Articles | Volume 19, issue 20
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Upper-ocean flux of biogenic calcite produced by the Arctic planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma
MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Straße 8, Bremen 28359, Germany
MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Straße 8, Bremen 28359, Germany
MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Straße 8, Bremen 28359, Germany
MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Straße 8, Bremen 28359, Germany
No articles found.
Pauline Cornuault, Thomas Westerhold, Heiko Pälike, Torsten Bickert, Karl-Heinz Baumann, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 20, 597–618,Short summary
We generated high-resolution records of carbonate accumulation rate from the Miocene to the Quaternary in the tropical Atlantic Ocean to characterize the variability in pelagic carbonate production during warm climates. It follows orbital cycles, responding to local changes in tropical conditions, as well as to long-term shifts in climate and ocean chemistry. These changes were sufficiently large to play a role in the carbon cycle and global climate evolution.
Geert-Jan A. Brummer and Michal Kučera
J. Micropalaeontol., 41, 29–74,Short summary
To aid researchers working with living planktonic foraminifera, we provide a comprehensive review of names that we consider appropriate for extant species. We discuss the reasons for the decisions we made and provide a list of species and genus-level names as well as other names that have been used in the past but are considered inappropriate for living taxa, stating the reasons.
Lukas Jonkers, Geert-Jan A. Brummer, Julie Meilland, Jeroen Groeneveld, and Michal Kucera
Clim. Past, 18, 89–101,Short summary
The variability in the geochemistry among individual foraminifera is used to reconstruct seasonal to interannual climate variability. This method requires that each foraminifera shell accurately records environmental conditions, which we test here using a sediment trap time series. Even in the absence of environmental variability, planktonic foraminifera display variability in their stable isotope ratios that needs to be considered in the interpretation of individual foraminifera data.
Lukas Jonkers, Oliver Bothe, and Michal Kucera
Clim. Past, 17, 2577–2581,
Julie Meilland, Michael Siccha, Maike Kaffenberger, Jelle Bijma, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 18, 5789–5809,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera population dynamics has long been assumed to be controlled by synchronous reproduction and ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM). Due to contradictory observations, this concept became controversial. We here test it in the Atlantic ocean for four species of foraminifera representing the main clades. Our observations support the existence of synchronised reproduction and OVM but show that more than half of the population does not follow the canonical trajectory.
Markus Raitzsch, Jelle Bijma, Torsten Bickert, Michael Schulz, Ann Holbourn, and Michal Kučera
Clim. Past, 17, 703–719,Short summary
At approximately 14 Ma, the East Antarctic Ice Sheet expanded to almost its current extent, but the role of CO2 in this major climate transition is not entirely known. We show that atmospheric CO2 might have varied on 400 kyr cycles linked to the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit. The resulting change in weathering and ocean carbon cycle affected atmospheric CO2 in a way that CO2 rose after Antarctica glaciated, helping to stabilize the climate system on its way to the “ice-house” world.
Catarina Cavaleiro, Antje H. L. Voelker, Heather Stoll, Karl-Heinz Baumann, and Michal Kucera
Clim. Past, 16, 2017–2037,
Bronwen L. Konecky, Nicholas P. McKay, Olga V. Churakova (Sidorova), Laia Comas-Bru, Emilie P. Dassié, Kristine L. DeLong, Georgina M. Falster, Matt J. Fischer, Matthew D. Jones, Lukas Jonkers, Darrell S. Kaufman, Guillaume Leduc, Shreyas R. Managave, Belen Martrat, Thomas Opel, Anais J. Orsi, Judson W. Partin, Hussein R. Sayani, Elizabeth K. Thomas, Diane M. Thompson, Jonathan J. Tyler, Nerilie J. Abram, Alyssa R. Atwood, Olivier Cartapanis, Jessica L. Conroy, Mark A. Curran, Sylvia G. Dee, Michael Deininger, Dmitry V. Divine, Zoltán Kern, Trevor J. Porter, Samantha L. Stevenson, Lucien von Gunten, and Iso2k Project Members
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2261–2288,
Douglas Lessa, Raphaël Morard, Lukas Jonkers, Igor M. Venancio, Runa Reuter, Adrian Baumeister, Ana Luiza Albuquerque, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 17, 4313–4342,Short summary
We observed that living planktonic foraminifera had distinct vertically distributed communities across the Subtropical South Atlantic. In addition, a hierarchic alternation of environmental parameters was measured to control the distribution of planktonic foraminifer's species depending on the water depth. This implies that not only temperature but also productivity and subsurface processes are signed in fossil assemblages, which could be used to perform paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Lukas Jonkers, Olivier Cartapanis, Michael Langner, Nick McKay, Stefan Mulitza, Anne Strack, and Michal Kucera
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1053–1081,
Julie Meilland, Hélène Howa, Vivien Hulot, Isaline Demangel, Joëlle Salaün, and Thierry Garlan
Biogeosciences, 17, 1437–1450,Short summary
This study reports on planktonic foraminifera (PF) diversity and distribution in the Barents Sea. The species Globigerinita uvula and Turborotalita quinqueloba dominate the water column while surface sediments are dominated by Neogloboquadrina pachyderma. We hypothesize the unusual dominance of G. uvula in the water to be a seasonal signal or a result of climate forcing. Size-normalized-protein concentrations of PF show a northward decrease, suggesting biomass to vary with the environment.
Anna Jentzen, Joachim Schönfeld, Agnes K. M. Weiner, Manuel F. G. Weinkauf, Dirk Nürnberg, and Michal Kučera
J. Micropalaeontol., 38, 231–247,Short summary
The study assessed the population dynamics of living planktic foraminifers on a weekly, seasonal, and interannual timescale off the coast of Puerto Rico to improve our understanding of short- and long-term variations. The results indicate a seasonal change of the faunal composition, and over the last decades. Lower standing stocks and lower stable carbon isotope values of foraminifers in shallow waters can be linked to the hurricane Sandy, which passed the Greater Antilles during autumn 2012.
Mattia Greco, Lukas Jonkers, Kerstin Kretschmer, Jelle Bijma, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 16, 3425–3437,Short summary
To be able to interpret the paleoecological signal contained in N. pachyderma's shells, its habitat depth must be known. Our investigation on 104 density profiles of this species from the Arctic and North Atlantic shows that specimens reside closer to the surface when sea-ice and/or surface chlorophyll concentrations are high. This is in contrast with previous investigations that pointed at the position of the deep chlorophyll maximum as the main driver of N. pachyderma vertical distribution.
Haruka Takagi, Katsunori Kimoto, Tetsuichi Fujiki, Hiroaki Saito, Christiane Schmidt, Michal Kucera, and Kazuyoshi Moriya
Biogeosciences, 16, 3377–3396,Short summary
Photosymbiosis (endosymbiosis with algae) is an evolutionary important ecology for many marine organisms but has poorly been identified among planktonic foraminifera. In this study, we identified and characterized photosymbiosis of various species of planktonic foraminifera by focusing on their photosynthesis–related features. We finally proposed a new framework showing a potential strength of photosymbiosis, which will serve as a basis for future ecological studies of planktonic foraminifera.
Andreia Rebotim, Antje Helga Luise Voelker, Lukas Jonkers, Joanna J. Waniek, Michael Schulz, and Michal Kucera
J. Micropalaeontol., 38, 113–131,Short summary
To reconstruct subsurface water conditions using deep-dwelling planktonic foraminifera, we must fully understand how the oxygen isotope signal incorporates into their shell. We report δ18O in four species sampled in the eastern North Atlantic with plankton tows. We assess the size and crust effect on the isotopic δ18O and compared them with predictions from two equations. We reveal different patterns of calcite addition with depth, highlighting the need to perform species-specific calibrations.
Lukas Jonkers and Michal Kučera
Clim. Past, 15, 881–891,Short summary
Fossil plankton assemblages have been widely used to reconstruct SST. In such approaches, full taxonomic resolution is often used. We assess whether this is required for reliable reconstructions as some species may not respond to SST. We find that only a few species are needed for low reconstruction errors but that species selection has a pronounced effect on reconstructions. We suggest that the sensitivity of a reconstruction to species pruning can be used as a measure of its robustness.
Nadia Al-Sabouni, Isabel S. Fenton, Richard J. Telford, and Michal Kučera
J. Micropalaeontol., 37, 519–534,Short summary
In this study we investigate consistency in species-level identifications and whether disagreements are predictable. Overall, 21 researchers from across the globe identified sets of 300 specimens or digital images of planktonic foraminifera. Digital identifications tended to be more disparate. Participants trained by the same person often had more similar identifications. Disagreements hardly affected transfer-function temperature estimates but produced larger differences in diversity metrics.
Kerstin Kretschmer, Lukas Jonkers, Michal Kucera, and Michael Schulz
Biogeosciences, 15, 4405–4429,Short summary
The fossil shells of planktonic foraminifera are widely used to reconstruct past climate conditions. To do so, information about their seasonal and vertical habitat is needed. Here we present an updated version of a planktonic foraminifera model to better understand species-specific habitat dynamics under climate change. This model produces spatially and temporally coherent distribution patterns, which agree well with available observations, and can thus aid the interpretation of proxy records.
Raphaël Morard, Franck Lejzerowicz, Kate F. Darling, Béatrice Lecroq-Bennet, Mikkel Winther Pedersen, Ludovic Orlando, Jan Pawlowski, Stefan Mulitza, Colomban de Vargas, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 14, 2741–2754,Short summary
The exploitation of deep-sea sedimentary archive relies on the recovery of mineralized skeletons of pelagic organisms. Planktonic groups leaving preserved remains represent only a fraction of the total marine diversity. Environmental DNA left by non-fossil organisms is a promising source of information for paleo-reconstructions. Here we show how planktonic-derived environmental DNA preserves ecological structure of planktonic communities. We use planktonic foraminifera as a case study.
Lukas Jonkers and Michal Kučera
Clim. Past, 13, 573–586,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera – the most important proxy carriers in palaeoceanography – adjust their seasonal and vertical habitat. They are thought to do so in a way that minimises the change in their environment, implying that proxy records based on these organisms may not capture the full amplitude of past climate change. Here we demonstrate that they indeed track a particular thermal habitat and suggest that this could lead to a 40 % underestimation of reconstructed temperature change.
Philipp M. Munz, Stephan Steinke, Anna Böll, Andreas Lückge, Jeroen Groeneveld, Michal Kucera, and Hartmut Schulz
Clim. Past, 13, 491–509,Short summary
We present the results of several independent proxies of summer SST and upwelling SST from the Oman margin indicative of monsoon strength during the early Holocene. In combination with indices of carbonate preservation and bottom water redox conditions, we demonstrate that a persistent solar influence was modulating summer monsoon intensity. Furthermore, bottom water conditions are linked to atmospheric forcing, rather than changes of intermediate water masses.
Andreia Rebotim, Antje H. L. Voelker, Lukas Jonkers, Joanna J. Waniek, Helge Meggers, Ralf Schiebel, Igaratza Fraile, Michael Schulz, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 14, 827–859,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera species depth habitat remains poorly constrained and the existing conceptual models are not sufficiently tested by observational data. Here we present a synthesis of living planktonic foraminifera abundance data in the subtropical eastern North Atlantic from vertical plankton tows. We also test potential environmental factors influencing the species depth habitat and investigate yearly or lunar migration cycles. These findings may impact paleoceanographic studies.
L. Jonkers, C. E. Reynolds, J. Richey, and I. R. Hall
Biogeosciences, 12, 3061–3070,
L. Jonkers and M. Kučera
Biogeosciences, 12, 2207–2226,
I. Hessler, S. P. Harrison, M. Kucera, C. Waelbroeck, M.-T. Chen, C. Anderson, A. de Vernal, B. Fréchette, A. Cloke-Hayes, G. Leduc, and L. Londeix
Clim. Past, 10, 2237–2252,
A. J. Enge, U. Witte, M. Kucera, and P. Heinz
Biogeosciences, 11, 2017–2026,
M. F. G. Weinkauf, T. Moller, M. C. Koch, and M. Kučera
Biogeosciences, 10, 6639–6655,
Y. Milker, R. Rachmayani, M. F. G. Weinkauf, M. Prange, M. Raitzsch, M. Schulz, and M. Kučera
Clim. Past, 9, 2231–2252,
R. J. Telford, C. Li, and M. Kucera
Clim. Past, 9, 859–870,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: BiomineralizationMulti-proxy assessment of brachiopod shell calcite as a potential archive of seawater temperature and oxygen isotope compositionExtracellular enzyme production in the coastal upwelling system off Peru during different upwelling scenarios: a mesocosm experimentDo bacterial viruses affect framboid-like mineral formation?Calcification response of reef corals to seasonal upwelling in the northern Arabian Sea (Masirah Island, Oman)Growth rate rather than temperature affects the B∕Ca ratio in the calcareous red alga Lithothamnion corallioidesHeavy metal uptake of nearshore benthic foraminifera during multi-metal culturing experimentsA stable ultrastructural pattern despite variable cell size in Lithothamnion corallioidesDecoupling salinity and carbonate chemistry: low calcium ion concentration rather than salinity limits calcification in Baltic Sea musselsTechnical note: A universal method for measuring the thickness of microscopic calcite crystals, based on bidirectional circular polarizationThe patterns of elemental concentration (Ca, Na, Sr, Mg, Mn, Ba, Cu, Pb, V, Y, U and Cd) in shells of invertebrates representing different CaCO3 polymorphs: a case study from the brackish Gulf of Gdańsk (the Baltic Sea)Carbonic anhydrase is involved in calcification by the benthic foraminifer Amphistegina lessoniiDistribution of chlorine and fluorine in benthic foraminiferaRare earth elements in oyster shells: provenance discrimination and potential vital effectsDetermining how biotic and abiotic variables affect the shell condition and parameters of Heliconoides inflatus pteropods from a sediment trap in the Cariaco BasinIntercomparison of four methods to estimate coral calcification under various environmental conditionsTechnical note: The silicon isotopic composition of choanoflagellates: implications for a mechanistic understanding of isotopic fractionation during biosilicificationInsights into architecture, growth dynamics, and biomineralization from pulsed Sr-labelled Katelysia rhytiphora shells (Mollusca, Bivalvia)Subaqueous speleothems (Hells Bells) formed by the interplay of pelagic redoxcline biogeochemistry and specific hydraulic conditions in the El Zapote sinkhole, Yucatán Peninsula, MexicoKinetics of calcite precipitation by ureolytic bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditionsCoupled calcium and inorganic carbon uptake suggested by magnesium and sulfur incorporation in foraminiferal calcitePlanktonic foraminiferal spine versus shell carbonate Na incorporation in relation to salinityPrecipitation of calcium carbonate mineral induced by viral lysis of cyanobacteria: evidence from laboratory experimentsMineral formation induced by cable bacteria performing long-distance electron transport in marine sedimentsVariation in brachiopod microstructure and isotope geochemistry under low-pH–ocean acidification conditionsWeaving of biomineralization framework in rotaliid foraminifera: implications for paleoceanographic proxiesMarine and freshwater micropearls: biomineralization producing strontium-rich amorphous calcium carbonate inclusions is widespread in the genus Tetraselmis (Chlorophyta)Carbon and nitrogen turnover in the Arctic deep sea: in situ benthic community response to diatom and coccolithophorid phytodetritusTechnical note: A refinement of coccolith separation methods: measuring the sinking characteristics of coccolithsImproving the strength of sandy soils via ureolytic CaCO3 solidification by Sporosarcina ureaeImpact of salinity on element incorporation in two benthic foraminiferal species with contrasting magnesium contentsCalcification in a marginal sea – influence of seawater [Ca2+] and carbonate chemistry on bivalve shell formationEffect of temperature rise and ocean acidification on growth of calcifying tubeworm shells (Spirorbis spirorbis): an in situ benthocosm approachPhosphorus limitation and heat stress decrease calcification in Emiliania huxleyiAnatomical structure overrides temperature controls on magnesium uptake – calcification in the Arctic/subarctic coralline algae Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve (Rhodophyta; Corallinales)Coral calcifying fluid aragonite saturation states derived from Raman spectroscopyImpact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stressBa incorporation in benthic foraminiferaSize-dependent response of foraminiferal calcification to seawater carbonate chemistryTechnical note: an economical apparatus for the observation and harvest of mineral precipitation experiments with light microscopyPhysiology regulates the relationship between coccosphere geometry and growth phase in coccolithophoresTrends in element incorporation in hyaline and porcelaneous foraminifera as a function of pCO2Decoupled carbonate chemistry controls on the incorporation of boron into Orbulina universaMineralogical response of the Mediterranean crustose coralline alga Lithophyllum cabiochae to near-future ocean acidification and warmingTemperature affects the morphology and calcification of Emiliania huxleyi strainsSkeletal mineralogy of coral recruits under high temperature and pCO2Direct uptake of organically derived carbon by grass roots and allocation in leaves and phytoliths: 13C labeling evidencepH up-regulation as a potential mechanism for the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to sustain growth in aragonite undersaturated conditionsIron encrustations on filamentous algae colonized by Gallionella-related bacteria in a metal-polluted freshwater streamOcean acidification does not affect magnesium composition or dolomite formation in living crustose coralline algae, Porolithon onkodes in an experimental systemReconsidering the role of carbonate ion concentration in calcification by marine organisms
Thomas Letulle, Danièle Gaspard, Mathieu Daëron, Florent Arnaud-Godet, Arnauld Vinçon-Laugier, Guillaume Suan, and Christophe Lécuyer
In this paper, we study the chemistry of modern marine shells called brachiopods. We investigate the relationship of the chemistry of these shells with marine temperatures to test and develop tools for estimating marine temperatures in the distant past. Our results confirm that two of the investigated chemical markers are useful as a thermometer providing the use of calibrations specific to brachiopod shells. The other chemical markers investigated, however, should not be used as a thermometer.
Kristian Spilling, Jonna Piiparinen, Eric P. Achterberg, Javier Arístegui, Lennart T. Bach, Maria T. Camarena-Gómez, Elisabeth von der Esch, Martin A. Fischer, Markel Gómez-Letona, Nauzet Hernández-Hernández, Judith Meyer, Ruth A. Schmitz, and Ulf Riebesell
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We carried out an enclosure experiment with surface water off Peru with different additions of deep water representing possible future ocean scenarios. In this paper we report on enzyme activity, and provide data on the decomposition of organic matter. We found very high activity of an enzyme breaking down protein, suggesting this is important for the nutrient recycling both at present and in the future ocean.
Paweł Działak, Marcin D. Syczewski, Kamil Kornaus, Mirosław Słowakiewicz, Łukasz Zych, and Andrzej Borkowski
Biogeosciences, 19, 4533–4550,Short summary
Bacteriophages comprise one of the factors that may influence mineralization processes. The number of bacteriophages in the environment usually exceeds the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude. One of the more interesting processes is the formation of framboidal pyrite, and it is not entirely clear what processes determine its formation. Our studies indicate that some bacterial viruses may influence the formation of framboid-like or spherical structures.
Philipp M. Spreter, Markus Reuter, Regina Mertz-Kraus, Oliver Taylor, and Thomas C. Brachert
Biogeosciences, 19, 3559–3573,Short summary
We investigate the calcification rate of reef corals from an upwelling zone, where low seawater pH and high nutrient concentrations represent a recent analogue for the future ocean. Calcification rate of the corals largely relies on extension growth. Variable responses of extension growth to nutrients either compensate or exacerbate negative effects of weak skeletal thickening associated with low seawater pH – a mechanism that is critical for the persistence of coral reefs under global change.
Giulia Piazza, Valentina A. Bracchi, Antonio Langone, Agostino N. Meroni, and Daniela Basso
Biogeosciences, 19, 1047–1065,Short summary
The coralline alga Lithothamnion corallioides is widely distributed in the Mediterranean Sea and NE Atlantic Ocean, where it constitutes rhodolith beds, which are diversity-rich ecosystems on the seabed. The boron incorporated in the calcified thallus of coralline algae (B/Ca) can be used to trace past changes in seawater carbonate and pH. This paper suggests a non-negligible effect of algal growth rate on B/Ca, recommending caution in adopting this proxy for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.
Sarina Schmidt, Ed C. Hathorne, Joachim Schönfeld, and Dieter Garbe-Schönberg
Biogeosciences, 19, 629–664,Short summary
The study addresses the potential of marine shell-forming organisms as proxy carriers for heavy metal contamination in the environment. The aim is to investigate if the incorporation of heavy metals is a direct function of their concentration in seawater. Culturing experiments with a metal mixture were carried out over a wide concentration range. Our results show shell-forming organisms to be natural archives that enable the determination of metals in polluted and pristine environments.
Valentina Alice Bracchi, Giulia Piazza, and Daniela Basso
Biogeosciences, 18, 6061–6076,Short summary
Ultrastructures of Lithothamnion corallioides, a crustose coralline alga collected from the Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea at different depths, show high-Mg-calcite cell walls formed by crystals with a specific shape and orientation that are unaffected by different environmental conditions of the living sites. This suggests that the biomineralization process is biologically controlled in coralline algae and can have interesting applications in paleontology.
Trystan Sanders, Jörn Thomsen, Jens Daniel Müller, Gregor Rehder, and Frank Melzner
Biogeosciences, 18, 2573–2590,Short summary
The Baltic Sea is expected to experience a rapid drop in salinity and increases in acidity and warming in the next century. Calcifying mussels dominate Baltic Sea seafloor ecosystems yet are sensitive to changes in seawater chemistry. We combine laboratory experiments and a field study and show that a lack of calcium causes extremely slow growth rates in mussels at low salinities. Subsequently, climate change in the Baltic may have drastic ramifications for Baltic seafloor ecosystems.
Luc Beaufort, Yves Gally, Baptiste Suchéras-Marx, Patrick Ferrand, and Julien Duboisset
Biogeosciences, 18, 775–785,Short summary
The coccoliths are major contributors to the particulate inorganic carbon in the ocean. They are extremely difficult to weigh because they are too small to be manipulated. We propose a universal method to measure thickness and weight of fine calcite using polarizing microscopy that does not require fine-tuning of the light or a calibration process. This method named "bidirectional circular polarization" uses two images taken with two directions of a circular polarizer.
Anna Piwoni-Piórewicz, Stanislav Strekopytov, Emma Humphreys-Williams, and Piotr Kukliński
Biogeosciences, 18, 707–728,Short summary
Calcifying organisms occur globally in almost every environment, and the process of biomineralization is of great importance in the global carbon cycle and use of skeletons as environmental data archives. The composition of skeletons is very complex. It is determined by the mechanisms of biological control on biomineralization and the response of calcifying organisms to varying environmental drivers. Yet for trace elements, such as Cu, Pb and Cd, an impact of environmental factors is pronounced.
Siham de Goeyse, Alice E. Webb, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Lennart J. de Nooijer
Biogeosciences, 18, 393–401,Short summary
Foraminifera are calcifying organisms that play a role in the marine inorganic-carbon cycle and are widely used to reconstruct paleoclimates. However, the fundamental process by which they calcify remains essentially unknown. Here we use inhibitors to show that an enzyme is speeding up the conversion between bicarbonate and CO2. This helps the foraminifera acquire sufficient carbon for calcification and might aid their tolerance to elevated CO2 level.
Anne Roepert, Lubos Polerecky, Esmee Geerken, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Jack J. Middelburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4727–4743,Short summary
We investigated, for the first time, the spatial distribution of chlorine and fluorine in the shell walls of four benthic foraminifera species: Ammonia tepida, Amphistegina lessonii, Archaias angulatus, and Sorites marginalis. Cross sections of specimens were imaged using nanoSIMS. The distribution of Cl and F was co-located with organics in the rotaliids and rather homogeneously distributed in miliolids. We suggest that the incorporation is governed by the biomineralization pathway.
Vincent Mouchi, Camille Godbillot, Vianney Forest, Alexey Ulianov, Franck Lartaud, Marc de Rafélis, Laurent Emmanuel, and Eric P. Verrecchia
Biogeosciences, 17, 2205–2217,Short summary
Rare earth elements (REEs) in coastal seawater are included in bivalve shells during growth, and a regional fingerprint can be defined for provenance and environmental monitoring studies. We present a large dataset of REE abundances from oysters from six locations in France. The cupped oyster can be discriminated from one locality to another, but this is not the case for the flat oyster. Therefore, provenance studies using bivalve shells based on REEs are not adapted for the flat oyster.
Rosie L. Oakes and Jocelyn A. Sessa
Biogeosciences, 17, 1975–1990,Short summary
Pteropods are a group of tiny swimming snails whose fragile shells put them at risk from ocean acidification. We investigated the factors influencing the thickness of pteropods shells in the Cariaco Basin, off Venezuela, which is unaffected by ocean acidification. We found that pteropods formed thicker shells when nutrient concentrations, an indicator of food availability, were highest, indicating that food may be an important factor in mitigating the effects of ocean acidification on pteropods.
Miguel Gómez Batista, Marc Metian, François Oberhänsli, Simon Pouil, Peter W. Swarzenski, Eric Tambutté, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Carlos M. Alonso Hernández, and Frédéric Gazeau
Biogeosciences, 17, 887–899,Short summary
In this paper, we assessed four methods (total alkalinity anomaly, calcium anomaly, 45Ca incorporation, and 13C incorporation) to determine coral calcification of a reef-building coral. Under all conditions (light vs. dark incubations and ambient vs. lowered pH levels), calcification rates estimated using the alkalinity and calcium anomaly techniques as well as 45Ca incorporation were highly correlated, while significantly different results were obtained with the 13C incorporation technique.
Alan Marron, Lucie Cassarino, Jade Hatton, Paul Curnow, and Katharine R. Hendry
Biogeosciences, 16, 4805–4813,Short summary
Isotopic signatures of silica fossils can be used as archives of past oceanic silicon cycling, which is linked to marine carbon uptake. However, the biochemistry that lies behind such chemical fingerprints remains poorly understood. We present the first measurements of silicon isotopes in a group of protists closely related to animals, choanoflagellates. Our results highlight a taxonomic basis to silica isotope signatures, possibly via a shared transport pathway in choanoflagellates and animals.
Laura M. Otter, Oluwatoosin B. A. Agbaje, Matt R. Kilburn, Christoph Lenz, Hadrien Henry, Patrick Trimby, Peter Hoppe, and Dorrit E. Jacob
Biogeosciences, 16, 3439–3455,Short summary
This study uses strontium as a trace elemental marker in combination with high-resolution nano-analytical techniques to label the growth fronts of bivalves in controlled aquaculture conditions. The growing shells incorporate the labels and are used as
snapshotsvisualizing the growth processes across different shell architectures. These observations are combined with structural investigations across length scales and altogether allow for a detailed understanding of this shell.
Simon Michael Ritter, Margot Isenbeck-Schröter, Christian Scholz, Frank Keppler, Johannes Gescher, Lukas Klose, Nils Schorndorf, Jerónimo Avilés Olguín, Arturo González-González, and Wolfgang Stinnesbeck
Biogeosciences, 16, 2285–2305,Short summary
Unique and spectacular under water speleothems termed as Hells Bells were recently reported from sinkholes (cenotes) of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. However, the mystery of their formation remained unresolved. Here, we present detailed geochemical analyses and delineate that the growth of Hells Bells results from a combination of biogeochemical processes and variable hydraulic conditions within the cenote.
Andrew C. Mitchell, Erika J. Espinosa-Ortiz, Stacy L. Parks, Adrienne J. Phillips, Alfred B. Cunningham, and Robin Gerlach
Biogeosciences, 16, 2147–2161,Short summary
Microbially induced carbonate mineral precipitation (MICP) is a natural process that is also being investigated for subsurface engineering applications including radionuclide immobilization and microfracture plugging. We demonstrate that rates of MICP from microbial urea hydrolysis (ureolysis) vary with different bacterial strains, but rates are similar in both oxygenated and oxygen-free conditions. Ureolysis MICP is therefore a viable biotechnology in the predominately oxygen-free subsurface.
Inge van Dijk, Christine Barras, Lennart Jan de Nooijer, Aurélia Mouret, Esmee Geerken, Shai Oron, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 16, 2115–2130,Short summary
Systematics in the incorporation of different elements in shells of marine organisms can be used to test calcification models and thus processes involved in precipitation of calcium carbonates. On different scales, we observe a covariation of sulfur and magnesium incorporation in shells of foraminifera, which provides insights into the mechanics behind shell formation. The observed patterns imply that all species of foraminifera actively take up calcium and carbon in a coupled process.
Eveline M. Mezger, Lennart J. de Nooijer, Jacqueline Bertlich, Jelle Bijma, Dirk Nürnberg, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 16, 1147–1165,Short summary
Seawater salinity is an important factor when trying to reconstruct past ocean conditions. Foraminifera, small organisms living in the sea, produce shells that incorporate more Na at higher salinities. The accuracy of reconstructions depends on the fundamental understanding involved in the incorporation and preservation of the original Na of the shell. In this study, we unravel the Na composition of different components of the shell and describe the relative contribution of these components.
Hengchao Xu, Xiaotong Peng, Shijie Bai, Kaiwen Ta, Shouye Yang, Shuangquan Liu, Ho Bin Jang, and Zixiao Guo
Biogeosciences, 16, 949–960,Short summary
Viruses have been acknowledged as important components of the marine system for the past 2 decades, but understanding of their role in the functioning of the geochemical cycle remains poor. Results show viral lysis of cyanobacteria can influence the carbonate equilibrium system remarkably and promotes the formation and precipitation of carbonate minerals. Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and aragonite are evident in the lysate, implying that different precipitation processes have occurred.
Nicole M. J. Geerlings, Eva-Maria Zetsche, Silvia Hidalgo-Martinez, Jack J. Middelburg, and Filip J. R. Meysman
Biogeosciences, 16, 811–829,Short summary
Multicellular cable bacteria form long filaments that can reach lengths of several centimeters. They affect the chemistry and mineralogy of their surroundings and vice versa. How the surroundings affect the cable bacteria is investigated. They show three different types of biomineral formation: (1) a polymer containing phosphorus in their cells, (2) a sheath of clay surrounding the surface of the filament and (3) the encrustation of a filament via a solid phase containing iron and phosphorus.
Facheng Ye, Hana Jurikova, Lucia Angiolini, Uwe Brand, Gaia Crippa, Daniela Henkel, Jürgen Laudien, Claas Hiebenthal, and Danijela Šmajgl
Biogeosciences, 16, 617–642,
Yukiko Nagai, Katsuyuki Uematsu, Chong Chen, Ryoji Wani, Jarosław Tyszka, and Takashi Toyofuku
Biogeosciences, 15, 6773–6789,Short summary
We interpret detailed SEM and time-lapse observations of the calcification process in living foraminifera, which we reveal to be directly linked to the construction mechanism of organic membranes where the calcium carbonate precipitation takes place. We show that these membranes are a highly perforated outline is first woven by skeletal pseudopodia and then later overlaid by a layer of membranous pseudopodia to close the gaps. The chemical composition is related to these structures.
Agathe Martignier, Montserrat Filella, Kilian Pollok, Michael Melkonian, Michael Bensimon, François Barja, Falko Langenhorst, Jean-Michel Jaquet, and Daniel Ariztegui
Biogeosciences, 15, 6591–6605,Short summary
The unicellular microalga Tetraselmis cordiformis (Chlorophyta) was recently discovered to form intracellular mineral inclusions, called micropearls, which had been previously overlooked. The present study shows that 10 Tetraselmis species out of the 12 tested share this biomineralization capacity, producing amorphous calcium carbonate inclusions often enriched in Sr. This novel biomineralization process can take place in marine, brackish or freshwater and is therefore a widespread phenomenon.
Ulrike Braeckman, Felix Janssen, Gaute Lavik, Marcus Elvert, Hannah Marchant, Caroline Buckner, Christina Bienhold, and Frank Wenzhöfer
Biogeosciences, 15, 6537–6557,Short summary
Global warming has altered Arctic phytoplankton communities, with unknown effects on deep-sea communities that depend strongly on food produced at the surface. We compared the responses of Arctic deep-sea benthos to input of phytodetritus from diatoms and coccolithophorids. Coccolithophorid carbon was 5× less recycled than diatom carbon. The utilization of the coccolithophorid carbon may be less efficient, so a shift from diatom to coccolithophorid blooms could entail a delay in carbon cycling.
Hongrui Zhang, Heather Stoll, Clara Bolton, Xiaobo Jin, and Chuanlian Liu
Biogeosciences, 15, 4759–4775,Short summary
The sinking speeds of coccoliths are relevant for laboratory methods to separate coccoliths for geochemical analysis. However, in the absence of estimates of coccolith settling velocity, previous implementations have depended mainly on time-consuming method development by trial and error. In this study, the sinking velocities of cocooliths were carefully measured for the first time. We also provide an estimation of coccolith sinking velocity by shape, which will make coccolith separation easier.
Justin Michael Whitaker, Sai Vanapalli, and Danielle Fortin
Biogeosciences, 15, 4367–4380,Short summary
Materials, like soils or cements, can require repair. This study used a new bacterium (Sporosarcina ureae) in a repair method called "microbially induced carbonate precipitation" (MICP). In three trials, benefits were shown: S. ureae could make a model sandy soil much stronger by MICP, in fact better than a lot of other bacteria. However, MICP-treated samples got weaker in three trials of acid rain. In conclusion, S. ureae in MICP repair shows promise when used in appropriate climates.
Esmee Geerken, Lennart Jan de Nooijer, Inge van Dijk, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 15, 2205–2218,
Jörn Thomsen, Kirti Ramesh, Trystan Sanders, Markus Bleich, and Frank Melzner
Biogeosciences, 15, 1469–1482,Short summary
The distribution of mussel in estuaries is limited but the mechanisms are not well understood. We document for the first time that reduced Ca2+ concentration in the low saline, brackish Baltic Sea affects the ability of mussel larvae to calcify the first larval shell. As complete formation of the shell is a prerequisite for successful development, impaired calcification during this sensitive life stage can have detrimental effects on the species' ability to colonize habitats.
Sha Ni, Isabelle Taubner, Florian Böhm, Vera Winde, and Michael E. Böttcher
Biogeosciences, 15, 1425–1445,Short summary
Spirorbis tube worms are common epibionts on brown algae in the Baltic Sea. We made experiments with Spirorbis in the
Kiel Outdoor Benthocosmsat CO2 and temperature conditions predicted for the year 2100. The worms were able to grow tubes even at CO2 levels favouring shell dissolution but did not survive at mean temperatures over 24° C. This indicates that Spirorbis worms will suffer from future excessive ocean warming and from ocean acidification fostering corrosion of their protective tubes.
Andrea C. Gerecht, Luka Šupraha, Gerald Langer, and Jorijntje Henderiks
Biogeosciences, 15, 833–845,Short summary
Calcifying phytoplankton play an import role in long-term CO2 removal from the atmosphere. We therefore studied the ability of a representative species to continue sequestrating CO2 under future climate conditions. We show that CO2 sequestration is negatively affected by both an increase in temperature and the resulting decrease in nutrient availability. This will impact the biogeochemical cycle of carbon and may have a positive feedback on rising CO2 levels.
Merinda C. Nash and Walter Adey
Biogeosciences, 15, 781–795,Short summary
Past seawater temperatures can be reconstructed using magnesium / calcium ratios of biogenic carbonates. As temperature increases, so does magnesium. Here we show that for these Arctic/subarctic coralline algae, anatomy is the first control on Mg / Ca, not temperature. When using coralline algae for temperature reconstruction, it is first necessary to check for anatomical influences on Mg / Ca.
Thomas M. DeCarlo, Juan P. D'Olivo, Taryn Foster, Michael Holcomb, Thomas Becker, and Malcolm T. McCulloch
Biogeosciences, 14, 5253–5269,Short summary
We present a new technique to quantify the chemical conditions under which corals build their skeletons by analysing them with lasers at a very fine resolution, down to 1/100th the width of a human hair. Our first applications to laboratory-cultured and wild corals demonstrates the complex interplay among seawater conditions (temperature and acidity), calcifying fluid chemistry, and bulk skeleton accretion, which will define the sensitivity of coral calcification to 21st century climate change.
Giulia Faucher, Linn Hoffmann, Lennart T. Bach, Cinzia Bottini, Elisabetta Erba, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 14, 3603–3613,Short summary
The main goal of this study was to understand if, similarly to the fossil record, high quantities of toxic metals induce coccolith dwarfism in coccolithophore species. We investigated, for the first time, the effects of trace metals on coccolithophore species other than E. huxleyi and on coccolith morphology and size. Our data show a species-specific sensitivity to trace metal concentration, allowing the recognition of the most-, intermediate- and least-tolerant taxa to trace metal enrichments.
Lennart J. de Nooijer, Anieke Brombacher, Antje Mewes, Gerald Langer, Gernot Nehrke, Jelle Bijma, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 14, 3387–3400,
Michael J. Henehan, David Evans, Madison Shankle, Janet E. Burke, Gavin L. Foster, Eleni Anagnostou, Thomas B. Chalk, Joseph A. Stewart, Claudia H. S. Alt, Joseph Durrant, and Pincelli M. Hull
Biogeosciences, 14, 3287–3308,Short summary
It is still unclear whether foraminifera (calcifying plankton that play an important role in cycling carbon) will have difficulty in making their shells in more acidic oceans, with different studies often reporting apparently conflicting results. We used live lab cultures, mathematical models, and fossil measurements to test this question, and found low pH does reduce calcification. However, we find this response is likely size-dependent, which may have obscured this response in other studies.
Chris H. Crosby and Jake V. Bailey
Biogeosciences, 14, 2151–2154,Short summary
In the course of experiments exploring the formation of calcium phosphate minerals in a polymeric matrix, we developed a small-scale, reusable, and low-cost setup that allows microscopic observation over time for use in mineral precipitation experiments that use organic polymers as a matrix. The setup uniquely accommodates changes in solution chemistry during the course of an experiment and facilitates easy harvesting of the precipitates for subsequent analysis.
Rosie M. Sheward, Alex J. Poulton, Samantha J. Gibbs, Chris J. Daniels, and Paul R. Bown
Biogeosciences, 14, 1493–1509,Short summary
Our culture experiments on modern Coccolithophores find that physiology regulates shifts in the geometry of their carbonate shells (coccospheres) between growth phases. This provides a tool to access growth information in modern and past populations. Directly comparing modern species with fossil coccospheres derives a new proxy for investigating the physiology that underpins phytoplankton responses to environmental change through geological time.
Inge van Dijk, Lennart J. de Nooijer, and Gert-Jan Reichart
Biogeosciences, 14, 497–510,Short summary
Culturing foraminifera under controlled pCO2 conditions shows that incorporation of certain elements (Zn, Ba) into foraminiferal shells is impacted by the inorganic carbonate system. Modeling the chemical speciation of these elements suggests that incorporation is determined by the availability of free ions. Furthermore, analyzing and comparing trends in element incorporation in hyaline and porcelaneous species may provide constrains on the differences between their calcification strategies.
Ella L. Howes, Karina Kaczmarek, Markus Raitzsch, Antje Mewes, Nienke Bijma, Ingo Horn, Sambuddha Misra, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 14, 415–430,Short summary
To calculate the seawater carbonate system, proxies for 2 out of 7 parameters are required. The boron isotopic composition of foraminifera shells can be used as a proxy for pH and it has been suggested that B / Ca ratios may act as a proxy for carbonate ion concentration. However, differentiating between the effects of pH and [CO32−] is problematic, as they co-vary in natural systems. To deconvolve the effects, we conducted culture experiments with the planktonic foraminifer Orbulina universa.
Merinda C. Nash, Sophie Martin, and Jean-Pierre Gattuso
Biogeosciences, 13, 5937–5945,Short summary
We carried out a 1-year experiment on coralline algae to test how higher CO2 and temperature might change the mineral composition of the algal skeleton. We expected there to be a decline in magnesium with CO2 and an increase with temperature. We found that CO2 did not change the mineral composition, but higher temperature increased the amount of magnesium.
Anaid Rosas-Navarro, Gerald Langer, and Patrizia Ziveri
Biogeosciences, 13, 2913–2926,Short summary
The global warming debate has sparked an unprecedented interest in temperature effects on coccolithophores. We show that sub-optimal growth temperatures lead to an increase in malformed coccoliths in a strain-specific fashion and the inorganic / organic carbon has a minimum at optimum growth temperature. Global warming might cause a decline in coccoliths' inorganic carbon contribution to the "rain ratio", as well as improved fitness in some genotypes by reducing coccolith malformation.
T. Foster and P. L. Clode
Biogeosciences, 13, 1717–1722,Short summary
In recent years much research has focussed on whether corals will be able to build their skeletons under predicted ocean acidification. One strategy corals may employ is changing the mineralogy of their skeletons from aragonite to the less soluble polymorph of calcium carbonate; calcite. Here we show that newly settled coral recruits are unable to produce calcite in their skeletons under near-future elevations in pCO2, which may leave them more vulnerable to ocean acidification.
Anne Alexandre, Jérôme Balesdent, Patrick Cazevieille, Claire Chevassus-Rosset, Patrick Signoret, Jean-Charles Mazur, Araks Harutyunyan, Emmanuel Doelsch, Isabelle Basile-Doelsch, Hélène Miche, and Guaciara M. Santos
Biogeosciences, 13, 1693–1703,Short summary
This 13C labeling experiment demonstrates that carbon can be absorbed by the roots, translocated in the plant, and ultimately fixed in organic compounds subject to occlusion in silica particles that form inside plant cells (phytoliths). Plausible forms of carbon absorbed, translocated, and fixed in phytoliths are assessed. Implications for our understanding of the C cycle at the plant-soil-atmosphere interface are discussed.
M. Wall, F. Ragazzola, L. C. Foster, A. Form, and D. N. Schmidt
Biogeosciences, 12, 6869–6880,Short summary
We investigated the ability of cold-water corals to deal with changes in ocean pH. We uniquely combined morphological assessment with boron isotope analysis to determine if changes in growth are related to changes in control of calcification pH. We found that the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa can maintain the skeletal morphology, growth patterns as well as internal calcification pH. This has important implications for their future occurrence and explains their cosmopolitan distribution.
J. F. Mori, T. R. Neu, S. Lu, M. Händel, K. U. Totsche, and K. Küsel
Biogeosciences, 12, 5277–5289,Short summary
We studied filamentous macroscopic algae growing in metal-rich stream water that leaked from a former uranium-mining district. These algae were encrusted with Fe-deposits that were associated with microbes, mainly Gallionella-related Fe-oxidizing bacteria, and extracellular polymeric substances. Algae with a lower number of chloroplasts often exhibited discontinuous series of precipitates, likely due to the intercalary growth of algae which allowed them to avoid detrimental encrustation.
M. C. Nash, S. Uthicke, A. P. Negri, and N. E. Cantin
Biogeosciences, 12, 5247–5260,
L. T. Bach
Biogeosciences, 12, 4939–4951,Short summary
Calcification by marine organisms reacts to changing seawater carbonate chemistry, but it is unclear which components of the carbonate system drive the observed response. This study uncovers proportionalities between different carbonate chemistry parameters. These enable us to understand why calcification often correlates well with carbonate ion concentration, and they imply that net CaCO3 formation in high latitudes is not more vulnerable to ocean acidification than formation in low latitudes.
Amante, C. and Eakins, B. W.: ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis, NOAA Technical Memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24, National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA [data set], https://doi.org/10.7289/V5C8276M, 2009.
Anglada-Ortiz, G., Zamelczyk, K., Meilland, J., Ziveri, P., Chierici, M., Fransson, A., and Rasmussen, T. L.: Planktic Foraminiferal and Pteropod Contributions to Carbon Dynamics in the Arctic Ocean (North Svalbard Margin), Front. Mar. Sci., 8, 661158, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.661158, 2021.
Arikawa, R.: Distribution and taxonomy of globigerina pachyderma (Ehrenberg) off the Sanriku coast, northeast Honshu, Japan, Tohoku Uiv., Sci. Rep., 2nd series (Geol.), 53, 103–157, 1983.
Bauch, D., Carstens, J., and Wefer, G.: Oxygen isotope composition of living Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) in the Arctic Ocean, Earth Planet. Sc. Lett., 146, 47–58, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0012-821X(96)00211-7, 1997.
Bauerfeind, E., Nöthig, E.-M., Beszczynska, A., Fahl, K., Kaleschke, L., Kreker, K., Klages, M., Soltwedel, T., Lorenzen, C., and Wegner, J.: Particle sedimentation patterns in the eastern Fram Strait during 2000–2005: Results from the Arctic long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 56, 1471–1487, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2009.04.011, 2009.
Bauerfeind, E., Nöthig, E.-M., Pauls, B., Kraft, A., and Beszczynska-Möller, A.: Variability in pteropod sedimentation and corresponding aragonite flux at the Arctic deep-sea long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN in the eastern Fram Strait from 2000 to 2009, J. Mar. Syst., 132, 95–105, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2013.12.006, 2014.
Baumann, K.-H., Andruleit, H., and Samtleben, C.: Coccolithophores in the Nordic Seas: comparison of living communities with surface sediment assemblages, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 47, 1743–1772, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00005-9, 2000.
Bé, A. W.: Some observations on Arctic planktonic foraminifera, Contrib. Cushman Found, Foraminiferal Res., 11, 64–68, 1960.
Beaugrand, G., McQuatters-Gollop, A., Edwards, M., and Goberville, E.: Long-term responses of North Atlantic calcifying plankton to climate change, Nat. Clim. Change, 3, 263–267, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1753, 2013.
Busch, K., Bauerfeind, E., and Nöthig, E.-M.: Pteropod sedimentation patterns in different water depths observed with moored sediment traps over a 4-year period at the LTER station HAUSGARTEN in eastern Fram Strait, Polar Biol., 38, 845–859, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-015-1644-9, 2015.
Carstens, J. and Wefer, G.: Recent distribution of planktonic foraminifera in the Nansen Basin, Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. A, 39, 507–524, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0198-0149(06)80018-X, 1992.
Carstens, J., Hebbeln, D., and Wefer, G.: Distribution of planktic foraminifera at the ice margin in the Arctic (Fram Strait), Mar. Micropaleontol., 29, 257–269, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8398(96)00014-X, 1997.
Daniels, C., Poulton, A., Young, J., Esposito, M., Humphreys, M., Ribas-Ribas, M., Tynan, E., and Tyrrell, T.: Species-specific calcite production reveals Coccolithus pelagicus as the key calcifier in the Arctic Ocean, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 555, 29–47, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps11820, 2016.
Fahl, K. and Nöthig, E.-M.: Lithogenic and biogenic particle fluxes on the Lomonosov Ridge (central Arctic Ocean) and their relevance for sediment accumulation: Vertical vs. lateral transport, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 54, 1256–1272, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2007.04.014, 2007.
Field, D. B., Baumgartner, T. R., Charles, C. D., Ferreira-Bartrina, V., and Ohman, M. D.: Planktonic Foraminifera of the California Current Reflect 20th-Century Warming, Science, 311, 63–66, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1116220, 2006.
Friedlingstein, P., Jones, M. W., O'Sullivan, M., Andrew, R. M., Hauck, J., Peters, G. P., Peters, W., Pongratz, J., Sitch, S., Le Quéré, C., Bakker, D. C. E., Canadell, J. G., Ciais, P., Jackson, R. B., Anthoni, P., Barbero, L., Bastos, A., Bastrikov, V., Becker, M., Bopp, L., Buitenhuis, E., Chandra, N., Chevallier, F., Chini, L. P., Currie, K. I., Feely, R. A., Gehlen, M., Gilfillan, D., Gkritzalis, T., Goll, D. S., Gruber, N., Gutekunst, S., Harris, I., Haverd, V., Houghton, R. A., Hurtt, G., Ilyina, T., Jain, A. K., Joetzjer, E., Kaplan, J. O., Kato, E., Klein Goldewijk, K., Korsbakken, J. I., Landschützer, P., Lauvset, S. K., Lefèvre, N., Lenton, A., Lienert, S., Lombardozzi, D., Marland, G., McGuire, P. C., Melton, J. R., Metzl, N., Munro, D. R., Nabel, J. E. M. S., Nakaoka, S.-I., Neill, C., Omar, A. M., Ono, T., Peregon, A., Pierrot, D., Poulter, B., Rehder, G., Resplandy, L., Robertson, E., Rödenbeck, C., Séférian, R., Schwinger, J., Smith, N., Tans, P. P., Tian, H., Tilbrook, B., Tubiello, F. N., van der Werf, G. R., Wiltshire, A. J., and Zaehle, S.: Global Carbon Budget 2019, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1783–1838, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-11-1783-2019, 2019.
Greco, M., Jonkers, L., Kretschmer, K., Bijma, J., and Kucera, M.: Depth habitat of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma in the northern high latitudes explained by sea-ice and chlorophyll concentrations, Biogeosciences, 16, 3425–3437, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-16-3425-2019, 2019.
Greco, M., Morard, R., and Kucera, M.: Single-cell metabarcoding reveals biotic interactions of the Arctic calcifier Neogloboquadrina pachyderma with the eukaryotic pelagic community, J. Plank. Res., 43, 113–125, https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbab015, 2021a.
Greco, M., Werner, K., Zamelczyk, K., Rasmussen, T. L., and Kucera, M.: Decadal trend of plankton community change and habitat shoaling in the Arctic gateway recorded by planktonic foraminifera, Glob. Change Biol., 28, 1798–1808, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16037, 2021b.
Hebbeln, D.: Flux of ice-rafted detritus from sea ice in the Fram Strait, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 47, 1773–1790, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00006-0, 2000.
Hemleben, C., Spindler, M., and Anderson, O. R.: Modern planktonic foraminifera, Springer Science & Business Media, ISBN 1-4612-3544-8, 1989.
Henehan, M. J., Evans, D., Shankle, M., Burke, J. E., Foster, G. L., Anagnostou, E., Chalk, T. B., Stewart, J. A., Alt, C. H., and Durrant, J.: Size-dependent response of foraminiferal calcification to seawater carbonate chemistry, Biogeosciences, 14, 3287–3308, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-14-3287-2017, 2017.
Jensen, S.: Planktische Foraminiferen im Europäischen Nordmeer: Verbreitung und Vertikalfluss sowie ihre Entwicklung während der letzten 15000 Jahre, Ph.D. thesis, Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Kiel, Germany, Berichte aus dem Sonderforschungsbereich 313, Veränderungen der Umwelt – Der Nördliche Nordatlantik, 75, 105 pp., 1998.
Jonkers, L., Brummer, G.-J. A., Peeters, F. J. C., van Aken, H. M., and De Jong, M. F.: Seasonal stratification, shell flux, and oxygen isotope dynamics of left-coiling N. pachyderma and T. quinqueloba in the western subpolar North Atlantic, Paleoceanography, 25, PA2204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009PA001849, 2010.
Jonkers, L., Hillebrand, H., and Kucera, M.: Global change drives modern plankton communities away from the pre-industrial state, Nature, 570, 372–375, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1230-3, 2019.
Jutterström, S. and Anderson, L. G.: The saturation of calcite and aragonite in the Arctic Ocean, Mar. Chem., 94, 101–110, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2004.08.010, 2005.
Kiss, P., Jonkers, L., Hudáčková, N., Reuter, R. T., Donner, B., Fischer, G., and Kučera, M.: Determinants of Planktonic Foraminifera Calcite Flux: Implications for the Prediction of Intra-and Interannual Pelagic Carbonate Budgets, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 35, 9, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020GB006748, 2021.
Klaas, C. and Archer, D. E.: Association of sinking organic matter with various types of mineral ballast in the deep sea: Implications for the rain ratio, Ocean Carbon-Mineral Flux Association, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 16, 63-1–63-14, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GB001765, 2002.
Kohfeld, K. E.: Geochemistry and ecology of polar planktonic foraminifera, and applications to paleoceanographic reconstructions, Ph.D. thesis, Columbia University, UnitedStates, 250 pp., 1998.
Kohfeld, K. E., Fairbanks, R. G., Smith, S. L., and Walsh, I. D.: Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral coiling) as paleoceanographic tracers in polar oceans: Evidence from Northeast Water Polynya plankton tows, sediment traps, and surface sediments, Paleoceanography, 11, 679–699, https://doi.org/10.1029/96PA02617, 1996.
Lončarić, N., Peeters, F. J. C., Kroon, D., and Brummer, G.-J. A.: Oxygen isotope ecology of recent planktic foraminifera at the central Walvis Ridge (SE Atlantic), Palaeoceanography, 21, PA3009, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005PA001207, 2006.
Manno, C. and Pavlov, A. K.: Living planktonic foraminifera in the Fram Strait (Arctic): absence of diel vertical migration during the midnight sun, Hydrobiologia, 721, 285–295, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-013-1669-4, 2014.
Meilland, J., Siccha, M., Weinkauf, M. F. G., Jonkers, L., Morard, R., Baranowski, U., Baumeister, A., Bertlich, J., Brummer, G.-J., Debray, P., Fritz-Endres, T., Groeneveld, J., Magerl, L., Munz, P., Rillo, M. C., Schmidt, C., Takagi, H., Theara, G., and Kucera, M.: Highly replicated sampling reveals no diurnal vertical migration but stable species-specific vertical habitats in planktonic foraminifera, J. Plank. Res., 41, 127–141, https://doi.org/10.1093/plankt/fbz002, 2019.
Meilland, J., Howa, H., Hulot, V., Demangel, I., Salaün, J., and Garlan, T.: Population dynamics of modern planktonic foraminifera in the western Barents Sea, Biogeosciences, 17, 1437–1450, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-1437-2020, 2020.
Meilland, J., Siccha, M., Kaffenberger, M., Bijma, J., and Kucera, M.: Population dynamics and reproduction strategies of planktonic foraminifera in the open ocean, Biogeosciences, 20, 5789–5809, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-2021-141, 2021.
Miller, L. A., Macdonald, R. W., McLaughlin, F., Mucci, A., Yamamoto-Kawai, M., Giesbrecht, K. E., and Williams, W. J.: Changes in the marine carbonate system of the western Arctic: patterns in a rescued data set, Polar Res., 33, 20577, https://doi.org/10.3402/polar.v33.20577, 2014.
Ofstad, S., Meilland, J., Zamelczyk, K., Chierici, M., Fransson, A., Gründger, F., and Rasmussen, T. L.: Development, productivity and seasonality of living planktonic foraminiferal faunas and Limacina helicina in an area of intense methane seepage in the Barents Sea, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 125, 2, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019JG005387, 2020.
Pados, T. and Spielhagen, R. F.: Species distribution and depth habitat of recent planktic foraminifera in Fram Strait, Arctic Ocean, Polar Res., 33, 22483, https://doi.org/10.3402/polar.v33.22483, 2014.
Pados, T., Spielhagen, R. F., Bauch, D., Meyer, H., and Segl, M.: Oxygen and carbon isotope composition of modern planktic foraminifera and near-surface waters in the Fram Strait (Arctic Ocean) – a case study, Biogeosciences, 12, 1733–1752, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-1733-2015, 2015.
Peeters, F. J. C. and Brummer, G.-J. A.: The seasonal and vertical distribution of living planktic foraminifera in the NW Arabian Sea, Geol. Soc. Lond. Special Publ., 195, 463–497, https://doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2002.195.01.26, 2002.
R Core Team: R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, https://www.r-project.org (last access: 15 April 2022), 2018.
Riebesell, U., Kortzinger, A., and Oschlies, A.: Sensitivities of marine carbon fluxes to ocean change, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 20602–20609, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0813291106, 2009.
Salmon, K. H., Anand, P., Sexton, P. F., and Conte, M.: Upper ocean mixing controls the seasonality of planktonic foraminifer fluxes and associated strength of the carbonate pump in the oligotrophic North Atlantic, Biogeosciences, 12, 223–235, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-223-2015, 2015.
Salter, I., Schiebel, R., Ziveri, P., Movellan, A., Lampitt, R., and Wolff, G. A.: Carbonate counter pump stimulated by natural iron fertilization in the Polar Frontal Zone, Nat. Geosci., 7, 885–889, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2285, 2014.
Schiebel, R.: Planktic foraminiferal sedimentation and the marine calcite budget, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 16, 3-1–3-21, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GB001459, 2002.
Schiebel, R. and Hemleben, C.: Interannual variability of planktic foraminiferal populations and test flux in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean (JGOFS), Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 47, 1809–1852, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00008-4, 2000.
Schiebel, R., Hiller, B., and Hemleben, C.: Impacts of storms on recent planktic foraminiferal test production and CaCO3 flux in the North Atlantic at 47∘ N, 20∘ W (JGOFS), Mar. Micropaleontol., 26, 115–129, https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8398(95)00035-6, 1995.
Schiebel, R., Barker, S., Lendt, R., Thomas, H., and Bollmann, J.: Planktic foraminiferal dissolution in the twilight zone, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 54, 676–686, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.01.009, 2007.
Schiebel, R., Spielhagen, R. F., Garnier, J., Hagemann, J., Howa, H., Jentzen, A., Martínez-Garcia, A., Meilland, J., Michel, E., Repschläger, J., Salter, I., Yamasaki, M., and Haug, G.: Modern planktic foraminifers in the high-latitude ocean, Mar. Micropaleontol., 136, 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marmicro.2017.08.004, 2017.
Schiebel, R., Smart, S. M., Jentzen, A., Jonkers, L., Morard, R., Meilland, J., Michel, E., Coxall, H. K., Hull, P. M., de Garidel-Thoron, T., Aze, T., Quillévéré, F., Ren, H., Sigman, D. M., Vonhof, H. B., Martínez-García, A., Kučera, M., Bijma, J., Spero, H. J., and Haug, G. H.: Advances in planktonic foraminifer research: New perspectives for paleoceanography, Revue Micropaléontol., 61, 113–138, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.revmic.2018.10.001, 2018.
Schönfeld, J., Golikova, E., Korsun, S., and Spezzaferri, S.: The Helgoland Experiment – assessing the influence of methodologies on Recent benthic foraminiferal assemblage composition, J. Micropalaeontol., 32, 161–182, https://doi.org/10.1144/jmpaleo2012-022, 2013.
Siccha, M. and Kucera, M.: ForCenS, a curated database of planktonic foraminifera census counts in marine surface sediment samples, Sci. Data, 4, 170109, https://doi.org/10.1038/sdata.2017.109, 2017.
Siccha, M., Schiebel, R., Schmidt, S., and Howa, H.: Short-term and small-scale variability in planktic foraminifera test flux in the Bay of Biscay, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 64, 146–156, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2012.02.004, 2012.
Simstich, J.: Die ozeanische Deckschicht des Europäischen Nordmeers im Abbild stabiler Isotope von Kalkgehäusen unterschiedlicher Planktonforaminiferenarten, Ph.D. thesis, Berichte – Reports 2, Institut für Geowissenschaften, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel, Germany, 96 pp., 1999.
Simstich, J., Sarnthein, M., and Erlenkeuser, H.: Paired δ18O signals of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (s) and Turborotalita quinqueloba show thermal stratification structure in Nordic Seas, Mar. Micropaleontol., 48, 107–125, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8398(02)00165-2, 2003.
Soltwedel, T., Bauerfeind, E., Bergmann, M., Budaeva, N., Hoste, E., Jaeckisch, N., von Juterzenka, K., Matthießen, J., Mokievsky, V., and Nöthig, E.-M.: HAUSGARTEN: multidisciplinary investigations at a deep-sea, long-term observatory in the Arctic Ocean, Oceanography, 18, 46–61, https://doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2005.24, 2005.
Spindler, M.: On the salinity tolerance of the planktonic foraminifer Neogloboquadrina pachyderma from Antarctic sea ice, Proc. NIPR Symp., Polar Biol., 9, 85–91, 1996.
Stangeew, E.: Distribution and Isotopic Composition of Living Planktonic Foraminifera N. pachyderma (sinistral) and T. quinqueloba in the High Latitude North Atlantic, PhD Thesis, Christian-Albrechts Universität zu Kiel, Germany, 90 pp., M39/4_361CTD-18, https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.62182, M39/4_402CTD-55, https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.62183, 2001.
Steinacher, M., Joos, F., Frölicher, T. L., Plattner, G.-K., and Doney, S. C.: Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model, Biogeosciences, 6, 515–533, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-515-2009, 2009.
Sulpis, O., Jeansson, E., Dinauer, A., Lauvset, S. K., and Middelburg, J. J.: Calcium carbonate dissolution patterns in the ocean, Nat. Geosci., 14, 423–428, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-021-00743-y, 2021.
Takahashi, K. and Bé, A. W. H.: Planktonic foraminifera: factors controlling sinking speeds, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. A, 31, 1477–1500, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(84)90083-9, 1984.
Tell, F.: Neogloboquadrina pachyderma compiled data from vertical profiles in the Arctic Ocean, PANGAEA [data set], https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.941250, last access: 15 February 2022.
Vihtakari, M.: ggOceanMaps: Plot Data on Oceanographic Maps using “ggplot2”, R package version 1.1.19, Zenodo [code], https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4554714, 2021 (available at: https://github.com/MikkoVihtakari/ggOceanMaps, last access: 15 February 2022).
Vilks, G.: Comparison of Globorotalia pachyderma (Ehrenberg) in the water column and sediments of the Canadian Arctic, J. Foramin. Res., 5, 313–325, https://doi.org/10.2113/gsjfr.5.4.313, 1975.
Volkmann, R.: Planktic foraminifer ecology and stable isotope geochemistry in the Arctic Ocean: implications from water column and sediment surface studies for quantitative reconstructions of oceanic parameters, Ph. D. thesis, Berichte zur Polarforschung (Reports on Polar Research), 361, Alfred-Wegener-Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany, 100 pp., https://doi.org/10.2312/BzP_0361_2000, 2000a.
Volkmann, R.: Planktic foraminifers in the outer Laptev Sea and the Fram Strait – modern distribution and ecology, J. Foramin. Res., 30, 157–176, https://doi.org/10.2113/0300157, 2000b.
Volkmann, R. and Mensch, M.: Stable isotope composition (δ18O, δ13C) of living planktic foraminifers in the outer Laptev Sea and the Fram Strait, Mar. Micropaleontol., 26, 163–188, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8398(01)00018-4, 2001.
von Bodungen, B., Antia, A., Bauerfeind, E., Haupt, O., Koeve, W., Machado, E., Peeken, I., Peinert, R., Reitmeier, S., Thomsen, C., Voss, M., Wunsch, M., Zeller, U., and Zeitzschel, B.: Pelagic processes and vertical flux of particles: an overview of a long-term comparative study in the Norwegian Sea and Greenland Sea, Geol. Rundsch., 84, 11–27, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00192239, 1995.
von Gyldenfeldt, A.-B., Carstens, J., and Meincke, J.: Estimation of the catchment area of a sediment trap by means of current meters and foraminiferal tests, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 47, 1701–1717, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(00)00004-7, 2000.
Wassmann, P., Kosobokova, K. N., Slagstad, D., Drinkwater, K. F., Hopcroft, R. R., Moore, S. E., Ellingsen, I., Nelson, R. J., Carmack, E., Popova, E., and Berge, J.: The contiguous domains of Arctic Ocean advection: Trails of life and death, Prog. Oceanogr., 139, 42–65, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2015.06.011, 2015.
Weinkauf, M. F. G., Kunze, J. G., Waniek, J. J., and Kučera, M.: Seasonal Variation in Shell Calcification of Planktonic Foraminifera in the NE Atlantic Reveals Species-Specific Response to Temperature, Productivity, and Optimum Growth Conditions, PLOS ONE, 33, 11, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148363, 2016.
Wolfteich, C. M.: Satellite-derived sea surface temperature, mesoscale variability, and foraminiferal production in the North Atlantic, M.S. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA, https://doi.org/10.1575/1912/5556, 1994.
Zeebe, R. E.: History of Seawater Carbonate Chemistry, Atmospheric CO2, and Ocean Acidification, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 40, 141–165, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-earth-042711-105521, 2012.
- Full-text XML
This study analyses the production of calcite shells formed by one of the main Arctic pelagic calcifiers, the foraminifera N. pachyderma. Using vertically resolved profiles of shell concentration, size and weight, we show that calcification occurs throughout the upper 300 m with an average production flux below the calcification zone of 8 mg CaCO3 m−2 d−1 representing 23 % of the total pelagic biogenic carbonate production. The production flux is attenuated in the twilight zone by dissolution.
This study analyses the production of calcite shells formed by one of the main Arctic pelagic...