Articles | Volume 17, issue 16
Research article 26 Aug 2020
Research article | 26 Aug 2020
Linking tundra vegetation, snow, soil temperature, and permafrost
Inge Grünberg et al.
No articles found.
Katharina Jentzsch, Julia Boike, and Thomas Foken
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Very small CO2 fluxes are measured at night and in Arctic regions, for example. Under these conditions, if the sensible heat flux is not close to zero, the WPL correction will take values in the order of the flux. For these cases, a special quality control is proposed.
Anna-Maria Virkkala, Susan M. Natali, Brendan M. Rogers, Jennifer D. Watts, Kathleen Savage, Sara June Connon, Marguerite Mauritz, Edward A. G. Schuur, Darcy Peter, Christina Minions, Julia Nojeim, Roisin Commane, Craig A. Emmerton, Mathias Goeckede, Manuel Helbig, David Holl, Hiroki Iwata, Hideki Kobayashi, Pasi Kolari, Efrén López-Blanco, Maija E. Marushchak, Mikhail Mastepanov, Lutz Merbold, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Matthias Peichl, Torsten Sachs, Oliver Sonnentag, Masahito Ueyama, Carolina Voigt, Mika Aurela, Julia Boike, Gerardo Celis, Namyi Chae, Torben R. Christensen, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Sigrid Dengel, Han Dolman, Colin W. Edgar, Bo Elberling, Eugenie Euskirchen, Achim Grelle, Juha Hatakka, Elyn Humphreys, Järvi Järveoja, Ayumi Kotani, Lars Kutzbach, Tuomas Laurila, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Yojiro Matsuura, Gesa Meyer, Mats B. Nilsson, Steven F. Oberbauer, Sang-Jong Park, Roman Petrov, Anatoly S. Prokushkin, Christopher Schulze, Vincent L. St.Louis, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, William Quinton, Andrej Varlagin, Donatella Zona, and Viacheslav I. Zyryanov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
The effects of climate warming on carbon cycling across the Arctic-Boreal Zone (ABZ) remains poorly understood due to the relatively limited distribution of ABZ flux sites. Fortunately, this flux network is constantly increasing, but new measurements are published in various platforms, making it challenging to understand the ABZ carbon cycle as a whole. Here, we compiled a new database of Arctic-Boreal CO2 fluxes to help facilitate large-scale assessments of the ABZ carbon cycle.
Lydia Stolpmann, Caroline Coch, Anne Morgenstern, Julia Boike, Michael Fritz, Ulrike Herzschuh, Kathleen Stoof-Leichsenring, Yury Dvornikov, Birgit Heim, Josefine Lenz, Amy Larsen, Katey Walter Anthony, Benjamin Jones, Karen Frey, and Guido Grosse
Biogeosciences, 18, 3917–3936,Short summary
Our new database summarizes DOC concentrations of 2167 water samples from 1833 lakes in permafrost regions across the Arctic to provide insights into linkages between DOC and environment. We found increasing lake DOC concentration with decreasing permafrost extent and higher DOC concentrations in boreal permafrost sites compared to tundra sites. Our study shows that DOC concentration depends on the environmental properties of a lake, especially permafrost extent, ecoregion, and vegetation.
Philipp Bernhard, Simon Zwieback, Nora Bergner, and Irena Hajnsek
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for TCShort summary
We present an investigation of an arctic thaw slumps in 10 study regions across the arctic. These slumps have major impacts on the arctic hydrology and ecosystems, and can also reinforce climate change by the mobilization carbon. Using time-series of digital elevation models we found that thaw slump change rates follow a specific type of distribution that is known from landslides in more temperate landscapes and that the 2D-area change is strongly related to the 3D-volumetric change.
Juditha Undine Schmidt, Bernd Etzelmüller, Thomas Vikhamar Schuler, Florence Magnin, Julia Boike, Moritz Langer, and Sebastian Westermann
The Cryosphere, 15, 2491–2509,Short summary
This study presents rock surface temperatures (RSTs) of steep high-Arctic rock walls on Svalbard from 2016 to 2020. The field data show that coastal cliffs are characterized by warmer RSTs than inland locations during winter seasons. By running model simulations, we analyze factors leading to that effect, calculate the surface energy balance and simulate different future scenarios. Both field data and model results can contribute to a further understanding of RST in high-Arctic rock walls.
Simon Zwieback and Franz J. Meyer
The Cryosphere, 15, 2041–2055,Short summary
Thawing of ice-rich permafrost leads to subsidence and slumping, which can compromise Arctic infrastructure. However, we lack fine-scale maps of permafrost ground ice, chiefly because it is usually invisible at the surface. We show that subsidence at the end of summer serves as a
fingerprintwith which near-surface permafrost ground ice can be identified. As this can be done with satellite data, this method may help improve ground ice maps and thus sustainably steward the Arctic.
Jan Nitzbon, Moritz Langer, Léo C. P. Martin, Sebastian Westermann, Thomas Schneider von Deimling, and Julia Boike
The Cryosphere, 15, 1399–1422,Short summary
We used a numerical model to investigate how small-scale landscape heterogeneities affect permafrost thaw under climate-warming scenarios. Our results show that representing small-scale heterogeneities in the model can decide whether a landscape is water-logged or well-drained in the future. This in turn affects how fast permafrost thaws under warming. Our research emphasizes the importance of considering small-scale processes in model assessments of permafrost thaw under climate change.
Simone Maria Stuenzi, Julia Boike, William Cable, Ulrike Herzschuh, Stefan Kruse, Luidmila A. Pestryakova, Thomas Schneider von Deimling, Sebastian Westermann, Evgenii S. Zakharov, and Moritz Langer
Biogeosciences, 18, 343–365,Short summary
Boreal forests in eastern Siberia are an essential component of global climate patterns. We use a physically based model and field measurements to study the interactions between forests, permanently frozen ground and the atmosphere. We find that forests exert a strong control on the thermal state of permafrost through changing snow cover dynamics and altering the surface energy balance, through absorbing most of the incoming solar radiation and suppressing below-canopy turbulent fluxes.
Jean-Louis Bonne, Hanno Meyer, Melanie Behrens, Julia Boike, Sepp Kipfstuhl, Benjamin Rabe, Toni Schmidt, Lutz Schönicke, Hans Christian Steen-Larsen, and Martin Werner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10493–10511,Short summary
This study introduces 2 years of continuous near-surface in situ observations of the stable isotopic composition of water vapour in parallel with precipitation in north-eastern Siberia. We evaluate the atmospheric transport of moisture towards the region of our observations with simulations constrained by meteorological reanalyses and use this information to interpret the temporal variations of the vapour isotopic composition from seasonal to synoptic timescales.
Nick Rutter, Melody J. Sandells, Chris Derksen, Joshua King, Peter Toose, Leanne Wake, Tom Watts, Richard Essery, Alexandre Roy, Alain Royer, Philip Marsh, Chris Larsen, and Matthew Sturm
The Cryosphere, 13, 3045–3059,Short summary
Impact of natural variability in Arctic tundra snow microstructural characteristics on the capacity to estimate snow water equivalent (SWE) from Ku-band radar was assessed. Median values of metrics quantifying snow microstructure adequately characterise differences between snowpack layers. Optimal estimates of SWE required microstructural values slightly less than the measured median but tolerated natural variability for accurate estimation of SWE in shallow snowpacks.
Jan Nitzbon, Moritz Langer, Sebastian Westermann, Léo Martin, Kjetil Schanke Aas, and Julia Boike
The Cryosphere, 13, 1089–1123,Short summary
We studied the stability of ice wedges (massive bodies of ground ice in permafrost) under recent climatic conditions in the Lena River delta of northern Siberia. For this we used a novel modelling approach that takes into account lateral transport of heat, water, and snow and the subsidence of the ground surface due to melting of ground ice. We found that wetter conditions have a destabilizing effect on the ice wedges and associated our simulation results with observations from the study area.
Julia Boike, Jan Nitzbon, Katharina Anders, Mikhail Grigoriev, Dmitry Bolshiyanov, Moritz Langer, Stephan Lange, Niko Bornemann, Anne Morgenstern, Peter Schreiber, Christian Wille, Sarah Chadburn, Isabelle Gouttevin, Eleanor Burke, and Lars Kutzbach
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 261–299,Short summary
Long-term observational data are available from the Samoylov research site in northern Siberia, where meteorological parameters, energy balance, and subsurface observations have been recorded since 1998. This paper presents the temporal data set produced between 2002 and 2017, explaining the instrumentation, calibration, processing, and data quality control. Furthermore, we present a merged dataset of the parameters, which were measured from 1998 onwards.
David Holl, Christian Wille, Torsten Sachs, Peter Schreiber, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Lutz Beckebanze, Moritz Langer, Julia Boike, Eva-Maria Pfeiffer, Irina Fedorova, Dimitry Y. Bolshianov, Mikhail N. Grigoriev, and Lars Kutzbach
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 221–240,Short summary
We present a multi-annual time series of land–atmosphere carbon dioxide fluxes measured in situ with the eddy covariance technique in the Siberian Arctic. In arctic permafrost regions, climate–carbon feedbacks are amplified. Therefore, increased efforts to better represent these regions in global climate models have been made in recent years. Up to now, the available database of in situ measurements from the Arctic was biased towards Alaska and records from the Eurasian Arctic were scarce.
Kjetil S. Aas, Léo Martin, Jan Nitzbon, Moritz Langer, Julia Boike, Hanna Lee, Terje K. Berntsen, and Sebastian Westermann
The Cryosphere, 13, 591–609,Short summary
Many permafrost landscapes contain large amounts of excess ground ice, which gives rise to small-scale elevation differences. This results in lateral fluxes of snow, water, and heat, which we investigate and show how it can be accounted for in large-scale models. Using a novel model technique which can account for these differences, we are able to model both the current state of permafrost and how these landscapes change as permafrost thaws, in a way that could not previously be achieved.
Gerhard Krinner, Chris Derksen, Richard Essery, Mark Flanner, Stefan Hagemann, Martyn Clark, Alex Hall, Helmut Rott, Claire Brutel-Vuilmet, Hyungjun Kim, Cécile B. Ménard, Lawrence Mudryk, Chad Thackeray, Libo Wang, Gabriele Arduini, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Paul Bartlett, Julia Boike, Aaron Boone, Frédérique Chéruy, Jeanne Colin, Matthias Cuntz, Yongjiu Dai, Bertrand Decharme, Jeff Derry, Agnès Ducharne, Emanuel Dutra, Xing Fang, Charles Fierz, Josephine Ghattas, Yeugeniy Gusev, Vanessa Haverd, Anna Kontu, Matthieu Lafaysse, Rachel Law, Dave Lawrence, Weiping Li, Thomas Marke, Danny Marks, Martin Ménégoz, Olga Nasonova, Tomoko Nitta, Masashi Niwano, John Pomeroy, Mark S. Raleigh, Gerd Schaedler, Vladimir Semenov, Tanya G. Smirnova, Tobias Stacke, Ulrich Strasser, Sean Svenson, Dmitry Turkov, Tao Wang, Nander Wever, Hua Yuan, Wenyan Zhou, and Dan Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 5027–5049,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of a coordinated international experiment to determine the strengths and weaknesses in how climate models treat snow. The models will be assessed at point locations using high-quality reference measurements and globally using satellite-derived datasets. How well climate models simulate snow-related processes is important because changing snow cover is an important part of the global climate system and provides an important freshwater resource for human use.
Isabelle Gouttevin, Moritz Langer, Henning Löwe, Julia Boike, Martin Proksch, and Martin Schneebeli
The Cryosphere, 12, 3693–3717,Short summary
Snow insulates the ground from the cold air in the Arctic winter, majorly affecting permafrost. This insulation depends on snow characteristics and is poorly quantified. Here, we characterize it at a carbon-rich permafrost site, using a recent technique that retrieves the 3-D structure of snow and its thermal properties. We adapt a snowpack model enabling the simulation of this insulation over a whole winter. We estimate that local snow variations induce up to a 6 °C spread in soil temperatures.
Simon Zwieback, Andreas Colliander, Michael H. Cosh, José Martínez-Fernández, Heather McNairn, Patrick J. Starks, Marc Thibeault, and Aaron Berg
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 4473–4489,Short summary
Satellite soil moisture products can provide critical information on incipient droughts and the interplay between vegetation and water availability. However, time-variant systematic errors in the soil moisture products may impede their usefulness. Using a novel statistical approach, we detect such errors (associated with changing vegetation) in the SMAP soil moisture product. The vegetation-associated biases impede drought detection and the quantification of vegetation–water interactions.
Julia Boike, Inge Juszak, Stephan Lange, Sarah Chadburn, Eleanor Burke, Pier Paul Overduin, Kurt Roth, Olaf Ippisch, Niko Bornemann, Lielle Stern, Isabelle Gouttevin, Ernst Hauber, and Sebastian Westermann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 355–390,Short summary
A 20-year data record from the Bayelva site at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, is presented on meteorology, energy balance components, surface and subsurface observations. This paper presents the data set, instrumentation, calibration, processing and data quality control. The data show that mean annual, summer and winter soil temperature data from shallow to deeper depths have been warming over the period of record, indicating the degradation and loss of permafrost at this site.
Simon Zwieback, Steven V. Kokelj, Frank Günther, Julia Boike, Guido Grosse, and Irena Hajnsek
The Cryosphere, 12, 549–564,Short summary
We analyse elevation losses at thaw slumps, at which icy sediments are exposed. As ice requires a large amount of energy to melt, one would expect that mass wasting is governed by the available energy. However, we observe very little mass wasting in June, despite the ample energy supply. Also, in summer, mass wasting is not always energy limited. This highlights the importance of other processes, such as the formation of a protective veneer, in shaping mass wasting at sub-seasonal scales.
Kristoffer Aalstad, Sebastian Westermann, Thomas Vikhamar Schuler, Julia Boike, and Laurent Bertino
The Cryosphere, 12, 247–270,Short summary
We demonstrate how snow cover data from satellites can be used to constrain estimates of snow distributions at sites in the Arctic. In this effort, we make use of data assimilation to combine the information contained in the snow cover data with a simple snow model. By comparing our snow distribution estimates to independent observations, we find that this method performs favorably. Being modular, this method could be applied to other areas as a component of a larger reanalysis system.
Sarah E. Chadburn, Gerhard Krinner, Philipp Porada, Annett Bartsch, Christian Beer, Luca Belelli Marchesini, Julia Boike, Altug Ekici, Bo Elberling, Thomas Friborg, Gustaf Hugelius, Margareta Johansson, Peter Kuhry, Lars Kutzbach, Moritz Langer, Magnus Lund, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Shushi Peng, Ko Van Huissteden, Tao Wang, Sebastian Westermann, Dan Zhu, and Eleanor J. Burke
Biogeosciences, 14, 5143–5169,Short summary
Earth system models (ESMs) are our main tools for understanding future climate. The Arctic is important for the future carbon cycle, particularly due to the large carbon stocks in permafrost. We evaluated the performance of the land component of three major ESMs at Arctic tundra sites, focusing on the fluxes and stocks of carbon. We show that the next steps for model improvement are to better represent vegetation dynamics, to include mosses and to improve below-ground carbon cycle processes.
Sabrina Marx, Katharina Anders, Sofia Antonova, Inga Beck, Julia Boike, Philip Marsh, Moritz Langer, and Bernhard Höfle
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Global climate warming causes permafrost to warm and thaw, and, consequently, to release the carbon into the atmosphere. Terrestrial laser scanning is evaluated and current methods are extended in the context of monitoring subsidence in Arctic permafrost regions. The extracted information is important to gain a deeper understanding of permafrost-related subsidence processes and provides highly accurate ground-truth data which is necessary for further developing area-wide monitoring methods.
Sebastian Westermann, Maria Peter, Moritz Langer, Georg Schwamborn, Lutz Schirrmeister, Bernd Etzelmüller, and Julia Boike
The Cryosphere, 11, 1441–1463,Short summary
We demonstrate a remote-sensing-based scheme estimating the evolution of ground temperature and active layer thickness by means of a ground thermal model. A comparison to in situ observations from the Lena River delta in Siberia indicates that the model is generally capable of reproducing the annual temperature regime and seasonal thawing of the ground. The approach could hence be a first step towards remote detection of ground thermal conditions in permafrost areas.
Sina Muster, Kurt Roth, Moritz Langer, Stephan Lange, Fabio Cresto Aleina, Annett Bartsch, Anne Morgenstern, Guido Grosse, Benjamin Jones, A. Britta K. Sannel, Ylva Sjöberg, Frank Günther, Christian Andresen, Alexandra Veremeeva, Prajna R. Lindgren, Frédéric Bouchard, Mark J. Lara, Daniel Fortier, Simon Charbonneau, Tarmo A. Virtanen, Gustaf Hugelius, Juri Palmtag, Matthias B. Siewert, William J. Riley, Charles D. Koven, and Julia Boike
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 317–348,Short summary
Waterbodies are abundant in Arctic permafrost lowlands. Most waterbodies are ponds with a surface area smaller than 100 x 100 m. The Permafrost Region Pond and Lake Database (PeRL) for the first time maps ponds as small as 10 x 10 m. PeRL maps can be used to document changes both by comparing them to historical and future imagery. The distribution of waterbodies in the Arctic is important to know in order to manage resources in the Arctic and to improve climate predictions in the Arctic.
Fabian Beermann, Moritz Langer, Sebastian Wetterich, Jens Strauss, Julia Boike, Claudia Fiencke, Lutz Schirrmeister, Eva-Maria Pfeiffer, and Lars Kutzbach
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
This paper aims to quantify pools of inorganic nitrogen in permafrost soils of arctic Siberia and to estimate annual release rates of this nitrogen due to permafrost thaw. We report for the first time stores of inorganic nitrogen in Siberian permafrost soils. These nitrogen stores are important as permafrost thaw can mobilize substantial amounts of nitrogen, potentially changing the nutrient balance of these soils and representing a significant non-carbon permafrost climate feedback.
J. Boike, C. Georgi, G. Kirilin, S. Muster, K. Abramova, I. Fedorova, A. Chetverova, M. Grigoriev, N. Bornemann, and M. Langer
Biogeosciences, 12, 5941–5965,Short summary
We show that lakes in northern Siberia are very efficient with respect to energy absorption and mixing using measurements as well as numerical modeling. We show that (i) the lakes receive substantial energy for warming from net short-wave radiation; (ii) convective mixing occurs beneath the ice cover, follow beneath the ice cover, following ice break-up, summer, and fall (iii) modeling suggests that the annual mean net heat flux across the bottom sediment boundary is approximately zero.
I. Beck, R. Ludwig, M. Bernier, T. Strozzi, and J. Boike
Earth Surf. Dynam., 3, 409–421,
S. E. Chadburn, E. J. Burke, R. L. H. Essery, J. Boike, M. Langer, M. Heikenfeld, P. M. Cox, and P. Friedlingstein
The Cryosphere, 9, 1505–1521,Short summary
In this paper we use a global land-surface model to study the dynamics of Arctic permafrost. We examine the impact of new and improved processes in the model, namely soil depth and resolution, organic soils, moss and the representation of snow. These improvements make the simulated soil temperatures and thaw depth significantly more realistic. Simulations under future climate scenarios show that permafrost thaws more slowly in the new model version, but still a large amount is lost by 2100.
A. Ekici, S. Chadburn, N. Chaudhary, L. H. Hajdu, A. Marmy, S. Peng, J. Boike, E. Burke, A. D. Friend, C. Hauck, G. Krinner, M. Langer, P. A. Miller, and C. Beer
The Cryosphere, 9, 1343–1361,Short summary
This paper compares the performance of different land models in estimating soil thermal regimes at distinct cold region landscape types. Comparing models with different processes reveal the importance of surface insulation (snow/moss layer) and soil internal processes (heat/water transfer). The importance of model processes also depend on site conditions such as high/low snow cover, dry/wet soil types.
T. Schneider von Deimling, G. Grosse, J. Strauss, L. Schirrmeister, A. Morgenstern, S. Schaphoff, M. Meinshausen, and J. Boike
Biogeosciences, 12, 3469–3488,Short summary
We have modelled the carbon release from thawing permafrost soils under various scenarios of future warming. Our results suggests that up to about 140Pg of carbon could be released under strong warming by end of the century. We have shown that abrupt thaw processes under thermokarst lakes can unlock large amounts of perennially frozen carbon stored in deep deposits (which extend many metres into the soil).
S. Chadburn, E. Burke, R. Essery, J. Boike, M. Langer, M. Heikenfeld, P. Cox, and P. Friedlingstein
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1493–1508,Short summary
Permafrost, ground that is frozen for 2 or more years, is found extensively in the Arctic. It stores large quantities of carbon, which may be released under climate warming, so it is important to include it in climate models. Here we improve the representation of permafrost in a climate model land-surface scheme, both in the numerical representation of soil and snow, and by adding the effects of organic soils and moss. Site simulations show significantly improved soil temperature and thaw depth.
M. Langer, S. Westermann, K. Walter Anthony, K. Wischnewski, and J. Boike
Biogeosciences, 12, 977–990,Short summary
Methane production rates of Arctic ponds during the freezing period within a typical tundra landscape in northern Siberia are presented. Production rates were inferred by inverse modeling based on measured methane concentrations in the ice cover. Results revealed marked differences in early winter methane production among ponds showing different stages of shore degradation. This suggests that shore erosion can increase methane production of Arctic ponds by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude.
I. Fedorova, A. Chetverova, D. Bolshiyanov, A. Makarov, J. Boike, B. Heim, A. Morgenstern, P. P. Overduin, C. Wegner, V. Kashina, A. Eulenburg, E. Dobrotina, and I. Sidorina
Biogeosciences, 12, 345–363,
J. Lüers, S. Westermann, K. Piel, and J. Boike
Biogeosciences, 11, 6307–6322,
S. Yi, K. Wischnewski, M. Langer, S. Muster, and J. Boike
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1671–1689,
Related subject area
Biogeophysics: Physical - Biological CouplingDo Loop Current eddies stimulate productivity in the Gulf of Mexico?Quasi-tropical cyclone caused anomalous autumn coccolithophore bloom in the Black SeaDivergent climate feedbacks on winter wheat growing and dormancy periods as affected by sowing date in the North China PlainMicroclimatic comparison of lichen heaths and shrubs: shrubification generates atmospheric heating but subsurface cooling during the growing seasonFire and vegetation dynamics in northwest Siberia during the last 60 years based on high-resolution remote sensingEvidence of eddy-related deep-ocean current variability in the northeast tropical Pacific Ocean induced by remote gap windsRoot uptake under mismatched distributions of water and nutrients in the root zoneAn investigation of grazing behaviors that result in winter phytoplankton biomass accumulationInteractive impacts of meteorological and hydrological conditions on the physical and biogeochemical structure of a coastal systemProtists and collembolans alter microbial community composition, C dynamics and soil aggregation in simplified consumer–prey systemsAbundance and viability of particle-attached and free-floating bacteria in dusty and nondusty airDrivers of the spatial phytoplankton gradient in estuarine–coastal systems: generic implications of a case study in a Dutch tidal bayBiological and biogeochemical methods for estimating bioirrigation: a case study in the Oosterschelde estuaryDissolved inorganic nitrogen and particulate organic nitrogen budget in the Yucatán shelf: driving mechanisms through a physical–biogeochemical coupled modelBasal thermal regime affects the biogeochemistry of subglacial systemsInfluence of oceanic conditions in the energy transfer efficiency estimation of a micronekton modelModulation of the North Atlantic deoxygenation by the slowdown of the nutrient streamStand age and species composition effects on surface albedo in a mixedwood boreal forestAssessing the peatland hummock–hollow classification framework using high-resolution elevation models: implications for appropriate complexity ecosystem modelingTidal and seasonal forcing of dissolved nutrient fluxes in reef communitiesIdeas and perspectives: Development of nascent autotrophic carbon fixation systems in various redox conditions of the fluid degassing on early EarthVertical distribution of chlorophyll in dynamically distinct regions of the southern Bay of BengalRemote and local drivers of oxygen and nitrate variability in the shallow oxygen minimum zone off Mauritania in June 2014Longitudinal contrast in turbulence along a ∼ 19° S section in the Pacific and its consequences for biogeochemical fluxesIdeas and perspectives: Strengthening the biogeosciences in environmental research networksImprint of Southern Ocean mesoscale eddies on chlorophyllGrazing increases litter decomposition rate but decreases nitrogen release rate in an alpine meadowLarge- to submesoscale surface circulation and its implications on biogeochemical/biological horizontal distributions during the OUTPACE cruise (southwest Pacific)OUTPACE long duration stations: physical variability, context of biogeochemical sampling, and evaluation of sampling strategyReviews and syntheses: on the roles trees play in building and plumbing the critical zoneEffects of shrub and tree cover increase on the near-surface atmosphere in northern FennoscandiaMorphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maizeAmplification of global warming through pH dependence of DMS production simulated with a fully coupled Earth system modelPhysical control of interannual variations of the winter chlorophyll bloom in the northern Arabian SeaTree growth and its climate signal along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients: comparison of tree rings between Finland and the Tibetan PlateauBiogeochemical versus ecological consequences of modeled ocean physicsAnalytical solution of the nitracline with the evolution of subsurface chlorophyll maximum in stratified water columnsUpwelling and isolation in oxygen-depleted anticyclonic modewater eddies and implications for nitrate cyclingPositive Indian Ocean Dipole events prevent anoxia off the west coast of IndiaLinking diverse nutrient patterns to different water masses within anticyclonic eddies in the upwelling system off PeruCan terrestrial laser scanners (TLSs) and hemispherical photographs predict tropical dry forest succession with liana abundance?Multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography as a non-invasive tool to characterize and monitor crop root systemsThe growth of shrubs on high Arctic tundra at Bylot Island: impact on snow physical properties and permafrost thermal regimeCharacterization of “dead-zone” eddies in the eastern tropical North AtlanticLinking the distribution of microbial deposits from the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) to tectonic and climatic processesPhysical and biogeochemical spatial scales of variability in the East Australian Current separation from shelf glider measurementsThe influence of warm-season precipitation on the diel cycle of the surface energy balance and carbon dioxide at a Colorado subalpine forest siteNew insights into the organic carbon export in the Mediterranean Sea from 3-D modelingWind-driven interannual variability of sea ice algal production in the western Arctic Chukchi BorderlandGrowth response of temperate mountain grasslands to inter-annual variations in snow cover duration
Pierre Damien, Julio Sheinbaum, Orens Pasqueron de Fommervault, Julien Jouanno, Lorena Linacre, and Olaf Duteil
Biogeosciences, 18, 4281–4303,Short summary
The Gulf of Mexico deep waters are relatively poor in phytoplankton biomass due to low levels of nutrients in the upper layers. Using modeling techniques, we find that the long-living anticyclonic Loop Current eddies that are shed episodically from the Yucatan Channel strongly shape the distribution of phytoplankton and, more importantly, stimulate their growth. This results from the contribution of multiple mechanisms of physical–biogeochemical interactions discussed in this study.
Sergey V. Stanichny, Elena A. Kubryakova, and Arseny A. Kubryakov
Biogeosciences, 18, 3173–3188,Short summary
In this paper, we show that the short-term impact of tropical cyclones can trigger the intense, long-term bloom of coccolithophores, which are major marine calcifiers playing an important role in the balance and fluxes of inorganic carbon in the ocean. In our paper, we describe the evolution of and physical reasons for such an unusual bloom observed in autumn 2005 in the Black Sea on the basis of satellite data.
Fengshan Liu, Ying Chen, Nini Bai, Dengpan Xiao, Huizi Bai, Fulu Tao, and Quansheng Ge
Biogeosciences, 18, 2275–2287,Short summary
The sowing date is key to the surface biophysical processes in the winter dormancy period. The climate effect of the sowing date shift is therefore very interesting and may contribute to the mitigation of climate change. An earlier sowing date always had a higher LAI but a higher temperature in the dormancy period and a lower temperature in the growth period. The main reason was the relative contributions of the surface albedo and energy partitioning processes.
Peter Aartsma, Johan Asplund, Arvid Odland, Stefanie Reinhardt, and Hans Renssen
Biogeosciences, 18, 1577–1599,Short summary
In the literature, it is generally assumed that alpine lichen heaths keep their direct environment cool due to their relatively high albedo. However, we reveal that the soil temperature and soil heat flux are higher below lichens than below shrubs during the growing season, despite a lower net radiation for lichens. We also show that the differences in microclimatic conditions between these two vegetation types are more pronounced during warm and sunny days than during cold and cloudy days.
Oleg Sizov, Ekaterina Ezhova, Petr Tsymbarovich, Andrey Soromotin, Nikolay Prihod'ko, Tuukka Petäjä, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, and Kajar Köster
Biogeosciences, 18, 207–228,Short summary
In changing climate, tundra is expected to turn into shrubs and trees, diminishing reindeer pasture and increasing risks of tick-borne diseases. However, this transition may require a disturbance. Fires in Siberia are increasingly widespread. We studied wildfire dynamics and tundra–forest transition over 60 years in northwest Siberia near the Arctic Circle. Based on satellite data analysis, we found that transition occurs in 40 %–85 % of burned tundra compared to 5 %–15 % in non-disturbed areas.
Kaveh Purkiani, André Paul, Annemiek Vink, Maren Walter, Michael Schulz, and Matthias Haeckel
Biogeosciences, 17, 6527–6544,Short summary
There has been a steady increase in interest in mining of deep-sea minerals in the eastern Pacific Ocean recently. The ocean state in this region is known to be highly influenced by rotating bodies of water (eddies), some of which can travel long distances in the ocean and impact the deeper layers of the ocean. Better insight into the variability of eddy activity in this region is of great help to mitigate the impact of the benthic ecosystem from future potential deep-sea mining activity.
Jing Yan, Nathaniel A. Bogie, and Teamrat A. Ghezzehei
Biogeosciences, 17, 6377–6392,Short summary
An uneven supply of water and nutrients in soils often drives how plants behave. We observed that plants extract all their required nutrients from dry soil patches in sufficient quantity, provided adequate water is available elsewhere in the root zone. Roots in nutrient-rich dry patches facilitate the nutrient acquisition by extensive growth, water release, and modifying water retention in their immediate environment. The findings are valuable in managing nutrient losses in agricultural systems.
Mara Freilich, Alexandre Mignot, Glenn Flierl, and Raffaele Ferrari
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Observations reveal that in some regions phytoplankton biomass increases during the wintertime when growth conditions are sub-optimal, which has been attributed to a release from grazing during mixed layer deepening. Measurements of grazer populations to support this theory are lacking. We demonstrate that a release from grazing when the winter mixed layer is deepening holds only for certain grazing models, extending the use of phytoplankton observations to make inferences about grazer dynamics.
Onur Kerimoglu, Yoana G. Voynova, Fatemeh Chegini, Holger Brix, Ulrich Callies, Richard Hofmeister, Knut Klingbeil, Corinna Schrum, and Justus E. E. van Beusekom
Biogeosciences, 17, 5097–5127,Short summary
In this study, using extensive field observations and a numerical model, we analyzed the physical and biogeochemical structure of a coastal system following an extreme flood event. Our results suggest that a number of anomalous observations were driven by a co-occurrence of peculiar meteorological conditions and increased riverine discharges. Our results call for attention to the combined effects of hydrological and meteorological extremes that are anticipated to increase in frequency.
Amandine Erktan, Matthias C. Rillig, Andrea Carminati, Alexandre Jousset, and Stefan Scheu
Biogeosciences, 17, 4961–4980,Short summary
Soil aggregation is crucial for soil functioning. While the role of bacteria and fungi in soil aggregation is well established, how predators feeding on microbes modify soil aggregation has hardly been investigated. We showed for the first time that protists modify soil aggregation, presumably through changes in the production of bacterial mucilage, and that collembolans reduce soil aggregation, presumably by reducing the abundance of saprotrophic fungi.
Wei Hu, Kotaro Murata, Chunlan Fan, Shu Huang, Hiromi Matsusaki, Pingqing Fu, and Daizhou Zhang
Biogeosciences, 17, 4477–4487,Short summary
This paper reports the first estimate of the status of bacteria in long-distance-transported Asian dust, demonstrating that airborne dust, which can carry viable and nonviable bacteria on particle surfaces, is an efficient medium for constantly spreading bacteria at regional and even global scales. Such data are essential to better model and understand the roles and activities of bioaerosols in environmental evolution and climate change and the potential risks of bioaerosols to human health.
Long Jiang, Theo Gerkema, Jacco C. Kromkamp, Daphne van der Wal, Pedro Manuel Carrasco De La Cruz, and Karline Soetaert
Biogeosciences, 17, 4135–4152,Short summary
A seaward increasing chlorophyll-a gradient is observed during the spring bloom in a Dutch tidal bay. Biophysical model runs indicate the roles of bivalve grazing and tidal import in shaping the gradient. Five common spatial phytoplankton patterns are summarized in global estuarine–coastal ecosystems: seaward increasing, seaward decreasing, concave with a chlorophyll maximum, weak spatial gradients, and irregular patterns.
Emil De Borger, Justin Tiano, Ulrike Braeckman, Tom Ysebaert, and Karline Soetaert
Biogeosciences, 17, 1701–1715,Short summary
By applying a novel technique to quantify organism-induced sediment–water column fluid exchange (bioirrigation), we show that organisms in subtidal (permanently submerged) areas have similar bioirrigation rates as those that inhabit intertidal areas (not permanently submerged), but organisms in the latter irrigate deeper burrows in this study. Our results expand on traditional methods to quantify bioirrigation rates and broaden the pool of field measurements of bioirrigation rates.
Sheila N. Estrada-Allis, Julio Sheinbaum Pardo, Joao M. Azevedo Correia de Souza, Cecilia Elizabeth Enríquez Ortiz, Ismael Mariño Tapia, and Jorge A. Herrera-Silveira
Biogeosciences, 17, 1087–1111,Short summary
Continental shelves are the most productive areas in the ocean and can have an important impact on the nutrient cycle as well as the climate system. The one in Yucatán is the largest shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. However, its nutrient budget remains unidentifiable. Here we propose not only a general nutrient budget for the Yucatán Shelf but also the physical processes responsible for its pathway modulation through a physical–biogeochemical coupled model of the whole Gulf of Mexico.
Ashley Dubnick, Martin Sharp, Brad Danielson, Alireza Saidi-Mehrabad, and Joel Barker
Biogeosciences, 17, 963–977,Short summary
We found that glaciers with basal temperatures near the melting point mobilize more solutes, nutrients, and microbes from the underlying substrate and are more likely to promote in situ biogeochemical activity than glaciers with basal temperatures well below the melting point. The temperature at the base of glaciers is therefore an important control on the biogeochemistry of ice near glacier beds, and, ultimately, the potential solutes, nutrients, and microbes exported from glaciated watersheds.
Audrey Delpech, Anna Conchon, Olivier Titaud, and Patrick Lehodey
Biogeosciences, 17, 833–850,Short summary
Micronekton is an important, yet poorly known, component of the trophic chain, which partly contributes to the storage of CO2 in the deep ocean thanks to biomass vertical migrations. In this study, we characterize the ideal sampling regions to estimate the amount of biomass that undergoes theses migrations. We find that observations made in warm, nondynamic and productive waters reduce the error of the estimation by 20 %. This result should likely serve for future in situ network deployment.
Filippos Tagklis, Takamitsu Ito, and Annalisa Bracco
Biogeosciences, 17, 231–244,Short summary
Deoxygenation of the oceans is potentially one of the most severe ecosystem stressors resulting from global warming given the high sensitivity of dissolved oxygen to ocean temperatures. Climate models suggest that despite the thermodynamic tendency of the oceans to lose oxygen, certain regions experience significant changes in the biologically driven O2 consumption, resulting in a resistance against deoxygenation. Overturning circulation changes are responsible for such a behavior.
Mohammad Abdul Halim, Han Y. H. Chen, and Sean C. Thomas
Biogeosciences, 16, 4357–4375,Short summary
Using field data collected over 4 years across a range of stand ages, we investigated how seasonal surface albedo in boreal forest varies with stand age, stand structure, and composition. Our results indicate that successional change in species composition is a key driver of age–related patterns in albedo, with hardwood species associated with higher albedo. The patterns described have important implications for both climate modeling and
climate–smartboreal forest management.
Paul A. Moore, Maxwell C. Lukenbach, Dan K. Thompson, Nick Kettridge, Gustaf Granath, and James M. Waddington
Biogeosciences, 16, 3491–3506,Short summary
Using very-high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs), we assessed the basic structure and microtopographic variability of hummock–hollow plots at boreal and hemi-boreal sites primarily in North America. Using a simple model of peatland biogeochemical function, our results suggest that both surface heating and moss productivity may not be adequately resolved in models which only consider idealized hummock–hollow units.
Renee K. Gruber, Ryan J. Lowe, and James L. Falter
Biogeosciences, 16, 1921–1935,Short summary
Researchers from the University of Western Australia's Oceans Institute are studying large tides (up to 12 m range) that occur in the Kimberley region of Australia. These tides flush coral reefs with water rich in nutrients, which supports the growth of reef organisms. In this paper, we show how tidal cycles and seasons control nutrient availability on reefs. This study is among the first published accounts of reefs and water quality data in the remote and pristine Kimberley region.
Sergey A. Marakushev and Ol'ga V. Belonogova
Biogeosciences, 16, 1817–1828,Short summary
Among the existing theories of the autotrophic origin of life, CO2 is usually considered to be the carbon source for nascent autotrophic metabolism. However, ancestral carbon used in metabolism may have been derived from CH4 if the outflow of magma fluid to the surface of the Earth consisted mainly of methane. The hydrothermal system model is considered in the form of a phase diagram, which demonstrates the area of redox and P and T conditions favorable to development of primary methanotroph.
Venugopal Thushara, Puthenveettil Narayana Menon Vinayachandran, Adrian J. Matthews, Benjamin G. M. Webber, and Bastien Y. Queste
Biogeosciences, 16, 1447–1468,Short summary
Chlorophyll distribution in the ocean remains to be explored in detail, despite its climatic significance. Here, we document the vertical structure of chlorophyll in the Bay of Bengal using observations and a model. The shape of chlorophyll profiles, characterized by prominent deep chlorophyll maxima, varies in dynamically different regions, controlled by the monsoonal forcings. The present study provides new insights into the vertical distribution of chlorophyll, rarely observed by satellites.
Soeren Thomsen, Johannes Karstensen, Rainer Kiko, Gerd Krahmann, Marcus Dengler, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 16, 979–998,Short summary
Physical and biogeochemical observations from an autonomous underwater vehicle in combination with ship-based measurements are used to investigate remote and local drivers of the oxygen and nutrient variability off Mauritania. Beside the transport of oxygen and nutrients characteristics from remote areas towards Mauritania also local remineralization of organic material close to the seabed seems to be important for the distribution of oxygen and nutrients.
Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Yannis Cuypers, Andrea Doglioli, Mathieu Caffin, Christophe Yohia, Alain de Verneil, Anne Petrenko, Dominique Lefèvre, Hervé Le Goff, Gilles Rougier, Marc Picheral, and Thierry Moutin
Biogeosciences, 15, 7485–7504,Short summary
The OUTPACE cruise took place between New Caledonia and French Polynesia. The main purpose was to understand how micro-organisms can survive in a very poor environment. One main source of nutrients is at depth, below the euphotic layer where micro-organisms live. The purpose of the turbulence measurements was to determine to which extent turbulence may
upliftnutrients into the euphotic layer. The origin of the turbulence that was found contrasted along the transect was also determined.
Daniel D. Richter, Sharon A. Billings, Peter M. Groffman, Eugene F. Kelly, Kathleen A. Lohse, William H. McDowell, Timothy S. White, Suzanne Anderson, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Steve Banwart, Susan Brantley, Jean J. Braun, Zachary S. Brecheisen, Charles W. Cook, Hilairy E. Hartnett, Sarah E. Hobbie, Jerome Gaillardet, Esteban Jobbagy, Hermann F. Jungkunst, Clare E. Kazanski, Jagdish Krishnaswamy, Daniel Markewitz, Katherine O'Neill, Clifford S. Riebe, Paul Schroeder, Christina Siebe, Whendee L. Silver, Aaron Thompson, Anne Verhoef, and Ganlin Zhang
Biogeosciences, 15, 4815–4832,Short summary
As knowledge in biology and geology explodes, science becomes increasingly specialized. Given the overlap of the environmental sciences, however, the explosion in knowledge inevitably creates opportunities for interconnecting the biogeosciences. Here, 30 scientists emphasize the opportunities for biogeoscience collaborations across the world’s remarkable long-term environmental research networks that can advance science and engage larger scientific and public audiences.
Ivy Frenger, Matthias Münnich, and Nicolas Gruber
Biogeosciences, 15, 4781–4798,Short summary
Although mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous in the Southern Ocean (SO), their regional and seasonal association with phytoplankton has not been quantified. We identify over 100 000 eddies and determine the associated phytoplankton biomass anomalies using satellite-based chlorophyll (Chl) as a proxy. The emerging Chl anomalies can be explained largely by lateral advection of Chl by eddies. This impact of eddies on phytoplankton may implicate downstream effects on SO biogeochemical properties.
Yi Sun, Xiong Z. He, Fujiang Hou, Zhaofeng Wang, and Shenghua Chang
Biogeosciences, 15, 4233–4243,Short summary
To investigate how grazing alters litter composition, quality and decomposition, we collected litter from grazing (GP) and grazing exclusion paddocks (GEP) and incubated them in situ and across sites. Grazing increased litter N and grazing exclusion increased litter mass of palatable species and promoted SOC. Litter decomposed faster in GP and N was opposite. Site environment had more impact on litter decomposition. Results may be helpful in developing strategies to restore degraded grasslands.
Louise Rousselet, Alain de Verneil, Andrea M. Doglioli, Anne A. Petrenko, Solange Duhamel, Christophe Maes, and Bruno Blanke
Biogeosciences, 15, 2411–2431,Short summary
The patterns of the large- and fine-scale surface circulation on biogeochemical and biological distributions are examined in the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) in the context of the OUTPACE oceanographic cruise. The combined use of in situ and satellite data allows for the identification of water mass transport pathways and fine-scale structures, such as fronts, that drive surface distribution of tracers and microbial community structures.
Alain de Verneil, Louise Rousselet, Andrea M. Doglioli, Anne A. Petrenko, Christophe Maes, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, and Thierry Moutin
Biogeosciences, 15, 2125–2147,Short summary
Oceanographic campaigns to measure biogeochemical processes popularly deploy drifters with onboard incubations to stay in a single body of water. Here, we aggregate physical data taken during such a cruise, OUTPACE, to independently test in a new approach whether the drifter really stayed in what can be considered a single biological or chemical environment. This study concludes that future campaigns would benefit from similar data collection and analysis to validate their sampling strategy.
Susan L. Brantley, David M. Eissenstat, Jill A. Marshall, Sarah E. Godsey, Zsuzsanna Balogh-Brunstad, Diana L. Karwan, Shirley A. Papuga, Joshua Roering, Todd E. Dawson, Jaivime Evaristo, Oliver Chadwick, Jeffrey J. McDonnell, and Kathleen C. Weathers
Biogeosciences, 14, 5115–5142,Short summary
This review represents the outcome from an invigorating workshop discussion that involved tree physiologists, geomorphologists, ecologists, geochemists, and hydrologists and developed nine hypotheses that could be tested. We argue these hypotheses point to the essence of issues we must explore if we are to understand how the natural system of the earth surface evolves, and how humans will affect its evolution. This paper will create discussion and interest both before and after publication.
Johanne H. Rydsaa, Frode Stordal, Anders Bryn, and Lena M. Tallaksen
Biogeosciences, 14, 4209–4227,Short summary
We investigate the atmospheric sensitivity to an expansion in shrub and tree cover in the northern Fennoscandia region. We applied a regional weather and climate model in evaluating biophysical effects of increased shrub cover at a fine resolution. We find that shrub cover increase causes a warming that is sensitive to the shrub and tree heights. Cooling effects include increased snow cover, cloud cover, and precipitation. We show that the net warming will likely increase in the future.
Qian Cai, Yulong Zhang, Zhanxiang Sun, Jiaming Zheng, Wei Bai, Yue Zhang, Yang Liu, Liangshan Feng, Chen Feng, Zhe Zhang, Ning Yang, Jochem B. Evers, and Lizhen Zhang
Biogeosciences, 14, 3851–3858,Short summary
Large yield gaps exist in rain-fed maize in semi-arid regions caused by frequent droughts halfway through the growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It can be questioned whether irrigation systems are economically and ecologically required. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress due to the morphological plasticity in root growth. Our results help to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.
Jörg Schwinger, Jerry Tjiputra, Nadine Goris, Katharina D. Six, Alf Kirkevåg, Øyvind Seland, Christoph Heinze, and Tatiana Ilyina
Biogeosciences, 14, 3633–3648,Short summary
Transient global warming under the high emission scenario RCP8.5 is amplified by up to 6 % if a pH dependency of marine DMS production is assumed. Importantly, this additional warming is not spatially homogeneous but shows a pronounced north–south gradient. Over the Antarctic continent, the additional warming is almost twice the global average. In the Southern Ocean we find a small DMS–climate feedback that counteracts the original reduction of DMS production due to ocean acidification.
Madhavan Girijakumari Keerthi, Matthieu Lengaigne, Marina Levy, Jerome Vialard, Vallivattathillam Parvathi, Clément de Boyer Montégut, Christian Ethé, Olivier Aumont, Iyyappan Suresh, Valiya Parambil Akhil, and Pillathu Moolayil Muraleedharan
Biogeosciences, 14, 3615–3632,Short summary
The northern Arabian Sea hosts a winter chlorophyll bloom, which exhibits strong interannual variability. The processes responsible for this interannual variation of the bloom are investigated using observations and a model. The interannual fluctuations of the winter bloom are largely related to the interannual mixed-layer depth (MLD) anomalies, which are driven by net heat flux anomalies. MLD controls the bloom amplitude through a modulation of nutrient turbulent fluxes into the mixed layer.
Lixin Lyu, Susanne Suvanto, Pekka Nöjd, Helena M. Henttonen, Harri Mäkinen, and Qi-Bin Zhang
Biogeosciences, 14, 3083–3095,Short summary
Our results reveal that the change in the tree growth–climate relationship is similar along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients, especially during growing seasons. Moreover, the critical periods for climatic effects on tree radial growth occurred earlier at lower latitudes and altitudes than at the cold ends of the gradients. We further demonstrate the use of daily climate data, as they may disclose more precise gradient patterns that could not be detected if monthly climate data were used.
Sophie Clayton, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Oliver Jahn, Christopher Hill, Patrick Heimbach, and Michael J. Follows
Biogeosciences, 14, 2877–2889,
Xiang Gong, Wensheng Jiang, Linhui Wang, Huiwang Gao, Emmanuel Boss, Xiaohong Yao, Shuh-Ji Kao, and Jie Shi
Biogeosciences, 14, 2371–2386,Short summary
The subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer (SCML) forms near the nitracline. By incorporating a piecewise function for the approximate Gaussian vertical profile of chlorophyll, we derive analytical solutions of a specified nutrient–phytoplankton model. Nitracline depth is deeper than SCML depth, and a thinner SCML corresponds to a steeper nitracline. A higher light attenuation coefficient leads to a shallower but steeper nitracline. Nitracline steepness is independent of surface light intensity.
Johannes Karstensen, Florian Schütte, Alice Pietri, Gerd Krahmann, Björn Fiedler, Damian Grundle, Helena Hauss, Arne Körtzinger, Carolin R. Löscher, Pierre Testor, Nuno Vieira, and Martin Visbeck
Biogeosciences, 14, 2167–2181,Short summary
High-resolution observational data from underwater gliders and ships are used to investigate drivers and pathways of nutrient upwelling in high-productive whirling ecosystems (eddies). The data suggest that the upwelling is created by the interaction of wind-induced internal waves with the local rotation of the eddy. Because of differences in nutrient and oxygen pathways, a low-oxygen core is established at shallow depth in the high-productive eddies.
Parvathi Vallivattathillam, Suresh Iyyappan, Matthieu Lengaigne, Christian Ethé, Jérôme Vialard, Marina Levy, Neetu Suresh, Olivier Aumont, Laure Resplandy, Hema Naik, and Wajih Naqvi
Biogeosciences, 14, 1541–1559,Short summary
During late boreal summer and fall, the west coast of India (WCI) experiences hypoxia, which turns into anoxia during some years. We analyze a coupled physical–biogeochemical simulation over the 1960–2012 period to investigate the physical processes influencing oxycline interannual variability off the WCI. We show that fall WCI oxycline fluctuations are strongly related to Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), with positive IODs preventing anoxia, while negative IODs do not necessarily result in anoxia.
Yonss Saranga José, Heiner Dietze, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 14, 1349–1364,Short summary
This study aims to investigate the diverse subsurface nutrient patterns observed within anticyclonic eddies in the upwelling system off Peru. Two simulated anticyclonic eddies with opposing subsurface nitrate concentrations were analysed. The results show that diverse nutrient patterns within anticyclonic eddies are related to the presence of water mass from different origins at different depths, responding to variations in depth of the circulation strength at the edge of the eddy.
Gerardo Arturo Sánchez-Azofeifa, J. Antonio Guzmán-Quesada, Mauricio Vega-Araya, Carlos Campos-Vargas, Sandra Milena Durán, Nikhil D'Souza, Thomas Gianoli, Carlos Portillo-Quintero, and Iain Sharp
Biogeosciences, 14, 977–988,Short summary
Lianas (woody vines) tend to respond positively to disturbance and show high densities in secondary forests. Lianas are a key component of tropical forests because they may reduce carbon potential. Identifying tools for liana detection is therefore essential for monitoring changes in tropical forests. In this study, we describe how terrestrial laser scanning can be used to detect the presence of lianas in forest stands of different ages in secondary tropical dry forests at a regional scale.
Maximilian Weigand and Andreas Kemna
Biogeosciences, 14, 921–939,Short summary
Root systems are essential in nutrient uptake and translocation, but are difficult to characterize non-invasively with existing methods. We propose electrical impedance tomography (EIT) as a new tool for the imaging and monitoring of crop root systems. In a laboratory experiment we demonstrate the capability of the method to capture physiological responses of root systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. We conclude that EIT is a promising functional imaging technique for crop roots.
Florent Domine, Mathieu Barrere, and Samuel Morin
Biogeosciences, 13, 6471–6486,Short summary
Warming-induced shrub growth in the Arctic traps snow and modifies snow properties, hence the permafrost thermal regime. In the Canadian high Arctic, we measured snow physical properties in the presence and absence of willow shrubs (Salix richardsonii). Shrubs dramatically reduce snow density and thermal conductivity, seriously limiting soil winter cooling. Simulations taking into account only winter changes show that shrub growth leads to a ground winter warming of up to 13 °C.
Florian Schütte, Johannes Karstensen, Gerd Krahmann, Helena Hauss, Björn Fiedler, Peter Brandt, Martin Visbeck, and Arne Körtzinger
Biogeosciences, 13, 5865–5881,Short summary
Mesoscale eddies with very low–oxygen concentrations at shallow depth have been recently discovered in the eastern tropical North Atlantic. Our analysis shows that low oxygen eddies occur more frequent than expected and are found even close to the equator (8° N). From budget calculations we show that an oxygen reduction of 7 µmol/kg in the depth range of 50–150 m in the eastern tropical North Atlantic (peak reduction is 16 µmol/kg at 100 m depth) can be associated with the dispersion of these eddies.
Anthony Bouton, Emmanuelle Vennin, Julien Boulle, Aurélie Pace, Raphaël Bourillot, Christophe Thomazo, Arnaud Brayard, Guy Désaubliaux, Tomasz Goslar, Yusuke Yokoyama, Christophe Dupraz, and Pieter T. Visscher
Biogeosciences, 13, 5511–5526,Short summary
The modern hypersaline Great Salt Lake shows an extended modern and ancient microbial sedimentary system. This study on aerial images and field observations discusses the non-random distribution patterns of microbial deposits along linear alignments following isobaths, polygonal geometry or straight alignments along a topographic drop-off. This particular distribution of microbial deposits brings further insights to the reconstruction of paleoenvironments and paleoclimatic changes.
Amandine Schaeffer, Moninya Roughan, Emlyn M. Jones, and Dana White
Biogeosciences, 13, 1967–1975,Short summary
The water properties of the coastal ocean such as temperature, salt, oxygen, or chlorophyll content vary spatially, and estimates need to be made regarding the scales of variability. Here, we use statistical techniques to determine the spatial variability of ocean properties from high-resolution measurements by gliders. We show that biological activity is patchy compared to the distribution of physical characteristics, and that the size and shape of this is determined by coastal ocean processes.
S. P. Burns, P. D. Blanken, A. A. Turnipseed, J. Hu, and R. K. Monson
Biogeosciences, 12, 7349–7377,Short summary
The effect of warm-season precipitation on environmental conditions and ecosystem-scale fluxes at a high-elevation subalpine forest site was investigated. As would be expected (based on the surface energy balance), precipitation caused an increase in latent heat flux (evapotranspiration) and a decrease in sensible heat flux. The evaporative component of evapotranspiration was, on average, estimated to be around 6% in dry conditions and between 15-25% in partially wet conditions.
A. Guyennon, M. Baklouti, F. Diaz, J. Palmieri, J. Beuvier, C. Lebaupin-Brossier, T. Arsouze, K. Béranger, J.-C. Dutay, and T. Moutin
Biogeosciences, 12, 7025–7046,Short summary
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has already been identified as a potentially significant source of carbon export in the Mediterranean Sea, though in situ export estimations are scarce. This work provides a thorough analysis at basin scale of carbon export with the coupled model NEMO-MED12/Eco3M-MED model. The seasonality and the processes of particulate and dissolved carbon production are also investigated. DOC export appears to be dominant in most regions, especially in the eastern basin.
E. Watanabe, J. Onodera, N. Harada, M. N. Aita, A. Ishida, and M. J. Kishi
Biogeosciences, 12, 6147–6168,Short summary
The current paper presented findings on seasonal and interannual variability of sea ice algal production and biomass over the western Arctic Chukchi Boderland using a pan-Arctic sea ice-ocean modeling approach. In particular, the relationship with wind pattern was focused on. Coupling of physical and biogeochemical analyses provided originality of this study.
Biogeosciences, 12, 3885–3897,Short summary
It is shown that inter-annual variations in the primary productivity of mountain grasslands are primarily governed by variations in the length of the snow-free period and to a much lesser extent by temperature and precipitation during the growing season. Meteorological variables controlling snow cover dynamics are thus of paramount importance to understand and model the amount and timing of biomass production in mountain pastures.
AMAP: Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) 2017, available at: https://www.amap.no/documents/download/2987/inline (23 June 2020), 2017. a
Biskaborn, B. K., Smith, S. L., Noetzli, J., Matthes, H., Vieira, G., Streletskiy, D. A., Schoeneich, P., Romanovsky, V. E., Lewkowicz, A. G., Abramov, A., Allard, M., Boike, J., Cable, W. L., Christiansen, H. H., Delaloye, R., Diekmann, B., Drozdov, D., Etzelmüller, B., Grosse, G., Guglielmin, M., Ingeman-Nielsen, T., Isaksen, K., Ishikawa, M., Johansson, M., Johannsson, H., Joo, A., Kaverin, D., Kholodov, A., Konstantinov, P., Kröger, T., Lambiel, C., Lanckman, J.-P., Luo, D., Malkova, G., Meiklejohn, I., Moskalenko, N., Oliva, M., Phillips, M., Ramos, M., Sannel, A. B. K., Sergeev, D., Seybold, C., Skryabin, P., Vasiliev, A., Wu, Q., Yoshikawa, K., Zheleznyak, M., and Lantuit, H.: Permafrost is warming at a global scale, Nat. Commun., 10, 2041–1723, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08240-4, 2019. a
Chapin III, F. S., Sturm, M., Serreze, M. C., McFadden, J. P., Key, J. R., Lloyd, A. H., McGuire, A. D., Rupp, T. S., Lynch, A. H., Schimel, J. P., Beringer, J., Chapman, W. L., Epstein, H. E., Euskirchen, E. S., Hinzman, L. D., Jia, G., Ping, C.-L., Tape, K. D., Thompson, C. D. C., Walker, D. A., and Welker, J. M.: Role of land-surface changes in Arctic summer warming, Science, 310, 657–660, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1117368, 2005. a, b
Essery, R. and Pomeroy, J.: Vegetation and Topographic Control of Wind-Blown Snow Distributions in Distributed and Aggregated Simulations for an Arctic Tundra Basin, J. Hydrometeorol., 5, 735–744, https://doi.org/10.1175/1525-7541(2004)005<0735:VATCOW>2.0.CO;2, 2004. a, b
Fisher, J. P., Estop-Aragonés, C., Thierry, A., Charman, D. J., Wolfe, S. A., Hartley, I. P., Murton, J. B., Williams, M., and Phoenix, G. K.: The influence of vegetation and soil characteristics on active-layer thickness of permafrost soils in boreal forest, Glob. Change Biol., 22, 3127–3140, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13248, 2016. a, b
Grünberg, I., Anders, K., Marx, S., Lange, S., and Boike, J.: Topsoil temperature data below different vegetation types at Trail Valley Creek, Canada, 2016–2018, PANGAEA, https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.918615, 2020.
Hopkinson, C., Fox, A., Monette, S., Churchill, J., Crasto, N., and Chasmer, L.: Mackenzie Delta LiDAR collaborative research data report, Applied Geomatics Research Group, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, Revised 03/2011, 2009. a
Kropp, H., Loranty, M. M., Natali, S. M., Kholodov, A. L., , Rocha, A., Myers-Smith, I., Abermann, J., , Blanc-Betes, E., Blok, D., Blume-Werry, G., Boike, J., , Breen, A. L., Cahoon, S. M., Christiansen, C. T., Douglas, T. A., Epstein, H. E., Frost, G. V., Goeckede, M., Høye, T. T., Mamet, S. D., O'Donnell, J. A., Olefeldt, D., Phoenix, G. K., Salmon, V. G., Sannel, B., Smith, S. L., Sonnentag, O., Vaughn, L. S., Williams, M., Elberling, B., Gough, L., Hjort, J., Lafleur, P. M., Euskirchen, E. S., Heijmans, M. M. P. D., Humphreys, E. R., Iwata, H., Jones, B. M., Jorgenson, M. T., Grünberg, I., Kim, Y., Laundre, J., Mauritz, M., Michelsen, A., Schaepman-Strub, G., Tape, K. D., Ueyama, M., Lee, B.-Y., Langley, K., and Lund, M.: Shallow soils are warmer under trees and tall shrubs across Arctic and Boreal ecosystems, in review, 2020. a
Loranty, M. M., Abbott, B. W., Blok, D., Douglas, T. A., Epstein, H. E., Forbes, B. C., Jones, B. M., Kholodov, A. L., Kropp, H., Malhotra, A., Mamet, S. D., Myers-Smith, I. H., Natali, S. M., O'Donnell, J. A., Phoenix, G. K., Rocha, A. V., Sonnentag, O., Tape, K. D., and Walker, D. A.: Reviews and syntheses: Changing ecosystem influences on soil thermal regimes in northern high-latitude permafrost regions, Biogeosciences, 15, 5287–5313, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-5287-2018, 2018. a, b, c
MacKay, J. R.: Active Layer Changes (1968 to 1993) following the Forest-Tundra Fire near Inuvik, N.W.T., Canada, Arctic Alpine Res., 27, 323–336, 1995. a
Mann, P. C.: Spatial and temporal variability of the snow environment in the Western Canadian Arctic, Master's thesis, Wilfrid Laurier University, available at: https://scholars.wlu.ca/etd/2011/ (last access: 19 August 2019), 2018. a
Marsh, P., Pomeroy, J., Pohl, S., Quinton, W., Onclin, C., Russell, M., Neumann, N., Pietroniro, A., Davison, B., and McCartney, S.: Snowmelt Processes and Runoff at the Arctic Treeline: Ten Years of MAGS Research, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 97–123, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-75136-6_6, 2008. a
McManus, K. M., Morton, D. C., Masek, J. G., Wang, D., Sexton, J. O., Nagol, J. R., Ropars, P., and Boudreau, S.: Satellite-based evidence for shrub and graminoid tundra expansion in northern Quebec from 1986 to 2010, Glob. Change Biol., 18, 2313–2323, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02708.x, 2012. a
Michaelson, G. J., Ping, C. L., and Kimble, J. M.: Carbon Storage and Distribution in Tundra Soils of Arctic Alaska, USA, Arctic Alpine Res., 28, 414–424, 1996. a
Myers-Smith, I. H., Forbes, B. C., Wilmking, M., Hallinger, M., Lantz, T., Blok, D., Tape, K. D., Macias-Fauria, M., Sass-Klaassen, U., Lévesque, E., Boudreau, S., Ropars, P., Hermanutz, L., Trant, A., Collier, L. S., Weijers, S., Rozema, J., Rayback, S. A., Schmidt, N. M., Schaepman-Strub, G., Wipf, S., Rixen, C., Ménard, C. B., Venn, S., Goetz, S., Andreu-Hayles, L., Elmendorf, S., Ravolainen, V., Welker, J., Grogan, P., Epstein, H. E., and Hik, D. S.: Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems: dynamics, impacts and research priorities, Environ. Res. Lett., 6, 045509, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045509, 2011. a
Pix4D SA: Pix4Dmapper, available at: https://support.pix4d.com/hc/en-us/articles/204272989-Offline-Getting-Started-and-Manual-pdf (last access: 14 August 2020) 2019. a
Pomeroy, J. W., Marsh, P., and Gray, D. M.: Application of a distributed blowing snow model to the Arctic, Hydrol. Process., 11, 1451–1464, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(199709)11:11<1451::AID-HYP449>3.0.CO;2-Q, 1997. a
Sturm, M., McFadden, J. P., Liston, G. E., Chapin, III, F. S., Racine, C. H., and Holmgren, J.: Snow-Shrub Interactions in Arctic Tundra: A Hypothesis with Climatic Implications, J. Clim., 14, 336–344, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<0336:SSIIAT>2.0.CO;2, 2001a. a
Sturm, M., Schimel, J., Michaelson, G., Welker, J., Oberbauer, S., Liston, G., Fahnestock, J., and Romanovsky, V.: Winter Biological Processes Could Help Convert Arctic Tundra to Shrubland, BioScience, 55, 17–26, 2005b. a
Walker, D. A., Jia, G. J., Epstein, H. E., Raynolds, M. K., Chapin, III, F. S., Copass, C., Hinzman, L. D., Knudson, J. A., Maier, H. A., Michaelson, G. J., Nelson, F., Ping, C. L., Romanovsky, V. E., and Shiklomanov, N.: Vegetation – soil-thaw-depth relationships along a low-arctic bioclimate gradient, Alaska: synthesis of information from the ATLAS studies, Permafrost Periglac., 14, 103–123, https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.452, 2003. a
Walker, D. A., Raynolds, M. K., Daniëls, F. J. A., Einarsson, E., Elvebakk, A., Gould, W. A., Katenin, A. E., Kholod, S. S., Markon, C. J., Melnikov, E. S., Moskalenko, N. G., Talbot, S. S., Yurtsev, B. A., and The other members of the CAVM Team: The Circumpolar Arctic vegetation map, J. Veg. Sci., 16, 267–282, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2005.tb02365.x, 2005. a, b, c, d, e, f, g
Walker, D. A., Epstein, H. E., Romanovsky, V. E., Ping, C. L., Michaelson, G. J., Daanen, R. P., Shur, Y., Peterson, R. A., Krantz, W. B., Raynolds, M. K., Gould, W. A., Gonzalez, G., Nicolsky, D. J., Vonlanthen, C. M., Kade, A. N., Kuss, P., Kelley, A. M., Munger, C. A., Tarnocai, C. T., Matveyeva, N. V., and Daniëls, F. J. A.: Arctic patterned-ground ecosystems: A synthesis of field studies and models along a North American Arctic Transect, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 113, G03S01, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JG000504, 2008. a, b, c
Based on topsoil temperature data for different vegetation types at a low Arctic tundra site, we found large small-scale variability. Winter temperatures were strongly influenced by vegetation through its effects on snow. Summer temperatures were similar below most vegetation types and not consistently related to late summer permafrost thaw depth. Given that vegetation type defines the relationship between winter and summer soil temperature and thaw depth, it controls permafrost vulnerability.
Based on topsoil temperature data for different vegetation types at a low Arctic tundra site, we...