Articles | Volume 19, issue 9
05 May 2022
Research article | 05 May 2022
Changing sub-Arctic tundra vegetation upon permafrost degradation: impact on foliar mineral element cycling
Elisabeth Mauclet et al.
Arthur Monhonval, Sophie Opfergelt, Elisabeth Mauclet, Benoît Pereira, Aubry Vandeuren, Guido Grosse, Lutz Schirrmeister, Matthias Fuchs, Peter Kuhry, and Jens Strauss
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
With global warming, ice-rich permafrost soils expose organic carbon to microbial degradation and unlock mineral elements as well. Interactions between mineral elements and organic carbon may enhance or mitigate microbial degradation. Here, we provide a large scale ice-rich permafrost mineral concentrations assessment and estimates of mineral element stocks in those deposits. Si is the most abundant mineral element and Fe and Al are present in the same order of magnitude as organic carbon.
Sarah E. Chadburn, Eleanor J. Burke, Angela V. Gallego-Sala, Noah D. Smith, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Dan J. Charman, Julia Drewer, Colin W. Edgar, Eugenie S. Euskirchen, Krzysztof Fortuniak, Yao Gao, Mahdi Nakhavali, Włodzimierz Pawlak, Edward A. G. Schuur, and Sebastian Westermann
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1633–1657,Short summary
We present a new method to include peatlands in an Earth system model (ESM). Peatlands store huge amounts of carbon that accumulates very slowly but that can be rapidly destabilised, emitting greenhouse gases. Our model captures the dynamic nature of peat by simulating the change in surface height and physical properties of the soil as carbon is added or decomposed. Thus, we model, for the first time in an ESM, peat dynamics and its threshold behaviours that can lead to destabilisation.
Martijn M. T. A. Pallandt, Jitendra Kumar, Marguerite Mauritz, Edward A. G. Schuur, Anna-Maria Virkkala, Gerardo Celis, Forrest M. Hoffman, and Mathias Göckede
Biogeosciences, 19, 559–583,Short summary
Thawing of Arctic permafrost soils could trigger the release of vast amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, thus enhancing climate change. Our study investigated how well the current network of eddy covariance sites to monitor greenhouse gas exchange at local scales captures pan-Arctic flux patterns. We identified large coverage gaps, e.g., in Siberia, but also demonstrated that a targeted addition of relatively few sites can significantly improve network performance.
Anna-Maria Virkkala, Susan M. Natali, Brendan M. Rogers, Jennifer D. Watts, Kathleen Savage, Sara June Connon, Marguerite Mauritz, Edward A. G. Schuur, Darcy Peter, Christina Minions, Julia Nojeim, Roisin Commane, Craig A. Emmerton, Mathias Goeckede, Manuel Helbig, David Holl, Hiroki Iwata, Hideki Kobayashi, Pasi Kolari, Efrén López-Blanco, Maija E. Marushchak, Mikhail Mastepanov, Lutz Merbold, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Matthias Peichl, Torsten Sachs, Oliver Sonnentag, Masahito Ueyama, Carolina Voigt, Mika Aurela, Julia Boike, Gerardo Celis, Namyi Chae, Torben R. Christensen, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Sigrid Dengel, Han Dolman, Colin W. Edgar, Bo Elberling, Eugenie Euskirchen, Achim Grelle, Juha Hatakka, Elyn Humphreys, Järvi Järveoja, Ayumi Kotani, Lars Kutzbach, Tuomas Laurila, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Yojiro Matsuura, Gesa Meyer, Mats B. Nilsson, Steven F. Oberbauer, Sang-Jong Park, Roman Petrov, Anatoly S. Prokushkin, Christopher Schulze, Vincent L. St. Louis, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, William Quinton, Andrej Varlagin, Donatella Zona, and Viacheslav I. Zyryanov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 179–208,Short summary
The effects of climate warming on carbon cycling across the Arctic–boreal zone (ABZ) remain poorly understood due to the relatively limited distribution of ABZ flux sites. Fortunately, this flux network is constantly increasing, but new measurements are published in various platforms, making it challenging to understand the ABZ carbon cycle as a whole. Here, we compiled a new database of Arctic–boreal CO2 fluxes to help facilitate large-scale assessments of the ABZ carbon cycle.
Kyle B. Delwiche, Sara Helen Knox, Avni Malhotra, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Gavin McNicol, Sarah Feron, Zutao Ouyang, Dario Papale, Carlo Trotta, Eleonora Canfora, You-Wei Cheah, Danielle Christianson, Ma. Carmelita R. Alberto, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Dennis Baldocchi, Sheel Bansal, David P. Billesbach, Gil Bohrer, Rosvel Bracho, Nina Buchmann, David I. Campbell, Gerardo Celis, Jiquan Chen, Weinan Chen, Housen Chu, Higo J. Dalmagro, Sigrid Dengel, Ankur R. Desai, Matteo Detto, Han Dolman, Elke Eichelmann, Eugenie Euskirchen, Daniela Famulari, Kathrin Fuchs, Mathias Goeckede, Sébastien Gogo, Mangaliso J. Gondwe, Jordan P. Goodrich, Pia Gottschalk, Scott L. Graham, Martin Heimann, Manuel Helbig, Carole Helfter, Kyle S. Hemes, Takashi Hirano, David Hollinger, Lukas Hörtnagl, Hiroki Iwata, Adrien Jacotot, Gerald Jurasinski, Minseok Kang, Kuno Kasak, John King, Janina Klatt, Franziska Koebsch, Ken W. Krauss, Derrick Y. F. Lai, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Luca Belelli Marchesini, Giovanni Manca, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes, Trofim Maximov, Lutz Merbold, Bhaskar Mitra, Timothy H. Morin, Eiko Nemitz, Mats B. Nilsson, Shuli Niu, Walter C. Oechel, Patricia Y. Oikawa, Keisuke Ono, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Michele L. Reba, Andrew D. Richardson, William Riley, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Youngryel Ryu, Torsten Sachs, Ayaka Sakabe, Camilo Rey Sanchez, Edward A. Schuur, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Oliver Sonnentag, Jed P. Sparks, Ellen Stuart-Haëntjens, Cove Sturtevant, Ryan C. Sullivan, Daphne J. Szutu, Jonathan E. Thom, Margaret S. Torn, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Jessica Turner, Masahito Ueyama, Alex C. Valach, Rodrigo Vargas, Andrej Varlagin, Alma Vazquez-Lule, Joseph G. Verfaillie, Timo Vesala, George L. Vourlitis, Eric J. Ward, Christian Wille, Georg Wohlfahrt, Guan Xhuan Wong, Zhen Zhang, Donatella Zona, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Benjamin Poulter, and Robert B. Jackson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3607–3689,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas, yet we lack knowledge about its global emissions and drivers. We present FLUXNET-CH4, a new global collection of methane measurements and a critical resource for the research community. We use FLUXNET-CH4 data to quantify the seasonality of methane emissions from freshwater wetlands, finding that methane seasonality varies strongly with latitude. Our new database and analysis will improve wetland model accuracy and inform greenhouse gas budgets.
Petra Zahajská, Carolina Olid, Johanna Stadmark, Sherilyn C. Fritz, Sophie Opfergelt, and Daniel J. Conley
Biogeosciences, 18, 2325–2345,Short summary
The drivers of high accumulation of single-cell siliceous algae (diatoms) in a high-latitude lake have not been fully characterized before. We studied silicon cycling of the lake through water, radon, silicon, and stable silicon isotope balances. Results showed that groundwater brings 3 times more water and dissolved silica than the stream inlet. We demonstrate that groundwater discharge and low sediment deposition have driven the high diatom accumulation in the studied lake in the past century.
Arthur Monhonval, Sophie Opfergelt, Elisabeth Mauclet, Benoît Pereira, Aubry Vandeuren, Guido Grosse, Lutz Schirrmeister, Matthias Fuchs, Peter Kuhry, and Jens Strauss
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
With global warming, ice-rich permafrost soils expose organic carbon to microbial degradation and unlock mineral elements as well. Interactions between mineral elements and organic carbon may enhance or mitigate microbial degradation. Here, we provide a large scale ice-rich permafrost mineral concentrations assessment and estimates of mineral element stocks in those deposits. Si is the most abundant mineral element and Fe and Al are present in the same order of magnitude as organic carbon.
Dean Howard, Yannick Agnan, Detlev Helmig, Yu Yang, and Daniel Obrist
Biogeosciences, 17, 4025–4042,Short summary
The Arctic tundra represents a vast store of carbon that may be broken down by microbial activity into greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. Though microbes are less active in winter, the long duration of the cold season makes this period very important for carbon cycling. We show that, under conditions of warmer winter air temperatures and greater snowfall, deeper soils can remain warm enough to sustain significantly enhanced CH4 emission. This could have large implications for future climates.
Martin Jiskra, Jeroen E. Sonke, Yannick Agnan, Detlev Helmig, and Daniel Obrist
Biogeosciences, 16, 4051–4064,Short summary
The tundra plays a pivotal role in Arctic mercury cycling by storing atmospheric mercury deposition and shuttling it to the Arctic Ocean. We used the isotopic fingerprint of mercury to investigate the processes controlling atmospheric mercury deposition. We found that the uptake of atmospheric mercury by vegetation was the major deposition source. Direct deposition to snow or soils only played a minor role. These results improve our understanding of Arctic mercury cycling.
Yannick Agnan, Thomas A. Douglas, Detlev Helmig, Jacques Hueber, and Daniel Obrist
The Cryosphere, 12, 1939–1956,Short summary
In this study, we investigated mercury dynamics in an interior arctic tundra at Toolik Field Station (200 km from the Arctic Ocean) during two full snow seasons. We continuously measured atmospheric, snow gas phase, and soil pores mercury concentrations. We observed consistent concentration declines from the atmosphere to snowpack to soils, indicating that soils are continuous sinks of mercury. We suggest that interior arctic snowpacks may be negligible sources of mercury.
Dácil Unzué-Belmonte, Yolanda Ameijeiras-Mariño, Sophie Opfergelt, Jean-Thomas Cornelis, Lúcia Barão, Jean Minella, Patrick Meire, and Eric Struyf
Solid Earth, 8, 737–750,Short summary
We studied the effect of land conversion and erosion intensity on the biogenic silica (BSi) pools in a subtropical soil in the south of Brazil. Our study shows that deforestation will rapidly (< 50 years) deplete (10–53 %) the biogenic alkaline extractable Si (AlkExSi) pool in soils. Higher erosion in steeply sloped sites implies increased deposition of biogenic Si in deposition zones near the bottom of the slope, where rapid burial can cause removal of BSi from biologically active zones.
Min Jung Kwon, Martin Heimann, Olaf Kolle, Kristina A. Luus, Edward A. G. Schuur, Nikita Zimov, Sergey A. Zimov, and Mathias Göckede
Biogeosciences, 13, 4219–4235,Short summary
A decade-long drainage on an Arctic floodplain has altered dominant plant species and soil temperature regimes. Consequently, CO2 exchange rates between the atmosphere and the terrestrial ecosystem were modified: CO2 uptake rates by the terrestrial ecosystem decreased and CO2 emission rates to the atmosphere increased. Ongoing global warming may thaw ice-rich permafrost and make some regions drier in the Arctic, and this will reduce carbon accumulation in the terrestrial ecosystem.
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Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
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We performed Roth C simulations across Australia and assessed the response of soil carbon to changing inputs and future climate change using a consistent modelling framework. Site-specific initialisation of the C pools with measurements of the C fractions is essential for accurate simulations of soil organic C stocks and composition at a large scale. With further warming, Australian soils will become more vulnerable to C loss: natural environments > native grazing > cropping > modified grazing.
Anam M. Khan, Paul C. Stoy, James T. Douglas, Martha Anderson, George Diak, Jason A. Otkin, Christopher Hain, Elizabeth M. Rehbein, and Joel McCorkel
Biogeosciences, 18, 4117–4141,Short summary
Remote sensing has played an important role in the study of land surface processes. Geostationary satellites, such as the GOES-R series, can observe the Earth every 5–15 min, providing us with more observations than widely used polar-orbiting satellites. Here, we outline current efforts utilizing geostationary observations in environmental science and look towards the future of GOES observations in the carbon cycle, ecosystem disturbance, and other areas of application in environmental science.
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Biogeosciences, 18, 3917–3936,Short summary
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Biogeosciences, 18, 3243–3261,Short summary
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Biogeosciences, 18, 2075–2090,Short summary
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Biogeosciences, 18, 535–556,Short summary
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Lena Wohlgemuth, Stefan Osterwalder, Carl Joseph, Ansgar Kahmen, Günter Hoch, Christine Alewell, and Martin Jiskra
Biogeosciences, 17, 6441–6456,Short summary
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A. Anthony Bloom, Kevin W. Bowman, Junjie Liu, Alexandra G. Konings, John R. Worden, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Victoria Meyer, John T. Reager, Helen M. Worden, Zhe Jiang, Gregory R. Quetin, T. Luke Smallman, Jean-François Exbrayat, Yi Yin, Sassan S. Saatchi, Mathew Williams, and David S. Schimel
Biogeosciences, 17, 6393–6422,Short summary
We use a model of the 2001–2015 tropical land carbon cycle, with satellite measurements of land and atmospheric carbon, to disentangle lagged and concurrent effects (due to past and concurrent meteorological events, respectively) on annual land–atmosphere carbon exchanges. The variability of lagged effects explains most 2001–2015 inter-annual carbon flux variations. We conclude that concurrent and lagged effects need to be accurately resolved to better predict the world's land carbon sink.
Erqian Cui, Chenyu Bian, Yiqi Luo, Shuli Niu, Yingping Wang, and Jianyang Xia
Biogeosciences, 17, 6237–6246,Short summary
Mean annual net ecosystem productivity (NEP) is related to the magnitude of the carbon sink of a specific ecosystem, while its inter-annual variation (IAVNEP) characterizes the stability of such a carbon sink. Thus, a better understanding of the co-varying NEP and IAVNEP is critical for locating the major and stable carbon sinks on land. Based on daily NEP observations from eddy-covariance sites, we found local indicators for the spatially varying NEP and IAVNEP, respectively.
Taraka Davies-Barnard, Johannes Meyerholt, Sönke Zaehle, Pierre Friedlingstein, Victor Brovkin, Yuanchao Fan, Rosie A. Fisher, Chris D. Jones, Hanna Lee, Daniele Peano, Benjamin Smith, David Wårlind, and Andy J. Wiltshire
Biogeosciences, 17, 5129–5148,
Rui Cheng, Troy S. Magney, Debsunder Dutta, David R. Bowling, Barry A. Logan, Sean P. Burns, Peter D. Blanken, Katja Grossmann, Sophia Lopez, Andrew D. Richardson, Jochen Stutz, and Christian Frankenberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4523–4544,Short summary
We measured reflected sunlight from an evergreen canopy for a year to detect changes in pigments that play an important role in regulating the seasonality of photosynthesis. Results show a strong mechanistic link between spectral reflectance features and pigment content, which is validated using a biophysical model. Our results show spectrally where, why, and when spectral features change over the course of the season and show promise for estimating photosynthesis remotely.
Jarmo Mäkelä, Francesco Minunno, Tuula Aalto, Annikki Mäkelä, Tiina Markkanen, and Mikko Peltoniemi
Biogeosciences, 17, 2681–2700,Short summary
We assess the relative magnitude of uncertainty sources on ecosystem indicators of the 21st century climate change on two boreal forest sites. In addition to RCP and climate model uncertainties, we included the overlooked model parameter uncertainty and management actions in our analysis. Management was the dominant uncertainty factor for the more verdant southern site, followed by RCP, climate and parameter uncertainties. The uncertainties were estimated with canonical correlation analysis.
Guido Kraemer, Gustau Camps-Valls, Markus Reichstein, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 17, 2397–2424,Short summary
To closely monitor the state of our planet, we require systems that can monitor the observation of many different properties at the same time. We create indicators that resemble the behavior of many different simultaneous observations. We apply the method to create indicators representing the Earth's biosphere. The indicators show a productivity gradient and a water gradient. The resulting indicators can detect a large number of changes and extremes in the Earth system.
Barbara Marcolla, Mirco Migliavacca, Christian Rödenbeck, and Alessandro Cescatti
Biogeosciences, 17, 2365–2379,Short summary
This work investigates the sensitivity of terrestrial CO2 fluxes to climate drivers. We observed that CO2 flux is mostly controlled by temperature during the growing season and by radiation off season. We also observe that radiation importance is increasing over time while sensitivity to temperature is decreasing in Eurasia. Ultimately this analysis shows that ecosystem response to climate is changing, with potential repercussions for future terrestrial sink and land role in climate mitigation.
Stephanie C. Pennington, Nate G. McDowell, J. Patrick Megonigal, James C. Stegen, and Ben Bond-Lamberty
Biogeosciences, 17, 771–780,Short summary
Soil respiration (Rs) is the flow of CO2 from the soil surface to the atmosphere and is one of the largest carbon fluxes on land. This study examined the effect of local basal area (tree area) on Rs in a coastal forest in eastern Maryland, USA. Rs measurements were taken as well as distance from soil collar, diameter, and species of each tree within a 15 m radius. We found that trees within 5 m of our sampling points had a positive effect on how sensitive soil respiration was to temperature.
Keri L. Bowering, Kate A. Edwards, Karen Prestegaard, Xinbiao Zhu, and Susan E. Ziegler
Biogeosciences, 17, 581–595,Short summary
We examined the effects of season and tree harvesting on the flow of water and the organic carbon (OC) it carries from boreal forest soils. We found that more OC was lost from the harvested forest because more precipitation reached the soil surface but that during periods of flushing in autumn and snowmelt a limit on the amount of water-extractable OC is reached. These results contribute to an increased understanding of carbon loss from boreal forest soils.
Jason Philip Kaye, Susan L. Brantley, Jennifer Zan Williams, and the SSHCZO team
Biogeosciences, 16, 4661–4669,Short summary
Interdisciplinary teams can only capitalize on innovative ideas if members work well together through collegial and efficient use of field sites, instrumentation, samples, data, and model code. Thus, biogeoscience teams may benefit from developing a set of best practices for collaboration. We present one such example from a the Susquehanna Shale Hills critical zone observatory. Many of the themes from our example are universal, and they offer insights useful to other biogeoscience teams.
Anne Alexandre, Elizabeth Webb, Amaelle Landais, Clément Piel, Sébastien Devidal, Corinne Sonzogni, Martine Couapel, Jean-Charles Mazur, Monique Pierre, Frédéric Prié, Christine Vallet-Coulomb, Clément Outrequin, and Jacques Roy
Biogeosciences, 16, 4613–4625,Short summary
This calibration study shows that despite isotope heterogeneity along grass leaves, the triple oxygen isotope composition of bulk leaf phytoliths can be estimated from the Craig and Gordon model, a mixing equation and a mean leaf water–phytolith fractionation exponent (lambda) of 0.521. The results strengthen the reliability of the 17O–excess of phytoliths to be used as a proxy of atmospheric relative humidity and open tracks for its use as an imprint of leaf water 17O–excess.
Lina Teckentrup, Sandy P. Harrison, Stijn Hantson, Angelika Heil, Joe R. Melton, Matthew Forrest, Fang Li, Chao Yue, Almut Arneth, Thomas Hickler, Stephen Sitch, and Gitta Lasslop
Biogeosciences, 16, 3883–3910,Short summary
This study compares simulated burned area of seven global vegetation models provided by the Fire Model Intercomparison Project (FireMIP) since 1900. We investigate the influence of five forcing factors: atmospheric CO2, population density, land–use change, lightning and climate. We find that the anthropogenic factors lead to the largest spread between models. Trends due to climate are mostly not significant but climate strongly influences the inter-annual variability of burned area.
Marcos A. S. Scaranello, Michael Keller, Marcos Longo, Maiza N. dos-Santos, Veronika Leitold, Douglas C. Morton, Ekena R. Pinagé, and Fernando Del Bon Espírito-Santo
Biogeosciences, 16, 3457–3474,Short summary
The coarse dead wood component of the tropical forest carbon pool is rarely measured. For the first time, we developed models for predicting coarse dead wood in Amazonian forests by using airborne laser scanning data. Our models produced site-based estimates similar to independent field estimates found in the literature. Our study provides an approach for estimating coarse dead wood pools from remotely sensed data and mapping those pools over large scales in intact and degraded forests.
James Brennan, Jose L. Gómez-Dans, Mathias Disney, and Philip Lewis
Biogeosciences, 16, 3147–3164,Short summary
We estimate the uncertainties associated with three global satellite-derived burned area estimates. The method provides unique uncertainties for the three estimates at the global scale for 2001–2013. We find uncertainties of 4 %–5.5 % in global burned area and uncertainties of 8 %–10 % in the frequently burning regions of Africa and Australia.
Alexander J. Norton, Peter J. Rayner, Ernest N. Koffi, Marko Scholze, Jeremy D. Silver, and Ying-Ping Wang
Biogeosciences, 16, 3069–3093,Short summary
This study presents an estimate of global terrestrial photosynthesis. We make use of satellite chlorophyll fluorescence measurements, a visible indicator of photosynthesis, to optimize model parameters and estimate photosynthetic carbon uptake. This new framework incorporates nonlinear, process-based understanding of the link between fluorescence and photosynthesis, an advance on past approaches. This will aid in the utility of fluorescence to quantify terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks.
Sophie V. J. van der Horst, Andrew J. Pitman, Martin G. De Kauwe, Anna Ukkola, Gab Abramowitz, and Peter Isaac
Biogeosciences, 16, 1829–1844,Short summary
Measurements of surface fluxes are taken around the world and are extremely valuable for understanding how the land and atmopshere interact, and how the land can amplify temerature extremes. However, do these measurements sample extreme temperatures, or are they biased to the average? We examine this question and highlight data that do measure surface fluxes under extreme conditions. This provides a way forward to help model developers improve their models.
Friederike Gerschlauer, Gustavo Saiz, David Schellenberger Costa, Michael Kleyer, Michael Dannenmann, and Ralf Kiese
Biogeosciences, 16, 409–424,Short summary
Mount Kilimanjaro is an iconic environmental asset under serious threat due to increasing human pressures and climate change constraints. We studied variations in the stable isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen in plant, litter, and soil material sampled along a strong land-use and altitudinal gradient. Our results show that, besides management, increasing temperatures in a changing climate may promote carbon and nitrogen losses, thus altering the stability of Kilimanjaro ecosystems.
Boaz Hilman, Jan Muhr, Susan E. Trumbore, Norbert Kunert, Mariah S. Carbone, Päivi Yuval, S. Joseph Wright, Gerardo Moreno, Oscar Pérez-Priego, Mirco Migliavacca, Arnaud Carrara, José M. Grünzweig, Yagil Osem, Tal Weiner, and Alon Angert
Biogeosciences, 16, 177–191,Short summary
Combined measurement of CO2 / O2 fluxes in tree stems suggested that on average 41 % of the respired CO2 was not emitted locally to the atmosphere. This finding strengthens the recognition that CO2 efflux from tree stems is not an accurate measure of respiration. The CO2 / O2 fluxes did not vary as expected if CO2 dissolution in the xylem sap was the main driver for the CO2 retention. We suggest the examination of refixation of respired CO2 as a possible mechanism for CO2 retention.
Gitta Lasslop, Thomas Moeller, Donatella D'Onofrio, Stijn Hantson, and Silvia Kloster
Biogeosciences, 15, 5969–5989,Short summary
We apply a multivariate model evaluation to the relationship between climate, vegetation and fire in the tropics using the JSBACH land surface model and two remote-sensing data sets, with the aim to identify the potential for model improvement. The overestimation of tree cover for low precipitation and a very strong relationship between tree cover and burned area indicates opportunities in the improvement of drought effects and the impact of fire on tree cover or the adaptation of trees to fire.
Yao Zhang, Joanna Joiner, Seyed Hamed Alemohammad, Sha Zhou, and Pierre Gentine
Biogeosciences, 15, 5779–5800,Short summary
Using satellite reflectance measurements and a machine learning algorithm, we generated a new solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) dataset that is closely linked to plant photosynthesis. This new dataset has higher spatial and temporal resolutions, and lower uncertainty compared to the existing satellite retrievals. We also demonstrated its application in monitoring drought and improving the understanding of the SIF–photosynthesis relationship.
Chris Huntingford, Rebecca J. Oliver, Lina M. Mercado, and Stephen Sitch
Biogeosciences, 15, 5415–5422,Short summary
Raised ozone levels impact plant stomatal opening and thus photosynthesis. Most models describe this as a suppression of stomata opening. Field evidence suggests more complexity, as ozone damage may make stomatal response
sluggish. In some circumstances, this causes stomata to be more open – a concern during drought conditions – by increasing transpiration. To guide interpretation and modelling of field measurements, we present an equation for sluggish effects, via a single tau parameter.
Jacob A. Nelson, Nuno Carvalhais, Mirco Migliavacca, Markus Reichstein, and Martin Jung
Biogeosciences, 15, 2433–2447,Short summary
Plants have typical daily carbon uptake and water loss cycles. However, these cycles may change under periods of duress, such as water limitation. Here we identify two types of patterns in response to water limitations: a tendency to lose more water in the morning than afternoon and a decoupling of the carbon and water cycles. The findings show differences in responses by trees and grasses and suggest that morning shifts may be more efficient at gaining carbon per unit water used.
Wenqiang Zhao, Peter B. Reich, Qiannan Yu, Ning Zhao, Chunying Yin, Chunzhang Zhao, Dandan Li, Jun Hu, Ting Li, Huajun Yin, and Qing Liu
Biogeosciences, 15, 2033–2053,Short summary
We found larger shrub leaf C, C : N and lower leaf N, N : P levels compared to other terrestrial ecosystems. Alpine shrubs exhibited the greatest leaf C at low temperatures, whereas the largest leaf N and P occurred in valley deciduous shrubs. The large heterogeneity in nutrient uptake and physiological adaptation of shrub types to environments explained the largest fraction of leaf C : N : P variations, while climate indirectly affected leaf C : N : P via its interactive effects on shrub type or soil.
Peter Levy, Marcel van Oijen, Gwen Buys, and Sam Tomlinson
Biogeosciences, 15, 1497–1513,Short summary
We present a new method for estimating land-use change using a Bayesian data assimilation approach. This allows us to constrain estimates of gross land-use change with reliable national-scale census data whilst retaining the information available from several other sources. This includes detailed spatial data; further data sources, such as new satellites, could easily be added in future. Uncertainty is propagated appropriately into the output.
Chao Yue, Philippe Ciais, and Wei Li
Biogeosciences, 15, 1185–1201,Short summary
Gross land use change such as shifting cultivation causes carbon emissions because carbon release in cleared forests is larger than absorption in regrowing ones. However, to appropriately account for this process, vegetation models have to represent sub-grid secondary forest dynamics. We found that gross land use emissions can be overestimated if sub-grid secondary forests are neglected in the model. Conversely, rotation lengths of shifting cultivation have a critical role.
Chongjuan Chen, Yufu Jia, Yuzhen Chen, Imran Mehmood, Yunting Fang, and Guoan Wang
Biogeosciences, 15, 369–377,Short summary
The south slope of Tian Shan differs from the north slope in environment. The study showed that leaf δ15N, soil δ15N and △δ15Nleaf-soil on the south slope were greater than those on the north slope. The significant influential factors of leaf and soil δ15N on the south slope were different from those on the north slope. The results suggested that the south slope has higher soil N transformation rates than the north slope and relationships between leaf and soil δ15N and environment are localized.
Wei Li, Philippe Ciais, Shushi Peng, Chao Yue, Yilong Wang, Martin Thurner, Sassan S. Saatchi, Almut Arneth, Valerio Avitabile, Nuno Carvalhais, Anna B. Harper, Etsushi Kato, Charles Koven, Yi Y. Liu, Julia E.M.S. Nabel, Yude Pan, Julia Pongratz, Benjamin Poulter, Thomas A. M. Pugh, Maurizio Santoro, Stephen Sitch, Benjamin D. Stocker, Nicolas Viovy, Andy Wiltshire, Rasoul Yousefpour, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 14, 5053–5067,Short summary
We used several observation-based biomass datasets to constrain the historical land-use change carbon emissions simulated by models. Compared to the range of the original modeled emissions (from 94 to 273 Pg C), the observationally constrained global cumulative emission estimate is 155 ± 50 Pg C (1σ Gaussian error) from 1901 to 2012. Our approach can also be applied to evaluate the LULCC impact of land-based climate mitigation policies.
Lukas Baumbach, Jonatan F. Siegmund, Magdalena Mittermeier, and Reik V. Donner
Biogeosciences, 14, 4891–4903,Short summary
Temperature extremes play a crucial role for vegetation growth and vitality in vast parts of the European continent. Here, we study the likelihood of simultaneous occurrences of extremes in daytime land surface temperatures and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for three main periods during the growing season. Our results reveal a particularly high vulnerability of croplands to temperature extremes, while other vegetation types are considerably less affected.
Rudra K. Shrestha, Vivek K. Arora, Joe R. Melton, and Laxmi Sushama
Biogeosciences, 14, 4733–4753,Short summary
Computer models of vegetation provide a tool to assess how future changes in climate may the affect geographical distribution of vegetation. However, such models must first be assessed for their ability to reproduce the present-day geographical distribution of vegetation. Here, we assess the ability of one such dynamic vegetation model. We find that while the model is broadly successful in reproducing the geographical distribution of trees and grasses in North America some limitations remain.
Elizabeth E. Webb, Kathryn Heard, Susan M. Natali, Andrew G. Bunn, Heather D. Alexander, Logan T. Berner, Alexander Kholodov, Michael M. Loranty, John D. Schade, Valentin Spektor, and Nikita Zimov
Biogeosciences, 14, 4279–4294,Short summary
Permafrost soils store massive amounts of C, yet estimates of soil C storage in this region are highly uncertain, primarily due to undersampling at all spatial scales; circumpolar soil C estimates lack sufficient continental spatial diversity, regional intensity, and replication at the field-site level. We aim to reduce the uncertainty of regional C estimates by providing a comprehensive assessment of vegetation, active-layer, and permafrost C stocks in a watershed in northeast Siberia, Russia.
Thierry Fanin and Guido R. van der Werf
Biogeosciences, 14, 3995–4008,Short summary
Using night fire detection and rainfall datasets during 1997–2015, we found that the number of night fires detected in 1997 was 2.2 times higher than in 2015, but with a higher fraction of peatland burned in 2015. We also confirmed the non-linearity of rainfall accumulation prior to a fire to indicate a high fire year. The influence of rainfall on the number of yearly fires varies across Indonesia. Southern Sumatra and Kalimantan need 120 days of observations, while northern Sumatra only 30.
Tara W. Hudiburg, Philip E. Higuera, and Jeffrey A. Hicke
Biogeosciences, 14, 3873–3882,Short summary
Wildfire is a dominant disturbance agent in forest ecosystems, shaping important processes including net carbon (C) balance. Our results imply that fire-regime variability is a major driver of C trajectories in stand-replacing fire regimes. Predicting carbon balance in these systems, therefore, will depend strongly on the ability of ecosystem models to represent a realistic range of fire-regime variability over the past several centuries to millennia.
Dolors Armenteras, Joan Sebastian Barreto, Karyn Tabor, Roberto Molowny-Horas, and Javier Retana
Biogeosciences, 14, 2755–2765,Short summary
Tropical forests are highly threatened by the expansion of the agricultural frontier, use of fire and subsequent deforestation. NW Amazonia is the wettest part of the basin and the role of fire is still largely unknown in this subregion. In this study, we compared fire regimes in five countries sharing this tropical biome (Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Brazil). We studied fire activity in relation to proximity to roads and rivers and how fire occurs in relation to forest fragmentation.
Thomas Kaminski and Pierre-Philippe Mathieu
Biogeosciences, 14, 2343–2357,Short summary
This paper provides the formalism and examples of how observation operators can be used, in combination with data assimilation or retrieval techniques, to better ingest satellite products in a manner consistent with the dynamics of the Earth system expressed by models.
Per-Ola Olsson, Michal Heliasz, Hongxiao Jin, and Lars Eklundh
Biogeosciences, 14, 1703–1719,
Jason Beringer, Ian McHugh, Lindsay B. Hutley, Peter Isaac, and Natascha Kljun
Biogeosciences, 14, 1457–1460,Short summary
Standardised, quality-controlled and robust data from flux networks underpin the understanding of ecosystem processes and tools to manage our natural resources. The Dynamic INtegrated Gap-filling and partitioning for OzFlux (DINGO) system enables gap-filling and partitioning of fluxes and subsequently provides diagnostics and results. Quality data from robust systems like DINGO ensure the utility and uptake of flux data and facilitates synergies between flux, remote sensing and modelling.
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Arctic warming and permafrost degradation largely affect tundra vegetation. Wetter lowlands show an increase in sedges, whereas drier uplands favor shrub expansion. Here, we demonstrate that the difference in the foliar elemental composition of typical tundra vegetation species controls the change in local foliar elemental stock and potential mineral element cycling through litter production upon a shift in tundra vegetation.
Arctic warming and permafrost degradation largely affect tundra vegetation. Wetter lowlands show...