revealed vertical gradients above the phosphacline. The relative contribution of diapycnal fluxes to total external supply of phosphate to the mixed layer decreased towards the east, where atmospheric deposition dominated. Taken together, external sources of phosphate contributed little to total supply, which was mainly sustained by enzymatic hydrolysis of organic phosphorus.
Zouhair Lachkar, Michael Mehari, Muchamad Al Azhar, Marina Lévy, and Shafer Smith
Biogeosciences, 18, 5831–5849,Short summary
This study documents and quantifies a significant recent oxygen decline in the upper layers of the Arabian Sea and explores its drivers. Using a modeling approach we show that the fast local warming of sea surface is the main factor causing this oxygen drop. Concomitant summer monsoon intensification contributes to this trend, although to a lesser extent. These changes exacerbate oxygen depletion in the subsurface, threatening marine habitats and altering the local biogeochemistry.
France Van Wambeke, Vincent Taillandier, Karine Desboeufs, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Julie Dinasquet, Anja Engel, Emilio Marañón, Céline Ridame, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 5699–5717,Short summary
Simultaneous in situ measurements of (dry and wet) atmospheric deposition and biogeochemical stocks and fluxes in the sunlit waters of the open Mediterranean Sea revealed complex physical and biological processes occurring within the mixed layer. Nitrogen (N) budgets were computed to compare the sources and sinks of N in the mixed layer. The transitory effect observed after a wet dust deposition impacted the microbial food web down to the deep chlorophyll maximum.
Frédéric Gazeau, France Van Wambeke, Emilio Marañón, Maria Pérez-Lorenzo, Samir Alliouane, Christian Stolpe, Thierry Blasco, Nathalie Leblond, Birthe Zäncker, Anja Engel, Barbara Marie, Julie Dinasquet, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 5423–5446,Short summary
Our study shows that the impact of dust deposition on primary production depends on the initial composition and metabolic state of the tested community and is constrained by the amount of nutrients added, to sustain both the fast response of heterotrophic prokaryotes and the delayed one of phytoplankton. Under future environmental conditions, heterotrophic metabolism will be more impacted than primary production, therefore reducing the capacity of surface waters to sequester anthropogenic CO2.
Loes J. A. Gerringa, Martha Gledhill, Indah Ardiningsih, Niels Muntjewerf, and Luis M. Laglera
Biogeosciences, 18, 5265–5289,Short summary
For 3 decades, competitive ligand exchange–adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry was used to estimate the Fe-binding capacity of organic matter in seawater. In this paper the performance of the competing ligands is compared through the analysis of a series of model ligands. The main finding of this paper is that the determined speciation parameters are not independent of the application, making interpretation of Fe speciation data more complex than it was thought before.
Frédéric Gazeau, Céline Ridame, France Van Wambeke, Samir Alliouane, Christian Stolpe, Jean-Olivier Irisson, Sophie Marro, Jean-Michel Grisoni, Guillaume De Liège, Sandra Nunige, Kahina Djaoudi, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, Philippe Catala, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 5011–5034,Short summary
This paper shows that the impacts of Saharan dust deposition in different Mediterranean basins are as strong as those observed in coastal waters but differed substantially between the three tested stations, differences attributed to variable initial metabolic states. A stronger impact of warming and acidification on mineralization suggests a decreased capacity of Mediterranean surface communities to sequester CO2 following the deposition of atmospheric particles in the coming decades.
Carolin R. Löscher
Biogeosciences, 18, 4953–4963,Short summary
The Bay of Bengal (BoB) is classically seen as an ocean region with low primary production, which has been predicted to decrease even further. Here, the importance of such a trend is used to explore what could happen to the BoB's low-oxygen core waters if primary production decreases. Lower biological production leads to less oxygen loss in deeper waters by respiration; thus it could be that oxygen will not further decrease and the BoB will not become anoxic, different to other low-oxygen areas.
Céline Ridame, Julie Dinasquet, Søren Hallstrøm, Estelle Bigeard, Lasse Riemann, France Van Wambeke, Matthieu Bressac, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Vincent Taillandier, Frederic Gazeau, Antonio Tover-Sanchez, Anne-Claire Baudoux, and Cécile Guieu
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
We show that in the Mediterranean Sea spatial variability in N2 fixation is related to the diazotrophic community composition reflecting different nutrient requirements among species. Nutrient supply by Saharan dust is of great importance to diazotrophs as shown by the strong stimulation of N2 fixation after a simulated dust event under present and future climate conditions; the magnitude of stimulation depends on the degree of limitation related to the diazotrophic community composition.
Bo Liu, Katharina D. Six, and Tatiana Ilyina
Biogeosciences, 18, 4389–4429,Short summary
We incorporate a new representation of the stable carbon isotope 13C in a global ocean biogeochemistry model. The model well reproduces the present-day 13C observations. We find a recent observation-based estimate of the oceanic 13C Suess effect (the decrease in 13C/12C ratio due to uptake of anthropogenic CO2; 13CSE) possibly underestimates 13CSE by 0.1–0.26 per mil. The new model will aid in better understanding the past ocean state via comparison to 13C/12C measurements from sediment cores.
Neil J. Wyatt, Angela Milne, Eric P. Achterberg, Thomas J. Browning, Heather A. Bouman, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, and Maeve C. Lohan
Biogeosciences, 18, 4265–4280,Short summary
Using data collected during two expeditions to the South Atlantic Ocean, we investigated how the interaction between external sources and biological activity influenced the availability of the trace metals zinc and cobalt. This is important as both metals play essential roles in the metabolism and growth of phytoplankton and thus influence primary productivity of the oceans. We found seasonal changes in both processes that helped explain upper-ocean trace metal cycling.
Hannah L. Bourne, James K. B. Bishop, Elizabeth J. Connors, and Todd J. Wood
Biogeosciences, 18, 3053–3086,Short summary
To learn how the biological carbon pump works in productive coastal upwelling systems, four autonomous carbon flux explorers measured carbon flux through the twilight zone beneath an offshore-flowing filament of biologically productive water. Strikingly different particle classes dominated the carbon fluxes during successive stages of the filament evolution over 30 d. Both flux and transfer efficiency were far greater than expected, suggesting an outsized filament impact in California waters.
Gerhard Fischer, Oscar Romero, Johannes Karstensen, Nasrollah Moradi, Morten Iversen, Götz Ruhland, Marco Klann, and Arne Körtzinger
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Low-oxygen eddies in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic can form an oasis for phytoplankton growth. Here we report on particle flux dynamics at the oligotrophic Cape Verde Ocean Observatory. We observed consistent flux patterns during the passages of low oxygen eddies. We found distinct flux peaks in late winter, clearly exceeding background fluxes. Our findings suggest that the low-oxygen eddies sequester higher organic carbon than expected for oligotrophic settings.
Matthieu Roy-Barman, Lorna Foliot, Eric Douville, Nathalie Leblond, Fréderic Gazeau, Matthieu Bressac, Thibaut Wagener, Céline Ridame, Karine Desboeufs, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 2663–2678,Short summary
The release of insoluble elements such as aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th) and protactinium (Pa) when Saharan dust falls over the Mediterranean Sea was studied during tank experiments under present and future climate conditions. Each element exhibited different dissolution kinetics and dissolution fractions (always lower than a few percent). Changes in temperature and/or pH under greenhouse conditions lead to a lower Th release and a higher light REE release.
Anna Teruzzi, Giorgio Bolzon, Laura Feudale, and Gianpiero Cossarini
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
During summer, maxima of phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration (DCM) occur in the subsurface of the Mediterranean Sea, and can play a relevant role in carbon sequestration into the ocean interior. A numerical model based on in situ and satellite observations provides insights on the wide range of DCM conditions across the relatively small Mediterranean Sea, and shows a western DCM that is 25 % shallower and with higher phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration than in the eastern Mediterranean.
Matthieu Bressac, Thibaut Wagener, Nathalie Leblond, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Céline Ridame, Samuel Albani, Sophie Guasco, Aurélie Dufour, Stéphanie Jacquet, François Dulac, Karine Desboeufs, and Cécile Guieu
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Phytoplankton growth is limited by the availability of iron in about 50 % of the ocean. Atmospheric deposition of desert dust represents a key source of iron. Here, we present direct observations of dust deposition in the Mediterranean Sea. A key finding is that the input of iron from dust primarily occurred in the deep ocean, while previous studies mainly focused on the surface ocean. This new insight will enable us to better represent controls on global marine productivity in models.
Stéphanie H. M. Jacquet, Dominique Lefèvre, Christian Tamburini, Marc Garel, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Nagib Bhairy, and Sophie Guasco
Biogeosciences, 18, 2205–2212,Short summary
We present new data concerning the relation between biogenic barium (Baxs, a tracer of carbon remineralization at mesopelagic depths), O2 consumption and prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) in the Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of this paper is to improve our understanding of the relation between Baxs, PHP and O2 and to test the validity of the Dehairs transfer function in the Mediterranean Sea. This relation has never been tested in the Mediterranean Sea.
Natacha Le Grix, Jakob Zscheischler, Charlotte Laufkötter, Cecile S. Rousseaux, and Thomas L. Frölicher
Biogeosciences, 18, 2119–2137,Short summary
Marine ecosystems could suffer severe damage from the co-occurrence of a marine heat wave with extremely low chlorophyll concentration. Here, we provide a first assessment of compound marine heat wave and low-chlorophyll events in the global ocean from 1998 to 2018. We reveal hotspots of these compound events in the equatorial Pacific and in the Arabian Sea and show that they mostly occur in summer at high latitudes and their frequency is modulated by large-scale modes of climate variability.
Christopher Holder and Anand Gnanadesikan
Biogeosciences, 18, 1941–1970,Short summary
A challenge for marine ecologists in studying phytoplankton is linking small-scale relationships found in a lab to broader relationships observed on large scales in the environment. We investigated whether machine learning (ML) could help connect these small- and large-scale relationships. ML was able to provide qualitative information about the small-scale processes from large-scale information. This method could help identify important relationships from observations in future research.
Paul J. Tréguer, Jill N. Sutton, Mark Brzezinski, Matthew A. Charette, Timothy Devries, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Claudia Ehlert, Jon Hawkings, Aude Leynaert, Su Mei Liu, Natalia Llopis Monferrer, María López-Acosta, Manuel Maldonado, Shaily Rahman, Lihua Ran, and Olivier Rouxel
Biogeosciences, 18, 1269–1289,Short summary
Silicon is the second most abundant element of the Earth's crust. In this review, we show that silicon inputs and outputs, to and from the world ocean, are 57 % and 37 % higher, respectively, than previous estimates. These changes are significant, modifying factors such as the geochemical residence time of silicon, which is now about 8000 years and 2 times faster than previously assumed. We also update the total biogenic silica pelagic production and provide an estimate for sponge production.
Caroline Ulses, Claude Estournel, Marine Fourrier, Laurent Coppola, Fayçal Kessouri, Dominique Lefèvre, and Patrick Marsaleix
Biogeosciences, 18, 937–960,Short summary
We analyse the seasonal cycle of O2 and estimate an annual O2 budget in the north-western Mediterranean deep-convection region, using a numerical model. We show that this region acts as a large sink of atmospheric O2 and as a major source of O2 for the western Mediterranean Sea. The decrease in the deep convection intensity predicted in recent projections may have important consequences on the overall uptake of O2 in the Mediterranean Sea and on the O2 exchanges with the Atlantic Ocean.
Fuminori Hashihama, Hiroaki Saito, Taketoshi Kodama, Saori Yasui-Tamura, Jota Kanda, Iwao Tanita, Hiroshi Ogawa, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, Philip W. Boyd, and Ken Furuya
Biogeosciences, 18, 897–915,Short summary
We investigated the nutrient assimilation characteristics of deep-water-induced phytoplankton blooms across the subtropical North and South Pacific Ocean. Nutrient drawdown ratios of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate were anomalously low in the western North Pacific, likely due to the high phosphate uptake capability of low-phosphate-adapted phytoplankton. The anomalous phosphate uptake might influence the maintenance of chronic phosphate depletion in the western North Pacific.
Florian Ricour, Arthur Capet, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Bruno Delille, and Marilaure Grégoire
Biogeosciences, 18, 755–774,Short summary
This paper addresses the phenology of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) in the Black Sea (BS). We show that the DCM forms in March at a density level set by the winter mixed layer. It maintains this location until June, suggesting an influence of the DCM on light and nutrient profiles rather than mere adaptation to external factors. In summer, the DCM concentrates ~55 % of the chlorophyll in a 10 m layer at ~35 m depth and should be considered a major feature of the BS phytoplankton dynamics.
Robyn E. Tuerena, Joanne Hopkins, Raja S. Ganeshram, Louisa Norman, Camille de la Vega, Rachel Jeffreys, and Claire Mahaffey
Biogeosciences, 18, 637–653,Short summary
The Barents Sea is a rapidly changing shallow sea within the Arctic. Here, nitrate, an essential nutrient, is fully consumed by algae in surface waters during summer months. Nitrate is efficiently regenerated in the Barents Sea, and there is no evidence for nitrogen loss from the sediments by denitrification, which is prevalent on other Arctic shelves. This suggests that nitrogen availability in the Barents Sea is largely determined by the supply of nutrients in water masses from the Atlantic.
Léo Berline, Andrea Michelangelo Doglioli, Anne Petrenko, Stéphanie Barrillon, Boris Espinasse, Frederic A. C. Le Moigne, François Simon-Bot, Melilotus Thyssen, and François Carlotti
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
While Ionian Sea is considered as a nutrient depleted and low phytoplankton biomass area, it is a crossroad for water mass circulation. In the central Ionian Sea, we observed a strong contrast in particle distribution across a relatively short distance. Using remote sensing and Lagrangian simulations, we suggest that this contrast originate from long distance transport of particles from the north, west and east of Ionian Sea, where phytoplankton production was more intense.
Biogeosciences, 18, 509–534,Short summary
Biogeochemical-Argo floats are starting to routinely measure ocean chlorophyll, nutrients, oxygen, and pH. This study generated synthetic observations representing two potential Biogeochemical-Argo observing system designs and created a data assimilation scheme to combine them with an ocean model. The proposed system of 1000 floats brought clear benefits to model results, with additional floats giving further benefit. Existing satellite ocean colour observations gave complementary information.
Mark Hague and Marcello Vichi
Biogeosciences, 18, 25–38,Short summary
This paper examines the question of what causes the rapid spring growth of microscopic marine algae (phytoplankton) in the ice-covered ocean surrounding Antarctica. One prominent hypothesis proposes that the melting of sea ice is the primary cause, while our results suggest that this is only part of the explanation. In particular, we show that phytoplankton are able to start growing before the sea ice melts appreciably, much earlier than previously thought.
Arthur Capet, Luc Vandenbulcke, and Marilaure Grégoire
Biogeosciences, 17, 6507–6525,Short summary
The Black Sea is 2000 m deep, but, due to limited ventilation, only about the upper 100 m contains enough oxygen to support marine life such as fish. This oxygenation depth has been shown to be decreasing (1955–2019). Here, we evidence that atmospheric warming induced a clear shift in an important ventilation mechanism. We highlight the impact of this shift on oxygenation. There are important implications for marine life and carbon and nutrient cycling if this new ventilation regime persists.
Tim Rixen, Greg Cowie, Birgit Gaye, Joaquim Goes, Helga do Rosário Gomes, Raleigh R. Hood, Zouhair Lachkar, Henrike Schmidt, Joachim Segschneider, and Arvind Singh
Biogeosciences, 17, 6051–6080,Short summary
The northern Indian Ocean hosts an extensive oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which intensified due to human-induced global changes. This includes the occurrence of anoxic events on the Indian shelf and affects benthic ecosystems and the pelagic ecosystem structure in the Arabian Sea. Consequences for biogeochemical cycles are unknown, which, in addition to the poor representation of mesoscale features, reduces the reliability of predictions of the future OMZ development in the northern Indian Ocean.
Marion Lagarde, Nolwenn Lemaitre, Hélène Planquette, Mélanie Grenier, Moustafa Belhadj, Pascale Lherminier, and Catherine Jeandel
Biogeosciences, 17, 5539–5561,
Randelle M. Bundy, Alessandro Tagliabue, Nicholas J. Hawco, Peter L. Morton, Benjamin S. Twining, Mariko Hatta, Abigail E. Noble, Mattias R. Cape, Seth G. John, Jay T. Cullen, and Mak A. Saito
Biogeosciences, 17, 4745–4767,Short summary
Cobalt (Co) is an essential nutrient for ocean microbes and is scarce in most areas of the ocean. This study measured Co concentrations in the Arctic Ocean for the first time and found that Co levels are extremely high in the surface waters of the Canadian Arctic. Although the Co primarily originates from the shelf, the high concentrations persist throughout the central Arctic. Co in the Arctic appears to be increasing over time and might be a source of Co to the North Atlantic.
Friedrich A. Burger, Jasmin G. John, and Thomas L. Frölicher
Biogeosciences, 17, 4633–4662,Short summary
Ensemble simulations of an Earth system model reveal that ocean acidity extremes have increased in the past few decades and are projected to increase further in terms of frequency, intensity, duration, and volume extent. The increase is not only caused by the long-term ocean acidification due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2, but also due to changes in short-term variability. The increase in ocean acidity extremes may enhance the risk of detrimental impacts on marine organisms.
Christopher Gordon, Katja Fennel, Clark Richards, Lynn K. Shay, and Jodi K. Brewster
Biogeosciences, 17, 4119–4134,Short summary
We describe a method for correcting errors in oxygen optode measurements on autonomous platforms in the ocean. The errors result from the relatively slow response time of the sensor. The correction method includes an in situ determination of the effective response time and requires the time stamps of the individual measurements. It is highly relevant for the BGC-Argo program and also applicable to gliders. We also explore if diurnal changes in oxygen can be obtained from profiling floats.
Bin Wang, Katja Fennel, Liuqian Yu, and Christopher Gordon
Biogeosciences, 17, 4059–4074,Short summary
We assess trade-offs between different types of biological observations, specifically satellite ocean color and BGC-Argo profiles and the benefits of combining both for optimizing a biogeochemical model of the Gulf of Mexico. Using all available observations leads to significant improvements in observed and unobserved variables (including primary production and C export). Our results highlight the significant benefits of BGC-Argo measurements for biogeochemical model optimization and validation.
Bruce L. Greaves, Andrew T. Davidson, Alexander D. Fraser, John P. McKinlay, Andrew Martin, Andrew McMinn, and Simon W. Wright
Biogeosciences, 17, 3815–3835,Short summary
We observed that variation in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) over 11 years showed a relationship with the species composition of hard-shelled phytoplankton in the seasonal ice zone (SIZ) of the Southern Ocean. Phytoplankton in the SIZ are productive during the southern spring and summer when the area is ice-free, with production feeding most Antarctic life. The SAM is known to be increasing with climate change, and changes in phytoplankton in the SIZ may have implications for higher life forms.
Vincent Taillandier, Louis Prieur, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Maurizio Ribera d'Alcalà, and Elvira Pulido-Villena
Biogeosciences, 17, 3343–3366,Short summary
This study addresses the role played by vertical diffusion in the nutrient enrichment of the Levantine intermediate waters, a process particularly relevant inside thermohaline staircases. Thanks to a high profiling frequency over a 4-year period, BGC-Argo float observations reveal the temporal continuity of the layering patterns encountered during the cruise PEACETIME and their impact on vertical and lateral transfers of nitrate between the deep reservoir and the surface productive zone.
Coraline Leseurre, Claire Lo Monaco, Gilles Reverdin, Nicolas Metzl, Jonathan Fin, Solveig Olafsdottir, and Virginie Racapé
Biogeosciences, 17, 2553–2577,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the evolution of CO2 uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Subpolar surface water. Our results show an important reduction in the capacity of the ocean to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere (1993–2007), due to a rapid increase in the fCO2 and associated with a rapid decrease in pH. Conversely, data obtained during the last decade (2008–2017) show a stagnation of fCO2 (increasing the ocean sink for CO2) and pH.
Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Araceli Rodríguez-Romero, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Franck Fu, Emilio Marañón, María Pérez-Lorenzo, Matthieu Bressac, Thibaut Wagener, Sylvain Triquet, Guillaume Siour, Karine Desboeufs, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 17, 2349–2364,Short summary
Residence times of particulate metals derived from aerosol deposition in the Sea Surface Microlayer of the Mediterranean Sea ranged from a couple of minutes (e.g., for Fe) to a few hours (e.g., for Cu). Microbial activity seems to play an important role in in this process and in the concentration and distribution of metals between diferent water layers.
Pieter Demuynck, Toby Tyrrell, Alberto Naveira Garabato, Mark Christopher Moore, and Adrian Peter Martin
Biogeosciences, 17, 2289–2314,Short summary
The availability of macronutrients N and Si is of key importance to sustain life in the Southern Ocean. N and Si are available in abundance at the southern boundary of the Southern Ocean due to constant supply from the deep ocean. In the more northern regions of the Southern Ocean, a decline in macronutrient concentration is noticed, especially strong for Si rather than N. This paper uses a simplified biogeochemical model to investigate processes responsible for this decline in concentration.
Martine Lizotte, Maurice Levasseur, Virginie Galindo, Margaux Gourdal, Michel Gosselin, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Marjolaine Blais, Joannie Charette, and Rachel Hussherr
Biogeosciences, 17, 1557–1581,Short summary
This study brings further support to the premise that the prevalence of younger and thinner icescapes over older and thicker ones in the Canadian High Arctic favors the early development of under-ice microorganisms as well as their production of the climate-relevant gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). Given the rapid rate of climate-driven changes in Arctic sea ice, our results suggest implications for the timing and magnitude of DMS pulses in the Arctic, with ramifications for climate forecasting.
Mark J. Hopwood, Nicolas Sanchez, Despo Polyviou, Øystein Leiknes, Julián Alberto Gallego-Urrea, Eric P. Achterberg, Murat V. Ardelan, Javier Aristegui, Lennart Bach, Sengul Besiktepe, Yohann Heriot, Ioanna Kalantzi, Tuba Terbıyık Kurt, Ioulia Santi, Tatiana M. Tsagaraki, and David Turner
Biogeosciences, 17, 1309–1326,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is formed naturally in sunlight-exposed water by photochemistry. At high concentrations it is undesirable to biological cells because it is a stressor. Here, across a range of incubation experiments in diverse marine environments (Gran Canaria, the Mediterranean, Patagonia and Svalbard), we determine that two factors consistently affect the H2O2 concentrations irrespective of geographical location: bacteria abundance and experiment design.
Manon Tonnard, Hélène Planquette, Andrew R. Bowie, Pier van der Merwe, Morgane Gallinari, Floriane Desprez de Gésincourt, Yoan Germain, Arthur Gourain, Marion Benetti, Gilles Reverdin, Paul Tréguer, Julia Boutorh, Marie Cheize, François Lacan, Jan-Lukas Menzel Barraqueta, Leonardo Pereira-Contreira, Rachel Shelley, Pascale Lherminier, and Géraldine Sarthou
Biogeosciences, 17, 917–943,Short summary
We investigated the spatial distribution of dissolved Fe during spring 2014, in order to understand the processes influencing the biogeochemical cycle in the North Atlantic. Our results highlighted elevated Fe close to riverine inputs at the Iberian Margin and glacial inputs at the Newfoundland and Greenland margins. Atmospheric deposition appeared to be a minor source of Fe. Convection was an important source of Fe in the Irminger Sea, which was depleted in Fe relative to nitrate.
Carolin R. Löscher, Wiebke Mohr, Hermann W. Bange, and Donald E. Canfield
Biogeosciences, 17, 851–864,Short summary
Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are ocean areas severely depleted in oxygen as a result of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Biologically, organic material is produced in the sea surface and exported to deeper waters, where it respires. In the Bay of Bengal (BoB), an OMZ is present, but there are traces of oxygen left. Our study now suggests that this is because one key process, nitrogen fixation, is absent in the BoB, thus preventing primary production and consecutive respiration.
Lothar Stramma, Sunke Schmidtko, Steven J. Bograd, Tsuneo Ono, Tetjana Ross, Daisuke Sasano, and Frank A. Whitney
Biogeosciences, 17, 813–831,Short summary
The influence of climate signals in the Pacific, especially the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, as well as El Niño–La Niña and an 18.6-year nodal tidal cycle on oxygen and nutrient trends is investigated. At different locations in the Pacific Ocean different climate signals dominate. Hence, not only trends related to warming but also the influence of climate signals need to be investigated to understand oxygen and nutrient changes in the ocean.
Marie-Hélène Radenac, Julien Jouanno, Christine Carine Tchamabi, Mesmin Awo, Bernard Bourlès, Sabine Arnault, and Olivier Aumont
Biogeosciences, 17, 529–545,Short summary
Satellite data and a remarkable set of in situ measurements show a main bloom of microscopic seaweed, the phytoplankton, in summer and a secondary bloom in December in the central equatorial Atlantic. They are driven by a strong vertical supply of nitrate in May–July and a shorter and moderate supply in November. In between, transport of low-nitrate water from the west explains most nitrate losses in the sunlit layer. Horizontal eddy-induced processes also contribute to seasonal nitrate removal.
Andrés S. Rigual Hernández, Thomas W. Trull, Scott D. Nodder, José A. Flores, Helen Bostock, Fátima Abrantes, Ruth S. Eriksen, Francisco J. Sierro, Diana M. Davies, Anne-Marie Ballegeer, Miguel A. Fuertes, and Lisa C. Northcote
Biogeosciences, 17, 245–263,Short summary
Coccolithophores account for a major fraction of the carbonate produced in the world's oceans. However, their contribution in the subantarctic Southern Ocean remains undocumented. We quantitatively partition calcium carbonate fluxes amongst coccolithophore species in the Australian–New Zealand sector of the Southern Ocean. We provide new insights into the importance of species other than Emiliania huxleyi in the carbon cycle and assess their possible response to projected environmental change.
Susana Agustí, Jeffrey W. Krause, Israel A. Marquez, Paul Wassmann, Svein Kristiansen, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 35–45,Short summary
We found that 24 % of the total diatoms community in the Arctic water column (450 m depth) was located below the photic layer. Healthy diatom communities in active spring–bloom stages remained in the photic layer. Dying diatom communities exported a large fraction of the biomass to the aphotic zone, fuelling carbon sequestration and benthic ecosystems in the Arctic. The results of the study conform to a conceptual model where diatoms grow during the bloom until silicic acid stocks are depleted.
Xinwei Wang, Feixue Fu, Pingping Qu, Joshua D. Kling, Haibo Jiang, Yahui Gao, and David A. Hutchins
Biogeosciences, 16, 4393–4409,Short summary
In this study, we examine the responses of E. huxleyi to a future warmer and more thermally variable ocean. Elevated temperatures and thermal variation have negative effects on growth rate and physiology that are especially pronounced at high temperatures, but high-frequency thermal variation may reduce the risk of extreme high-temperature events. These findings have potentially large implications for ocean productivity and marine biogeochemical cycles under a future changing climate.
Federico Baltar and Gerhard J. Herndl
Biogeosciences, 16, 3793–3799,Short summary
Around half of the global primary production (PP) is produced in the ocean. Here we quantified how much oceanic PP estimates would increase if we included the dark DIC fixation rates (which are usually excluded in the carbon-14 method) into the PP estimation. We found that the inclusion of dark DIC fixation would increase PP estimates by 5–22 %. This represents ca. 1.2 to 11 Pg C yr−1 of newly synthesized organic carbon available for the marine food web.
Renaud Person, Olivier Aumont, Gurvan Madec, Martin Vancoppenolle, Laurent Bopp, and Nacho Merino
Biogeosciences, 16, 3583–3603,Short summary
The Antarctic Ice Sheet is considered a possibly important but largely overlooked source of iron (Fe). Here we explore its fertilization capacity by evaluating the response of marine biogeochemistry to Fe release from icebergs and ice shelves in a global ocean model. Large regional impacts are simulated, leading to only modest primary production and carbon export increases at the scale of the Southern Ocean. Large uncertainties are due to low observational constraints on modeling choices.
Robyn E. Tuerena, Raja S. Ganeshram, Matthew P. Humphreys, Thomas J. Browning, Heather Bouman, and Alexander P. Piotrowski
Biogeosciences, 16, 3621–3635,Short summary
The carbon isotopes in algae can be used to predict food sources and environmental change. We explore how dissolved carbon is taken up by algae in the South Atlantic Ocean and how this affects their carbon isotope signature. We find that cell size controls isotope fractionation. We use our results to investigate how climate change may impact the carbon isotopes in algae. We suggest a shift to smaller algae in this region would decrease the carbon isotope ratio at the base of the food web.
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Using a regional ocean model, we find that coccolithophore biomass in the Southern Ocean is highest in the subantarctic in late summer when diatom growth becomes limited by silicate. We show that zooplankton grazing is crucial to explain phytoplankton biomass distributions in this area and conclude that assessments of future distributions should not only consider physical and chemical factors (temperature, light, nutrients, pH), but also interactions with other phytoplankton or zooplankton.
Using a regional ocean model, we find that coccolithophore biomass in the Southern Ocean is...