Articles | Volume 18, issue 13
06 Jul 2021
Research article | 06 Jul 2021
High-resolution induced polarization imaging of biogeochemical carbon turnover hotspots in a peatland
Timea Katona et al.
No articles found.
Theresa Maierhofer, Christian Hauck, Christin Hilbich, Andreas Kemna, and Adrián Flores-Orozco
The Cryosphere, 16, 1903–1925,Short summary
We extend the application of electrical methods to characterize alpine permafrost using the so-called induced polarization (IP) effect associated with the storage of charges at the interface between liquid and solid phases. We investigate different field protocols to enhance data quality and conclude that with appropriate measurement and processing procedures, the characteristic dependence of the IP response of frozen rocks improves the assessment of thermal state and ice content in permafrost.
Michael Rode, Jörg Tittel, Frido Reinstorf, Michael Schubert, Kay Knöller, Benjamin Gilfedder, Florian Merensky-Pöhlein, and Andreas Musolff
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
Agricultural catchments often show elevated phosphorus concentrations during summer low flow. In a typical agricultural headwater we found out that geogenic phosphorus in groundwater was the major source of stream water phosphorus during these low-flow conditions and that stream sediments derived from farmland are unlikely to have increased stream phosphorus concentrations during low water. Agricultural land use was not the main cause of P loading in the stream during low-flow conditions.
Katharina Blaurock, Burkhard Beudert, Benjamin S. Gilfedder, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Stefan Peiffer, and Luisa Hopp
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 5133–5151,Short summary
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important part of the global carbon cycle with regards to carbon storage, greenhouse gas emissions and drinking water treatment. In this study, we compared DOC export of a small, forested catchment during precipitation events after dry and wet preconditions. We found that the DOC export from areas that are usually important for DOC export was inhibited after long drought periods.
Matthias Bücker, Adrián Flores Orozco, Jakob Gallistl, Matthias Steiner, Lukas Aigner, Johannes Hoppenbrock, Ruth Glebe, Wendy Morales Barrera, Carlos Pita de la Paz, César Emilio García García, José Alberto Razo Pérez, Johannes Buckel, Andreas Hördt, Antje Schwalb, and Liseth Pérez
Solid Earth, 12, 439–461,Short summary
We use seismic, electromagnetic, and geoelectrical methods to assess sediment thickness and lake-bottom geology of two karst lakes. An unexpected drainage event provided us with the unusual opportunity to compare water-borne measurements with measurements carried out on the dry lake floor. The resulting data set does not only provide insight into the specific lake-bottom geology of the studied lakes but also evidences the potential and limitations of the employed field methods.
Coline Mollaret, Christin Hilbich, Cécile Pellet, Adrian Flores-Orozco, Reynald Delaloye, and Christian Hauck
The Cryosphere, 13, 2557–2578,Short summary
We present a long-term multisite electrical resistivity tomography monitoring network (more than 1000 datasets recorded from six mountain permafrost sites). Despite harsh and remote measurement conditions, the datasets are of good quality and show consistent spatio-temporal variations yielding significant added value to point-scale borehole information. Observed long-term trends are similar for all permafrost sites, showing ongoing permafrost thaw and ground ice loss due to climatic conditions.
Matthias Steiner, Florian M. Wagner, and Adrian Flores Orozco
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
G. Blöschl, A. P. Blaschke, M. Broer, C. Bucher, G. Carr, X. Chen, A. Eder, M. Exner-Kittridge, A. Farnleitner, A. Flores-Orozco, P. Haas, P. Hogan, A. Kazemi Amiri, M. Oismüller, J. Parajka, R. Silasari, P. Stadler, P. Strauss, M. Vreugdenhil, W. Wagner, and M. Zessner
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 227–255,Short summary
This paper illustrates the experimental and monitoring set-up of the 66 ha Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria, which allows meaningful hypothesis testing. The HOAL catchment features a range of different runoff generation processes (surface runoff, springs, tile drains, wetlands), and is convenient from a logistic point of view as all instruments can be connected to the power grid and a high-speed glassfibre local area network.
A. P. Atkinson, I. Cartwright, B. S. Gilfedder, D. I. Cendón, N. P. Unland, and H. Hofmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4951–4964,Short summary
This research article uses of radiogenic isotopes, stable isotopes and groundwater geochemistry to study groundwater age and recharge processes in the Gellibrand Valley, a relatively unstudied catchment and potential groundwater resource. The valley is found to contain both "old", regionally recharged groundwater (300-10,000 years) in the near-river environment, and modern groundwater (0-100 years old) further back on the floodplain. There is no recharge of the groundwater by high river flows.
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: WetlandsHigh peatland methane emissions following permafrost thaw: enhanced acetoclastic methanogenesis during early successional stagesOrigin, transport, and retention of fluvial sedimentary organic matter in South Africa's largest freshwater wetland, Mkhuze Wetland SystemPeat macropore networks – new insights into episodic and hotspot methane emissionMangrove sediment organic carbon storage and sources in relation to forest age and position along a deltaic salinity gradientPlant genotype controls wetland soil microbial functioning in response to sea-level riseSoil greenhouse gas fluxes from tropical coastal wetlands and alternative agricultural land usesCarbon balance of a Finnish bog: temporal variability and limiting factors based on 6 years of eddy-covariance dataCommitted and projected future changes in global peatlands – continued transient model simulations since the Last Glacial MaximumFactors controlling Carex brevicuspis leaf litter decomposition and its contribution to surface soil organic carbon pool at different water levelsExploring constraints on a wetland methane emission ensemble (WetCHARTs) using GOSAT observationsGlobal peatland area and carbon dynamics from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present – a process-based model investigationVascular plants affect properties and decomposition of moss-dominated peat, particularly at elevated temperaturesDenitrification and associated nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from the Amazonian wetlandsDrivers of seasonal- and event-scale DOC dynamics at the outlet of mountainous peatlands revealed by high-frequency monitoringComparison of eddy covariance CO2 and CH4 fluxes from mined and recently rewetted sections in a northwestern German cutover bogMicrotopography is a fundamental organizing structure of vegetation and soil chemistry in black ash wetlandsInteracting effects of vegetation components and water level on methane dynamics in a boreal fenLow methane emissions from a boreal wetland constructed on oil sand mine tailingsEvidence for preferential protein depolymerization in wetland soils in response to external nitrogen availability provided by a novel FTIR routineSaltwater reduces potential CO2 and CH4 production in peat soils from a coastal freshwater forested wetlandReviews and syntheses: Greenhouse gas exchange data from drained organic forest soils – a review of current approaches and recommendations for future researchEffects of sterilization techniques on chemodenitrification and N2O production in tropical peat soil microcosmsModelling long-term blanket peatland development in eastern ScotlandCushion bogs are stronger carbon dioxide net sinks than moss-dominated bogs as revealed by eddy covariance measurements on Tierra del Fuego, ArgentinaHumic surface waters of frozen peat bogs (permafrost zone) are highly resistant to bio- and photodegradationMulti-year methane ebullition measurements from water and bare peat surfaces of a patterned boreal bogSulfate deprivation triggers high methane production in a disturbed and rewetted coastal peatlandRhizosphere to the atmosphere: contrasting methane pathways, fluxes, and geochemical drivers across the terrestrial–aquatic wetland boundaryMulti-year effect of wetting on CH4 flux at taiga–tundra boundary in northeastern Siberia deduced from stable isotope ratios of CH4Zero to moderate methane emissions in a densely rooted, pristine Patagonian bog – biogeochemical controls as revealed from isotopic evidenceFluvial organic carbon fluxes from oil palm plantations on tropical peatlandReviews and syntheses: 210Pb-derived sediment and carbon accumulation rates in vegetated coastal ecosystems – setting the record straightResponse of hydrology and CO2 flux to experimentally altered rainfall frequency in a temperate poor fen, southern Ontario, CanadaGlobal-change effects on early-stage decomposition processes in tidal wetlands – implications from a global survey using standardized litterYear-round simulated methane emissions from a permafrost ecosystem in Northeast SiberiaSmall spatial variability in methane emission measured from a wet patterned boreal bogTechnical note: A simple approach for efficient collection of field reference data for calibrating remote sensing mapping of northern wetlandsTechnical note: Comparison of methane ebullition modelling approaches used in terrestrial wetland modelsGeomorphic influences on the contribution of vegetation to soil C accumulation and accretion in Spartina alterniflora marshesSouthern Hemisphere bog persists as a strong carbon sink during droughtsThe effect of drought on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release from peatland soil and vegetation sourcesAnnual greenhouse gas budget for a bog ecosystem undergoing restoration by rewettingTemporal changes in photoreactivity of dissolved organic carbon and implications for aquatic carbon fluxes from peatlandsSymbiosis revisited: phosphorus and acid buffering stimulate N2 fixation but not Sphagnum growthAttaining whole-ecosystem warming using air and deep-soil heating methods with an elevated CO2 atmosphereAquatic macrophytes can be used for wastewater polishing but not for purification in constructed wetlandsControls on soil organic carbon stocks in tidal marshes along an estuarine salinity gradientWetland eco-engineering: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich materialMapping of West Siberian taiga wetland complexes using Landsat imagery: implications for methane emissionsWater level, vegetation composition, and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation
Liam Heffernan, Maria A. Cavaco, Maya P. Bhatia, Cristian Estop-Aragonés, Klaus-Holger Knorr, and David Olefeldt
Biogeosciences, 19, 3051–3071,Short summary
Permafrost thaw in peatlands leads to waterlogged conditions, a favourable environment for microbes producing methane (CH4) and high CH4 emissions. High CH4 emissions in the initial decades following thaw are due to a vegetation community that produces suitable organic matter to fuel CH4-producing microbes, along with warm and wet conditions. High CH4 emissions after thaw persist for up to 100 years, after which environmental conditions are less favourable for microbes and high CH4 emissions.
Julia Gensel, Marc Steven Humphries, Matthias Zabel, David Sebag, Annette Hahn, and Enno Schefuß
Biogeosciences, 19, 2881–2902,Short summary
We investigated organic matter (OM) and plant-wax-derived biomarkers in sediments and plants along the Mkhuze River to constrain OM's origin and transport pathways within South Africa's largest freshwater wetland. Presently, it efficiently captures OM, so neither transport from upstream areas nor export from the swamp occurs. Thus, we emphasize that such geomorphological features can alter OM provenance, questioning the assumption of watershed-integrated information in downstream sediments.
Petri Kiuru, Marjo Palviainen, Tiia Grönholm, Maarit Raivonen, Lukas Kohl, Vincent Gauci, Iñaki Urzainki, and Annamari Laurén
Biogeosciences, 19, 1959–1977,Short summary
Peatlands are large sources of methane (CH4), and peat structure controls CH4 production and emissions. We used X-ray microtomography imaging, complex network theory methods, and pore network modeling to describe the properties of peat macropore networks and the role of macropores in CH4-related processes. We show that conditions for gas transport and CH4 production vary with depth and are affected by hysteresis, which may explain the hotspots and episodic spikes in peatland CH4 emissions.
Rey Harvey Suello, Simon Lucas Hernandez, Steven Bouillon, Jean-Philippe Belliard, Luis Dominguez-Granda, Marijn Van de Broek, Andrea Mishell Rosado Moncayo, John Ramos Veliz, Karem Pollette Ramirez, Gerard Govers, and Stijn Temmerman
Biogeosciences, 19, 1571–1585,Short summary
This research shows indications that the age of the mangrove forest and its position along a deltaic gradient (upstream–downstream) play a vital role in the amount and sources of carbon stored in the mangrove sediments. Our findings also imply that carbon capture by the mangrove ecosystem itself contributes partly but relatively little to long-term sediment organic carbon storage. This finding is particularly relevant for budgeting the potential of mangrove ecosystems to mitigate climate change.
Hao Tang, Susanne Liebner, Svenja Reents, Stefanie Nolte, Kai Jensen, Fabian Horn, and Peter Mueller
Biogeosciences, 18, 6133–6146,Short summary
We examined if sea-level rise and plant genotype interact to affect soil microbial functioning in a mesocosm experiment using two genotypes of a dominant salt-marsh grass characterized by differences in flooding sensitivity. Larger variability in microbial community structure, enzyme activity, and litter breakdown in soils with the more sensitive genotype supports our hypothesis that effects of climate change on soil microbial functioning can be controlled by plant intraspecific adaptations.
Naima Iram, Emad Kavehei, Damien T. Maher, Stuart E. Bunn, Mehran Rezaei Rashti, Bahareh Shahrabi Farahani, and Maria Fernanda Adame
Biogeosciences, 18, 5085–5096,Short summary
Greenhouse gas emissions were measured and compared from natural coastal wetlands and their converted agricultural lands across annual seasonal cycles in tropical Australia. Ponded pastures emitted ~ 200-fold-higher methane than any other tested land use type, suggesting the highest greenhouse gas mitigation potential and financial incentives by the restoration of ponded pastures to natural coastal wetlands.
Pavel Alekseychik, Aino Korrensalo, Ivan Mammarella, Samuli Launiainen, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Ilkka Korpela, and Timo Vesala
Biogeosciences, 18, 4681–4704,Short summary
Bogs of northern Eurasia represent a major type of peatland ecosystem and contain vast amounts of carbon, but carbon balance monitoring studies on bogs are scarce. The current project explores 6 years of carbon balance data obtained using the state-of-the-art eddy-covariance technique at a Finnish bog Siikaneva. The results reveal relatively low interannual variability indicative of ecosystem resilience to both cool and hot summers and provide new insights into the seasonal course of C fluxes.
Jurek Müller and Fortunat Joos
Biogeosciences, 18, 3657–3687,Short summary
We present long-term projections of global peatland area and carbon with a continuous transient history since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our novel results show that large parts of today’s northern peatlands are at risk from past and future climate change, with larger emissions clearly connected to larger risks. The study includes comparisons between different emission and land-use scenarios, driver attribution through factorial simulations, and assessments of uncertainty from climate forcing.
Lianlian Zhu, Zhengmiao Deng, Yonghong Xie, Xu Li, Feng Li, Xinsheng Chen, Yeai Zou, Chengyi Zhang, and Wei Wang
Biogeosciences, 18, 1–11,Short summary
We conducted a Carex brevicuspis leaf litter input experiment to clarify the intrinsic factors controlling litter decomposition and quantify its contribution to the soil organic carbon pool at different water levels. Our results revealed that the water level in natural wetlands influenced litter decomposition mainly by leaching and microbial activity, by extension, and affected the wetland surface carbon pool.
Robert J. Parker, Chris Wilson, A. Anthony Bloom, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Joe McNorton, Hartmut Boesch, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Biogeosciences, 17, 5669–5691,Short summary
Wetlands contribute the largest uncertainty to the atmospheric methane budget. WetCHARTs is a simple, data-driven model that estimates wetland emissions using observations of precipitation and temperature. We perform the first detailed evaluation of WetCHARTs against satellite data and find it performs well in reproducing the observed wetland methane seasonal cycle for the majority of wetland regions. In regions where it performs poorly, we highlight incorrect wetland extent as a key reason.
Jurek Müller and Fortunat Joos
Biogeosciences, 17, 5285–5308,Short summary
We present an in-depth model analysis of transient peatland area and carbon dynamics over the last 22 000 years. Our novel results show that the consideration of both gross positive and negative area changes are necessary to understand the transient evolution of peatlands and their net effect on atmospheric carbon. The study includes the attributions to drivers through factorial simulations, assessments of uncertainty from climate forcing, and determination of the global net carbon balance.
Lilli Zeh, Marie Theresa Igel, Judith Schellekens, Juul Limpens, Luca Bragazza, and Karsten Kalbitz
Biogeosciences, 17, 4797–4813,
Jérémy Guilhen, Ahmad Al Bitar, Sabine Sauvage, Marie Parrens, Jean-Michel Martinez, Gwenael Abril, Patricia Moreira-Turcq, and José-Miguel Sánchez-Pérez
Biogeosciences, 17, 4297–4311,Short summary
The quantity of greenhouse gases (GHGs) released to the atmosphere by human industries and agriculture, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), has been constantly increasing for the last few decades. This work develops a methodology which makes consistent both satellite observations and modelling of the Amazon basin to identify and quantify the role of wetlands in GHG emissions. We showed that these areas produce non-negligible emissions and are linked to land use.
Thomas Rosset, Stéphane Binet, Jean-Marc Antoine, Emilie Lerigoleur, François Rigal, and Laure Gandois
Biogeosciences, 17, 3705–3722,Short summary
Peatlands export a large amount of DOC through inland waters. This study aims at identifying the mechanisms controlling the DOC concentration at the outlet of two mountainous peatlands in the French Pyrenees. Peat water temperature and water table dynamics are shown to drive seasonal- and event-scale DOC concentration variation. According to water recession times, peatlands appear as complexes of different hydrological and biogeochemical units supplying inland waters at different rates.
David Holl, Eva-Maria Pfeiffer, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 17, 2853–2874,Short summary
We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at a bog site in northwestern Germany that has been heavily degraded by peat mining. During the 2-year investigation period, half of the area was still being mined, whereas the remaining half had been rewetted shortly before. We could therefore estimate the impact of rewetting on GHG flux dynamics. Rewetting had a considerable effect on the annual GHG balance and led to increased (up to 84 %) methane and decreased (up to 40 %) carbon dioxide release.
Jacob S. Diamond, Daniel L. McLaughlin, Robert A. Slesak, and Atticus Stovall
Biogeosciences, 17, 901–915,Short summary
Many wetland systems exhibit lumpy, or uneven, soil surfaces where higher points are called hummocks and lower points are called hollows. We found that, while hummocks extended only ~ 20 cm above hollow surfaces, they exhibited distinct plant communities, plant growth, and soil properties. Differences between hummocks and hollows were the greatest in wetter sites, supporting the hypothesis that plants create and maintain their own hummocks in response to saturated soil conditions.
Terhi Riutta, Aino Korrensalo, Anna M. Laine, Jukka Laine, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 17, 727–740,Short summary
We studied the role of plant species groups in peatland methane fluxes under natural conditions and lowered water level. At a natural water level, sedges and mosses increased the fluxes. At a lower water level, the impact of plant groups on the fluxes was small. Only at a high water level did vegetation regulate the fluxes. The results are relevant for assessing peatland methane fluxes in a changing climate, as peatland water level and vegetation are predicted to change.
M. Graham Clark, Elyn R. Humphreys, and Sean K. Carey
Biogeosciences, 17, 667–682,Short summary
Natural and restored wetlands typically emit methane to the atmosphere. However, we found that a wetland constructed after oil sand mining in boreal Canada using organic soils from local peatlands had negligible emissions of methane in its first 3 years. Methane production was likely suppressed due to an abundance of alternate inorganic electron acceptors. Methane emissions may increase in the future if the alternate electron acceptors continue to decrease.
Hendrik Reuter, Julia Gensel, Marcus Elvert, and Dominik Zak
Biogeosciences, 17, 499–514,Short summary
Using infrared spectroscopy, we developed a routine to disentangle microbial nitrogen (N) and plant N in decomposed litter. In a decomposition experiment in three wetland soils, this routine revealed preferential protein depolymerization as a decomposition-site-dependent parameter, unaffected by variations in initial litter N content. In Sphagnum peat, preferential protein depolymerization led to a N depletion of still-unprocessed litter tissue, i.e., a gradual loss of litter quality.
Kevan J. Minick, Bhaskar Mitra, Asko Noormets, and John S. King
Biogeosciences, 16, 4671–4686,Short summary
Sea level rise alters hydrology and vegetation in coastal wetlands. We studied effects of freshwater, saltwater, and wood on soil microbial activity in a freshwater forested wetland. Saltwater reduced CO2/CH4 production compared to freshwater, suggesting large changes in greenhouse gas production and microbial activity are possible due to saltwater intrusion into freshwater wetlands but that the availability of C in the form of dead wood (as forests transition to marsh) may alter the magnitude.
Jyrki Jauhiainen, Jukka Alm, Brynhildur Bjarnadottir, Ingeborg Callesen, Jesper R. Christiansen, Nicholas Clarke, Lise Dalsgaard, Hongxing He, Sabine Jordan, Vaiva Kazanavičiūtė, Leif Klemedtsson, Ari Lauren, Andis Lazdins, Aleksi Lehtonen, Annalea Lohila, Ainars Lupikis, Ülo Mander, Kari Minkkinen, Åsa Kasimir, Mats Olsson, Paavo Ojanen, Hlynur Óskarsson, Bjarni D. Sigurdsson, Gunnhild Søgaard, Kaido Soosaar, Lars Vesterdal, and Raija Laiho
Biogeosciences, 16, 4687–4703,Short summary
We collated peer-reviewed publications presenting GHG flux data for drained organic forest soils in boreal and temperate climate zones, focusing on data that have been used, or have the potential to be used, for estimating net annual soil GHG emission/removals. We evaluated the methods in data collection and identified major gaps in background/environmental data. Based on these, we developed suggestions for future GHG data collection to increase data applicability in syntheses and inventories.
Steffen Buessecker, Kaitlyn Tylor, Joshua Nye, Keith E. Holbert, Jose D. Urquiza Muñoz, Jennifer B. Glass, Hilairy E. Hartnett, and Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz
Biogeosciences, 16, 4601–4612,Short summary
We investigated the potential for chemical reduction of nitrite into nitrous oxide (N2O) in soils from tropical peat. Among treatments, irradiation resulted in the lowest biological interference and least change of native soil chemistry (iron and organic matter). Nitrite depletion was as high in live or irradiated soils, and N2O production was significant in all tests. Thus, nonbiological production of N2O may be widely underestimated in wetlands and tropical peatlands.
Ward Swinnen, Nils Broothaerts, and Gert Verstraeten
Biogeosciences, 16, 3977–3996,Short summary
In this study, a new model is presented, which was specifically designed to study the development and carbon storage of blanket peatlands since the last ice age. In the past, two main processes (declining forest cover and rising temperatures) have been proposed as drivers of blanket peatland development on the British Isles. The simulations performed in this study support the temperature hypothesis for the blanket peatlands in the Cairngorms Mountains of central Scotland.
David Holl, Verónica Pancotto, Adrian Heger, Sergio Jose Camargo, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 16, 3397–3423,Short summary
We present 2 years of eddy covariance carbon dioxide flux data from two Southern Hemisphere peatlands on Tierra del Fuego. One of the investigated sites is a type of bog exclusive to the Southern Hemisphere, which is dominated by vascular, cushion-forming plants and is particularly understudied. One result of this study is that these cushion bogs apparently are highly productive in comparison to Northern and Southern Hemisphere moss-dominated bogs.
Liudmila S. Shirokova, Artem V. Chupakov, Svetlana A. Zabelina, Natalia V. Neverova, Dahedrey Payandi-Rolland, Carole Causserand, Jan Karlsson, and Oleg S. Pokrovsky
Biogeosciences, 16, 2511–2526,Short summary
Regardless of the size and landscape context of surface water in frozen peatland in NE Europe, the bio- and photo-degradability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) over a 1-month incubation across a range of temperatures was below 10 %. We challenge the paradigm of dominance of photolysis and biodegradation in DOM processing in surface waters from frozen peatland, and we hypothesize peat pore-water DOM degradation and respiration of sediments to be the main drivers of CO2 emission in this region.
Elisa Männistö, Aino Korrensalo, Pavel Alekseychik, Ivan Mammarella, Olli Peltola, Timo Vesala, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 16, 2409–2421,Short summary
We studied methane emitted as episodic bubble release (ebullition) from water and bare peat surfaces of a boreal bog over three years. There was more ebullition from water than from bare peat surfaces, and it was controlled by peat temperature, water level, atmospheric pressure and the weekly temperature sum. However, the contribution of methane bubbles to the total ecosystem methane emission was small. This new information can be used to improve process models of peatland methane dynamics.
Franziska Koebsch, Matthias Winkel, Susanne Liebner, Bo Liu, Julia Westphal, Iris Schmiedinger, Alejandro Spitzy, Matthias Gehre, Gerald Jurasinski, Stefan Köhler, Viktoria Unger, Marian Koch, Torsten Sachs, and Michael E. Böttcher
Biogeosciences, 16, 1937–1953,Short summary
In natural coastal wetlands, high supplies of marine sulfate suppress methane production. We found these natural methane suppression mechanisms to be suspended by humane interference in a brackish wetland. Here, diking and freshwater rewetting had caused an efficient depletion of the sulfate reservoir and opened up favorable conditions for an intensive methane production. Our results demonstrate how human disturbance can turn coastal wetlands into distinct sources of the greenhouse gas methane.
Luke C. Jeffrey, Damien T. Maher, Scott G. Johnston, Kylie Maguire, Andrew D. L. Steven, and Douglas R. Tait
Biogeosciences, 16, 1799–1815,Short summary
Wetlands represent the largest natural source of methane (CH4), so understanding CH4 drivers is important for management and climate models. We compared several CH4 pathways of a remediated subtropical Australian wetland. We found permanently inundated sites emitted more CH4 than seasonally inundated sites and that the soil properties of each site corresponded to CH4 emissions. This suggests that selective wetland remediation of favourable soil types may help to mitigate unwanted CH4 emissions.
Ryo Shingubara, Atsuko Sugimoto, Jun Murase, Go Iwahana, Shunsuke Tei, Maochang Liang, Shinya Takano, Tomoki Morozumi, and Trofim C. Maximov
Biogeosciences, 16, 755–768,Short summary
(1) Wetting event with extreme precipitation increased methane emission from wetland, especially two summers later, despite the decline in water level after the wetting. (2) Isotopic compositions of methane in soil pore water suggested enhancement of production and less significance of oxidation in the following two summers after the wetting event. (3) Duration of water saturation in the active layer may be important for predicting methane emission after a wetting event in permafrost ecosystems.
Wiebke Münchberger, Klaus-Holger Knorr, Christian Blodau, Verónica A. Pancotto, and Till Kleinebecker
Biogeosciences, 16, 541–559,Short summary
Processes governing CH4 dynamics have been scarcely studied in southern hemispheric bogs. These can be dominated by cushion-forming plants with deep and dense roots suppressing emissions. Here we demonstrate how the spatial distribution of root activity drives a pronounced pattern of CH4 emissions, likewise also possible in densely rooted northern bogs. We conclude that presence of cushion vegetation as a proxy for negligible CH4 emissions from cushion bogs needs to be interpreted with caution.
Sarah Cook, Mick J. Whelan, Chris D. Evans, Vincent Gauci, Mike Peacock, Mark H. Garnett, Lip Khoon Kho, Yit Arn Teh, and Susan E. Page
Biogeosciences, 15, 7435–7450,Short summary
This paper presents the first comprehensive assessment of fluvial organic carbon loss from oil palm plantations on tropical peat: a carbon loss pathway previously unaccounted for from carbon budgets. Carbon in the water draining four plantations in Sarawak was monitored across a 1-year period. Greater fluvial carbon losses were linked to sites with lower water tables. These data will be used to complete the carbon budget from these ecosystems and assess the full impact of this land conversion.
Ariane Arias-Ortiz, Pere Masqué, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, Oscar Serrano, Inés Mazarrasa, Núria Marbà, Catherine E. Lovelock, Paul S. Lavery, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 15, 6791–6818,Short summary
Efforts to include tidal marsh, mangrove and seagrass ecosystems in existing carbon mitigation strategies are limited by a lack of estimates of carbon accumulation rates (CARs). We discuss the use of 210Pb dating to determine CARs in these habitats, which are often composed of heterogeneous sediments and affected by sedimentary processes. Results show that obtaining reliable geochronologies in these systems is ambitious, but estimates of mean 100-year CARs are mostly secure within 20 % error.
Danielle D. Radu and Tim P. Duval
Biogeosciences, 15, 3937–3951,Short summary
Climate change can shift rainfall into fewer, more intense events with longer dry periods, leading to changes in peatland hydrology and carbon cycling. We manipulated rain events over three peatland plant types (moss, sedge, and shrub). We found increasing regime intensity led to drier surface soils and deeper water tables, reducing plant carbon uptake. Mosses became sources of CO2 after >3 consecutive dry days. This study shows peatlands may become smaller sinks for carbon due to rain changes.
Peter Mueller, Lisa M. Schile-Beers, Thomas J. Mozdzer, Gail L. Chmura, Thomas Dinter, Yakov Kuzyakov, Alma V. de Groot, Peter Esselink, Christian Smit, Andrea D'Alpaos, Carles Ibáñez, Magdalena Lazarus, Urs Neumeier, Beverly J. Johnson, Andrew H. Baldwin, Stephanie A. Yarwood, Diana I. Montemayor, Zaichao Yang, Jihua Wu, Kai Jensen, and Stefanie Nolte
Biogeosciences, 15, 3189–3202,
Karel Castro-Morales, Thomas Kleinen, Sonja Kaiser, Sönke Zaehle, Fanny Kittler, Min Jung Kwon, Christian Beer, and Mathias Göckede
Biogeosciences, 15, 2691–2722,Short summary
We present year-round methane emissions from wetlands in Northeast Siberia that were simulated with a land surface model. Ground-based flux measurements from the same area were used for evaluation of the model results, finding a best agreement with the observations in the summertime emissions that take place in this region predominantly through plants. During winter, methane emissions through the snow contribute 4 % of the total annual methane budget, but these are still underestimated.
Aino Korrensalo, Elisa Männistö, Pavel Alekseychik, Ivan Mammarella, Janne Rinne, Timo Vesala, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 15, 1749–1761,Short summary
We measured methane fluxes of a boreal bog from six different plant community types in 2012–2014. We found only little variation in methane fluxes among plant community types. Peat temperature as well as both leaf area of plant species with air channels and of all vegetation are important factors controlling the fluxes. We also detected negative net fluxes indicating methane consumption each year. Our results can be used to improve the models of peatland methane dynamics under climate change.
Magnus Gålfalk, Martin Karlson, Patrick Crill, Philippe Bousquet, and David Bastviken
Biogeosciences, 15, 1549–1557,Short summary
We describe a quick in situ method for mapping ground surface cover, calculating areas of each surface type in a 10 x 10 m plot for each measurement. The method is robust, weather-independent, easily carried out, and uses wide-field imaging with a standard remote-controlled camera mounted on a very long extendible monopod from a height of 3–4.5 m. The method enables collection of detailed field reference data, critical in many remote sensing applications, such as wetland mapping.
Olli Peltola, Maarit Raivonen, Xuefei Li, and Timo Vesala
Biogeosciences, 15, 937–951,Short summary
Emission via bubbling, i.e. ebullition, is one of the main CH4 emission pathways from wetlands to the atmosphere, yet it is still coarsely represented in wetland CH4 models. In this study three ebullition modelling approaches are evaluated. Modeled annual CH4 emissions were similar, whereas temporal variability in CH4 emissions varied an order of magnitude between the approaches. Hence realistic description of ebullition is needed when models are compared to and calibrated against measurements.
Tracy Elsey-Quirk and Viktoria Unger
Biogeosciences, 15, 379–397,Short summary
Salt marshes have high rates of plant productivity and carbon accumulation. For this study, we found that differences in environmental conditions between estuary types were important in determining the source and stability of soil organic carbon. Specifically, sediment availability was extremely important in promoting high plant productivity and carbon accumulation in an estuary which was sediment-limited. In a sediment-rich estuary vegetation–soil-carbon relationships were weaker.
Jordan P. Goodrich, David I. Campbell, and Louis A. Schipper
Biogeosciences, 14, 4563–4576,
Jonathan P. Ritson, Richard E. Brazier, Nigel J. D. Graham, Chris Freeman, Michael R. Templeton, and Joanna M. Clark
Biogeosciences, 14, 2891–2902,Short summary
Peatlands are a globally important store of carbon; however increased droughts in the future may affect their ability to sequester carbon. Using laboratory simulations we show that droughts, through exposure to oxygen, greatly increase the quantity and alter the quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from peat. Catchment management which keeps water tables high to limit oxygen exposure is therefore likely to deliver positive water quality outcomes.
Sung-Ching Lee, Andreas Christen, Andrew T. Black, Mark S. Johnson, Rachhpal S. Jassal, Rick Ketler, Zoran Nesic, and Markus Merkens
Biogeosciences, 14, 2799–2814,Short summary
Burns Bog in Vancouver is the largest peatland on North America's west coast. It is undergoing rewetting as a restoration management after peat harvesting. Rewetting of disturbed areas facilitates their ecological recovery but has an immediate impact on carbon dioxide and methane exchange. On the floating flux tower, we quantified annual carbon dioxide and methane exchange to inform future management. Our results suggested that the study area was a net carbon sink after 7-year rewetting.
Amy E. Pickard, Kate V. Heal, Andrew R. McLeod, and Kerry J. Dinsmore
Biogeosciences, 14, 1793–1809,Short summary
Peatland catchments export significant volumes of photoreactive carbon to aquatic systems, particularly headwater streams. Delivery of photoreactive material is subject to seasonal variation, and is also influenced by the timing and magnitude of rainfall events. We suggest that photoprocessing of peatland derived carbon may contribute to carbon dioxide emissions from aquatic systems, although considerable uncertainty remains as to how much material is processed
in situwithin these systems.
Eva van den Elzen, Martine A. R. Kox, Sarah F. Harpenslager, Geert Hensgens, Christian Fritz, Mike S. M. Jetten, Katharina F. Ettwig, and Leon P. M. Lamers
Biogeosciences, 14, 1111–1122,Short summary
Peatlands are important because they sequester large amounts of carbon, for which nitrogen is needed. In peatlands dominated by peat mosses, atmospheric nitrogen is fixed by associated microorganisms. We here show for the first time experimentally that phosphorus availability and acid buffering, both showing large variations among peatlands, can explain the strong differences reported for nitrogen fixation. This improves our understanding of peatland functioning in relation to global change.
Paul J. Hanson, Jeffery S. Riggs, W. Robert Nettles, Jana R. Phillips, Misha B. Krassovski, Leslie A. Hook, Lianhong Gu, Andrew D. Richardson, Donald M. Aubrecht, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Jeffrey M. Warren, and Charlotte Barbier
Biogeosciences, 14, 861–883,Short summary
This paper describes operational methods to achieve whole-ecosystem warming (WEW) for tall-stature, high-carbon, boreal forest peatlands. The methods enable scientists to study immediate and longer-term (1 decade) responses of organisms (microbes to trees) and ecosystem functions (carbon, water and nutrient cycles). The WEW technology allows researchers to have a plausible glimpse of future environmental conditions for study that are not available in the current observational record.
Yingying Tang, Sarah F. Harpenslager, Monique M. L. van Kempen, Evi J. H. Verbaarschot, Laury M. J. M. Loeffen, Jan G. M. Roelofs, Alfons J. P. Smolders, and Leon P. M. Lamers
Biogeosciences, 14, 755–766,Short summary
Aquatic macrophytes can be used for wastewater polishing but not for purification. At a low nutrient loading M. spicatum and A. filiculoides performed equally well for P removal, whereas at loads ≥ 22 mg P m−2 d−1, A. filiculoides removes P more efficiently. We provide an easily applicable method to select efficient macrophytes species for wastewater polishing, which is essential for decision support in water management using constructed wetlands for nutrient removal by plant harvesting.
Marijn Van de Broek, Stijn Temmerman, Roel Merckx, and Gerard Govers
Biogeosciences, 13, 6611–6624,Short summary
The results of this study on the organic carbon (OC) stocks of tidal marshes show that variations in OC stocks along estuaries are important and should be taken into account to make accurate estimates of the total amount of OC stored in these ecosystems. Moreover, our results clearly show that most studies underestimate the variation in OC stocks along estuaries due to a shallow sampling depth, neglecting the variation in OC decomposition after burial along estuaries.
Rémon Saaltink, Stefan C. Dekker, Jasper Griffioen, and Martin J. Wassen
Biogeosciences, 13, 4945–4957,Short summary
We identified biogeochemical plant–soil feedback processes that occur when oxidation, drying and modification by plants alter sediment conditions. Wetland construction in Markermeer (a lake in the Netherlands) is used as a case study. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. We conducted a 6-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineer.
Irina Evgenievna Terentieva, Mikhail Vladimirovich Glagolev, Elena Dmitrievna Lapshina, Alexandr Faritovich Sabrekov, and Shamil Maksyutov
Biogeosciences, 13, 4615–4626,Short summary
West Siberia (WS) wetlands are the world’s largest high-latitude wetland system. WS methane emission estimates suffered from large uncertainty due to high emission rate variability across the wetland vegetation cover. We mapped WS taiga zone wetlands with Landsat imagery and applied wetland typology specifically developed to reflect heterogeneity of methane fluxes. The map provides a benchmark for validation of coarse-resolution land cover products and wetland data sets in high latitudes.
Merten Minke, Jürgen Augustin, Andrei Burlo, Tatsiana Yarmashuk, Hanna Chuvashova, Annett Thiele, Annette Freibauer, Vitalij Tikhonov, and Mathias Hoffmann
Biogeosciences, 13, 3945–3970,Short summary
We studied GHG emissions along water-level gradients of two inundated cutover fens with closed chambers. N2O fluxes were negligible. CO2 and CH4 fluxes were controlled by vegetation composition and plant productivity, which in turn depended on water level and nutrient conditions. CH4 fluxes from mesotrophic sites were low and largely compensated for by CO2 uptake. Eutrophic sites were strong CH4 sources, and GHG balances depended on the plant's net C sink, which strongly differed between species.
Abdel Aal, G. Z. and Atekwana, E. A.: Spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of biodegraded oil in porous media, Geophys. J. Int., 196, 804–817, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggt416, 2014.
Abdel Aal, G. Z., Atekwana, E. A., Rossbach, S., and Werkema, D. D.: Sensitivity of geoelectrical measurements to the presence of bacteria in porous media, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 115, G03017, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009jg001279, 2010a.
Abdel Aal, Gamal, Z., Estella, A., and Eliot, A.: Effect of bioclogging in porous media on complex conductivity signatures, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 115, G00G07, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009jg001159, 2010b.
Abdel Aal, G. Z., Atekwana, E. A., and Revil, A.: Geophysical signatures of disseminated iron minerals: A proxy for understanding subsurface biophysicochemical processes, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 119, 1831–1849, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014jg002659, 2014.
Abdulsamad, F., Revil, A., Ghorbani, A., Toy, V., Kirilova, M., Coperey, A., Duvillard, P., Ménard, G., and Ravanel, L.: Complex conductivity of graphitic schists and sandstones, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 124, 8223–8249, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JB017628, 2019.
Albrecht, R., Gourry, J. C., Simonnot, M. O., and Leyval, C.: Complex conductivity response to microbial growth and biofilm formation on phenanthrene spiked medium, J. Appl. Geophys., 75, 558–564, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2011.09.001, 2011.
Alonso, D. M., Granados, M. L., Mariscal, R., and Douhal, A.: Polarity of the acid chain of esters and transesterification activity of acid catalysts, J. Catal., 262, 18–26, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcat.2008.11.026, 2009.
Andrade, Â. L., Souza, D. M., Pereira, M. C., Fabris, J. D., and Domingues, R. Z.: pH effect on the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles by the chemical reduction-precipitation method, Quim. Nova, 33, 524–527, https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-40422010000300006, 2010.
Arai, Y. and Sparks, D. L.: ATR–FTIR spectroscopic investigation on phosphate adsorption mechanisms at the ferrihydrite–water interface, J. Colloid Interf. Sci., 241, 317–326, https://doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2001.7773, 2001.
Artz, R. R., Chapman, S. J., Robertson, A. J., Potts, J. M., Laggoun-Défarge, F., Gogo, S., and Francez, A. J.: FTIR spectroscopy can be used as a screening tool for organic matter quality in regenerating cutover peatlands, Soil Biol. Biochem., 40, 515–527, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.09.019, 2008.
Atekwana, E., Patrauchan, M., and Revil, A.: Induced Polarization Signature of Biofilms in Porous Media: From Laboratory Experiments to Theoretical Developments and Validation (No. DOE-Okstate-SC0007118), Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK, USA, https://doi.org/10.2172/1327843, 2016.
Atekwana, E. A. and Slater, L. D.: Biogeophysics: A new frontier in Earth science research, Rev. Geophys., 47, RG4004, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009rg000285, 2009.
Bakatula, E. N., Richard, D., Neculita, C. M., and Zagury, G. J.: Determination of point of zero charge of natural organic materials, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 25, 7823–7833, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-1115-7, 2018.
Biester, H., Knorr, K. H., Schellekens, J., Basler, A., and Hermanns, Y. M.: Comparison of different methods to determine the degree of peat decomposition in peat bogs, Biogeosciences, 11, 2691–2707, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-2691-2014, 2014.
Binley, A. and Kemna, A.: DC resistivity and induced polarization methods, in: Hydrogeophysics, Springer, Dordrecht, 129–156, https://doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3102-5_5, 2005.
Binley, A. and Slater, L.: Resistivity and Induced Polarization: Theory and Applications to the Near-surface Earth, Cambridge University Press, https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108685955.003, 2020.
Binley, A., Hubbard, S. S., Huisman, J. A., Revil, A., Robinson, D. A., Singha, K., and Slater, L. D.: The emergence of hydrogeophysics for improved understanding of subsurface processes over multiple scales, Water Resour. Res., 51, 3837–3866, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015wr017016, 2015.
Boano, F., Harvey, J. W., Marion, A., Packman, A. I., Revelli, R., Ridolfi, L., and Wörman, A.: Hyporheic flow and transport processes: Mechanisms, models, and biogeochemical implications, Rev. Geophys., 52, 603–679, https://doi.org/10.1002/2012rg000417, 2014.
Bragazza, L., Buttler, A., Siegenthaler, A., and Mitchell, E. A.: Plant litter decomposition and nutrient release in peatlands, Geoph. Monog. Series, 184, 99–110, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008gm000815, 2009.
Bücker, M. and Hördt, A.: Analytical modelling of membrane polarization with explicit parametrization of pore radii and the electrical double layer, Geophys. J. Int., 194, 804–813, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggt136, 2013.
Bücker, M., Orozco, A. F., Hördt, A., and Kemna, A.: An analytical membrane-polarization model to predict the complex conductivity signature of immiscible liquid hydrocarbon contaminants, Near Surf. Geophys., 15, 547–562, https://doi.org/10.3997/1873-0604.2017051, 2017.
Bücker, M., Orozco, A. F., and Kemna, A.: Electrochemical polarization around metallic particles – Part 1: The role of diffuse-layer and volume-diffusion relaxation, Geophysics, 83, E203–E217, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2017-0401.1, 2018.
Bücker, M., Undorf, S., Flores Orozco, A., and Kemna, A.: Electrochemical polarization around metallic particles – Part 2: The role of diffuse surface charge, Geophysics, 84, E57–E73, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2018-0150.1, 2019.
Canfield, D. E.: Reactive iron in marine sediments, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 53, 619–632, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(89)90005-7, 1989.
Canfield, D. E., Raiswell, R., Westrich, J. T., Reaves, C. M., and Berner, R. A.: The use of chromium reduction in the analysis of reduced inorganic sulfur in sediments and shales, Chem. Geol., 54, 149–155, https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-2541(86)90078-1, 1986.
Capps, K. A. and Flecker, A. S.: Invasive fishes generate biogeochemical hotspots in a nutrient-limited system, PLoS One, 8, e54093, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054093, 2013.
Cirmo, C. P. and McDonnell, J. J.: Linking the hydrologic and biogeochemical controls of nitrogen transport in near-stream zones of temperate-forested catchments: a review, J. Hydrol., 199, 88–120, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-1694(96)03286-6, 1997.
Cornell, R. M. and Schwertmann, U.: The Iron Oxides, VCH, ISBN: 3-527-28567-8, 1996.
Costanza, R., d'Arge, R., De Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., and Raskin, R. G.: The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital, Nature, 387, 253–260, https://doi.org/10.1038/387253a0, 1997.
Costanza, R., De Groot, R., Braat, L., Kubiszewski, I., Fioramonti, L., Sutton, P., and Grasso, M.: Twenty years of ecosystem services: how far have we come and how far do we still need to go?, Ecosyst. Serv., 28, 1–16, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2017.09.008, 2017.
Davis, C. A., Atekwana, E., Atekwana, E., Slater, L. D., Rossbach, S., and Mormile, M. R.: Microbial growth and biofilm formation in geologic media is detected with complex conductivity measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L18403, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006gl027312, 2006.
deGroot-Hedlin, C. and Constable, S.: Occam's inversion to generate smooth, two-dimensional models from magnetotelluric data, Geophysics, 55, 1613–1624, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1442813, 1990.
Diamond, J. S., McLaughlin, D. L., Slesak, R. A., and Stovall, A.: Microtopography is a fundamental organizing structure of vegetation and soil chemistry in black ash wetlands, Biogeosciences, 17, 901–915, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-901-2020, 2020.
Durejka, S., Gilfedder, B. S., and Frei, S.: A method for long-term high resolution 222Radon measurements using a new hydrophobic capillary membrane system, J. Environ. Radioactiv., 208, 105980, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2019.05.012, 2019.
Elifantz, H., Kautsky, L., Mor-Yosef, M., Tarchitzky, J., Bar-Tal, A., Chen, Y., and Minz, D.: Microbial activity and organic matter dynamics during 4 years of irrigation with treated wastewater, Microb. Ecol., 62, 973–981, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-011-9867-y, 2011.
Estop-Aragonés, C., Knorr, K. H., and Blodau, C.: Controls on in situ oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics in peats of a temperate fen, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 117, G02002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jg001888, 2012.
Estop-Aragonés, C., Knorr, K. H., and Blodau, C.: Belowground in situ redox dynamics and methanogenesis recovery in a degraded fen during dry-wet cycles and flooding, Biogeosciences, 10, 421–436, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-421-2013, 2013.
Feng, L., Li, Q., Cameron, S. D., He, K., Colby, R., Walker, K. M., and Ertaş, D.: Quantifying induced polarization of conductive inclusions in porous Media and implications for Geophysical Measurements, Sci. Rep., 10, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58390-z, 2020.
Fenner, N., Ostle, N., Freeman, C., Sleep, D., and Reynolds, B.: Peatland carbon efflux partitioning reveals that Sphagnum photosynthate contributes to the DOC pool, Plant Soil, 259, 345–354, https://doi.org/10.1023/b:plso.0000020981.90823.c1, 2004.
Flores Orozco, A., Williams, K. H., Long, P. E., Hubbard, S. S., and Kemna, A.: Using complex resistivity imaging to infer biogeochemical processes associated with bioremediation of an uranium-contaminated aquifer, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 116, G03001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010jg001591, 2011.
Flores Orozco, A., Kemna, A., and Zimmermann, E.: Data error quantification in spectral induced polarization imaging, Geophysics, 77, E227–E237, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2010-0194.1, 2012a.
Flores Orozco, A., Kemna, A., Oberdörster, C., Zschornack, L., Leven, C., Dietrich, P., and Weiss, H.: Delineation of subsurface hydrocarbon contamination at a former hydrogenation plant using spectral induced polarization imaging, J. Contam. Hydrol., 136, 131–144, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2012.06.001, 2012b.
Flores Orozco, A., Williams, K. H., and Kemna, A.: Time-lapse spectral induced polarization imaging of stimulated uranium bioremediation, Near Surf. Geophys., 11, 531–544, https://doi.org/10.3997/1873-0604.2013020, 2013.
Flores Orozco, A., Velimirovic, M., Tosco, T., Kemna, A., Sapion, H., Klaas, N., and Bastiaens, L.: Monitoring the injection of microscale zerovalent iron particles for groundwater remediation by means of complex electrical conductivity imaging, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 5593–5600, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b00208, 2015.
Flores Orozco, A., Kemna, A., Binley, A., and Cassiani, G.: Analysis of time-lapse data error in complex conductivity imaging to alleviate anthropogenic noise for site characterization, Geophysics, 84, B181–B193, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2017-0755.1, 2019.
Flores Orozco, A., Gallistl, J., Steiner, M., Brandstätter, C., and Fellner, J.: Mapping biogeochemically active zones in landfills with induced polarization imaging: The Heferlbach landfill, Waste Manage., 107, 121–132, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2020.04.001, 2020.
Flores Orozco, A., Aigner, L., and Gallistl, J.: Investigation of cable effects in spectral induced polarization imaging at the field scale using multicore and coaxial cables, Geophysics, 86, E59–E75, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2019-0552.1, 2021.
Frei, S., Lischeid, G., and Fleckenstein, J. H.: Effects of micro-topography on surface–subsurface exchange and runoff generation in a virtual riparian wetland – A modeling study, Adv. Water Resour., 33, 1388–1401, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2010.07.006, 2010.
Frei, S., Knorr, K. H., Peiffer, S., and Fleckenstein, J. H.: Surface micro-topography causes hot spots of biogeochemical activity in wetland systems: A virtual modeling experiment, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 117, G00N12, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012jg002012, 2012.
Garcia-Artigas, R., Himi, M., Revil, A., Urruela, A., Lovera, R., Sendrós, A., and Rivero, L.: Time-domain induced polarization as a tool to image clogging in treatment wetlands, Sci. Total Environ., 724, 138189, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138189, 2020.
Gu, B., Liang, L., Dickey, M. J., Yin, X., and Dai, S.: Reductive precipitation of uranium (VI) by zero-valent iron, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 3366–3373, https://doi.org/10.1021/es980010o, 1998.
Gutknecht, J. L., Goodman, R. M., and Balser, T. C.: Linking soil process and microbial ecology in freshwater wetland ecosystems, Plant Soil, 289, 17–34, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-006-9105-4, 2006.
Hansen, D. J., McGuire, J. T., Mohanty, B. P., and Ziegler, B. A.: Evidence of aqueous iron sulfid clusters in the vadose zone, Vadose Zone J., 13, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2013.07.0136, 2014.
Hartley, A. E. and Schlesinger, W. H.: Environmental controls on nitric oxide emission from northern Chihuahuan desert soils, Biogeochemistry, 50, 279–300, https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1006377832207, 2000.
Hayati, A. A. and Proctor, M. C. F.: Limiting nutrients in acid-mire vegetation: peat and plant analyses and experiments on plant responses to added nutrients, J. Ecol., 79, 75–95, https://doi.org/10.2307/2260785, 1991.
Hördt, A., Bairlein, K., Bielefeld, A., Bücker, M., Kuhn, E., Nordsiek, S., and Stebner, H.: The dependence of induced polarization on fluid salinity and pH, studied with an extended model of membrane polarization, J. Appl. Geophys., 135, 408–417, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2016.02.007, 2016.
Kang, H., Kwon, M. J., Kim, S., Lee, S., Jones, T. G., Johncock, A. C., and Freeman, C.: Biologically driven DOC release from peatlands during recovery from acidification, Nat. Commun., 9, 1–7, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06259-1, 2018.
Kayranli, B., Scholz, M., Mustafa, A., and Hedmark, Å.: Carbon storage and fluxes within freshwater wetlands: a critical review, Wetlands, 30, 111–124, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-009-0003-4, 2010.
Kemna, A.: Tomographic Inversion of Complex Resistivity: Theory and Application, Der Andere Verlag Osnabrück, Germany, ISBN 3-934366-92-9, 2000.
Kemna, A., Binley, A., Ramirez, A., and Daily, W.: Complex resistivity tomography for environmental applications, Chem. Eng. J., 77, 11–18, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1385-8947(99)00135-7, 2000.
Kemna, A., Vanderborght, J., Kulessa, B., and Vereecken, H.: Imaging and characterisation of subsurface solute transport using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and equivalent transport models, J. Hydrol., 267, 125–146, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-1694(02)00145-2, 2002.
Kemna, A., Binley, A., and Slater, L.: Crosshole IP imaging for engineering and environmental applications, Geophysics, 69, 97–107, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1649379, 2004.
Kemna, A., Binley, A., Cassiani, G., Niederleithinger, E., Revil, A., Slater, L., and Kruschwitz, S.: An overview of the spectral induced polarization method for near-surface applications, Near Surf. Geophys., 10, 453–468, https://doi.org/10.3997/1873-0604.2012027, 2012.
Kessouri, P., Furman, A., Huisman, J. A., Martin, T., Mellage, A., Ntarlagiannis, D., and Kemna, A.: Induced polarization applied to biogeophysics: recent advances and future prospects, Near Surf. Geophys., 17, 595–621, https://doi.org/10.1002/nsg.12072, 2019.
Kleinebecker, T., Hölzel, N., and Vogel, A.: South Patagonian ombrotrophic bog vegetation reflects biogeochemical gradients at the landscape level, J. Veg. Sci., 19, 151–160, https://doi.org/10.3170/2008-8-18370, 2008.
Kosmulski, M., Maczka, E., Jartych, E., and Rosenholm, J. B.: Synthesis and characterization of goethite and goethite–hematite composite: experimental study and literature survey, Adv. Colloid Interfac., 103, 57–76, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0001-8686(02)00083-0, 2003.
LaBrecque, D. J., Miletto, M., Daily, W., Ramirez, A., and Owen, E.: The effects of noise on Occam's inversion of resistivity tomography data, Geophysics, 61, 538–548, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1443980, 1996.
Leroy, P., Revil, A., Kemna, A., Cosenza, P., and Ghorbani, A.: Complex conductivity of water-saturated packs of glass beads, J. Colloid Interfac., 321, 103–117, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2007.12.031, 2008.
Lesmes, D. P. and Frye, K. M.: Influence of pore fluid chemistry on the complex conductivity and induced polarization responses of Berea sandstone, J. Geophys. Res.-Sol. Ea., 106, 4079–4090, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000jb900392, 2001.
Linke, T. and Gislason, S. R.: Stability of iron minerals in Icelandic peat areas and transport of heavy metals and nutrients across oxidation and salinity gradients–a modelling approach, Energy Proced., 146, 30–37, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2018.07.005, 2018.
Lischeid, G., Kolb, A., and Alewell, C.: Apparent translatory flow in groundwater recharge and runoff generation, J. Hydrol., 265, 195–211, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0022-1694(02)00108-7, 2002.
Liu, H.: Thermal response of soil microbial respiration is positively associated with labile carbon content and soil microbial activity, Geoderma, 193, 275–281, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.10.015, 2013.
Mansoor, N. and Slater, L.: On the relationship between iron concentration and induced polarization in marsh soils, Geophysics, 72, A1–A5, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.2374853, 2007.
Marshall, D. J. and Madden, T. R.: Induced polarization, a study of its causes, Geophysics, 24, 790–816, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1438659, 1959.
Maurya, P. K., Rønde, V. K., Fiandaca, G., Balbarini, N., Auken, E., Bjerg, P. L., and Christiansen, A. V.: Detailed landfill leachate plume mapping using 2D and 3D electrical resistivity tomography-with correlation to ionic strength measured in screens, J. Appl. Geophys., 138, 1–8, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2017.01.019, 2017.
McAnallen, L., Doherty, R., Donohue, S., Kirmizakis, P., and Mendonça, C.: Combined use of geophysical and geochemical methods to assess areas of active, degrading and restored blanket bog, Sci. Total Environ., 621, 762–771, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.300, 2018.
McClain, M. E., Boyer, E. W., Dent, C. L., Gergel, S. E., Grimm, N. B., Groffman, P. M., and McDowell, W. H.: Biogeochemical hot spots and hot moments at the interface of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, Ecosystems, 6, 301–312, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-003-0161-9, 2003.
Mellage, A., Smeaton, C. M., Furman, A., Atekwana, E. A., Rezanezhad, F., and Van Cappellen, P.: Linking spectral induced polarization (SIP) and subsurface microbial processes: Results from sand column incubation experiments, Environ. Sci. Technol., 52, 2081–2090, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b04420, 2018.
Mishra, U. and Riley, W. J.: Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks, Biogeosciences, 12, 3993–4004, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-3993-2015, 2015.
Misra, S., Torres-Verdín, C., Revil, A., Rasmus, J., and Homan, D.: Interfacial polarization of disseminated conductive minerals in absence of redox-active species – Part 1: Mechanistic model and validation, Geophysics, 81, E139–E157, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2015-0346.1, 2016a.
Misra, S., Torres-Verdín, C., Revil, A., Rasmus, J., and Homan, D.: Interfacial polarization of disseminated conductive minerals in absence of redox-active species – Part 2: Effective electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity Interfacial polarization due to inclusions, Geophysics, 81, E159–E176, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2015-0400.1, 2016b.
Morse, J. L., Werner, S. F., Gillin, C. P., Goodale, C. L., Bailey, S. W., McGuire, K. J., and Groffman, P. M.: Searching for biogeochemical hot spots in three dimensions: Soil C and N cycling in hydropedologic settings in a northern hardwood forest, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 119, 1596–1607, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013jg002589, 2014.
Ntarlagiannis, D., Williams, K. H., Slater, L., and Hubbard, S.: Low-frequency electrical response to microbial induced sulfid precipitation, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 110, G02009, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005jg000024, 2005.
Ntarlagiannis, D., Doherty, R., and Williams, K. H.: Spectral induced polarization signatures of abiotic FeS precipitation SIP signatures of FeS precipitation, Geophysics, 75, F127–F133, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.3467759, 2010.
Parikh, S. J. and Chorover, J.: ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals bond formation during bacterial adhesion to iron oxide, Langmuir, 22, 8492–8500, https://doi.org/10.1021/la061359p, 2006.
Parry, L. E., West, L. J., Holden, J., and Chapman, P. J.: Evaluating approaches for estimating peat depth, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 119, 567–576, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013jg002411, 2014.
Partington, D., Brunner, P., Frei, S., Simmons, C. T., Werner, A. D., Therrien, R., and Fleckenstein, J. H.: Interpreting streamflow generation mechanisms from integrated surface-subsurface flow models of a riparian wetland and catchment, Water Resour. Res., 49, 5501–5519, https://doi.org/10.1002/wrcr.20405, 2013.
Pelton, W. H., Ward, S. H., Hallof, P. G., Sill, W. R., and Nelson, P. H.: Mineral discrimination and removal of inductive coupling with multifrequency IP, Geophysics, 43, 588–609, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1440839, 1978.
Personna, Y. R., Ntarlagiannis, D., Slater, L., Yee, N., O'Brien, M., and Hubbard, S.: Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfid transformations, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 113, G02020, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jg000614, 2008.
Placencia-Gómez, E., Slater, L., Ntarlagiannis, D., and Binley, A.: Laboratory SIP signatures associated with oxidation of disseminated metal sulfids, J. Contam. Hydrol., 148, 25–38, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconhyd.2013.02.007, 2013.
Ponziani, M., Slob, E. C., Ngan-Tillard, D. J. M., and Vanhala, H.: Influence of water content on the electrical conductivity of peat, Int. Water Technol. J., 1, 14–21, 2011.
Qi, Y., Soueid Ahmed, A., Revil, A., Ghorbani, A., Abdulsamad, F., Florsch, N., and Bonnenfant, J.: Induced polarization response of porous media with metallic particles – Part 7: Detection and quantification of buried slag heaps, Geophysics, 83, E277–E291, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2017-0760.1, 2018.
Revil, A.: Spectral induced polarization of shaly sands: Influence of the electrical double layer, Water Resour. Res., 48, W02517, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011wr011260, 2012.
Revil, A. and Florsch, N.: Determination of permeability from spectral induced polarization in granular media, Geophys. J. Int., 181, 1480–1498, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246x.2010.04573.x, 2010.
Revil, A. and Skold, M.: Salinity dependence of spectral induced polarization in sands and sandstones, Geophys. J. Int., 187, 813–824, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-246x.2011.05181.x, 2011.
Revil, A., Atekwana, E., Zhang, C., Jardani, A., and Smith, S.: A new model for the spectral induced polarization signature of bacterial growth in porous media, Water Resour. Res., 48, W09545, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012wr011965, 2012.
Revil, A., Florsch, N., and Mao, D.: Induced polarization response of porous media with metallic particles – Part 1: A theory for disseminated semiconductors, Geophysics, 80, D525–D538, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2014-0577.1, 2015a.
Revil, A., Abdel Aal, G. Z., Atekwana, E. A., Mao, D., and Florsch, N.: Induced polarization response of porous media with metallic particles – Part 2: Comparison with a broad database of experimental data, Geophysics, 80, D539–D552, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2014-0578.1, 2015b.
Revil, A., Coperey, A., Shao, Z., Florsch, N., Fabricius, I. L., Deng, Y., and van Baaren, E. S.: Complex conductivity of soils, Water Resour. Res., 53, 7121–7147, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017wr020655, 2017a.
Revil, A., Sleevi, M. F., and Mao, D.: Induced polarization response of porous media with metallic particles – Part 5: Influence of the background polarization, Geophysics, 82, E77–E96, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2016-0388.1, 2017b.
Revil, A., Mao, D., Shao, Z., Sleevi, M. F., and Wang, D.: Induced polarization response of porous media with metallic particles – Part 6: The case of metals and semimetals, Geophysics, 82, E97–E110, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2016-0389.1, 2017c.
Revil, A., Coperey, A., Mao, D., Abdulsamad, F., Ghorbani, A., Rossi, M., and Gasquet, D.: Induced polarization response of porous media with metallic particles – Part 8: Influence of temperature and salinity, Geophysics, 83, E435–E456, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2018-0089.1, 2018.
Rosier, C. L., Atekwana, E. A., Aal, G. A., and Patrauchan, M. A.: Cell concentrations and metabolites enhance the SIP response to biofilm matrix components, J. Appl. Geophys., 160, 183–194, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jappgeo.2018.10.023, 2019.
Schurr, J. M.: On the theory of the dielectric dispersion of spherical colloidal particles in electrolyte solution1, J. Phys. Chem., 68, 2407–2413, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100791a004, 1964.
Schwartz, N. and Furman, A.: On the spectral induced polarization signature of soil organic matter, Geophys. J. Int., 200, 589–595, https://doi.org/10.1093/gji/ggu410, 2014.
Schwarz, G.: A theory of the low-frequency dielectric dispersion of colloidal particles in electrolyte solution1, 2, J. Phys. Chem., 66, 2636–2642, https://doi.org/10.1021/j100818a066, 1962.
Seigel, H., Nabighian, M., Parasnis, D. S., and Vozoff, K.: The early history of the induced polarization method, Leading Edge, 26, 312–321, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.2715054, 2007.
Skold, M., Revil, A., and Vaudelet, P.: The pH dependence of spectral induced polarization of silica sands: Experiment and modeling, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L12304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011gl047748, 2011.
Slater, L. and Atekwana, E.: Geophysical signatures of subsurface microbial processes, Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 94, 77–78, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013eo080001, 2013.
Slater, L. and Binley, A.: Synthetic and field-based electrical imaging of a zerovalent iron barrier: Implications for monitoring long-term barrier performance, Geophysics, 71, B129–B137, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.2235931, 2006.
Slater L. D. and Reeve A.: Investigating peatland stratigraphy and hydrogeology using integrated electrical geophysics, Geophys., 67, 365–378, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1468597, 2002.
Slater, L., Binley, A. M., Daily, W., and Johnson, R.: Cross-hole electrical imaging of a controlled saline tracer injection, J. Appl. Geophys., 44, 85–102, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0926-9851(00)00002-1, 2000.
Slater, L., Ntarlagiannis, D., Personna, Y. R., and Hubbard, S.: Pore-scale spectral induced polarization signatures associated with FeS biomineral transformations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L21404, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007gl031840, 2007.
Strohmeier, S., Knorr, K.-H., Reichert, M., Frei, S., Fleckenstein, J. H., Peiffer, S., and Matzner, E.: Concentrations and fluxes of dissolved organic carbon in runoff from a forested catchment: insights from high frequency measurements, Biogeosciences, 10, 905–916, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-905-2013, 2013.
Tamura, H., Goto, K., Yotsuyanagi, T., and Nagayama, M.: Spectrophotometric determination of iron (II) with 1, 10-phenanthroline in the presence of large amounts of iron (III), Talanta, 21, 314–318, https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-9140(74)80012-3, 1974.
Tsukanov, K. and Schwartz, N.: Relationship between wheat root properties and its electrical signature using the spectral induced polarization method, Vadose Zone J., 19, e20014, https://doi.org/10.1002/vzj2.20014, 2020.
Uhlemann, S. S., Sorensen, J. P. R., House, A. R., Wilkinson, P. B., Roberts, C., Gooddy, D. C., Binley, A. M., and Chambers, J. E.: Integrated time-lapse geoelectrical imaging of wetland hydrological processes, Water Resour. Res., 52, 1607–1625, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015wr017932, 2016.
Ulrich, C. and Slater, L.: Induced polarization measurements on unsaturated, unconsolidated sands, Geophysics, 69, 762–771, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1759462, 2004.
Urban, N. R.: Retention of sulfur in lake-sediments, in: Environmental Chemistry of Lakes and Reservoirs, edited by: Baker, L. A., Am. Chem. S., 237, 323–369, https://doi.org/10.1021/ba-1994-0237.ch010, 1994.
Vindedahl, A. M., Strehlau, J. H., Arnold, W. A., and Penn, R. L.: Organic matter and iron oxide nanoparticles: aggregation, interactions, and reactivity, Environ. Sci.-Nano, 3, 494–505, https://doi.org/10.1039/c5en00215j, 2016.
Wainwright, H. M., Flores Orozco, A., Bücker, M., Dafflon, B., Chen, J., Hubbard, S. S., and Williams, K. H.: Hierarchical Bayesian method for mapping biogeochemical hot spots using induced polarization imaging, Water Resour. Res., 52, 533–551, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015wr017763, 2016.
Wang, Y., Wang, H., He, J. S., and Feng, X.: Iron-mediated soil carbon response to water-table decline in an alpine wetland, Nat. Commun., 8, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms15972, 2017.
Ward, S. H.: The resistivity and induced polarization methods, in: Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems 1988, Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 109–250, https://doi.org/10.4133/1.2921804, 1988.
Waxman, M. H. and Smits, L. J. M.: Electrical conductivities in oil-bearing shaly sands, Soc. Petrol. Eng. J., 8, 107–122, https://doi.org/10.2118/1863-a, 1968.
Weigand, M. and Kemna, A.: Multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography as a non-invasive tool to characterize and monitor crop root systems, Biogeosciences, 14, 921–939, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-921-2017, 2017.
Weller, A., Zhang, Z., and Slater, L.: High-salinity polarization of sandstones, Geophysics, 80, D309–D318, https://doi.org/10.1190/geo2014-0483.1, 2015.
Williams, K. H., Ntarlagiannis, D., Slater, L. D., Dohnalkova, A., Hubbard, S. S., and Banfield, J. F.: Geophysical imaging of stimulated microbial biomineralization, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 7592–7600, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0504035, 2005.
Williams, K. H., Kemna, A., Wilkins, M. J., Druhan, J., Arntzen, E., N'Guessan, A. L., and Banfield, J. F.: Geophysical monitoring of coupled microbial and geochemical processes during stimulated subsurface bioremediation, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 6717–6723, https://doi.org/10.1021/es900855j, 2009.
Wong, J.: An electrochemical model of the induced-polarization phenomenon in disseminated sulfid ores, Geophysics, 44, 1245–1265, https://doi.org/10.1190/1.1441005, 1979.
Zhang, C., Ntarlagiannis, D., Slater, L., and Doherty, R.: Monitoring microbial sulfate reduction in porous media using multipurpose electrodes, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 115, G00G09, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009jg001157, 2010.
Zhang, C., Slater, L., and Prodan, C.: Complex dielectric properties of sulfate-reducing bacteria suspensions, Geomicrobiol. J., 30, 490–496, https://doi.org/10.1080/01490451.2012.719997, 2013.
Zimmermann, E., Kemna, A., Berwix, J., Glaas, W., and Vereecken, H.: EIT measurement system with high phase accuracy for the imaging of spectral induced polarization properties of soils and sediments, Meas. Sci. Technol., 19, 094010, https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/19/9/094010, 2008.
Zimmermann, E., Huisman, J. A., Mester, A., and van Waasen, S.: Correction of phase errors due to leakage currents in wideband EIT field measurements on soil and sediments, Meas. Sci. Technol., 30, 084002, https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6501/ab1b09, 2019.
We used electrical geophysical methods to map variations in the rates of microbial activity within a wetland. Our results show that the highest electrical conductive and capacitive properties relate to the highest concentrations of phosphates, carbon, and iron; thus, we can use them to characterize the geometry of the biogeochemically active areas or hotspots.
We used electrical geophysical methods to map variations in the rates of microbial activity...