Articles | Volume 12, issue 15
Research article 06 Aug 2015
Research article | 06 Aug 2015
Intact polar lipids of Thaumarchaeota and anammox bacteria as indicators of N cycling in the eastern tropical North Pacific oxygen-deficient zone
M. Sollai et al.
Martina Sollai, Ellen C. Hopmans, Nicole J. Bale, Anchelique Mets, Lisa Warden, Matthias Moros, and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 14, 5789–5804,Short summary
The Baltic Sea is characterized by recurring summer phytoplankton blooms, dominated by a few cyanobacterial species. These bacteria are able to use dinitrogen gas as the source for nitrogen and produce very specific lipids. We analyzed these lipids in a sediment core to study their presence over the past 7000 years. This reveals that cyanobacterial blooms have not only occurred in the last decades but were common at times when the Baltic was connected to the North Sea.
Carolien M. H. van der Weijst, Koen J. van der Laan, Francien Peterse, Gert-Jan Reichart, Francesca Sangiorgi, Stefan Schouten, Tjerk J. T. Veenstra, and Appy Sluijs
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint under review for CPShort summary
The TEX86 proxy is often used by paleoceanographers to reconstruct past sea-surface temperatures. However, the origin of the TEX86 signal in marine sediments has been debated since the proxy was first proposed. In our paper, we show that TEX86 carries a mixed sea-surface and subsurface temperature signal, and should be calibrated accordingly. Using our 15 million year record, we subsequently show how a TEX86 subsurface temperature record can be used to inform us on past sea-surface temperatures.
Charlotte L. Spencer-Jones, Erin L. McClymont, Nicole J. Bale, Ellen C. Hopmans, Stefan Schouten, Juliane Müller, E. Povl Abrahamsen, Claire Allen, Torsten Bickert, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Elaine Mawbey, Victoria Peck, Aleksandra Svalova, and James A. Smith
Biogeosciences, 18, 3485–3504,Short summary
Long-term ocean temperature records are needed to fully understand the impact of West Antarctic Ice Sheet collapse. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are powerful tools for reconstructing ocean temperature but can be difficult to apply to the Southern Ocean. Our results show active GDGT synthesis in relatively warm depths of the ocean. This research improves the application of GDGT palaeoceanographic proxies in the Southern Ocean.
Cécile L. Blanchet, Rik Tjallingii, Anja M. Schleicher, Stefan Schouten, Martin Frank, and Achim Brauer
Clim. Past, 17, 1025–1050,Short summary
The Mediterranean Sea turned repeatedly into an oxygen-deprived basin during the geological past, as evidenced by distinct sediment layers called sapropels. We use here records of the last sapropel S1 retrieved in front of the Nile River to explore the relationships between riverine input and seawater oxygenation. We decipher the seasonal cycle of fluvial input and seawater chemistry as well as the decisive influence of primary productivity on deoxygenation at millennial timescales.
Nadine T. Smit, Laura Villanueva, Darci Rush, Fausto Grassa, Caitlyn R. Witkowski, Mira Holzheimer, Adriaan J. Minnaard, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 18, 1463–1479,Short summary
Soils from an everlasting fire (gas seep) in Sicily, Italy, reveal high relative abundances of novel uncultivated mycobacteria and unique 13C-depleted mycocerosic acids (multi-methyl branched fatty acids) close to the main gas seep. Our results imply that mycocerosic acids in combination with their depleted δ13C values offer a new biomarker tool to study the role of soil mycobacteria as hydrocarbon consumers in the modern and past global carbon cycle.
Appy Sluijs, Joost Frieling, Gordon N. Inglis, Klaas G. J. Nierop, Francien Peterse, Francesca Sangiorgi, and Stefan Schouten
Clim. Past, 16, 2381–2400,Short summary
We revisit 15-year-old reconstructions of sea surface temperatures in the Arctic Ocean for the late Paleocene and early Eocene epochs (∼ 57–53 million years ago) based on the distribution of fossil membrane lipids of archaea preserved in Arctic Ocean sediments. We find that improvements in the methods over the past 15 years do not lead to different results. However, data quality is now higher and potential biases better characterized. Results confirm remarkable Arctic warmth during this time.
Gabriella M. Weiss, David Chivall, Sebastian Kasper, Hideto Nakamura, Fiz da Costa, Philippe Soudant, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, Stefan Schouten, and Marcel T. J. van der Meer
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
In this study, we used four different haptophyte species and six different organic compounds to investigate the relationship between organic matter synthesis and salinity. We showed that creation in different parts of the cell (chloroplast versus cytosol) determined which compounds retain a correlation between their hydrogen isotopes and salinity. This is important for using hydrogen isotopes to reconstruct salinity in the geologic record.
Marijke W. de Bar, Jenny E. Ullgren, Robert C. Thunnell, Stuart G. Wakeham, Geert-Jan A. Brummer, Jan-Berend W. Stuut, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 16, 1705–1727,Short summary
We analyzed sediment traps from the Cariaco Basin, the tropical Atlantic and the Mozambique Channel to evaluate seasonal imprints in the concentrations and fluxes of long-chain diols (LDIs), in addition to the long-chain diol index proxy (sea surface temperature proxy) and the diol index (upwelling indicator). Despite significant degradation, LDI-derived temperatures were very similar for the sediment traps and seafloor sediments, and corresponded to annual mean sea surface temperatures.
Marijke W. de Bar, Dave J. Stolwijk, Jerry F. McManus, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Clim. Past, 14, 1783–1803,Short summary
We present a past sea surface temperature and paleoproductivity record over the last 150 000 years for ODP Site 1234 (Chilean margin). We tested the applicability of long-chain diol proxies for the reconstrucion of SST (LDI), past upwelling conditions (diol index), and nutrient concentrations (NDI). The LDI likely reflects past temperature changes, but the diol index and NDI are perhaps more indicative of Proboscia diatom productivity rather than upwelling and/or nutrient conditions.
Sergio Balzano, Julie Lattaud, Laura Villanueva, Sebastiaan W. Rampen, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Judith van Bleijswijk, Nicole Bale, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 15, 5951–5968,Short summary
We tried to identify the microbes which biosynthesize a class of lipids widespread in seawater, the long chain alkyl diols (LCDs). We could not find any microorganism likely involved in the production of LCDs. The amounts of LCDs found are too high to be produced by living organisms and are likely to be part of the refractory organic matter persisting for long periods in the water column.
Julian D. Hartman, Francesca Sangiorgi, Ariadna Salabarnada, Francien Peterse, Alexander J. P. Houben, Stefan Schouten, Henk Brinkhuis, Carlota Escutia, and Peter K. Bijl
Clim. Past, 14, 1275–1297,Short summary
We reconstructed sea surface temperatures for the Oligocene and Miocene periods (34–11 Ma) based on archaeal lipids from a site close to the Wilkes Land coast, Antarctica. Our record suggests generally warm to temperate surface waters: on average 17 °C. Based on the lithology, glacial and interglacial temperatures could be distinguished, showing an average 3 °C offset. The long-term temperature trend resembles the benthic δ18O stack, which may have implications for ice volume reconstructions.
Julie Lattaud, Frédérique Kirkels, Francien Peterse, Chantal V. Freymond, Timothy I. Eglinton, Jens Hefter, Gesine Mollenhauer, Sergio Balzano, Laura Villanueva, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, Ellen C. Hopmans, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 15, 4147–4161,Short summary
Long-chain diols (LCDs) are biomarkers that occur widespread in marine environments and also in lakes and rivers. In this study, we looked at the distribution of LCDs in three river systems (Godavari, Danube, and Rhine) in relation to season, precipitation, and temperature. We found out that the LCDs are likely being produced in calm areas of the river systems and that marine LCDs have a different distribution than riverine LCDs.
Ji-Hyung Park, Omme K. Nayna, Most S. Begum, Eliyan Chea, Jens Hartmann, Richard G. Keil, Sanjeev Kumar, Xixi Lu, Lishan Ran, Jeffrey E. Richey, Vedula V. S. S. Sarma, Shafi M. Tareq, Do Thi Xuan, and Ruihong Yu
Biogeosciences, 15, 3049–3069,Short summary
Human activities are drastically altering water and material flows in river systems across Asia. This review provides a conceptual framework for assessing the human impacts on Asian river C fluxes and an update on anthropogenic alterations of riverine C fluxes, focusing on the impacts of water pollution and river impoundments on CO2 outgassing from the rivers draining South, Southeast, and East Asian regions that account for the largest fraction of river discharge and C exports from Asia.
Nicole J. Bale, Tracy A. Villareal, Ellen C. Hopmans, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Marc Besseling, Denise Dorhout, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Biogeosciences, 15, 1229–1241,Short summary
Associations between diatoms and N-fixing cyanobacteria (diatom–diazotroph associations, DDAs) play an important role in the N cycle of the tropical North Atlantic. Heterocysts are the site of N fixation and contain unique glycolipids. We measured these glycolipids in the water column and surface sediment from the tropical North Atlantic. We found a significant correlation between the concentration of glycolipid and of DDAs, strengthening their application as biomarkers.
Martina Sollai, Ellen C. Hopmans, Nicole J. Bale, Anchelique Mets, Lisa Warden, Matthias Moros, and Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 14, 5789–5804,Short summary
The Baltic Sea is characterized by recurring summer phytoplankton blooms, dominated by a few cyanobacterial species. These bacteria are able to use dinitrogen gas as the source for nitrogen and produce very specific lipids. We analyzed these lipids in a sediment core to study their presence over the past 7000 years. This reveals that cyanobacterial blooms have not only occurred in the last decades but were common at times when the Baltic was connected to the North Sea.
Gabriella M. Weiss, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Stefan Schouten, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Marcel T. J. van der Meer
Biogeosciences, 14, 5693–5704,Short summary
Algal-derived compounds allow us to make assumptions about environmental conditions in the past. In order to better understand how organisms record environmental conditions, we grew microscopic marine algae at different light intensities, salinities, and alkalinities in a temperature-controlled environment. We determined how these environmental parameters affected specific algal-derived compounds, especially their relative deuterium content, which seems to be mainly affected by salinity.
Julie Lattaud, Denise Dorhout, Hartmut Schulz, Isla S. Castañeda, Enno Schefuß, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, and Stefan Schouten
Clim. Past, 13, 1049–1061,Short summary
The study of past sedimentary records from coastal margins allows us to reconstruct variations in terrestrial input into the marine realm and to gain insight into continental climatic variability. The study of two sediment cores close to river mouths allowed us to show the potential of long-chain diols as riverine input proxy.
Laura F. Korte, Geert-Jan A. Brummer, Michèlle van der Does, Catarina V. Guerreiro, Rick Hennekam, Johannes A. van Hateren, Dirk Jong, Chris I. Munday, Stefan Schouten, and Jan-Berend W. Stuut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6023–6040,Short summary
We collected Saharan dust at the Mauritanian coast as well as in the deep the North Atlantic Ocean, along a transect at 12 °N, using an array of moored sediment traps. We demonstrated that the lithogenic particles collected in the ocean are from the same source as dust collected on the African coast. With increasing distance from the source, lithogenic elements associated with clay minerals become more important relative to quartz which is settling out faster. Seasonality is prominent, but weak.
Sandra Mariam Heinzelmann, Nicole Jane Bale, Laura Villanueva, Danielle Sinke-Schoen, Catharina Johanna Maria Philippart, Jaap Smede Sinninghe Damsté, Stefan Schouten, and Marcel Teunis Jan van der Meer
Biogeosciences, 13, 5527–5539,Short summary
In order to understand microbial communities in the environment it is necessary to assess their metabolic potential. The hydrogen isotopic composition of fatty acids has been shown to be promising tool to study the general metabolism of microorganisms in pure culture. Here we showed that it is possible to study seasonal changes in the general metabolism of the whole community by studying the hydrogen isotopic composition of fatty acids.
Richard G. Keil, Jacquelyn A. Neibauer, Christina Biladeau, Kelsey van der Elst, and Allan H. Devol
Biogeosciences, 13, 2077–2092,Short summary
Drifting sediment traps were deployed in the oxygen-deficient waters of the Arabian Sea, where the sinking flux is less attenuated than in more oxic waters. Six mechanisms that might explain this "enhanced flux" were evaluated using literature and data. In the upper 500 m, evidence was found supporting an oxygen effect and/or changes in the efficiency of the microbial loop, including the addition of chemoautotrophic carbon to the sinking flux.
Douwe S. Maat, Nicole J. Bale, Ellen C. Hopmans, Jaap S. Sinninghe Damsté, Stefan Schouten, and Corina P. D. Brussaard
Biogeosciences, 13, 1667–1676,Short summary
This study shows that the phytoplankter Micromonas pusilla alters its lipid composition when the macronutrient phosphate is in low supply. This reduction in phospholipids is directly dependent on the strength of the limitation. Furthermore we show that, when M. pusilla is infected by viruses, lipid remodeling is lower. The study was carried out to investigate how phytoplankton and its viruses are affected by environmental factors and how this affects food web dynamics.
R. L. Sobrinho, M. C. Bernardes, G. Abril, J.-H. Kim, C. I Zell, J.-M. Mortillaro, T. Meziane, P. Moreira-Turcq, and J. S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 13, 467–482,Short summary
The principal objective of the present work is to quantify the fractions of the principal sources of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) in floodplain lakes of the central Amazon basin. The results indicate that the main source of SOM is not the riverine particulate material, as postulated by the literature, but the macrophytes and the forests.
M. Rodrigo-Gámiz, S. W. Rampen, H. de Haas, M. Baas, S. Schouten, and J. S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 12, 6573–6590,Short summary
This research reports a test of the applicability of three organic-derived temperature proxies (UK'37, TEX86 and LDI) at high latitudes around Iceland. A range of samples including suspended particular material (SPM), trapped descending particles and surface sediments were collected to test the different proxies in the water column and the sediment.The combination of three independent SST organic proxies provided important information about seasonality and differences in habitat depth.
C. Bottini, E. Erba, D. Tiraboschi, H. C. Jenkyns, S. Schouten, and J. S. Sinninghe Damsté
Clim. Past, 11, 383–402,
A. de Kluijver, P. L. Schoon, J. A. Downing, S. Schouten, and J. J. Middelburg
Biogeosciences, 11, 6265–6276,
C. Zell, J.-H. Kim, M. Balsinha, D. Dorhout, C. Fernandes, M. Baas, and J. S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 11, 5637–5655,
L. K. Buckles, J. W. H. Weijers, X.-M. Tran, S. Waldron, and J. S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 11, 5539–5563,
A. Sluijs, L. van Roij, G. J. Harrington, S. Schouten, J. A. Sessa, L. J. LeVay, G.-J. Reichart, and C. P. Slomp
Clim. Past, 10, 1421–1439,
C. López-Rodríguez, A. Stadnitskaia, G. J. De Lange, F. Martínez-Ruíz, M. Comas, and J. S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 11, 3187–3204,
S. Kasper, M. T. J. van der Meer, A. Mets, R. Zahn, J. S. Sinninghe Damsté, and S. Schouten
Clim. Past, 10, 251–260,
S. K. Lengger, Y. A. Lipsewers, H. de Haas, J. S. Sinninghe Damsté, and S. Schouten
Biogeosciences, 11, 201–216,
D. S. Maat, N. J. Bale, E. C. Hopmans, A.-C. Baudoux, J. S. Sinninghe Damsté, S. Schouten, and C. P. D. Brussaard
Biogeosciences, 11, 185–194,
N. J. Bale, L. Villanueva, E. C. Hopmans, S. Schouten, and J. S. Sinninghe Damsté
Biogeosciences, 10, 7195–7206,
J. Etourneau, L. G. Collins, V. Willmott, J.-H. Kim, L. Barbara, A. Leventer, S. Schouten, J. S. Sinninghe Damsté, A. Bianchini, V. Klein, X. Crosta, and G. Massé
Clim. Past, 9, 1431–1446,
B. Veuger, A. Pitcher, S. Schouten, J. S. Sinninghe Damsté, and J. J. Middelburg
Biogeosciences, 10, 1775–1785,
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Biogeosciences, 18, 3733–3749,Short summary
Microbes are the main drivers of productivity and nutrient cycling in the ocean. We present a combined approach assessing C and N uptake and microbial community diversity across ecological provinces in the Southern Ocean and southern Indian Ocean. Provinces showed distinct genetic fingerprints, but microbial activity varied gradually across regions, correlating with nutrient concentrations. Our study advances the biogeographic understanding of microbial diversity across C and N uptake regimes.
Nimrod Wieler, Tali Erickson Gini, Osnat Gillor, and Roey Angel
Biogeosciences, 18, 3331–3342,Short summary
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Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
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Biogeosciences, 18, 1857–1871,Short summary
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Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, Tarunendu Mapder, Svetlana Fernandes, Chayan Roy, Jagannath Sarkar, Moidu Jameela Rameez, Subhrangshu Mandal, Abhijit Sar, Amit Kumar Chakraborty, Nibendu Mondal, Sumit Chatterjee, Bomba Dam, Aditya Peketi, Ranadhir Chakraborty, Aninda Mazumdar, and Wriddhiman Ghosh
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
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Kahina Djaoudi, France Van Wambeke, Aude Barani, Nagib Bhairy, Servanne Chevaillier, Karine Desboeufs, Sandra Nunige, Mohamed Labiadh, Thierry Henry des Tureaux, Dominique Lefèvre, Amel Nouara, Christos Panagiotopoulos, Marc Tedetti, and Elvira Pulido-Villena
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Romie Tignat-Perrier, Aurélien Dommergue, Alban Thollot, Olivier Magand, Timothy M. Vogel, and Catherine Larose
Biogeosciences, 17, 6081–6095,Short summary
The adverse atmospheric environmental conditions do not appear suited for microbial life. We conducted the first global comparative metagenomic analysis to find out if airborne microbial communities might be selected by their ability to resist these adverse conditions. The relatively higher concentration of fungi led to the observation of higher proportions of stress-related functions in air. Fungi might likely resist and survive atmospheric physical stress better than bacteria.
Yanhong Lu, Shunyan Cheung, Ling Chen, Shuh-Ji Kao, Xiaomin Xia, Jianping Gan, Minhan Dai, and Hongbin Liu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6017–6032,Short summary
Through a comprehensive investigation, we observed differential niche partitioning among diverse ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) sublineages in a typical subtropical estuary. Distinct AOA communities observed at DNA and RNA levels suggested that a strong divergence in ammonia-oxidizing activity among different AOA groups occurs. Our result highlights the importance of identifying major ammonia oxidizers at RNA level in future studies.
Anna-Neva Visser, Scott D. Wankel, Pascal A. Niklaus, James M. Byrne, Andreas A. Kappler, and Moritz F. Lehmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 4355–4374,Short summary
This study focuses on the chemical reaction between Fe(II) and nitrite, which has been reported to produce high levels of the greenhouse gas N2O. We investigated the extent to which dead biomass and Fe(II) minerals might enhance this reaction. Here, nitrite reduction was highest when both additives were present but less pronounced if only Fe(II) minerals were added. Both reaction systems show distinct differences, rather low N2O levels, and indicated the abiotic production of N2.
Lisa Tanet, Séverine Martini, Laurie Casalot, and Christian Tamburini
Biogeosciences, 17, 3757–3778,Short summary
Bioluminescent bacteria, the most abundant light-emitting organisms in the ocean, can be free-living, be symbiotic or colonize organic particles. This review suggests that they act as a visual target and may indirectly influence the sequestration of biogenic carbon in oceans by increasing the attraction rate for consumers. We summarize the instrumentation available to quantify this impact in future studies and propose synthetic figures integrating these ecological and biogeochemical concepts.
Michael Lintner, Bianca Biedrawa, Julia Wukovits, Wolfgang Wanek, and Petra Heinz
Biogeosciences, 17, 3723–3732,Short summary
Foraminifera are unicellular marine organisms that play an important role in the marine element cycle. Changes of environmental parameters such as salinity or temperature have a significant impact on the faunal assemblages. Our experiments show that changing salinity in the German Wadden Sea immediately influences the foraminiferal community. It seems that A. tepida is better adapted to salinity fluctuations than H. germanica.
Kathrin Busch, Ulrike Hanz, Furu Mienis, Benjamin Mueller, Andre Franke, Emyr Martyn Roberts, Hans Tore Rapp, and Ute Hentschel
Biogeosciences, 17, 3471–3486,Short summary
Seamounts are globally abundant submarine structures that offer great potential to study the impacts and interactions of environmental gradients at a single geographic location. In an exemplary way, we describe potential mechanisms by which a seamount can affect the structure of pelagic and benthic (sponge-)associated microbial communities. We conclude that the geology, physical oceanography, biogeochemistry, and microbiology of seamounts are even more closely linked than currently appreciated.
Alexander Bratek, Justus E. E. van Beusekom, Andreas Neumann, Tina Sanders, Jana Friedrich, Kay-Christian Emeis, and Kirstin Dähnke
Biogeosciences, 17, 2839–2851,Short summary
The following paper highlights the importance of benthic N-transformation rates in different sediment types in the southern North Sea as a source of fixed nitrogen for primary producers and also as a sink of fixed nitrogen. Sedimentary fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen support ∼7 to 59 % of the average annual primary production. Semi-permeable and permeable sediments contribute ∼68 % of the total benthic N2 production rates, counteracting eutrophication in the southern North Sea.
Sabine Haalboom, David M. Price, Furu Mienis, Judith D. L. van Bleijswijk, Henko C. de Stigter, Harry J. Witte, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Gerard C. A. Duineveld
Biogeosciences, 17, 2499–2519,Short summary
Mineral mining in deep-sea hydrothermal settings will lead to the formation of plumes of fine-grained, chemically reactive, suspended matter. Understanding how natural hydrothermal plumes evolve as they disperse from their source, and how they affect their surrounding environment, may help in characterising the behaviour of the diluted part of mining plumes. The natural plume provided a heterogeneous, geochemically enriched habitat conducive to the development of a distinct microbial ecology.
Noelle A. Held, Eric A. Webb, Matthew M. McIlvin, David A. Hutchins, Natalie R. Cohen, Dawn M. Moran, Korinna Kunde, Maeve C. Lohan, Claire Mahaffey, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, and Mak A. Saito
Biogeosciences, 17, 2537–2551,Short summary
Trichodesmium is a globally important marine nitrogen fixer that stimulates primary production in the surface ocean. We surveyed metaproteomes of Trichodesmium populations across the North Atlantic and other oceans, and we found that they experience simultaneous phosphate and iron stress because of the biophysical limits of nutrient uptake. Importantly, nitrogenase was most abundant during co-stress, indicating the potential importance of this phenotype to global nitrogen and carbon cycling.
Helmke Hepach, Claire Hughes, Karen Hogg, Susannah Collings, and Rosie Chance
Biogeosciences, 17, 2453–2471,Short summary
Tropospheric iodine takes part in numerous atmospheric chemical cycles, including tropospheric ozone destruction and aerosol formation. Due to its significance for atmospheric processes, it is crucial to constrain its sources and sinks. This paper aims at investigating and understanding features of biogenic iodate-to-iodide reduction in microalgal monocultures. We find that phytoplankton senescence may play a crucial role in the release of iodide to the marine environment.
Roger D. Finlay, Shahid Mahmood, Nicholas Rosenstock, Emile B. Bolou-Bi, Stephan J. Köhler, Zaenab Fahad, Anna Rosling, Håkan Wallander, Salim Belyazid, Kevin Bishop, and Bin Lian
Biogeosciences, 17, 1507–1533,Short summary
Effects of biological activity on mineral weathering operate at scales ranging from short-term, microscopic interactions to global, evolutionary timescale processes. Microorganisms have had well-documented effects at large spatio-temporal scales, but to establish the quantitative significance of microscopic measurements for field-scale processes, higher-resolution studies of liquid chemistry at local weathering sites and improved upscaling to soil-scale dissolution rates are still required.
Christine Rooks, James Kar-Hei Fang, Pål Tore Mørkved, Rui Zhao, Hans Tore Rapp, Joana R. Xavier, and Friederike Hoffmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 1231–1245,Short summary
Sponge grounds are known as nutrient sources, providing nitrate and ammonium to the ocean. We found that they also can do the opposite: in six species from Arctic and North Atlantic sponge grounds, we measured high rates of denitrification, which remove these nutrients from the sea. Rates were highest when the sponge tissue got low in oxygen, which happens when sponges stop pumping because of stress. Sponge grounds may become nutrient sinks when exposed to stress.
Cheng Li, Clare E. Reimers, and Yvan Alleau
Biogeosciences, 17, 597–607,Short summary
Novel filamentous cable bacteria that grow in the top layer of intertidal mudflat sediment were attracted to electrodes poised at a positive electrical potential. Several diverse morphologies of Desulfobulbaceae filaments, cells, and colonies were observed on the electrode surface. These observations provide information to suggest conditions that will induce cable bacteria to perform electron donation to an electrode, informing future experiments that culture cable bacteria outside of sediment.
Marie Maßmig, Jan Lüdke, Gerd Krahmann, and Anja Engel
Biogeosciences, 17, 215–230,Short summary
Little is known about the rates of bacterial element cycling in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). We measured bacterial production and rates of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes at various in situ oxygen concentrations in the OMZ off Peru. Our field data show unhampered bacterial activity at low oxygen concentrations. Meanwhile bacterial degradation of organic matter substantially contributed to the formation of the OMZ.
Anna T. Kunert, Mira L. Pöhlker, Kai Tang, Carola S. Krevert, Carsten Wieder, Kai R. Speth, Linda E. Hanson, Cindy E. Morris, David G. Schmale III, Ulrich Pöschl, and Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky
Biogeosciences, 16, 4647–4659,Short summary
A screening of more than 100 strains from 65 different species revealed that the ice nucleation activity within the fungal genus Fusarium is more widespread than previously assumed. Filtration experiments suggest that the single cell-free Fusarium IN is smaller than 100 kDa (~ 6 nm) and that aggregates can be formed in solution. Exposure experiments, freeze–thaw cycles, and long-term storage tests demonstrate a high stability of Fusarium IN under atmospherically relevant conditions.
Qing Wang, Renbin Zhu, Yanling Zheng, Tao Bao, and Lijun Hou
Biogeosciences, 16, 4113–4128,Short summary
We investigated abundance, potential activity, and diversity of soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in five Antarctic tundra patches, including penguin colony, seal colony, and tundra marsh. We have found (1) sea animal colonization increased AOB population size.; (2) AOB contributed to ammonia oxidation rates more than AOA in sea animal colonies; (3) community structures of AOB and AOA were closely related to soil biogeochemical processes associated with animal activities.
Yalda Vasebi, Marco E. Mechan Llontop, Regina Hanlon, David G. Schmale III, Russell Schnell, and Boris A. Vinatzer
Biogeosciences, 16, 1675–1683,Short summary
Ice nucleation particles (INPs) help ice form at temperatures as high as −4 °C and contribute to the formation of precipitation. Leaf litter contains a high concentration of INPs, but the organisms that produce them are unknown. Here, we cultured two bacteria and one fungus from leaf litter that produce INPs similar to those found in leaf litter. This suggests that leaf litter may be an important habitat of these organisms and supports a role of these organisms as producers of atmospheric INPs.
Nimrod Wieler, Hanan Ginat, Osnat Gillor, and Roey Angel
Biogeosciences, 16, 1133–1145,Short summary
In stony deserts, when rocks are exposed to atmospheric conditions, they undergo weathering. The cavernous (honeycomb) weathering pattern is one of the most common, but it is still unclear exactly how it is formed. We show that microorganisms, which differ from the surrounding soil and dust, form biological crusts on exposed rock surfaces. These microbes secrete polymeric substances that mitigate weathering by reducing evaporation rates and, consequently, salt transport rates through the rock.
Yang Li, Zhaojun Wu, Xingchen Dong, Zifu Xu, Qixin Zhang, Haiyan Su, Zhongjun Jia, and Qingye Sun
Biogeosciences, 16, 573–583,Short summary
This paper contributes to the study of bacterial carbon sequestration in mine tailings. Previous studies focused on carbonate mineral precipitation, while the role of autotrophs in carbon sequestration has been neglected. Carbon sequestration in two mine tailings treated with FeS2 was analyzed using 13C isotope labeling, pyrosequencing, and DNA SIP to identify carbon fixers. This paper is the first to investigate carbon sequestration by autotrophic groups in mine tailings.
Dong-Hun Lee, Jung-Hyun Kim, Yung Mi Lee, Alina Stadnitskaia, Young Keun Jin, Helge Niemann, Young-Gyun Kim, and Kyung-Hoon Shin
Biogeosciences, 15, 7419–7433,Short summary
In this study, we provide first evidence of lipid biomarker patterns and phylogenetic identities of key microbes mediating anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) communities in active mud volcanoes (MVs) on the continental slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Our lipid and 16S rRNA results indicate that archaea of the ANME-2c and ANME-3 clades are involved in AOM in the MVs investigated.
Joshua F. Dean, Jurgen R. van Hal, A. Johannes Dolman, Rien Aerts, and James T. Weedon
Biogeosciences, 15, 7141–7154,Short summary
Lakes, rivers, ponds and streams are significant contributors of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. This is partly due to the decomposition of plant and soil organic matter transported through these aquatic systems by microbial communities. In determining how vulnerable this organic material is to decomposition during aquatic transport, we show that standardized treatments in experiments can affect the way microbial communities behave and potentially the experimental outcome.
Xi Wen, Viktoria Unger, Gerald Jurasinski, Franziska Koebsch, Fabian Horn, Gregor Rehder, Torsten Sachs, Dominik Zak, Gunnar Lischeid, Klaus-Holger Knorr, Michael E. Böttcher, Matthias Winkel, Paul L. E. Bodelier, and Susanne Liebner
Biogeosciences, 15, 6519–6536,Short summary
Rewetting drained peatlands may lead to prolonged emission of the greenhouse gas methane, but the underlying factors are not well described. In this study, we found two rewetted fens with known high methane fluxes had a high ratio of microbial methane producers to methane consumers and a low abundance of methane consumers compared to pristine wetlands. We therefore suggest abundances of methane-cycling microbes as potential indicators for prolonged high methane emissions in rewetted peatlands.
Kyle R. Frischkorn, Andreas Krupke, Cécile Guieu, Justine Louis, Mónica Rouco, Andrés E. Salazar Estrada, Benjamin A. S. Van Mooy, and Sonya T. Dyhrman
Biogeosciences, 15, 5761–5778,Short summary
Trichodesmium is a keystone genus of marine cyanobacteria that is estimated to supply nearly half of the ocean’s fixed nitrogen, fuelling primary productivity and the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in the ocean. In our study we characterize Trichodesmium ecology across the western tropical South Pacific using gene and genome sequencing and geochemistry. We detected genes for phosphorus reduction, providing a mechanism for the noted importance of this organism in the ocean's phosphorus cycle.
Audrey Lallement, Ludovic Besaury, Elise Tixier, Martine Sancelme, Pierre Amato, Virginie Vinatier, Isabelle Canet, Olga V. Polyakova, Viatcheslay B. Artaev, Albert T. Lebedev, Laurent Deguillaume, Gilles Mailhot, and Anne-Marie Delort
Biogeosciences, 15, 5733–5744,Short summary
The main objective of this work was to evaluate the potential degradation of phenol, a highly toxic pollutant, by cloud microorganisms. Phenol concentrations measured on five cloud samples collected at the PUY station in France were from 0.15 to 0.74 µg L−1. Metatranscriptomic analysis suggested that phenol could be biodegraded directly in clouds, likely by Gammaproteobacteria. A large screening showed that 93 % of 145 bacterial strains isolated from clouds were able to degrade phenol.
Sara J. Bender, Dawn M. Moran, Matthew R. McIlvin, Hong Zheng, John P. McCrow, Jonathan Badger, Giacomo R. DiTullio, Andrew E. Allen, and Mak A. Saito
Biogeosciences, 15, 4923–4942,Short summary
Phaeocystis antarctica is an important phytoplankter of the Antarctic coastal environment where it dominates the early season bloom after sea ice retreat. Iron nutrition was found to be an important factor that results in Phaeocystis colony formation and a large restructuring of the proteome, including changes associated with the flagellate to colonial transition and adaptive responses to iron scarcity. Analysis of Phaeocystis proteins from the Ross Sea revealed the presence of both cell types.
Sophie Bonnet, Mathieu Caffin, Hugo Berthelot, Olivier Grosso, Mar Benavides, Sandra Helias-Nunige, Cécile Guieu, Marcus Stenegren, and Rachel Ann Foster
Biogeosciences, 15, 4215–4232,
Dina Spungin, Natalia Belkin, Rachel A. Foster, Marcus Stenegren, Andrea Caputo, Mireille Pujo-Pay, Nathalie Leblond, Cécile Dupouy, Sophie Bonnet, and Ilana Berman-Frank
Biogeosciences, 15, 3893–3908,Short summary
The way marine organisms die can determine the fate of organic matter (OM) in the ocean. We investigated whether a form of auto-induced programmed cell death (PCD) influenced phytoplankton mortality and fate of OM. Our results from high biomass blooms of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium show evidence for PCD and high production of sticky carbon material termed transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) that facilitates cellular aggregation and enhances the vertical flux of OM to depth.
Christian Nyrop Albers, Magnus Kramshøj, and Riikka Rinnan
Biogeosciences, 15, 3591–3601,
Natasha A. Gafar and Kai G. Schulz
Biogeosciences, 15, 3541–3560,Short summary
Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica are the most prolific calcifying phytoplankton in today's oceans. We compare their sensitivity to combined anthropogenic stressors of temperature, light and CO2. For the future, we project a niche contraction for G. oceanica. Furthermore, there was good correlation of our new metric, the CaCO3 production potential, with satellite-derived concentrations in the modern ocean, indicating means of assessing overall coccolithophorid success in the future.
Marcus Stenegren, Andrea Caputo, Carlo Berg, Sophie Bonnet, and Rachel A. Foster
Biogeosciences, 15, 1559–1578,Short summary
We successfully performed quantitative PCR at sea. The qPCR data were procured within 3 h and used in decisions on further sampling on site. We designed and applied a new primer and probe set for quantifying the UCYN-A1 host and observed discrepancies between host and symbiont, which contradict previous studies. Lastly, we observed a clear vertical separation between a subsurface group (UCYN-A with hosts) and a surface group (remaining diazotrophs), mainly separated by temperature.
Emma J. Shelford and Curtis A. Suttle
Biogeosciences, 15, 809–819,Short summary
This work demonstrates that lysis by viruses facilitates the transfer of nitrogen to phytoplankton in the ocean, and thus viruses are key players in nitrogen cycling in the oceans and in maintaining oxygen production by marine primary producers.
Yuanyuan Feng, Michael Y. Roleda, Evelyn Armstrong, Cliff S. Law, Philip W. Boyd, and Catriona L. Hurd
Biogeosciences, 15, 581–595,Short summary
We conducted a series of incubation experiments to understand how the changes in five environmental drivers will affect the elemental composition of the calcifying phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi. These findings provide new diagnostic information to aid our understanding of how the physiology and the related marine biogeochemistry of the ecologically important species Emiliania huxleyi will respond to changes in different environmental drivers in the global climate change scenario.
Aileen Meier, Anne Kastner, Dennis Harries, Maria Wierzbicka-Wieczorek, Juraj Majzlan, Georg Büchel, and Erika Kothe
Biogeosciences, 14, 4867–4878,Short summary
Biomineralization of (magnesium) calcite and vaterite by bacterial isolates was observed using isolates from limestone associated groundwater, rock and soil. More than 92 % of isolates could form carbonates with different crystal macromorphologies. Using different conditions like varying temperature, pH or media components but also cocultivation to test for collaborative effects of sympatric bacteria, mechanisms of calcium carbonate formation were studied.
Chuang Zhang, Xin-Yu Zhang, Hong-Tao Zou, Liang Kou, Yang Yang, Xue-Fa Wen, Sheng-Gong Li, Hui-Min Wang, and Xiao-Min Sun
Biogeosciences, 14, 4815–4827,Short summary
Ammonium additions had stronger inhibition effects on soil microbial biomass of different communities than nitrate addition. However, inhibition effects of nitrate additions on P hydrolase were stronger than ammonium additions, but not on C- and N-hydrolase and oxidase. Ammonium additions decreased N-acquisition specific enzyme activities normalized by total microbial biomass, but increased P-acquisition specific enzyme activities. Different effects on soil pH may explain the different effects.
Xiaoni Cai, David A. Hutchins, Feixue Fu, and Kunshan Gao
Biogeosciences, 14, 4455–4466,Short summary
Trichodesmium is significant marine N2 fixer. We conducted short- and long-term UV exposure experiment to investigate how UV affects this organism. Our results showed N2 fixation and carbon fixation rates were significantly reduced under UV radiation. As a defense strategy, Trichodesmium is able to synthesize UV-absorbing compounds to protect from UV damage. Our results suggest that shipboard experiments in UV-opaque containers may have substantially overestimated in situ N2 fixation rate.
Amy E. Goldman, Emily B. Graham, Alex R. Crump, David W. Kennedy, Elvira B. Romero, Carolyn G. Anderson, Karl L. Dana, Charles T. Resch, Jim K. Fredrickson, and James C. Stegen
Biogeosciences, 14, 4229–4241,Short summary
The history of river inundation influences shoreline sediment biogeochemical cycling and microbial dynamics. Sediment exhibited a binary respiration response to rewetting, in which respiration from less recently saturated sediment was suppressed relative to more recently saturated sediment, likely due to inhibition of fungal metabolic activity. River shorelines should likely be integrated as a distinct environment into hydrobiogeochemical models to predict watershed biogeochemical function.
Katharine J. Crawfurd, Santiago Alvarez-Fernandez, Kristina D. A. Mojica, Ulf Riebesell, and Corina P. D. Brussaard
Biogeosciences, 14, 3831–3849,Short summary
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is increasing in the atmosphere and oceans. To simulate future conditions we manipulated CO2 concentrations of natural Baltic seawater in 55 m3 bags in situ. We saw increased growth rates and abundances of the smallest-sized eukaryotic phytoplankton and reduced abundances of other phytoplankton with increased CO2. Viral and bacterial abundances were also affected. This would lead to more carbon recycling in the surface water and affect marine food webs and the carbon cycle.
Laurine D. W. Burdorf, Anton Tramper, Dorina Seitaj, Lorenz Meire, Silvia Hidalgo-Martinez, Eva-Maria Zetsche, Henricus T. S. Boschker, and Filip J. R. Meysman
Biogeosciences, 14, 683–701,Short summary
Recently, long filamentous bacteria have been reported to conduct electrons over centimetre distances in marine sediments. These so-called cable bacteria have an
electricity-based metabolism, effectively turning the seafloor into a natural battery. In this study we demonstrate a global occurrence of these cable bacteria in marine sediments, spanning a large range of climate zones (off Greenland, the USA, Australia, the Netherlands) and a large range of coastal habitats.
Yuyin Yang, Ningning Li, Wei Wang, Bingxin Li, Shuguang Xie, and Yong Liu
Biogeosciences, 14, 341–351,Short summary
The present study investigated the vertical profiles of sediment methanogenic potential and communities in two plateau freshwater lakes. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the major methane production pathway in the freshwater lakes. Lake trophic status was found to influence sediment methanogen community and activity. This work could provide some new insights into methane production in freshwater sediment ecosystem.
Joanna E. Sawicka and Volker Brüchert
Biogeosciences, 14, 325–339,Short summary
The biogeochemistry of methane was studied in high-latitude fjord-type estuarine sediment in the Baltic Sea from April 2012 to April 2013. A large variability in methane-producing and methane-oxidizing processes was observed over the year. Oxygen was the most important regulator for the methane flux. In addition to eutrophication effects, free gas movement is suggested as a factor controlling methane concentrations.
Thomas Hornick, Lennart T. Bach, Katharine J. Crawfurd, Kristian Spilling, Eric P. Achterberg, Jason N. Woodhouse, Kai G. Schulz, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Ulf Riebesell, and Hans-Peter Grossart
Biogeosciences, 14, 1–15,
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The distribution of Thaumarchaeota and anammox bacteria in the water column of the eastern tropical North Pacific (ETNP) oxygen-deficient zone (ODZ) was investigated by collecting suspended particulate matter (SPM) and analyzing it for the content of specific intact polar lipids (IPLs) produced by the two microbial groups. We found a clear niche segregation in the distribution of the two groups in the coastal waters of the ETNP but a partial overlap of their niches in the open-water setting.
The distribution of Thaumarchaeota and anammox bacteria in the water column of the eastern...