Articles | Volume 20, issue 5
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2023. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Abrasion of sedimentary rocks as a source of hydrogen peroxide and nutrients to subglacial ecosystems
School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK
Department of Earth Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, USA
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark
No articles found.
Chris Pierce, Christopher Gerekos, Mark Skidmore, Lucas Beem, Don Blankenship, Won Sang Lee, Ed Adams, Choon-Ki Lee, and Jamey Stutz
Water beneath glaciers in Antarctica can influence how the ice slides or melts. Airborne radar can detect this water, which looks bright in radar images. Unfortunately, common techniques cannot identify the water’s size or shape. We used a simulator to show how the radar image changes based on the bed material, size and shape of the water body. This technique was used to assess a suspected water body beneath Thwaite's Glacier. We found it is most likely a series of wide, flat canals or a lake.
Ashley J. Dubnick, Rachel L. Spietz, Brad D. Danielson, Mark L. Skidmore, Eric S. Boyd, Dave Burgess, Charvanaa Dhoonmoon, and Martin Sharp
The Cryosphere, 17, 2993–3012,Short summary
At the end of an Arctic winter, we found ponded water 500 m under a glacier. We explored the chemistry and microbiology of this unique, dark, and cold aquatic habitat to better understand ecology beneath glaciers. The water was occupied by cold-loving and cold-tolerant microbes with versatile metabolisms and broad habitat ranges and was depleted in compounds commonly used by microbes. These results show that microbes can become established beneath glaciers and deplete nutrients within months.
Amy Jenson, Mark Skidmore, Lucas Beem, Martin Truffer, and Scott McCalla
Water in some glacier environments contains salt which increases the density of the fluid and decreases the freezing point of the fluid. As a result, hypersaline lakes can exist in places where freshwater cannot and can contain unique microbiological communities. We model the flow of saline fluid from a subglacial lake through a channel at the glacier bed. The results suggest that fluid with higher salinity reach higher discharge rates compared to fresh water due to increased fluid density.
Anja Rutishauser, Donald D. Blankenship, Duncan A. Young, Natalie S. Wolfenbarger, Lucas H. Beem, Mark L. Skidmore, Ashley Dubnick, and Alison S. Criscitiello
The Cryosphere, 16, 379–395,Short summary
Recently, a hypersaline subglacial lake complex was hypothesized to lie beneath Devon Ice Cap, Canadian Arctic. Here, we present results from a follow-on targeted aerogeophysical survey. Our results support the evidence for a hypersaline subglacial lake and reveal an extensive brine network, suggesting more complex subglacial hydrological conditions than previously inferred. This hypersaline system may host microbial habitats, making it a compelling analog for bines on other icy worlds.
William D. Smith, Stuart A. Dunning, Stephen Brough, Neil Ross, and Jon Telling
Earth Surf. Dynam., 8, 1053–1065,Short summary
Glacial landslides are difficult to detect and likely underestimated due to rapid covering or dispersal. Without improved detection rates we cannot constrain their impact on glacial dynamics or their potential climatically driven increases in occurrence. Here we present a new open-access tool (GERALDINE) that helps a user detect 92 % of these events over the past 38 years on a global scale. We demonstrate its ability by identifying two new, large glacial landslides in the Hayes Range, Alaska.
Miranda J. Nicholes, Christopher Williamson, Martyn Tranter, Alexandra Holland, Marian Yallop, and Alexandre Anesio
Publication in BG not foreseenShort summary
This incubation experiment assessed the role of solar radiation and heterotrophic bacteria in the degradation of organic carbon in surface ice of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Although ultraviolet radiation was found to alter carbon composition, heterotrophic degradation caused the greatest changes to both carbon composition and quantity. Both processes are likely interlinked within the surface ice and are fundamental to controlling the composition of carbon exported to downstream environments.
Andrew J. Tedstone, Joseph M. Cook, Christopher J. Williamson, Stefan Hofer, Jenine McCutcheon, Tristram Irvine-Fynn, Thomas Gribbin, and Martyn Tranter
The Cryosphere, 14, 521–538,Short summary
Albedo describes how much light that hits a surface is reflected without being absorbed. Low-albedo ice surfaces melt more quickly. There are large differences in the albedo of bare-ice areas of the Greenland Ice Sheet. They are caused both by dark glacier algae and by the condition of the underlying ice. Changes occur over centimetres to metres, so satellites do not always detect real albedo changes. Estimates of melt made using satellite measurements therefore tend to be underestimates.
Joseph M. Cook, Andrew J. Tedstone, Christopher Williamson, Jenine McCutcheon, Andrew J. Hodson, Archana Dayal, McKenzie Skiles, Stefan Hofer, Robert Bryant, Owen McAree, Andrew McGonigle, Jonathan Ryan, Alexandre M. Anesio, Tristram D. L. Irvine-Fynn, Alun Hubbard, Edward Hanna, Mark Flanner, Sathish Mayanna, Liane G. Benning, Dirk van As, Marian Yallop, James B. McQuaid, Thomas Gribbin, and Martyn Tranter
The Cryosphere, 14, 309–330,Short summary
Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is a major source of uncertainty for sea level rise projections. Ice-darkening due to the growth of algae has been recognized as a potential accelerator of melting. This paper measures and models the algae-driven ice melting and maps the algae over the ice sheet for the first time. We estimate that as much as 13 % total runoff from the south-western GrIS can be attributed to these algae, showing that they must be included in future mass balance models.
Alexandra T. Holland, Christopher J. Williamson, Fotis Sgouridis, Andrew J. Tedstone, Jenine McCutcheon, Joseph M. Cook, Ewa Poniecka, Marian L. Yallop, Martyn Tranter, Alexandre M. Anesio, and The Black & Bloom Group
Biogeosciences, 16, 3283–3296,Short summary
This paper provides a preliminary data set for dissolved nutrient abundance in the Dark Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet. This 15-year marked darkening has since been attributed to glacier algae blooms, yet has not been accounted for in current melt rate models. We conclude that the dissolved organic phase dominates surface ice environments and that factors other than macronutrient limitation control the extent and magnitude of the glacier algae blooms.
Joseph M. Cook, Andrew J. Hodson, Alex S. Gardner, Mark Flanner, Andrew J. Tedstone, Christopher Williamson, Tristram D. L. Irvine-Fynn, Johan Nilsson, Robert Bryant, and Martyn Tranter
The Cryosphere, 11, 2611–2632,Short summary
Biological growth darkens snow and ice, causing it to melt faster. This is often referred to as
bioalbedo. Quantifying bioalbedo has not been achieved because of difficulties in isolating the biological contribution from the optical properties of ice and snow, and from inorganic impurities in field studies. In this paper, we provide a physical model that enables bioalbedo to be quantified from first principles and we use it to guide future field studies.
Andrew J. Tedstone, Jonathan L. Bamber, Joseph M. Cook, Christopher J. Williamson, Xavier Fettweis, Andrew J. Hodson, and Martyn Tranter
The Cryosphere, 11, 2491–2506,Short summary
The bare ice albedo of the south-west Greenland ice sheet varies dramatically between years. The reasons are unclear but likely involve darkening by inorganic particulates, cryoconite and ice algae. We use satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics and climate model outputs to find likely climatological controls. Outcropping particulates can explain the spatial extent of dark ice, but the darkening itself is likely due to ice algae growth controlled by meltwater and light availability.
Sophie L. Nixon, Jon P. Telling, Jemma L. Wadham, and Charles S. Cockell
Biogeosciences, 14, 1445–1455,Short summary
Despite their permanently cold and dark characteristics, subglacial environments (glacier ice–sediment interface) are known to harbour active microbial communities. However, the role of microbial iron cycling in these environments is poorly understood. Here we show that subglacial sediments harbour active iron-reducing microorganisms, and they appear to be cold-adapted. These results may have important implications for global biogeochemical iron cycling and export to marine ecosystems.
James A. Bradley, Sandra Arndt, Marie Šabacká, Liane G. Benning, Gary L. Barker, Joshua J. Blacker, Marian L. Yallop, Katherine E. Wright, Christopher M. Bellas, Jonathan Telling, Martyn Tranter, and Alexandre M. Anesio
Biogeosciences, 13, 5677–5696,Short summary
Soil development following glacier retreat was characterized using a novel integrated field, laboratory and modelling approach in Svalbard. We found community shifts in bacteria, which were responsible for driving cycles in carbon and nutrients. Allochthonous inputs were also important in sustaining bacterial production. This study shows how an integrated model–data approach can improve understanding and obtain a more holistic picture of soil development in an increasingly ice-free future world.
Robert Raiswell, Jon R. Hawkings, Liane G. Benning, Alex R. Baker, Ros Death, Samuel Albani, Natalie Mahowald, Michael D. Krom, Simon W. Poulton, Jemma Wadham, and Martyn Tranter
Biogeosciences, 13, 3887–3900,Short summary
Iron is an essential nutrient for plankton growth. One important source of iron is wind-blown dust. The polar oceans are remote from dust sources but melting icebergs supply sediment that contains iron which is potentially available to plankton. We show that iceberg sediments contain more potentially bioavailable iron than wind-blown dust. Iceberg sources will become increasingly important with climate change and increased plankton growth can remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Emily C. O'Donnell, Jemma L. Wadham, Grzegorz P. Lis, Martyn Tranter, Amy E. Pickard, Marek Stibal, Paul Dewsbury, and Sean Fitzsimons
Biogeosciences, 13, 3833–3846,Short summary
We use a novel ion chromatographic analysis that provides the first identification and quantification of major low-molecular-weight dissolved organic carbon (LMW-DOC) compounds in basal ice. LMW-DOC concentrations were dependent on the bioavailability of the overridden organic carbon, which in turn was influenced by the type of overridden material. The overridden material may thus act as a direct (abiotic leaching) and indirect (microbial cycling) source of DOC to the subglacial environment.
E. C. Lawson, J. L. Wadham, M. Tranter, M. Stibal, G. P. Lis, C. E. H. Butler, J. Laybourn-Parry, P. Nienow, D. Chandler, and P. Dewsbury
Biogeosciences, 11, 4015–4028,
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Ze Ren, Shudan Ye, Hongxuan Li, Xilei Huang, and Luyao Chen
Biogeosciences, 20, 4241–4258,Short summary
Permafrost thaw initiates thermokarst landscape formation, resulting in distinct new habitats, including degraded permafrost soil, thermokarst lake sediments, and lake water. These distinct habitats harbored differentiated bacterial communities that originated from the same source, differing in diversity, assembly mechanisms, and environmental influences. The results imply ecological consequences of permafrost degradation in the face of further climate change.
Caitlyn A. Hall, Andre van Turnhout, Edward Kavazanjian Jr., Leon A. van Paassen, and Bruce Rittmann
Biogeosciences, 20, 2903–2917,Short summary
Earthquake-induced soil liquefaction poses a significant global threat. Microbially induced desaturation and precipitation (MIDP) via denitrification is a potentially sustainable, non-disruptive bacteria-driven ground improvement technique under existing structures. We developed a next-generation biogeochemical model to understand and predict the behavior of MIDP in the natural environment to design field-based hazard mitigation treatments.
Mutong Niu, Shu Huang, Wei Hu, Yajie Wang, Wanyun Xu, Wan Wei, Qiang Zhang, Zihan Wang, Donghuan Zhang, Rui Jin, Libin Wu, Junjun Deng, Fangxia Shen, and Pingqing Fu
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Sugar compounds in air were widely used to trace biological aerosols. However, the range of microbial sources tracked by sugar compounds is vague. Our study analyzed microbial communities and sugar compounds at the molecular levels. Results found that a few saprophytic fungal taxa and no bacterial taxa were significantly related to certain sugar molecules. This study concluded that caution should also be exercised when using sugar compounds to trace microorganisms, especially bacteria.
David A. Hutchins, Fei-Xue Fu, Shun-Chung Yang, Seth G. John, Stephen J. Romaniello, M. Grace Andrews, and Nathan G. Walworth
The IPCC has called for the rapid development of CO2 removal strategies. Coastal Enhanced Weathering (CEW) via the addition of the common mineral olivine to coastal waters is one promising approach. Olivine releases trace metals that can affect organisms like phytoplankton. We exposed phytoplankton to olivine products and observed no negative effects. These data indicate that CEW with olivine will likely not be harmful to phytoplankton, suggesting it to be safe for them at large scales.
Juan Pablo Almeida, Lorenzo Menichetti, Alf Ekblad, Nicholas P. Rosenstock, and Håkan Wallander
Biogeosciences, 20, 1443–1458,Short summary
In forests, trees allocate a significant amount of carbon belowground to support mycorrhizal symbiosis. In northern forests nitrogen normally regulates this allocation and consequently mycorrhizal fungi growth. In this study we demonstrate that in a conifer forest from Sweden, fungal growth is regulated by phosphorus instead of nitrogen. This is probably due to an increase in nitrogen deposition to soils caused by decades of human pollution that has altered the ecosystem nutrient regime.
Yong Zhang, Yong Zhang, Shuai Ma, Hanbing Chen, Jiabing Li, Zhengke Li, Kui Xu, Ruiping Huang, Hong Zhang, Yonghe Han, and Jun Sun
Biogeosciences, 20, 1299–1312,Short summary
We found that increasing light intensity compensates for the negative effects of low phosphorus (P) availability on cellular protein and nitrogen contents. Reduced P availability, increasing light intensity, and ocean acidification act synergistically to increase cellular contents of carbohydrate and POC and the allocation of POC to carbohydrate. These regulation mechanisms in Emiliania huxleyi could provide vital information for evaluating carbon cycle in marine ecosystems under global change.
Federico Fabisik, Benoit Guieysse, Jonathan Procter, and Maxence Plouviez
Biogeosciences, 20, 687–693,Short summary
We show, for the first time, that pure cultures of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa can synthesize the potent greenhouse gas N2O using nitrite as substrate. Our findings have broad environmental implications because M. aeruginosa is globally found in freshwater ecosystems and is often the dominant species found in algae blooms. Further research is now needed to determine the occurrence and significance of N2O emissions from ecosystems rich with M. aeruginosa.
Fanny Noirmain, Jean-Luc Baray, Frédéric Tridon, Philippe Cacault, Hermine Billard, Guillaume Voyard, Joël Van Baelen, and Delphine Latour
Biogeosciences, 19, 5729–5749,Short summary
We present a study linking rain, meteorology, and mountain lake phytoplankton dynamics on the basis of a case study at Aydat (France) in September 2020. The air mass origin mainly influences the rain chemical composition, which depends on the type of rain, convective or stratiform. Our results also highlighted a non-negligible presence of photosynthetic cells in rainwater. The impact of the atmospheric forcing on the lake could play a key role in phytoplankton dynamics in the temperate zone.
Sarah A. Brown, John Paul Balmonte, Adrienne Hoarfrost, Sherif Ghobrial, and Carol Arnosti
Biogeosciences, 19, 5617–5631,Short summary
Bacteria use extracellular enzymes to cut large organic matter to sizes small enough for uptake. We compared the enzymatic response of surface, mid-water, and deep-ocean bacteria to complex natural substrates. Bacteria in surface and mid-depth waters produced a much wider range of enzymes than those in the deep ocean and may therefore consume a broader range of organic matter. The extent to which organic matter is recycled by bacteria depends in part on its residence time at different depths.
Aaron Ferderer, Zanna Chase, Fraser Kennedy, Kai G. Schulz, and Lennart T. Bach
Biogeosciences, 19, 5375–5399,Short summary
Ocean alkalinity enhancement has the capacity to remove vast quantities of carbon from the atmosphere, but its effect on marine ecosystems is largely unknown. We assessed the effect of increased alkalinity on a coastal phytoplankton community when seawater was equilibrated and not equilibrated with atmospheric CO2. We found that the phytoplankton community was moderately affected by increased alkalinity and equilibration with atmospheric CO2 had little influence on this effect.
Quentin Devresse, Kevin W. Becker, Arne Bendinger, Johannes Hahn, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 19, 5199–5219,Short summary
Eddies are ubiquitous in the ocean and alter physical, chemical, and biological processes. However, how they affect organic carbon production and consumption is largely unknown. Here we show how an eddy triggers a cascade effect on biomass production and metabolic activities of phyto- and bacterioplankton. Our results may contribute to the improvement of biogeochemical models used to estimate carbon fluxes in the ocean.
Sania Arif, Heiko Nacke, Elias Schliekmann, Andreas Reimer, Gernot Arp, and Michael Hoppert
Biogeosciences, 19, 4883–4902,Short summary
The natural enrichment of Chloroflexi (Ktedonobacteria) at the Kilianstollen Marsberg copper mine rocks being exposed to the acidic sulfate-rich leachate led to an investigation of eight metagenomically assembled genomes (MAGs) involved in copper and other transition heavy metal resistance in addition to low pH resistance and aromatic compounds degradation. The present study offers functional insights about a novel cold-adapted Ktedonobacteria MAG extremophily along with other phyla MAGs.
Chunmei Zhang, Huirong Li, Yinxin Zeng, Haitao Ding, Bin Wang, Yangjie Li, Zhongqiang Ji, Yonghong Bi, and Wei Luo
Biogeosciences, 19, 4639–4654,Short summary
The unique microbial eukaryotic community structure and lower diversity have been demonstrated in five freshwater lakes of the Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica. Stochastic processes and biotic co-occurrence patterns were shown to be important in shaping microbial eukaryotic communities in the area. Our study provides a better understanding of the dynamic patterns and ecological assembly processes of microbial eukaryotic communities in Antarctic oligotrophic lakes (Fildes Peninsula).
Juan Pablo Almeida, Nicholas P. Rosenstock, Susanne K. Woche, Georg Guggenberger, and Håkan Wallander
Biogeosciences, 19, 3713–3726,Short summary
Fungi living in symbiosis with tree roots can accumulate belowground, forming special tissues than can repel water. We measured the water repellency of organic material incubated belowground and correlated it with fungal growth. We found a positive association between water repellency and root symbiotic fungi. These results are important because an increase in soil water repellency can reduce the release of CO2 from soils into the atmosphere and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gasses.
Karen M. Brandenburg, Björn Rost, Dedmer B. Van de Waal, Mirja Hoins, and Appy Sluijs
Biogeosciences, 19, 3305–3315,Short summary
Reconstructions of past CO2 concentrations rely on proxy estimates, with one line of proxies relying on the CO2-dependence of stable carbon isotope fractionation in marine phytoplankton. Culturing experiments provide insights into which processes may impact this. We found, however, that the methods with which these culturing experiments are performed also influence 13C fractionation. Caution should therefore be taken when extrapolating results from these experiments to proxy applications.
Weilin Huang, Peter M. van Bodegom, Toni Viskari, Jari Liski, and Nadejda A. Soudzilovskaia
Biogeosciences, 19, 1469–1490,Short summary
This work focuses on one of the essential pathways of mycorrhizal impact on C cycles: the mediation of plant litter decomposition. We present a model based on litter chemical quality which precludes a conclusive examination of mycorrhizal impacts on soil C. It improves long-term decomposition predictions and advances our understanding of litter decomposition dynamics. It creates a benchmark in quantitatively examining the impacts of plant–microbe interactions on soil C dynamics.
Julie Dinasquet, Estelle Bigeard, Frédéric Gazeau, Farooq Azam, Cécile Guieu, Emilio Marañón, Céline Ridame, France Van Wambeke, Ingrid Obernosterer, and Anne-Claire Baudoux
Biogeosciences, 19, 1303–1319,Short summary
Saharan dust deposition of nutrients and trace metals is crucial to microbes in the Mediterranean Sea. Here, we tested the response of microbial and viral communities to simulated dust deposition under present and future conditions of temperature and pH. Overall, the effect of the deposition was dependent on the initial microbial assemblage, and future conditions will intensify microbial responses. We observed effects on trophic interactions, cascading all the way down to viral processes.
Ralf Conrad, Pengfei Liu, and Peter Claus
Biogeosciences, 18, 6533–6546,Short summary
Acetate is an important intermediate during the anaerobic degradation of organic matter. It is consumed by methanogenic and sulfidogenic microorganisms accompanied by stable carbon isotope fractionation. We determined isotope fractionation under different conditions in two paddy soils and two lake sediments and also determined the composition of the microbial communities. Despite a relatively wide range of experimental conditions, the range of fractionation factors was quite moderate.
Natalie R. Cohen, Abigail E. Noble, Dawn M. Moran, Matthew R. McIlvin, Tyler J. Goepfert, Nicholas J. Hawco, Christopher R. German, Tristan J. Horner, Carl H. Lamborg, John P. McCrow, Andrew E. Allen, and Mak A. Saito
Biogeosciences, 18, 5397–5422,Short summary
A previous study documented an intense hydrothermal plume in the South Pacific Ocean; however, the iron release associated with this plume and the impact on microbiology were unclear. We describe metal concentrations associated with multiple hydrothermal plumes in this region and protein signatures of plume-influenced microbes. Our findings demonstrate that resources released from these systems can be transported away from their source and may alter the physiology of surrounding microbes.
Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, Tarunendu Mapder, Svetlana Fernandes, Chayan Roy, Jagannath Sarkar, Moidu Jameela Rameez, Subhrangshu Mandal, Abhijit Sar, Amit Kumar Chakraborty, Nibendu Mondal, Sumit Chatterjee, Bomba Dam, Aditya Peketi, Ranadhir Chakraborty, Aninda Mazumdar, and Wriddhiman Ghosh
Biogeosciences, 18, 5203–5222,Short summary
Physicochemical determinants of microbiome architecture across continental shelves–slopes are unknown, so we explored the geomicrobiology along 3 m sediment horizons of seasonal (shallow coastal) and perennial (deep sea) hypoxic zones of the Arabian Sea. Nature, concentration, and fate of the organic matter delivered to the sea floor were found to shape the microbiome across the western Indian margin, under direct–indirect influence of sedimentation rate and water column O2 level.
Aditi Sengupta, Sarah J. Fansler, Rosalie K. Chu, Robert E. Danczak, Vanessa A. Garayburu-Caruso, Lupita Renteria, Hyun-Seob Song, Jason Toyoda, Jacqueline Hager, and James C. Stegen
Biogeosciences, 18, 4773–4789,Short summary
Conceptual models link microbes with the environment but are untested. We test a recent model using riverbed sediments. We exposed sediments to disturbances, going dry and becoming wet again. As the length of dry conditions got longer, there was a sudden shift in the ecology of microbes, chemistry of organic matter, and rates of microbial metabolism. We propose a new model based on feedbacks initiated by disturbance that cascade across biological, chemical, and functional aspects of the system.
Cora Hörstmann, Eric J. Raes, Pier Luigi Buttigieg, Claire Lo Monaco, Uwe John, and Anya M. Waite
Biogeosciences, 18, 3733–3749,Short summary
Microbes are the main drivers of productivity and nutrient cycling in the ocean. We present a combined approach assessing C and N uptake and microbial community diversity across ecological provinces in the Southern Ocean and southern Indian Ocean. Provinces showed distinct genetic fingerprints, but microbial activity varied gradually across regions, correlating with nutrient concentrations. Our study advances the biogeographic understanding of microbial diversity across C and N uptake regimes.
Nimrod Wieler, Tali Erickson Gini, Osnat Gillor, and Roey Angel
Biogeosciences, 18, 3331–3342,Short summary
Biological rock crusts (BRCs) are common microbial-based assemblages covering rocks in drylands. BRCs play a crucial role in arid environments because of the limited activity of plants and soil. Nevertheless, BRC development rates have never been dated. Here we integrated archaeological, microbiological and geological methods to provide a first estimation of the growth rate of BRCs under natural conditions. This can serve as an affordable dating tool in archaeological sites in arid regions.
Michal Elul, Maxim Rubin-Blum, Zeev Ronen, Itay Bar-Or, Werner Eckert, and Orit Sivan
Biogeosciences, 18, 2091–2106,
Mindaugas Zilius, Irma Vybernaite-Lubiene, Diana Vaiciute, Donata Overlingė, Evelina Grinienė, Anastasija Zaiko, Stefano Bonaglia, Iris Liskow, Maren Voss, Agneta Andersson, Sonia Brugel, Tobia Politi, and Paul A. Bukaveckas
Biogeosciences, 18, 1857–1871,Short summary
In fresh and brackish waters, algal blooms are often dominated by cyanobacteria, which have the ability to utilize atmospheric nitrogen. Cyanobacteria are also unusual in that they float to the surface and are dispersed by wind-driven currents. Their patchy and dynamic distribution makes it difficult to track their abundance and quantify their effects on nutrient cycling. We used remote sensing to map the distribution of cyanobacteria in a large Baltic lagoon and quantify their contributions.
Saly Jaber, Muriel Joly, Maxence Brissy, Martin Leremboure, Amina Khaled, Barbara Ervens, and Anne-Marie Delort
Biogeosciences, 18, 1067–1080,Short summary
Our study is of interest to atmospheric scientists and environmental microbiologists, as we show that clouds can be considered a medium where bacteria efficiently degrade and transform amino acids, in competition with chemical processes. As current atmospheric multiphase models are restricted to chemical degradation of organic compounds, our conclusions motivate further model development.
Kahina Djaoudi, France Van Wambeke, Aude Barani, Nagib Bhairy, Servanne Chevaillier, Karine Desboeufs, Sandra Nunige, Mohamed Labiadh, Thierry Henry des Tureaux, Dominique Lefèvre, Amel Nouara, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Marc Tedetti, and Elvira Pulido-Villena
Biogeosciences, 17, 6271–6285,
Romie Tignat-Perrier, Aurélien Dommergue, Alban Thollot, Olivier Magand, Timothy M. Vogel, and Catherine Larose
Biogeosciences, 17, 6081–6095,Short summary
The adverse atmospheric environmental conditions do not appear suited for microbial life. We conducted the first global comparative metagenomic analysis to find out if airborne microbial communities might be selected by their ability to resist these adverse conditions. The relatively higher concentration of fungi led to the observation of higher proportions of stress-related functions in air. Fungi might likely resist and survive atmospheric physical stress better than bacteria.
Yanhong Lu, Shunyan Cheung, Ling Chen, Shuh-Ji Kao, Xiaomin Xia, Jianping Gan, Minhan Dai, and Hongbin Liu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6017–6032,Short summary
Through a comprehensive investigation, we observed differential niche partitioning among diverse ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) sublineages in a typical subtropical estuary. Distinct AOA communities observed at DNA and RNA levels suggested that a strong divergence in ammonia-oxidizing activity among different AOA groups occurs. Our result highlights the importance of identifying major ammonia oxidizers at RNA level in future studies.
Anna-Neva Visser, Scott D. Wankel, Pascal A. Niklaus, James M. Byrne, Andreas A. Kappler, and Moritz F. Lehmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 4355–4374,Short summary
This study focuses on the chemical reaction between Fe(II) and nitrite, which has been reported to produce high levels of the greenhouse gas N2O. We investigated the extent to which dead biomass and Fe(II) minerals might enhance this reaction. Here, nitrite reduction was highest when both additives were present but less pronounced if only Fe(II) minerals were added. Both reaction systems show distinct differences, rather low N2O levels, and indicated the abiotic production of N2.
Lisa Tanet, Séverine Martini, Laurie Casalot, and Christian Tamburini
Biogeosciences, 17, 3757–3778,Short summary
Bioluminescent bacteria, the most abundant light-emitting organisms in the ocean, can be free-living, be symbiotic or colonize organic particles. This review suggests that they act as a visual target and may indirectly influence the sequestration of biogenic carbon in oceans by increasing the attraction rate for consumers. We summarize the instrumentation available to quantify this impact in future studies and propose synthetic figures integrating these ecological and biogeochemical concepts.
Michael Lintner, Bianca Biedrawa, Julia Wukovits, Wolfgang Wanek, and Petra Heinz
Biogeosciences, 17, 3723–3732,Short summary
Foraminifera are unicellular marine organisms that play an important role in the marine element cycle. Changes of environmental parameters such as salinity or temperature have a significant impact on the faunal assemblages. Our experiments show that changing salinity in the German Wadden Sea immediately influences the foraminiferal community. It seems that A. tepida is better adapted to salinity fluctuations than H. germanica.
Kathrin Busch, Ulrike Hanz, Furu Mienis, Benjamin Mueller, Andre Franke, Emyr Martyn Roberts, Hans Tore Rapp, and Ute Hentschel
Biogeosciences, 17, 3471–3486,Short summary
Seamounts are globally abundant submarine structures that offer great potential to study the impacts and interactions of environmental gradients at a single geographic location. In an exemplary way, we describe potential mechanisms by which a seamount can affect the structure of pelagic and benthic (sponge-)associated microbial communities. We conclude that the geology, physical oceanography, biogeochemistry, and microbiology of seamounts are even more closely linked than currently appreciated.
Alexander Bratek, Justus E. E. van Beusekom, Andreas Neumann, Tina Sanders, Jana Friedrich, Kay-Christian Emeis, and Kirstin Dähnke
Biogeosciences, 17, 2839–2851,Short summary
The following paper highlights the importance of benthic N-transformation rates in different sediment types in the southern North Sea as a source of fixed nitrogen for primary producers and also as a sink of fixed nitrogen. Sedimentary fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen support ∼7 to 59 % of the average annual primary production. Semi-permeable and permeable sediments contribute ∼68 % of the total benthic N2 production rates, counteracting eutrophication in the southern North Sea.
Sabine Haalboom, David M. Price, Furu Mienis, Judith D. L. van Bleijswijk, Henko C. de Stigter, Harry J. Witte, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Gerard C. A. Duineveld
Biogeosciences, 17, 2499–2519,Short summary
Mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal settings will lead to the formation of plumes of fine-grained, chemically reactive, suspended matter. Understanding how natural hydrothermal plumes evolve as they disperse from their source, and how they affect their surrounding environment, may help in characterising the behaviour of the diluted part of mining plumes. The natural plume provided a heterogeneous, geochemically enriched habitat conducive to the development of a distinct microbial ecology.
Noelle A. Held, Eric A. Webb, Matthew M. McIlvin, David A. Hutchins, Natalie R. Cohen, Dawn M. Moran, Korinna Kunde, Maeve C. Lohan, Claire Mahaffey, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, and Mak A. Saito
Biogeosciences, 17, 2537–2551,Short summary
Trichodesmium is a globally important marine nitrogen fixer that stimulates primary production in the surface ocean. We surveyed metaproteomes of Trichodesmium populations across the North Atlantic and other oceans, and we found that they experience simultaneous phosphate and iron stress because of the biophysical limits of nutrient uptake. Importantly, nitrogenase was most abundant during co-stress, indicating the potential importance of this phenotype to global nitrogen and carbon cycling.
Helmke Hepach, Claire Hughes, Karen Hogg, Susannah Collings, and Rosie Chance
Biogeosciences, 17, 2453–2471,Short summary
Tropospheric iodine takes part in numerous atmospheric chemical cycles, including tropospheric ozone destruction and aerosol formation. Due to its significance for atmospheric processes, it is crucial to constrain its sources and sinks. This paper aims at investigating and understanding features of biogenic iodate-to-iodide reduction in microalgal monocultures. We find that phytoplankton senescence may play a crucial role in the release of iodide to the marine environment.
Roger D. Finlay, Shahid Mahmood, Nicholas Rosenstock, Emile B. Bolou-Bi, Stephan J. Köhler, Zaenab Fahad, Anna Rosling, Håkan Wallander, Salim Belyazid, Kevin Bishop, and Bin Lian
Biogeosciences, 17, 1507–1533,Short summary
Effects of biological activity on mineral weathering operate at scales ranging from short-term, microscopic interactions to global, evolutionary timescale processes. Microorganisms have had well-documented effects at large spatio-temporal scales, but to establish the quantitative significance of microscopic measurements for field-scale processes, higher-resolution studies of liquid chemistry at local weathering sites and improved upscaling to soil-scale dissolution rates are still required.
Christine Rooks, James Kar-Hei Fang, Pål Tore Mørkved, Rui Zhao, Hans Tore Rapp, Joana R. Xavier, and Friederike Hoffmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 1231–1245,Short summary
Sponge grounds are known as nutrient sources, providing nitrate and ammonium to the ocean. We found that they also can do the opposite: in six species from Arctic and North Atlantic sponge grounds, we measured high rates of denitrification, which remove these nutrients from the sea. Rates were highest when the sponge tissue got low in oxygen, which happens when sponges stop pumping because of stress. Sponge grounds may become nutrient sinks when exposed to stress.
Cheng Li, Clare E. Reimers, and Yvan Alleau
Biogeosciences, 17, 597–607,Short summary
Novel filamentous cable bacteria that grow in the top layer of intertidal mudflat sediment were attracted to electrodes poised at a positive electrical potential. Several diverse morphologies of Desulfobulbaceae filaments, cells, and colonies were observed on the electrode surface. These observations provide information to suggest conditions that will induce cable bacteria to perform electron donation to an electrode, informing future experiments that culture cable bacteria outside of sediment.
Marie Maßmig, Jan Lüdke, Gerd Krahmann, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 17, 215–230,Short summary
Little is known about the rates of bacterial element cycling in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). We measured bacterial production and rates of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes at various in situ oxygen concentrations in the OMZ off Peru. Our field data show unhampered bacterial activity at low oxygen concentrations. Meanwhile bacterial degradation of organic matter substantially contributed to the formation of the OMZ.
Anna T. Kunert, Mira L. Pöhlker, Kai Tang, Carola S. Krevert, Carsten Wieder, Kai R. Speth, Linda E. Hanson, Cindy E. Morris, David G. Schmale III, Ulrich Pöschl, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Biogeosciences, 16, 4647–4659,Short summary
A screening of more than 100 strains from 65 different species revealed that the ice nucleation activity within the fungal genus Fusarium is more widespread than previously assumed. Filtration experiments suggest that the single cell-free Fusarium IN is smaller than 100 kDa (~ 6 nm) and that aggregates can be formed in solution. Exposure experiments, freeze–thaw cycles, and long-term storage tests demonstrate a high stability of Fusarium IN under atmospherically relevant conditions.
Qing Wang, Renbin Zhu, Yanling Zheng, Tao Bao, and Lijun Hou
Biogeosciences, 16, 4113–4128,Short summary
We investigated abundance, potential activity, and diversity of soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in five Antarctic tundra patches, including penguin colony, seal colony, and tundra marsh. We have found (1) sea animal colonization increased AOB population size.; (2) AOB contributed to ammonia oxidation rates more than AOA in sea animal colonies; (3) community structures of AOB and AOA were closely related to soil biogeochemical processes associated with animal activities.
Yalda Vasebi, Marco E. Mechan Llontop, Regina Hanlon, David G. Schmale III, Russell Schnell, and Boris A. Vinatzer
Biogeosciences, 16, 1675–1683,Short summary
Ice nucleation particles (INPs) help ice form at temperatures as high as −4 °C and contribute to the formation of precipitation. Leaf litter contains a high concentration of INPs, but the organisms that produce them are unknown. Here, we cultured two bacteria and one fungus from leaf litter that produce INPs similar to those found in leaf litter. This suggests that leaf litter may be an important habitat of these organisms and supports a role of these organisms as producers of atmospheric INPs.
Nimrod Wieler, Hanan Ginat, Osnat Gillor, and Roey Angel
Biogeosciences, 16, 1133–1145,Short summary
In stony deserts, when rocks are exposed to atmospheric conditions, they undergo weathering. The cavernous (honeycomb) weathering pattern is one of the most common, but it is still unclear exactly how it is formed. We show that microorganisms, which differ from the surrounding soil and dust, form biological crusts on exposed rock surfaces. These microbes secrete polymeric substances that mitigate weathering by reducing evaporation rates and, consequently, salt transport rates through the rock.
Yang Li, Zhaojun Wu, Xingchen Dong, Zifu Xu, Qixin Zhang, Haiyan Su, Zhongjun Jia, and Qingye Sun
Biogeosciences, 16, 573–583,Short summary
This paper contributes to the study of bacterial carbon sequestration in mine tailings. Previous studies focused on carbonate mineral precipitation, while the role of autotrophs in carbon sequestration has been neglected. Carbon sequestration in two mine tailings treated with FeS2 was analyzed using 13C isotope labeling, pyrosequencing, and DNA SIP to identify carbon fixers. This paper is the first to investigate carbon sequestration by autotrophic groups in mine tailings.
Dong-Hun Lee, Jung-Hyun Kim, Yung Mi Lee, Alina Stadnitskaia, Young Keun Jin, Helge Niemann, Young-Gyun Kim, and Kyung-Hoon Shin
Biogeosciences, 15, 7419–7433,Short summary
In this study, we provide first evidence of lipid biomarker patterns and phylogenetic identities of key microbes mediating anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) communities in active mud volcanoes (MVs) on the continental slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Our lipid and 16S rRNA results indicate that archaea of the ANME-2c and ANME-3 clades are involved in AOM in the MVs investigated.
Joshua F. Dean, Jurgen R. van Hal, A. Johannes Dolman, Rien Aerts, and James T. Weedon
Biogeosciences, 15, 7141–7154,Short summary
Lakes, rivers, ponds and streams are significant contributors of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. This is partly due to the decomposition of plant and soil organic matter transported through these aquatic systems by microbial communities. In determining how vulnerable this organic material is to decomposition during aquatic transport, we show that standardized treatments in experiments can affect the way microbial communities behave and potentially the experimental outcome.
Xi Wen, Viktoria Unger, Gerald Jurasinski, Franziska Koebsch, Fabian Horn, Gregor Rehder, Torsten Sachs, Dominik Zak, Gunnar Lischeid, Klaus-Holger Knorr, Michael E. Böttcher, Matthias Winkel, Paul L. E. Bodelier, and Susanne Liebner
Biogeosciences, 15, 6519–6536,Short summary
Rewetting drained peatlands may lead to prolonged emission of the greenhouse gas methane, but the underlying factors are not well described. In this study, we found two rewetted fens with known high methane fluxes had a high ratio of microbial methane producers to methane consumers and a low abundance of methane consumers compared to pristine wetlands. We therefore suggest abundances of methane-cycling microbes as potential indicators for prolonged high methane emissions in rewetted peatlands.
Kyle R. Frischkorn, Andreas Krupke, Cécile Guieu, Justine Louis, Mónica Rouco, Andrés E. Salazar Estrada, Benjamin A. S. Van Mooy, and Sonya T. Dyhrman
Biogeosciences, 15, 5761–5778,Short summary
Trichodesmium is a keystone genus of marine cyanobacteria that is estimated to supply nearly half of the ocean’s fixed nitrogen, fuelling primary productivity and the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean. In our study we characterize Trichodesmium ecology across the western tropical South Pacific using gene and genome sequencing and geochemistry. We detected genes for phosphorus reduction, providing a mechanism for the noted importance of this organism in the ocean's phosphorus cycle.
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Microbial ecosystems have been found in all subglacial environments sampled to date. Yet, little is known of the sources of energy and nutrients that sustain these microbial populations. This study shows that crushing of sedimentary rocks, which contain organic carbon, carbonate and sulfide minerals, along with previously weathered silicate minerals, produces a range of compounds and nutrients which can be utilised by the diverse suite of microbes that inhabit glacier beds.
Microbial ecosystems have been found in all subglacial environments sampled to date. Yet, little...