Articles | Volume 16, issue 6
Research article 28 Mar 2019
Research article | 28 Mar 2019
Distribution of Fe isotopes in particles and colloids in the salinity gradient along the Lena River plume, Laptev Sea
Sarah Conrad et al.
No articles found.
Jannik Martens, Evgeny Romankevich, Igor Semiletov, Birgit Wild, Bart van Dongen, Jorien Vonk, Tommaso Tesi, Natalia Shakhova, Oleg V. Dudarev, Denis Kosmach, Alexander Vetrov, Leopold Lobkovsky, Nikolay Belyaev, Robie W. Macdonald, Anna J. Pieńkowski, Timothy I. Eglinton, Negar Haghipour, Salve Dahle, Michael L. Carroll, Emmelie K. L. Åström, Jacqueline M. Grebmeier, Lee W. Cooper, Göran Possnert, and Örjan Gustafsson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2561–2572,Short summary
The paper describes the establishment, structure and current status of the first Circum-Arctic Sediment CArbon DatabasE (CASCADE), which is a scientific effort to harmonize and curate all published and unpublished data of carbon, nitrogen, carbon isotopes, and terrigenous biomarkers in sediments of the Arctic Ocean in one database. CASCADE will enable a variety of studies of the Arctic carbon cycle and thus contribute to a better understanding of how climate change affects the Arctic.
Jaclyn Clement Kinney, Karen M. Assmann, Wieslaw Maslowski, Göran Björk, Martin Jakobsson, Sara Jutterström, Younjoo J. Lee, Robert Osinski, Igor Semiletov, Adam Ulfsbo, Irene Wåhlström, and Leif G. Anderson
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for OSShort summary
We use data crossing Herald Canyon in the Chukchi Sea collected in 2008 and 2014 together with numerical modeling to investigate the circulation in the western Chukchi Sea. A large fraction of water from the Chukchi Sea enters the East Siberian Sea south of Wrangel Island and circulates in an anticyclonic direction around the island. To assess the differences between years, we use numerical modelling results, which show that high frequency variability dominates the flow in Herald Canyon.
Alexander Osadchiev, Igor Medvedev, Sergey Shchuka, Mikhail Kulikov, Eduard Spivak, Maria Pisareva, and Igor Semiletov
Ocean Sci., 16, 781–798,Short summary
The Yenisei and Khatanga rivers are among the largest estuarine rivers that inflow to the Arctic Ocean. Discharge of the Yenisei River is 1 order of magnitude larger than that of the Khatanga River. However, spatial scales of buoyant plumes formed by freshwater runoff from the Yenisei and Khatanga gulfs are similar. This feature is caused by intense tidal mixing in the Khatanga Gulf, which causes formation of the diluted and therefore anomalously deep and large Khatanga plume.
Francesco Muschitiello, Matt O'Regan, Jannik Martens, Gabriel West, Örjan Gustafsson, and Martin Jakobsson
Geochronology, 2, 81–91,Short summary
In this study we present a new marine chronology of the last ~30 000 years for a sediment core retrieved from the central Arctic Ocean. Our new chronology reveals substantially faster sedimentation rates during the end of the last glacial cycle, the Last Glacial Maximum, and deglaciation than previously reported, thus implying a substantial re-interpretation of paleoceanographic reconstructions from this sector of the Arctic Ocean.
Birgit Wild, Natalia Shakhova, Oleg Dudarev, Alexey Ruban, Denis Kosmach, Vladimir Tumskoy, Tommaso Tesi, Hanna Joß, Helena Alexanderson, Martin Jakobsson, Alexey Mazurov, Igor Semiletov, and Örjan Gustafsson
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The thaw and degradation of subsea permafrost on the Arctic Ocean shelves is one of the key uncertainties concerning natural greenhouse gas emissions since difficult access limits the availability of observational data. In this study, we describe sediment properties and age constraints of a unique set of three subsea permafrost cores from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf, as well as content, origin and degradation state of organic matter at the current thaw front.
Robert B. Sparkes, Melissa Maher, Jerome Blewett, Ayça Doğrul Selver, Örjan Gustafsson, Igor P. Semiletov, and Bart E. van Dongen
The Cryosphere, 12, 3293–3309,Short summary
Ongoing climate change in the Siberian Arctic region has the potential to release large amounts of carbon, currently stored in permafrost, to the Arctic Shelf. Degradation can release this to the atmosphere as greenhouse gas. We used Raman spectroscopy to analyse a fraction of this carbon, carbonaceous material, a group that includes coal, lignite and graphite. We were able to trace this carbon from the river mouths and coastal erosion sites across the Arctic shelf for hundreds of kilometres.
Svetlana P. Pugach, Irina I. Pipko, Natalia E. Shakhova, Evgeny A. Shirshin, Irina V. Perminova, Örjan Gustafsson, Valery G. Bondur, Alexey S. Ruban, and Igor P. Semiletov
Ocean Sci., 14, 87–103,Short summary
This paper explores the possibility of using CDOM and its spectral parameters to identify the different biogeochemical regimes on the ESAS. The strong correlation between DOC and CDOM values in the surface shelf waters influenced by terrigenous discharge indicates that it is feasible to estimate DOC content from CDOM fluorescence assessed in situ. The direct estimation of DOM optical parameters in the surface ESAS waters provided by this study will be useful for validating remote sensing data.
Volker Brüchert, Lisa Bröder, Joanna E. Sawicka, Tommaso Tesi, Samantha P. Joye, Xiaole Sun, Igor P. Semiletov, and Vladimir A. Samarkin
Biogeosciences, 15, 471–490,Short summary
We determined the aerobic and anaerobic degradation rates of land- and marine-derived organic material in East Siberian shelf sediment. Marine plankton-derived organic carbon was the main source for the oxic dissolved carbon dioxide production, whereas terrestrial organic material significantly contributed to the production of carbon dioxide under anoxic conditions. Our direct degradation rate measurements provide new constraints for the present-day Arctic marine carbon budget.
Irina I. Pipko, Svetlana P. Pugach, Igor P. Semiletov, Leif G. Anderson, Natalia E. Shakhova, Örjan Gustafsson, Irina A. Repina, Eduard A. Spivak, Alexander N. Charkin, Anatoly N. Salyuk, Kseniia P. Shcherbakova, Elena V. Panova, and Oleg V. Dudarev
Ocean Sci., 13, 997–1016,Short summary
The study of the outer shelf and the continental slope waters of the Eurasian Arctic seas has revealed a general trend in the surface pCO2 distribution, which manifested as an increase in pCO2 values eastward. It has been shown that the influence of terrestrial discharge on the carbonate system of East Siberian Arctic sea surface waters is not limited to the shallow shelf and that contemporary climate change impacts the carbon cycle of the Eurasian Arctic Ocean and influences air–sea CO2 flux.
Alexander N. Charkin, Michiel Rutgers van der Loeff, Natalia E. Shakhova, Örjan Gustafsson, Oleg V. Dudarev, Maxim S. Cherepnev, Anatoly N. Salyuk, Andrey V. Koshurnikov, Eduard A. Spivak, Alexey Y. Gunar, Alexey S. Ruban, and Igor P. Semiletov
The Cryosphere, 11, 2305–2327,Short summary
This study tests the hypothesis that SGD exists in the Siberian Arctic shelf seas, but its dynamics may be largely controlled by complicated geocryological conditions such as permafrost. The permafrost cements rocks, forms a confining bed, and as a result makes it difficult for the groundwater escape to the shelf surface. However, the discovery of subterranean outcrops of groundwater springs in the Buor-Khaya Gulf are clear evidence that a groundwater flow system exists in the environment.
Matt O'Regan, Jan Backman, Natalia Barrientos, Thomas M. Cronin, Laura Gemery, Nina Kirchner, Larry A. Mayer, Johan Nilsson, Riko Noormets, Christof Pearce, Igor Semiletov, Christian Stranne, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1269–1284,Short summary
Past glacial activity on the East Siberian continental margin is poorly known, partly due to the lack of geomorphological evidence. Here we present geophysical mapping and sediment coring data from the East Siberian shelf and slope revealing the presence of a glacially excavated cross-shelf trough reaching to the continental shelf edge north of the De Long Islands. The data provide direct evidence for extensive glacial activity on the Siberian shelf that predates the Last Glacial Maximum.
Kirsi Keskitalo, Tommaso Tesi, Lisa Bröder, August Andersson, Christof Pearce, Martin Sköld, Igor P. Semiletov, Oleg V. Dudarev, and Örjan Gustafsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1213–1226,Short summary
In this study we investigate land-to-ocean transfer and the fate of permafrost carbon in the East Siberian Sea from the early Holocene until the present day. Our results suggest that there was a high input of terrestrial organic carbon to the East Siberian Sea during the last glacial–interglacial period caused by permafrost destabilisation. This material was mainly characterised as relict Pleistocene permafrost deposited via coastal erosion as a result of the sea level rise.
Tommaso Tesi, Marc C. Geibel, Christof Pearce, Elena Panova, Jorien E. Vonk, Emma Karlsson, Joan A. Salvado, Martin Kruså, Lisa Bröder, Christoph Humborg, Igor Semiletov, and Örjan Gustafsson
Ocean Sci., 13, 735–748,Short summary
Recent Arctic studies suggest that sea-ice decline and permafrost thawing will affect the phytoplankton in the Arctic Ocean. However, in what way the plankton composition will change as the warming proceeds remains elusive. Here we show that the carbon composition of plankton might change as a function of the enhanced terrestrial organic carbon supply and progressive sea-ice thawing.
Thomas M. Cronin, Matt O'Regan, Christof Pearce, Laura Gemery, Michael Toomey, Igor Semiletov, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 1097–1110,Short summary
Global sea level rise during the last deglacial flooded the Siberian continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean. Sediment cores, radiocarbon dating, and microfossils show that the regional sea level in the Arctic rose rapidly from about 12 500 to 10 700 years ago. Regional sea level history on the Siberian shelf differs from the global deglacial sea level rise perhaps due to regional vertical adjustment resulting from the growth and decay of ice sheets.
Jorien E. Vonk, Tommaso Tesi, Lisa Bröder, Henry Holmstrand, Gustaf Hugelius, August Andersson, Oleg Dudarev, Igor Semiletov, and Örjan Gustafsson
The Cryosphere, 11, 1879–1895,
Martin Jakobsson, Christof Pearce, Thomas M. Cronin, Jan Backman, Leif G. Anderson, Natalia Barrientos, Göran Björk, Helen Coxall, Agatha de Boer, Larry A. Mayer, Carl-Magnus Mörth, Johan Nilsson, Jayne E. Rattray, Christian Stranne, Igor Semiletov, and Matt O'Regan
Clim. Past, 13, 991–1005,Short summary
The Arctic and Pacific oceans are connected by the presently ~53 m deep Bering Strait. During the last glacial period when the sea level was lower than today, the Bering Strait was exposed. Humans and animals could then migrate between Asia and North America across the formed land bridge. From analyses of sediment cores and geophysical mapping data from Herald Canyon north of the Bering Strait, we show that the land bridge was flooded about 11 000 years ago.
Ira Leifer, Denis Chernykh, Natalia Shakhova, and Igor Semiletov
The Cryosphere, 11, 1333–1350,Short summary
Vast Arctic methane deposits may alter global climate and require remote sensing (RS) to map. Sonar has great promise, but quantitative inversion based on theory is challenged by multiple bubble acoustical scattering in plumes. We demonstrate use of a real-world in situ bubble plume calibration using a bubble model to correct for differences in the calibration and seep plumes. Spatial seep sonar maps were then used to improve understanding of subsurface geologic controls.
Célia J. Sapart, Natalia Shakhova, Igor Semiletov, Joachim Jansen, Sönke Szidat, Denis Kosmach, Oleg Dudarev, Carina van der Veen, Matthias Egger, Valentine Sergienko, Anatoly Salyuk, Vladimir Tumskoy, Jean-Louis Tison, and Thomas Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 14, 2283–2292,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean, especially the Siberian shelves, overlays large areas of subsea permafrost that is degrading. We show that methane with a biogenic origin is emitted from this permafrost. At locations where bubble plumes have been observed, methane can escape oxidation in the surface sediment and rapidly migrate through the very shallow water column of this region to escape to the atmosphere, generating a positive radiative feedback.
Leif G. Anderson, Göran Björk, Ola Holby, Sara Jutterström, Carl Magnus Mörth, Matt O'Regan, Christof Pearce, Igor Semiletov, Christian Stranne, Tim Stöven, Toste Tanhua, Adam Ulfsbo, and Martin Jakobsson
Ocean Sci., 13, 349–363,Short summary
We use data collected in 2014 to show that the outflow of nutrient-rich water occurs much further to the west than has been reported in the past. We suggest that this is due to much less summer sea-ice coverage in the northwestern East Siberian Sea than in the past decades. Further, our data support a more complicated flow pattern in the region where the Mendeleev Ridge reaches the shelf compared to the general cyclonic circulation within the individual basins as suggested historically.
Leif G. Anderson, Jörgen Ek, Ylva Ericson, Christoph Humborg, Igor Semiletov, Marcus Sundbom, and Adam Ulfsbo
Biogeosciences, 14, 1811–1823,Short summary
Waters with very high p>CO2, nutrients and low oxygen concentrations were observed along the continental margin of the East Siberian Sea and well out into the deep Makarov and Canada basins during the SWERUS-C3 expedition in 2014. This water had a low saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate, down to less than 0.8 for calcite and 0.5 for aragonite, and is traced in historic data to the Canada Basin and in the waters flowing out of the Arctic Ocean in the western Fram Strait.
Christof Pearce, Aron Varhelyi, Stefan Wastegård, Francesco Muschitiello, Natalia Barrientos, Matt O'Regan, Thomas M. Cronin, Laura Gemery, Igor Semiletov, Jan Backman, and Martin Jakobsson
Clim. Past, 13, 303–316,Short summary
The eruption of the Alaskan Aniakchak volcano of 3.6 thousand years ago was one of the largest Holocene eruptions worldwide. The resulting ash is found in several Alaskan sites and as far as Newfoundland and Greenland. In this study, we found ash from the Aniakchak eruption in a marine sediment core from the western Chukchi Sea in the Arctic Ocean. Combined with radiocarbon dates on mollusks, the volcanic age marker is used to calculate the marine radiocarbon reservoir age at that time.
Erik Gustafsson, Christoph Humborg, Göran Björk, Christian Stranne, Leif G. Anderson, Marc C. Geibel, Carl-Magnus Mörth, Marcus Sundbom, Igor P. Semiletov, Brett F. Thornton, and Bo G. Gustafsson
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
In this study we quantify key carbon cycling processes on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. A specific aim is to determine the pathways of terrestrial organic carbon (OC) supplied by rivers and coastline erosion – and particularly to what extent degradation of terrestrial OC contributes to air-sea CO2 exchange. We estimate that the shelf is a weak CO2 sink, although this sink is considerably reduced mainly by degradation of eroded OC and to a lesser extent by degradation of riverine OC.
Joan A. Salvadó, Tommaso Tesi, Marcus Sundbom, Emma Karlsson, Martin Kruså, Igor P. Semiletov, Elena Panova, and Örjan Gustafsson
Biogeosciences, 13, 6121–6138,Short summary
Fluvial discharge and coastal erosion of the permafrost-dominated East Siberian Arctic delivers large quantities of terrigenous organic carbon (Terr-OC) to marine waters. We assessed its fate and composition in different marine pools with a suite of biomarkers. The dissolved organic carbon is transporting off-shelf “young” and fresh vascular plant material, while sedimentary and near-bottom particulate organic carbon preferentially carries old organic carbon released from thawing permafrost.
Robert B. Sparkes, Ayça Doğrul Selver, Örjan Gustafsson, Igor P. Semiletov, Negar Haghipour, Lukas Wacker, Timothy I. Eglinton, Helen M. Talbot, and Bart E. van Dongen
The Cryosphere, 10, 2485–2500,Short summary
The permafrost in eastern Siberia contains large amounts of carbon frozen in soils and sediments. Continuing global warming is thawing the permafrost and releasing carbon to the Arctic Ocean. We used pyrolysis-GCMS, a chemical fingerprinting technique, to study the types of carbon being deposited on the continental shelf. We found large amounts of permafrost-sourced carbon being deposited up to 200 km offshore.
Lisa Bröder, Tommaso Tesi, Joan A. Salvadó, Igor P. Semiletov, Oleg V. Dudarev, and Örjan Gustafsson
Biogeosciences, 13, 5003–5019,Short summary
Thawing permafrost may release large amounts of terrestrial organic carbon (TerrOC) to the Arctic Ocean. We assessed its fate in the marine environment with a suite of biomarkers. Across the Laptev Sea their concentrations in surface sediments decreased significantly and showed a trend to qualitatively more degraded TerrOC with increasing water depth. We infer that the degree of degradation of TerrOC is a function of the time spent under oxic conditions during protracted cross-shelf transport.
Juliane Bischoff, Robert B. Sparkes, Ayça Doğrul Selver, Robert G. M. Spencer, Örjan Gustafsson, Igor P. Semiletov, Oleg V. Dudarev, Dirk Wagner, Elizaveta Rivkina, Bart E. van Dongen, and Helen M. Talbot
Biogeosciences, 13, 4899–4914,Short summary
The Arctic contains a large pool of carbon that is vulnerable to warming and can be released by rivers and coastal erosion. We study microbial lipids (BHPs) in permafrost and shelf sediments to trace the source, transport and fate of this carbon. BHPs in permafrost deposits are released to the shelf by rivers and coastal erosion, in contrast to other microbial lipids (GDGTs) that are transported by rivers. Several further analyses are needed to understand the complex East Siberian Shelf system.
X. Feng, Ö. Gustafsson, R. M. Holmes, J. E. Vonk, B. E. van Dongen, I. P. Semiletov, O. V. Dudarev, M. B. Yunker, R. W. Macdonald, D. B. Montluçon, and T. I. Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 12, 4841–4860,Short summary
Currently very few studies have examined the distribution and fate of hydrolyzable organic carbon (OC) in Arctic sediments, whose fate remains unclear in the context of climate change. Our study focuses on the source, distribution and fate of hydrolyzable OC as compared with plant wax lipids and lignin phenols in the sedimentary particles of nine Arctic and sub-Arctic rivers. This multi-molecular approach allows for a comprehensive investigation of terrestrial OC transfer via Arctic rivers.
R. B. Sparkes, A. Doğrul Selver, J. Bischoff, H. M. Talbot, Ö. Gustafsson, I. P. Semiletov, O. V. Dudarev, and B. E. van Dongen
Biogeosciences, 12, 3753–3768,Short summary
Siberian permafrost contains large amounts of organic carbon that may be released by climate warming. We collected and analysed samples from the East Siberian Sea, using GDGT biomarkers to trace the sourcing and deposition of organic carbon across the shelf. We show that branched GDGTs may be used to trace river erosion. Results from modelling show that organic carbon on the shelf is a complex process involving river-derived and coastal-derived material as well as marine carbon production.
E. N. Kirillova, A. Andersson, J. Han, M. Lee, and Ö. Gustafsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1413–1422,
I. P. Semiletov, N. E. Shakhova, I. I. Pipko, S. P. Pugach, A. N. Charkin, O. V. Dudarev, D. A. Kosmach, and S. Nishino
Biogeosciences, 10, 5977–5996,
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Franziska Slotta, Lukas Wacker, Frank Riedel, Karl-Uwe Heußner, Kai Hartmann, and Gerhard Helle
Biogeosciences, 18, 3539–3564,Short summary
The African baobab is a challenging climate and environmental archive for its semi-arid habitat due to dating uncertainties and parenchyma-rich wood anatomy. Annually resolved F14C data of tree-ring cellulose (1941–2005) from a tree in Oman show the annual character of the baobab’s growth rings but were up to 8.8 % lower than expected for 1964–1967. Subseasonal δ13C and δ18O patterns reveal years with low average monsoon rain as well as heavy rainfall events from pre-monsoonal cyclones.
Peter M. J. Douglas, Emerald Stratigopoulos, Sanga Park, and Dawson Phan
Biogeosciences, 18, 3505–3527,Short summary
Hydrogen isotopes could be a useful tool to help resolve the geographic distribution of methane emissions from freshwater environments. We analyzed an expanded global dataset of freshwater methane hydrogen isotope ratios and found significant geographic variation linked to water isotopic composition. This geographic variability could be used to resolve changing methane fluxes from freshwater environments and provide more accurate estimates of the relative balance of global methane sources.
Veronica R. Rollinson, Julie Granger, Sydney C. Clark, Mackenzie L. Blanusa, Claudia P. Koerting, Jamie M. P. Vaudrey, Lija A. Treibergs, Holly C. Westbrook, Catherine M. Matassa, Meredith G. Hastings, and Craig R. Tobias
Biogeosciences, 18, 3421–3444,Short summary
We measured nutrients and the naturally occurring nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) stable isotope ratios of nitrate discharged from a New England river over an annual cycle, to monitor N loading and identify dominant sources from the watershed. We uncovered a seasonality to loading and sources of N from the watershed. Seasonality in the nitrate isotope ratios also informed on N cycling, conforming to theoretical expectations of riverine nutrient cycling.
Zixun Chen, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoqing Cui, Yaowen Han, Guoan Wang, and Jiazhu Li
Biogeosciences, 18, 2859–2870,Short summary
δ13C in plants is a sensitive long-term indicator of physiological acclimatization. The present study suggests that precipitation change and increasing atmospheric N deposition have little impact on δ13C of H. ammodendron, a dominant plant in central Asian deserts, but affect its gas exchange. In addition, this study shows that δ13C of H. ammodendron could not indicate its water use efficiency (WUE), suggesting that whether δ13C of C4 plants indicates WUE is species-specific.
Petra Zahajská, Carolina Olid, Johanna Stadmark, Sherilyn C. Fritz, Sophie Opfergelt, and Daniel J. Conley
Biogeosciences, 18, 2325–2345,Short summary
The drivers of high accumulation of single-cell siliceous algae (diatoms) in a high-latitude lake have not been fully characterized before. We studied silicon cycling of the lake through water, radon, silicon, and stable silicon isotope balances. Results showed that groundwater brings 3 times more water and dissolved silica than the stream inlet. We demonstrate that groundwater discharge and low sediment deposition have driven the high diatom accumulation in the studied lake in the past century.
Nicolai Schleinkofer, David Evans, Max Wisshak, Janina Vanessa Büscher, Jens Fiebig, André Freiwald, Sven Härter, Horst R. Marschall, Silke Voigt, and Jacek Raddatz
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We have measured the chemical composition of the carbonate shells of the parasitic Foraminifera Hyrrokkin sarcophaga, in order to test if it is influenced by the host organism (bivalve or coral). We find that both the chemical and isotopic composition is influenced by the host organism. For example strontium is enriched in Foraminifera that grew on corals, whose skeleton is built from aragonite which is naturally enriched in strontium compared to the bivalves calcite shell.
Inga Köhler, Raul E. Martinez, David Piatka, Achim J. Herrmann, Arianna Gallo, Michelle M. Gehringer, and Johannes A. C. Barth
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We investigated how high Fe(II)-levels influence the O2 budget of a circumneutral Fe(II) rich spring and whether a combined study of dissolved O2 and its isotopic composition can help asses this effect. We showed that dissolved Fe(II) can exert strong effects on the δ18ODO even though a constant supply of atmospheric O2 occurs. In the presence of photosynthesis, direct effects of Fe oxidation become masked. Critical Fe(II) concentrations indirectly control the DO by enhancing photosynthesis.
Yu-Te Hsieh, Walter Geibert, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, Neil J. Wyatt, Maeve C. Lohan, Eric P. Achterberg, and Gideon M. Henderson
Biogeosciences, 18, 1645–1671,Short summary
The South Atlantic near 40° S is one of the high-productivity and most dynamic nutrient regions in the oceans, but the sources and fluxes of trace elements (TEs) to this region remain unclear. This study investigates seawater Ra-228 and provides important constraints on ocean mixing and dissolved TE fluxes to this region. Vertical mixing is a more important source than aeolian or shelf inputs in this region, but particulate or winter deep-mixing inputs may be required to balance the TE budgets.
Owen A. Sherwood, Samuel H. Davin, Nadine Lehmann, Carolyn Buchwald, Evan N. Edinger, Moritz F. Lehmann, and Markus Kienast
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Pacific Water flowing eastward through the Canadian Arctic plays an important role in redistributing nutrients to the Northwest Atlantic Ocean. Using samples collected from northern Baffin Bay to the southern Labrador Shelf, we show that stable isotopic ratios in seawater nitrate reflect the fraction of Pacific to Atlantic Water. These results provide a new framework for interpreting patterns of nitrogen isotopic variability recorded in modern and archival organic materials in the region.
Zhongjie Yu and Emily M. Elliott
Biogeosciences, 18, 805–829,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrated distinct nitrogen isotope effects for nitric oxide (NO) production from major microbial and chemical NO sources in an agricultural soil. These results highlight characteristic bond-forming and breaking mechanisms associated with microbial and chemical NO production and implicate that simultaneous isotopic analyses of NO and nitrous oxide (N2O) can lead to unprecedented insights into the sources and processes controlling NO and N2O emissions from agricultural soils.
Daniel A. Frick, Rainer Remus, Michael Sommer, Jürgen Augustin, Danuta Kaczorek, and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 6475–6490,Short summary
Silicon is taken up by some plants to increase structural stability and to develop stress resistance and is rejected by others. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we used the stable isotopes of silicon that shift in their relative abundance depending on the biochemical transformation involved. On species with a rejective (tomato, mustard) and active (wheat) uptake mechanism, grown in hydroculture, we found that the transport of silicic acid is controlled by the precipitation of biogenic opal.
Quentin Charbonnier, Julien Bouchez, Jérôme Gaillardet, and Éric Gayer
Biogeosciences, 17, 5989–6015,Short summary
The abundance and isotope composition of the trace metal barium (Ba) allows us to track and quantify nutrient cycling throughout the Amazon Basin. In particular, we show that the Ba biological fingerprint evolves from that of a strong net nutrient uptake in the mountainous area of the Andes towards efficient nutrient recycling on the plains of the Lower Amazon. Our study highlights the fact that the geochemical signature of rock-derived nutrients transported by the Amazon is scarred by life.
Ajinkya G. Deshpande, Thomas W. Boutton, Ayumi Hyodo, Charles W. Lafon, and Georgianne W. Moore
Biogeosciences, 17, 5639–5653,Short summary
Wetland forests in the southern USA are threatened by changing climate and human-induced pressures. We used tree ring widths and C isotopes as indicators of forest growth and physiological stress, respectively, and compared these to past climate data. We observed that vegetation growing in the drier patches is susceptible to stress, while vegetation growth and physiology in wetter patches is less sensitive to unfavorable environmental conditions, highlighting the importance of optimal wetness.
Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Maciej Piotr Lewicki, and Reinhard Well
Biogeosciences, 17, 5513–5537,Short summary
We present the first validation of N2O isotopic approaches for estimating N2O source pathways and N2O reduction. These approaches are widely used for tracing soil nitrogen cycling, but the results of these estimations are very uncertain. Here we report the results from parallel treatments allowing for precise validation of these approaches, and we propose the best strategies for results interpretation, including the new idea of an isotope model integrating three isotopic signatures of N2O.
Markus Raitzsch, Claire Rollion-Bard, Ingo Horn, Grit Steinhoefel, Albert Benthien, Klaus-Uwe Richter, Matthieu Buisson, Pascale Louvat, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 17, 5365–5375,Short summary
The isotopic composition of boron in carbonate shells of marine unicellular organisms is a popular tool to estimate seawater pH. Usually, many shells need to be dissolved and measured for boron isotopes, but the information on their spatial distribution is lost. Here, we investigate two techniques that allow for measuring boron isotopes within single shells and show that they yield robust mean values but provide additional information on the heterogeneity within and between single shells.
Florian Einsiedl, Anja Wunderlich, Mathieu Sebilo, Ömer K. Coskun, William D. Orsi, and Bernhard Mayer
Biogeosciences, 17, 5149–5161,Short summary
Nitrate pollution of freshwaters and methane emissions into the atmosphere are crucial factors in deteriorating the quality of drinking water and in contributing to global climate change. Here, we report vertical concentration and stable isotope profiles of CH4, NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ in the water column of Fohnsee (southern Bavaria, Germany) that may indicate linkages between nitrate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium.
Ruifang C. Xie, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Insa Rapp, Jan Lüdke, Beat Gasser, Marcus Dengler, Volker Liebetrau, and Eric P. Achterberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4919–4936,Short summary
Thorium-234 (234Th) is widely used to study carbon fluxes from the surface ocean to depth. But few studies stress the relevance of oceanic advection and diffusion on the downward 234Th fluxes in nearshore environments. Our study in offshore Peru showed strong temporal variations in both the importance of physical processes on 234Th flux estimates and the oceanic residence time of 234Th, whereas salinity-derived seawater 238U activities accounted for up to 40 % errors in 234Th flux estimates.
Ralf A. Oeser and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4883–4917,Short summary
We present a novel strategy to decipher the relative impact of biogenic and abiotic drivers of weathering. We parameterized the nutrient fluxes in four ecosystems along a climate and vegetation gradient situated on the Chilean Coastal Cordillera. We investigated how nutrient demand by plants drives weathering. We found that the increase in biomass nutrient demand is accommodated by faster nutrient recycling rather than an increase in the weathering–release rates.
Tito Arosio, Malin M. Ziehmer, Kurt Nicolussi, Christian Schlüchter, and Markus Leuenberger
Biogeosciences, 17, 4871–4882,Short summary
Stable isotopes in tree-ring cellulose are tools for climatic reconstructions, but interpretation is challenging due to nonclimate trends. We analyzed the tree-age trends in tree-ring isotopes of deciduous larch and evergreen cembran pine. Samples covering the whole Holocene were collected at the tree line in the Alps. For cambial ages over 100 years, we prove the absence of age trends in δD, δ18O, and δ13C for both species. For lower cambial ages, trends differ for each isotope and species.
Yuyang He, Xiaobin Cao, and Huiming Bao
Biogeosciences, 17, 4785–4795,Short summary
Different carbon sites in a large organic molecule have different isotope compositions. Different carbon sites may not have the chance to exchange isotopes at all. The lack of appreciation of this notion might be blamed for an unsettled debate on the thermodynamic state of an organism. Here we demonstrate using minerals, N2O, and acetic acid that the dearth of exchange among different carbon sites renders them as independent as if they were different elements in organic molecules.
Lena Rohe, Traute-Heidi Anderson, Heinz Flessa, Anette Giesemann, Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, and Reinhard Well
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
This is the first experimental setup combining a complex set of methods (microbial inhibitors and isotopic approaches) to differentiate between N2O produced by fungi or bacteria during denitrification in three soils. Inhibitors confirmed the expected effect on N2O production only in one out of four experiments, but coincided with isotopic approaches in showing dominance of bacterial denitrification. We present a discussion on artefacts occurring with microbial inhibition to determine N2O fluxes.
Felix M. Spielmann, Albin Hammerle, Florian Kitz, Katharina Gerdel, and Georg Wohlfahrt
Biogeosciences, 17, 4281–4295,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be used as a proxy for plant photosynthesis on an ecosystem scale. However, the relationships between COS and CO2 fluxes and their dependence on daily to seasonal changes in environmental drivers are still poorly understood. We examined COS and CO2 ecosystem fluxes above an agriculturally used mountain grassland for 6 months. Harvesting of the grassland disturbed the otherwise stable COS-to-CO2 uptake ratio. We even found the canopy to release COS during those times.
Getachew Agmuas Adnew, Thijs L. Pons, Gerbrand Koren, Wouter Peters, and Thomas Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 3903–3922,Short summary
We measured the effect of photosynthesis, the largest flux in the carbon cycle, on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 at the leaf level during gas exchange using three plant species. The main factors that limit the impact of land vegetation on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 are identified, characterized and discussed. The effect of photosynthesis on the isotopic composition of CO2 is commonly quantified as discrimination (ΔA).
Moritz Schroll, Frank Keppler, Markus Greule, Christian Eckhardt, Holger Zorn, and Katharina Lenhart
Biogeosciences, 17, 3891–3901,Short summary
Fungi have recently been identified to produce the greenhouse gas methane. Here, we investigated the stable carbon isotope values of methane produced by saprotrophic fungi. Our results show that stable isotope values of methane from fungi are dependent on the fungal species and the metabolized substrate. They cover a broad range and overlap with stable carbon isotope values of methane reported for methanogenic archaea, the thermogenic degradation of organic matter, and other eukaryotes.
Pranav Hirave, Guido L. B. Wiesenberg, Axel Birkholz, and Christine Alewell
Biogeosciences, 17, 2169–2180,Short summary
Sediment input into water bodies is a prominent threat to freshwater ecosystems. We tested the stability of tracers employed in freshwater sediment tracing based on compound-specific isotope analysis during early degradation in soil. While bulk δ13C values showed no stability, δ13C values of plant-derived fatty acids and n-alkanes were stably transferred to the soil without soil particle size dependency after an early degradation in organic horizons, thus indicating their suitability as tracers.
Caroline Thaler, Amandine Katz, Magali Bonifacie, Bénédicte Ménez, and Magali Ader
Biogeosciences, 17, 1731–1744,Short summary
Paleoenvironment reconstructions, retrieved from δ18O and Δ47 values measured in carbonate, are compromised when crystallization occurs in isotopic disequilibrium. We show that some paleoenvironmental information can still be retrieved from these paired disequilibrium Δ47 and δ18O values. The possibility of retrieving information on paleowaters, sediments' interstitial waters, or organisms' body water at the carbonate precipitation loci will help understand past Earth and life evolution.
Guillaume Humbert, Mathieu Sébilo, Justine Fiat, Longqi Lang, Ahlem Filali, Véronique Vaury, Mathieu Spérandio, and Anniet M. Laverman
Biogeosciences, 17, 979–993,Short summary
Mitigating emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O requires understanding of the relative contribution of its producing processes in response to environmental variables. We show, using isotopic analysis, that N2O emissions from a nitrifying system were sensitive to oxygenation, temperature and NH4+ concentrations with nitrite reduction being the main N2O source. Temperature appears to be the main control on N2O production, due to its dissimilar effects on ammonium and nitrite oxidizing activities.
Oguz Yigiterhan, Ebrahim Mohd Al-Ansari, Alex Nelson, Mohamed Alaa Abdel-Moati, Jesse Turner, Hamood Abdulla Alsaadi, Barbara Paul, Ibrahim Abdullatif Al-Maslamani, Mehsin Abdulla Al-Ansi Al-Yafei, and James W. Murray
Biogeosciences, 17, 381–404,Short summary
We analyze net-tow samples of plankton and associated particulate matter from the Exclusive Economic Zone, Qatar, Arabian Gulf, using net tows with mesh sizes of 50 and 200 μm to examine the composition of plankton populations. We also focus on the role and composition of the atmospheric dust, representative of terrigenous material, deposited in the Gulf. We concluded that Al, Fe, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Li are of dust origin and As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, and Ca are of anthropogenic/biogenic origin.
Clare Woulds, James B. Bell, Adrian G. Glover, Steven Bouillon, and Louise S. Brown
Biogeosciences, 17, 1–12,Short summary
Sedimented hydrothermal vents occur where heated, mineral-rich (hydrothermal) water seeps through seafloor sediments. They host chemosynthetic microbes, which use chemical energy to fix dissolved carbon dioxide into sugars (chemosynthesis). We conducted carbon tracing experiments, and observed chemosynthesis at both vent and non-vent sites. Thus, chemosynthesis occurred over a much larger area than expected, suggesting it is more widespread than previously thought.
Cara C. Manning, Rachel H. R. Stanley, David P. Nicholson, Brice Loose, Ann Lovely, Peter Schlosser, and Bruce G. Hatcher
Biogeosciences, 16, 3351–3376,Short summary
We measured rates of biological activity and gas exchange in a Canadian estuary during ice melt. We quantified gas exchange using inert, deliberately released tracers and found that the gas transfer rate at > 90 % ice cover was 6 % of the rate for nearly ice-free conditions. We measured oxygen concentration and isotopic composition and used the data to detect changes in the rates of photosynthesis and respiration (autotrophy and heterotrophy) as the ice melted.
Marlène Lavrieux, Axel Birkholz, Katrin Meusburger, Guido L. B. Wiesenberg, Adrian Gilli, Christian Stamm, and Christine Alewell
Biogeosciences, 16, 2131–2146,Short summary
A fingerprinting approach using compound-specific stable isotopes was applied to a lake sediment core to reconstruct erosion processes over the past 150 years in a Swiss catchment. Even though the reconstruction of land use and eutrophication history was successful, the observation of comparatively low δ13C values of plant-derived fatty acids in the sediment suggests their alteration within the lake. Thus, their use as a tool for source attribution in sediment cores needs further investigation.
Luciana A. Pereira, Roberto V. Santos, Marília Hauser, Fabrice Duponchelle, Fernando Carvajal, Christophe Pecheyran, Sylvain Bérail, and Marc Pouilly
Biogeosciences, 16, 1781–1797,Short summary
This study presents the first step for a chemical origin certification of pirarucu fishery in the Amazon. A preliminary isotopic tool to improve the actual tracking system integrates ecological, social, and economic aspects of Amazon dynamics. The geographic origin validation of farmed and wild fishes contributes to environmental and social practices, secures food and income to communities, helps manage endangered species, reinforces aquaculture, and combats illegal fisheries.
Elizabeth Verhoeven, Matti Barthel, Longfei Yu, Luisella Celi, Daniel Said-Pullicino, Steven Sleutel, Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Johan Six, and Charlotte Decock
Biogeosciences, 16, 383–408,Short summary
This study utilized state-of-the-art measurements of nitrogen isotopes to evaluate nitrogen cycling and to assess the biological sources of the potent greenhouse gas, N2O, in response to water-saving practices in rice systems. Water-saving practices did emit more N2O, and high N2O production had a lower 15N isotope signature. Modeling and visual interpretation indicate that these emissions mostly came from denitrification or nitrifier denitrification, controlled upstream by nitrification rates.
Feifei Deng, Gideon M. Henderson, Maxi Castrillejo, Fiz F. Perez, and Reiner Steinfeldt
Biogeosciences, 15, 7299–7313,Short summary
To better use Pa / Th to reconstruct deep water ventilation rate, we assessed controls on 230Th and 231Pa in the northern North Atlantic. With extended optimum multi-parameter analysis and CFC-based water-mass age, we found the imprint of young overflow water on Th and Pa and enhanced scavenging near the seafloor. A significantly higher advective loss of Pa to the south relative to Th in the Atlantic was estimated, supporting the use of Pa / Th for assessing basin-scale meridional transport.
Anne L. Morée, Jörg Schwinger, and Christoph Heinze
Biogeosciences, 15, 7205–7223,Short summary
Changes in the distribution of the carbon isotope 13C can be used to study the climate system if the governing processes (ocean circulation and biogeochemistry) are understood. We show the Southern Ocean importance for the global 13C distribution and that changes in 13C can be strongly influenced by biogeochemistry. Interpretation of 13C as a proxy for climate signals needs to take into account the effects of changes in biogeochemistry in addition to changes in ocean circulation.
Douglas G. Russell, Wei Wen Wong, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 15, 7225–7234,Short summary
Nitrogen is an important nutrient in marine environments and is continually converted from one form to another. One way these processes can be investigated is by looking at the ratio of the 15N and 14N stable isotopes of different nitrogen-containing compounds. To date few studies have compared these ratios in seagrass beds, their associated sediments and the porewater NH4+ pool. The strong relationship between these nitrogen pools suggests that nitrogen is tightly recycled within seagrass beds.
Bharat Rastogi, Max Berkelhammer, Sonia Wharton, Mary E. Whelan, Frederick C. Meinzer, David Noone, and Christopher J. Still
Biogeosciences, 15, 7127–7139,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has gained prominence as an independent tracer for gross primary productivity, which is usually modelled by partitioning net CO2 fluxes. Here, we present a simple empirical model for estimating ecosystem-scale OCS fluxes for a temperate old-growth forest and find that OCS sink strength scales with independently estimated CO2 uptake and is sensitive to the the fraction of downwelling diffuse light. We also examine the response of OCS and CO2 fluxes to sequential heat waves.
Fumiko Nakagawa, Urumu Tsunogai, Yusuke Obata, Kenta Ando, Naoyuki Yamashita, Tatsuyoshi Saito, Shigeki Uchiyama, Masayuki Morohashi, and Hiroyuki Sase
Biogeosciences, 15, 7025–7042,Short summary
To clarify the biological processing of nitrate within temperate forested catchments using unprocessed atmospheric nitrate exported from each catchment as a tracer, we continuously monitored stream nitrate concentrations and stable isotopic compositions in three forested catchments for more than 2 years. We concluded that the export flux of unprocessed atmospheric nitrate relative to the deposition flux in each forest ecosystem is applicable as an index for nitrogen saturation.
Lucie Cassarino, Christopher D. Coath, Joana R. Xavier, and Katharine R. Hendry
Biogeosciences, 15, 6959–6977,Short summary
Using a simple model, we show that the silicon isotopic composition of sponges can be used to estimate the silicic acid concentration of seawater, a key parameter linked to nutrient and carbon cycling. However, our data illustrate that skeletal type and growth rate also control silicon isotopic composition of sponges. Our study demonstrates the paleoceanographic utility of sponges as an archive for ocean silica content provided that suitable skeleton types are selected.
Laurie C. Hofmann and Svenja Heesch
Biogeosciences, 15, 6139–6149,Short summary
The ability of marine macroalgae to adapt to changing ocean chemistry will depend on the flexibility of their inorganic carbon uptake mechanisms across biogeographic ranges. Therefore, we investigated the plasticity of inorganic carbon uptake mechanisms in north Atlantic rhodoliths – free-living calcifying red algae that form important benthic habitats in coastal environments. We observed flexible mechanisms related to seawater DIC concentrations, indicating the potential for adaptation.
Jacqueline Bertlich, Dirk Nürnberg, Ed C. Hathorne, Lennart J. de Nooijer, Eveline M. Mezger, Markus Kienast, Steffanie Nordhausen, Gert-Jan Reichart, Joachim Schönfeld, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 15, 5991–6018,
Jill N. Sutton, Gregory F. de Souza, Maribel I. García-Ibáñez, and Christina L. De La Rocha
Biogeosciences, 15, 5663–5676,Short summary
The silicon stable isotope distribution determined from samples collected from the North Atlantic Ocean indicates that water mass subduction and circulation are the dominant processes controlling the distribution of dissolved silicon in this region. In addition, these data provide a clear view of the direct interaction between northern and southern water masses and the extent to which the silicon isotope composition of these silica-poor waters is influenced by hydrography.
Maxi Castrillejo, Núria Casacuberta, Marcus Christl, Christof Vockenhuber, Hans-Arno Synal, Maribel I. García-Ibáñez, Pascale Lherminier, Géraldine Sarthou, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, and Pere Masqué
Biogeosciences, 15, 5545–5564,Short summary
The investigation of water mass transport pathways and timescales is important to understand the global ocean circulation. Following earlier studies, we use artificial radionuclides introduced to the oceans in the 1950s to investigate the water transport in the subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA). For the first time, we combine measurements of the long-lived iodine-129 and uranium-236 to confirm earlier findings/hypotheses and to better understand shallow and deep ventilation processes in the SPNA.
Gustaf Granath, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer L. Baltzer, Fia Bengtsson, Nicholas Boncek, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon J. M. Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, David P. Gillikin, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hájek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna I. Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia G. Koronatova, Natalia P. Kosykh, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina, Juul Limpens, Maiju Linkosalmi, Jin-Ze Ma, Marguerite Mauritz, Tariq M. Munir, Susan M. Natali, Rayna Natcheva, Maria Noskova, Richard J. Payne, Kyle Pilkington, Sean Robinson, Bjorn J. M. Robroek, Line Rochefort, David Singer, Hans K. Stenøien, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Kai Vellak, Anouk Verheyden, James Michael Waddington, and Steven K. Rice
Biogeosciences, 15, 5189–5202,Short summary
Peat constitutes a long-term archive for climate reconstruction by using the isotopic composition of carbon and oxygen. We analysed isotopes in two peat moss species across North America and Eurasia. Peat (moss tissue) isotope composition was predicted by soil moisture and isotopic composition of the rainwater but differed between species. Our results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.
Joshua A. Haslun, Nathaniel E. Ostrom, Eric L. Hegg, and Peggy H. Ostrom
Biogeosciences, 15, 3873–3882,Short summary
N2O δ15N and δ18O values changed non-linearly during in vitro N2O production by bacterial denitrification of NO3−, an argument against their use in N2O apportionment. We present a novel approach for describing non-linear isotopic behaviour, which may be applied to other multi-step reactions. We also show that the intramolecular distribution of 15N in N2O, used to apportion N2O emissions to denitrification and nitrification, is unaffected by electron donor source and electron donor concentration.
Linas Balčiauskas, Raminta Skipitytė, Marius Jasiulionis, Laima Balčiauskienė, and Vidmantas Remeikis
Biogeosciences, 15, 3883–3891,Short summary
Effects of an expanding great cormorant colony on small mammals were evaluated. An increase of the number of bird pairs led to decreased δ13C and increased δ15N values in mice hair after the first year of nest appearance. Differences in isotopic signatures were related to species of rodents, pointing to the differences in their diet. Cormorant influence was indirect, the result of biological pollution from guano on rodent foods. Scaring cormorants from the colonies may have the opposite effect.
Wu Sun, Kadmiel Maseyk, Céline Lett, and Ulli Seibt
Biogeosciences, 15, 3277–3291,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an emerging tracer to probe land photosynthesis at canopy to global scales, but the relationship between leaf COS and CO2 fluxes needed for this application is poorly quantified. With in situ leaf fluxes of COS and CO2 measured in a freshwater marsh, we show that light and vapor deficit control the relationship between leaf COS and CO2 fluxes by regulating stomatal conductance. Our findings support the use of COS as a tracer for canopy photosynthesis.
Anne Alexandre, Amarelle Landais, Christine Vallet-Coulomb, Clément Piel, Sébastien Devidal, Sandrine Pauchet, Corinne Sonzogni, Martine Couapel, Marine Pasturel, Pauline Cornuault, Jingming Xin, Jean-Charles Mazur, Frédéric Prié, Ilhem Bentaleb, Elizabeth Webb, Françoise Chalié, and Jacques Roy
Biogeosciences, 15, 3223–3241,Short summary
There is a lack of proxies suitable for reconstructing, in a quantitative way, past changes in continental atmospheric humidity, which is a key climate parameter. Here, we demonstrate through climate chamber and climate transect calibrations that the triple oxygen isotope composition of phytoliths offers a potential for reconstructing changes in relative humidity.
Philip M. Riekenberg, Joanne M. Oakes, and Bradley D. Eyre
Biogeosciences, 15, 2873–2889,Short summary
Shallow coastal waters are increasingly experiencing increased nutrient loading. Sediment algae within these systems are responsible for a large portion of C production, but we have limited knowledge of what happens to sediment microbial processing of MPB-C under increased nutrient conditions. This work examines how C-processing pathways change after increased short-term nutrient exposure, finding shifts in processing between microbial groups and increased export of algal C from the sediment.
Jill N. Sutton, Yi-Wei Liu, Justin B. Ries, Maxence Guillermic, Emmanuel Ponzevera, and Robert A. Eagle
Biogeosciences, 15, 1447–1467,Short summary
The boron isotope composition of marine biogenic carbonates has been studied as a proxy for monitoring past changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry. We highlight the potential utility of the boron isotope composition of marine biogenic carbonates as a proxy of calcifying site pH for a wide range of calcifying taxa and the importance of using species-specific seawater-pH–boron isotope calibrations when reconstructing seawater pH from the boron isotope composition of biogenic carbonates.
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Iron analysis of the particulate, colloidal, and truly dissolved fractions along the Lena River freshwater plume showed that the particulate iron dominates close to the coast. Over 99 % particulate and about 90 % colloidal iron were lost, while the truly dissolved phase was almost constant. Iron isotopes suggest that the shelf acts as a sink for particles and colloids with negative iron isotope values, while colloids with positive iron isotope values travel further out into the Arctic Ocean.
Iron analysis of the particulate, colloidal, and truly dissolved fractions along the Lena River...