Articles | Volume 10, issue 11
Research article 01 Nov 2013
Research article | 01 Nov 2013
Calcification responses of symbiotic and aposymbiotic corals to near-future levels of ocean acidification
S. Ohki et al.
No articles found.
Andrew Lenton, Bronte Tilbrook, Richard J. Matear, Tristan P. Sasse, and Yukihiro Nojiri
Biogeosciences, 13, 1753–1765,Short summary
We reconstruct the observed variability and mean state in pH and aragonite saturation state around Australia at high spatial resolution and reconstruct the changes that have occurred in the Australian region over the last 140 years. We find that large changes in aragonite saturation state and pH have very different spatial patterns, which suggests that the biological responses to ocean acidification are likely to be non-uniform and dependent on the relative sensitivity of organisms to change.
C. Le Quéré, R. Moriarty, R. M. Andrew, J. G. Canadell, S. Sitch, J. I. Korsbakken, P. Friedlingstein, G. P. Peters, R. J. Andres, T. A. Boden, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, R. F. Keeling, P. Tans, A. Arneth, D. C. E. Bakker, L. Barbero, L. Bopp, J. Chang, F. Chevallier, L. P. Chini, P. Ciais, M. Fader, R. A. Feely, T. Gkritzalis, I. Harris, J. Hauck, T. Ilyina, A. K. Jain, E. Kato, V. Kitidis, K. Klein Goldewijk, C. Koven, P. Landschützer, S. K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. Lenton, I. D. Lima, N. Metzl, F. Millero, D. R. Munro, A. Murata, J. E. M. S. Nabel, S. Nakaoka, Y. Nojiri, K. O'Brien, A. Olsen, T. Ono, F. F. Pérez, B. Pfeil, D. Pierrot, B. Poulter, G. Rehder, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, U. Schuster, J. Schwinger, R. Séférian, T. Steinhoff, B. D. Stocker, A. J. Sutton, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, I. T. van der Laan-Luijkx, G. R. van der Werf, S. van Heuven, D. Vandemark, N. Viovy, A. Wiltshire, S. Zaehle, and N. Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 349–396,Short summary
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. We describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on a range of data and models and their interpretation by a broad scientific community.
C. Le Quéré, R. Moriarty, R. M. Andrew, G. P. Peters, P. Ciais, P. Friedlingstein, S. D. Jones, S. Sitch, P. Tans, A. Arneth, T. A. Boden, L. Bopp, Y. Bozec, J. G. Canadell, L. P. Chini, F. Chevallier, C. E. Cosca, I. Harris, M. Hoppema, R. A. Houghton, J. I. House, A. K. Jain, T. Johannessen, E. Kato, R. F. Keeling, V. Kitidis, K. Klein Goldewijk, C. Koven, C. S. Landa, P. Landschützer, A. Lenton, I. D. Lima, G. Marland, J. T. Mathis, N. Metzl, Y. Nojiri, A. Olsen, T. Ono, S. Peng, W. Peters, B. Pfeil, B. Poulter, M. R. Raupach, P. Regnier, C. Rödenbeck, S. Saito, J. E. Salisbury, U. Schuster, J. Schwinger, R. Séférian, J. Segschneider, T. Steinhoff, B. D. Stocker, A. J. Sutton, T. Takahashi, B. Tilbrook, G. R. van der Werf, N. Viovy, Y.-P. Wang, R. Wanninkhof, A. Wiltshire, and N. Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 7, 47–85,Short summary
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human activities (burning fossil fuels and cement production, deforestation and other land-use change) are set to rise again in 2014. This study (updated yearly) makes an accurate assessment of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and their redistribution between the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in order to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change.
T. Yoshimura, A. Suzuki, and N. Iwasaki
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Skeletal oxygen and carbon isotope fractionation of Octocorallia corals, composed of more soluble calcium carbonate polymorphs of high-Mg calcite, represent a natural laboratory for the study of the response of coral calcification to pH changes. Skeletal isotopic compositions are enriched in light isotopes when conditions are less alkaline, suggsting an even stronger biological manipulation on the sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) under lower pH.
T. Yoshimura, A. Suzuki, and N. Iwasaki
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The variations of element profiles in biogenic CaCO3 are widely used for identifying differences in biological and physicochemical processes associated with element partitioning. Octocorallia coral skeletons can provide long-term records of environmental conditions in intermediate and deep waters. The change in skeletal Ba/Ca with depth parallels that in the dissolved Ba concentration being linked to ocean nutrient cycling. We did not observe pronounced environmental controls in B/Ca and U/Ca.
T. Yoshimura, Y. Tamenori, H. Kawahata, and A. Suzuki
Biogeosciences, 11, 3881–3886,
D. C. E. Bakker, B. Pfeil, K. Smith, S. Hankin, A. Olsen, S. R. Alin, C. Cosca, S. Harasawa, A. Kozyr, Y. Nojiri, K. M. O'Brien, U. Schuster, M. Telszewski, B. Tilbrook, C. Wada, J. Akl, L. Barbero, N. R. Bates, J. Boutin, Y. Bozec, W.-J. Cai, R. D. Castle, F. P. Chavez, L. Chen, M. Chierici, K. Currie, H. J. W. de Baar, W. Evans, R. A. Feely, A. Fransson, Z. Gao, B. Hales, N. J. Hardman-Mountford, M. Hoppema, W.-J. Huang, C. W. Hunt, B. Huss, T. Ichikawa, T. Johannessen, E. M. Jones, S. D. Jones, S. Jutterström, V. Kitidis, A. Körtzinger, P. Landschützer, S. K. Lauvset, N. Lefèvre, A. B. Manke, J. T. Mathis, L. Merlivat, N. Metzl, A. Murata, T. Newberger, A. M. Omar, T. Ono, G.-H. Park, K. Paterson, D. Pierrot, A. F. Ríos, C. L. Sabine, S. Saito, J. Salisbury, V. V. S. S. Sarma, R. Schlitzer, R. Sieger, I. Skjelvan, T. Steinhoff, K. F. Sullivan, H. Sun, A. J. Sutton, T. Suzuki, C. Sweeney, T. Takahashi, J. Tjiputra, N. Tsurushima, S. M. A. C. van Heuven, D. Vandemark, P. Vlahos, D. W. R. Wallace, R. Wanninkhof, and A. J. Watson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 6, 69–90,
M. Ishii, R. A. Feely, K. B. Rodgers, G.-H. Park, R. Wanninkhof, D. Sasano, H. Sugimoto, C. E. Cosca, S. Nakaoka, M. Telszewski, Y. Nojiri, S. E. Mikaloff Fletcher, Y. Niwa, P. K. Patra, V. Valsala, H. Nakano, I. Lima, S. C. Doney, E. T. Buitenhuis, O. Aumont, J. P. Dunne, A. Lenton, and T. Takahashi
Biogeosciences, 11, 709–734,
S. Nakaoka, M. Telszewski, Y. Nojiri, S. Yasunaka, C. Miyazaki, H. Mukai, and N. Usui
Biogeosciences, 10, 6093–6106,
R. Wanninkhof, G. -H. Park, T. Takahashi, C. Sweeney, R. Feely, Y. Nojiri, N. Gruber, S. C. Doney, G. A. McKinley, A. Lenton, C. Le Quéré, C. Heinze, J. Schwinger, H. Graven, and S. Khatiwala
Biogeosciences, 10, 1983–2000,
Related subject area
Earth System Science/Response to Global Change: Climate ChangeNot all biodiversity rich spots are climate refugiaEvaluating the dendroclimatological potential of blue intensity on multiple conifer species from Tasmania and New ZealandAnthropogenic CO2-mediated freshwater acidification limits survival, calcification, metabolism, and behaviour in stress-tolerant freshwater crustaceansQuantifying the role of moss in terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in northern high latitudesOn the influence of erect shrubs on the irradiance profile in snowTolerance of tropical marine microphytobenthos exposed to elevated irradiance and temperaturePersistent impacts of the 2018 drought on forest disturbance regimes in EuropeReviews and syntheses: Arctic fire regimes and emissions in the 21st centurySlowdown of the greening trend in natural vegetation with further rise in atmospheric CO2Effects of elevated CO2 and extreme climatic events on forage quality and in vitro rumen fermentation in permanent grasslandCushion bog plant community responses to passive warming in southern PatagoniaBlue carbon stocks and exchanges along the California coastOceanic primary production decline halved in eddy-resolving simulations of global warmingAssessing climate change impacts on live fuel moisture and wildfire risk using a hydrodynamic vegetation modelDoes drought advance the onset of autumn leaf senescence in temperate deciduous forest trees?Ocean carbon cycle feedbacks in CMIP6 models: contributions from different basinsSensitivity of 21st-century projected ocean new production changes to idealized biogeochemical model structureOcean carbon uptake under aggressive emission mitigationEffects of Earth system feedbacks on the potential mitigation of large-scale tropical forest restorationWetter environment and increased grazing reduced the area burned in northern Eurasia from 2002 to 2016Physiological responses of Skeletonema costatum to the interactions of seawater acidification and the combination of photoperiod and temperatureTechnical note: Interpreting pH changesTiming of drought in the growing season and strong legacy effects determine the annual productivity of temperate grasses in a changing climateContrasting responses of woody and herbaceous vegetation to altered rainfall characteristics in the SahelReduced growth with increased quotas of particulate organic and inorganic carbon in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi under future ocean climate change conditionsOcean-related global change alters lipid biomarker production in common marine phytoplanktonMulti-decadal changes in structural complexity following mass coral mortality on a Caribbean reefStable isotopes track the ecological and biogeochemical legacy of mass mangrove forest dieback in the Gulf of Carpentaria, AustraliaGlobal climate response to idealized deforestation in CMIP6 modelsCarbon–concentration and carbon–climate feedbacks in CMIP6 models and their comparison to CMIP5 modelsEcosystem physio-phenology revealed using circular statisticsUnderstanding the uncertainty in global forest carbon turnoverCharacterizing deepwater oxygen variability and seafloor community responses using a novel autonomous landerPhysical and biogeochemical impacts of RCP8.5 scenario in the Peru upwelling systemIs there warming in the pipeline? A multi-model analysis of the Zero Emissions Commitment from CO2Foraminiferal holobiont thermal tolerance under future warming – roommate problems or successful collaboration?Impacts of enhanced weathering on biomass production for negative emission technologies and soil hydrologyPotential predictability of marine ecosystem driversIs deoxygenation detectable before warming in the thermocline?Spatio-temporal variations and uncertainty in land surface modelling for high latitudes: univariate response analysisMicrostructure and composition of marine aggregates as co-determinants for vertical particulate organic carbon transfer in the global oceanQuantifying impacts of the 2018 drought on European ecosystems in comparison to 2003Reviews and syntheses: How do abiotic and biotic processes respond to climatic variations in the Nam Co catchment (Tibetan Plateau)?Simulation of factors affecting Emiliania huxleyi blooms in Arctic and sub-Arctic seas by CMIP5 climate models: model validation and selectionParticulate trace metal dynamics in response to increased CO2 and iron availability in a coastal mesocosm experimentZooplankton diel vertical migration and downward C flux into the oxygen minimum zone in the highly productive upwelling region off northern ChileA meta-analysis of microcosm experiments shows that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in polar waters is insensitive to ocean acidificationForest aboveground biomass stock and resilience in a tropical landscape of ThailandEnhanced Weathering and related element fluxes – a cropland mesocosm approachTrees do not always act their age: size-deterministic tree ring standardization for long-term trend estimation in shade-tolerant trees
Ádám T. Kocsis, Qianshuo Zhao, Mark J. Costello, and Wolfgang Kiessling
Biogeosciences, 18, 6567–6578,Short summary
Biodiversity is under threat from the effects of global warming, and assessing the effects of climate change on areas of high species richness is of prime importance to conservation. Terrestrial and freshwater rich spots have been and will be less affected by climate change than other areas. However, marine rich spots of biodiversity are expected to experience more pronounced warming.
Rob Wilson, Kathy Allen, Patrick Baker, Gretel Boswijk, Brendan Buckley, Edward Cook, Rosanne D'Arrigo, Dan Druckenbrod, Anthony Fowler, Margaux Grandjean, Paul Krusic, and Jonathan Palmer
Biogeosciences, 18, 6393–6421,Short summary
We explore blue intensity (BI) – a low-cost method for measuring ring density – to enhance palaeoclimatology in Australasia. Calibration experiments, using several conifer species from Tasmania and New Zealand, model 50–80 % of the summer temperature variance. The implications of these results have profound consequences for high-resolution paleoclimatology in Australasia, as the speed and cheapness of BI generation could lead to a step change in our understanding of past climate in the region.
Alex R. Quijada-Rodriguez, Pou-Long Kuan, Po-Hsuan Sung, Mao-Ting Hsu, Garett J. P. Allen, Pung Pung Hwang, Yung-Che Tseng, and Dirk Weihrauch
Biogeosciences, 18, 6287–6300,Short summary
Anthropogenic CO2 is chronically acidifying aquatic ecosystems. We aimed to determine the impact of future freshwater acidification on the physiology and behaviour of an important aquaculture crustacean, Chinese mitten crabs. We report that elevated freshwater CO2 levels lead to impairment of calcification, locomotor behaviour, and survival and reduced metabolism in this species. Results suggest that present-day calcifying invertebrates could be heavily affected by freshwater acidification.
Junrong Zha and Qianlai Zhuang
Biogeosciences, 18, 6245–6269,Short summary
This study incorporated moss into an extant biogeochemistry model to simulate the role of moss in carbon dynamics in the Arctic. The interactions between higher plants and mosses and their competition for energy, water, and nutrients are considered in our study. We found that, compared with the previous model without moss, the new model estimated a much higher carbon accumulation in the region during the last century and this century.
Maria Belke-Brea, Florent Domine, Ghislain Picard, Mathieu Barrere, and Laurent Arnaud
Biogeosciences, 18, 5851–5869,Short summary
Expanding shrubs in the Arctic change snowpacks into a mix of snow, impurities and buried branches. Snow is a translucent medium into which light penetrates and gets partly absorbed by branches or impurities. Measurements of light attenuation in snow in Northern Quebec, Canada, showed (1) black-carbon-dominated light attenuation in snowpacks without shrubs and (2) buried branches influence radiation attenuation in snow locally, leading to melting and pockets of large crystals close to branches.
Sazlina Salleh and Andrew McMinn
Biogeosciences, 18, 5313–5326,Short summary
The benthic diatom communities in Tanjung Rhu, Malaysia, were regularly exposed to high light and temperature variability during the tidal cycle, resulting in low photosynthetic efficiency. We examined the impact of high temperatures on diatoms' photosynthetic capacities, and temperatures beyond 50 °C caused severe photoinhibition. At the same time, those diatoms exposed to temperatures of 40 °C did not show any sign of photoinhibition.
Cornelius Senf and Rupert Seidl
Biogeosciences, 18, 5223–5230,Short summary
Europe was affected by an extreme drought in 2018. We show that this drought has increased forest disturbances across Europe, especially central and eastern Europe. Disturbance levels observed 2018–2020 were the highest on record for 30 years. Increased forest disturbances were correlated with low moisture and high atmospheric water demand. The unprecedented impacts of the 2018 drought on forest disturbances demonstrate an urgent need to adapt Europe’s forests to a hotter and drier future.
Jessica L. McCarty, Juha Aalto, Ville-Veikko Paunu, Steve R. Arnold, Sabine Eckhardt, Zbigniew Klimont, Justin J. Fain, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Ari Venäläinen, Nadezhda M. Tchebakova, Elena I. Parfenova, Kaarle Kupiainen, Amber J. Soja, Lin Huang, and Simon Wilson
Biogeosciences, 18, 5053–5083,Short summary
Fires, including extreme fire seasons, and fire emissions are more common in the Arctic. A review and synthesis of current scientific literature find climate change and human activity in the north are fuelling an emerging Arctic fire regime, causing more black carbon and methane emissions within the Arctic. Uncertainties persist in characterizing future fire landscapes, and thus emissions, as well as policy-relevant challenges in understanding, monitoring, and managing Arctic fire regimes.
Alexander J. Winkler, Ranga B. Myneni, Alexis Hannart, Stephen Sitch, Vanessa Haverd, Danica Lombardozzi, Vivek K. Arora, Julia Pongratz, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Daniel S. Goll, Etsushi Kato, Hanqin Tian, Almut Arneth, Pierre Friedlingstein, Atul K. Jain, Sönke Zaehle, and Victor Brovkin
Biogeosciences, 18, 4985–5010,Short summary
Satellite observations since the early 1980s show that Earth's greening trend is slowing down and that browning clusters have been emerging, especially in the last 2 decades. A collection of model simulations in conjunction with causal theory points at climatic changes as a key driver of vegetation changes in natural ecosystems. Most models underestimate the observed vegetation browning, especially in tropical rainforests, which could be due to an excessive CO2 fertilization effect in models.
Vincent Niderkorn, Annette Morvan-Bertrand, Aline Le Morvan, Angela Augusti, Marie-Laure Decau, and Catherine Picon-Cochard
Biogeosciences, 18, 4841–4853,Short summary
Climate change can change vegetation characteristics in grasslands with a potential impact on forage chemical composition and quality, as well as its use by ruminants. Using controlled conditions mimicking a future climatic scenario, we show that forage quality and ruminant digestion are affected in opposite ways by elevated atmospheric CO2 and an extreme event (heat wave, severe drought), indicating that different factors of climate change have to be considered together.
Verónica Pancotto, David Holl, Julio Escobar, María Florencia Castagnani, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 18, 4817–4839,Short summary
We investigated the response of a wetland plant community to elevated temperature conditions in a cushion bog on Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. We measured carbon dioxide fluxes at experimentally warmed plots and at control plots. Warmed plant communities sequestered between 55 % and 85 % less carbon dioxide than untreated control cushions over the main growing season. Our results suggest that even moderate future warming could decrease the carbon sink function of austral cushion bogs.
Melissa A. Ward, Tessa M. Hill, Chelsey Souza, Tessa Filipczyk, Aurora M. Ricart, Sarah Merolla, Lena R. Capece, Brady C O'Donnell, Kristen Elsmore, Walter C. Oechel, and Kathryn M. Beheshti
Biogeosciences, 18, 4717–4732,Short summary
Salt marshes and seagrass meadows ("blue carbon" habitats) can sequester and store high levels of organic carbon (OC), helping to mitigate climate change. In California blue carbon sediments, we quantified OC storage and exchange between these habitats. We find that (1) these salt marshes store about twice as much OC as seagrass meadows do and (2), while OC from seagrass meadows is deposited into neighboring salt marshes, little of this material is sequestered as "long-term" carbon.
Damien Couespel, Marina Lévy, and Laurent Bopp
Biogeosciences, 18, 4321–4349,Short summary
An alarming consequence of climate change is the oceanic primary production decline projected by Earth system models. These coarse-resolution models parameterize oceanic eddies. Here, idealized simulations of global warming with increasing resolution show that the decline in primary production in the eddy-resolved simulations is half as large as in the eddy-parameterized simulations. This stems from the high sensitivity of the subsurface nutrient transport to model resolution.
Wu Ma, Lu Zhai, Alexandria Pivovaroff, Jacquelyn Shuman, Polly Buotte, Junyan Ding, Bradley Christoffersen, Ryan Knox, Max Moritz, Rosie A. Fisher, Charles D. Koven, Lara Kueppers, and Chonggang Xu
Biogeosciences, 18, 4005–4020,Short summary
We use a hydrodynamic demographic vegetation model to estimate live fuel moisture dynamics of chaparral shrubs, a dominant vegetation type in fire-prone southern California. Our results suggest that multivariate climate change could cause a significant net reduction in live fuel moisture and thus exacerbate future wildfire danger in chaparral shrub systems.
Bertold Mariën, Inge Dox, Hans J. De Boeck, Patrick Willems, Sebastien Leys, Dimitri Papadimitriou, and Matteo Campioli
Biogeosciences, 18, 3309–3330,Short summary
The drivers of the onset of autumn leaf senescence for several deciduous tree species are still unclear. Therefore, we addressed (i) if drought impacts the timing of autumn leaf senescence and (ii) if the relationship between drought and autumn leaf senescence depends on the tree species. Our study suggests that the timing of autumn leaf senescence is conservative across years and species and even independent of drought stress.
Anna Katavouta and Richard G. Williams
Biogeosciences, 18, 3189–3218,Short summary
Diagnostics of the latest-generation Earth system models reveal the ocean will continue to absorb a large fraction of the anthropogenic carbon released to the atmosphere in the next century, with the Atlantic Ocean storing a large amount of this carbon relative to its size. The ability of the ocean to absorb carbon will reduce in the future as the ocean warms and acidifies. This reduction is larger in the Atlantic Ocean due to a weakening of the meridional overturning with changes in climate.
Genevieve Jay Brett, Daniel B. Whitt, Matthew C. Long, Frank Bryan, Kate Feloy, and Kelvin J. Richards
Biogeosciences, 18, 3123–3145,Short summary
We quantify one form of uncertainty in modeled 21st-century changes in phytoplankton growth. The supply of nutrients from deep to surface waters decreases in the warmer future ocean, but the effect on phytoplankton growth also depends on changes in available light, how much light and nutrient the plankton need, and how fast they can grow. These phytoplankton properties can be summarized as a biological timescale: when it is short, future growth decreases twice as much as when it is long.
Sean M. Ridge and Galen A. McKinley
Biogeosciences, 18, 2711–2725,Short summary
Approximately 40 % of the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production have been absorbed by the ocean. The goal of the UNFCCC Paris Agreement is to reduce humanity's emissions so as to limit global warming to no more than 2 °C, and ideally less than 1.5 °C. If we achieve this level of mitigation, the ocean's uptake of carbon will be strongly reduced. Excess carbon trapped in the near-surface ocean will begin to mix back to the surface and will limit additional uptake.
Alexander Koch, Chris Brierley, and Simon L. Lewis
Biogeosciences, 18, 2627–2647,Short summary
Estimates of large-scale tree planting and forest restoration as a carbon sequestration tool typically miss a crucial aspect: the Earth system response to the increased land carbon sink from new vegetation. We assess the impact of tropical forest restoration using an Earth system model under a scenario that limits warming to 2 °C. Almost two-thirds of the carbon impact of forest restoration is offset by negative carbon cycle feedbacks, suggesting a more modest benefit than in previous studies.
Wei Min Hao, Matthew C. Reeves, L. Scott Baggett, Yves Balkanski, Philippe Ciais, Bryce L. Nordgren, Alexander Petkov, Rachel E. Corley, Florent Mouillot, Shawn P. Urbanski, and Chao Yue
Biogeosciences, 18, 2559–2572,Short summary
We examined the trends in the spatial and temporal distribution of the area burned in northern Eurasia from 2002 to 2016. The annual area burned in this region declined by 53 % during the 15-year period under analysis. Grassland fires in Kazakhstan dominated the fire activity, comprising 47 % of the area burned but accounting for 84 % of the decline. A wetter climate and the increase in grazing livestock in Kazakhstan are the major factors contributing to the decline in the area burned.
Hangxiao Li, Tianpeng Xu, Jing Ma, Futian Li, and Juntian Xu
Biogeosciences, 18, 1439–1449,Short summary
Few studies have investigated effects of ocean acidification and seasonal changes in temperature and day length on marine diatoms. We cultured a marine diatom under two CO2 levels and three combinations of temperature and day length, simulating different seasons, to investigate combined effects of these factors. Acidification had contrasting effects under different combinations, indicating that the future ocean may show different effects on diatoms in different clusters of factors.
Andrea J. Fassbender, James C. Orr, and Andrew G. Dickson
Biogeosciences, 18, 1407–1415,Short summary
A decline in upper-ocean pH with time is typically ascribed to ocean acidification. A more quantitative interpretation is often confused by failing to recognize the implications of pH being a logarithmic transform of hydrogen ion concentration rather than an absolute measure. This can lead to an unwitting misinterpretation of pH data. We provide three real-world examples illustrating this and recommend the reporting of both hydrogen ion concentration and pH in studies of ocean chemical change.
Claudia Hahn, Andreas Lüscher, Sara Ernst-Hasler, Matthias Suter, and Ansgar Kahmen
Biogeosciences, 18, 585–604,Short summary
While existing studies focus on the immediate effects of drought events on grassland productivity, long-term effects are mostly neglected. But, to conclude universal outcomes, studies must consider comprehensive ecosystem mechanisms. In our study, we found that the resistance of growth rates to drought in grasses varies across seasons, and positive legacy effects of drought indicate a high resilience. The high resilience compensates for immediate drought effects on grasses to a large extent.
Wim Verbruggen, Guy Schurgers, Stéphanie Horion, Jonas Ardö, Paulo N. Bernardino, Bernard Cappelaere, Jérôme Demarty, Rasmus Fensholt, Laurent Kergoat, Thomas Sibret, Torbern Tagesson, and Hans Verbeeck
Biogeosciences, 18, 77–93,Short summary
A large part of Earth's land surface is covered by dryland ecosystems, which are subject to climate extremes that are projected to increase under future climate scenarios. By using a mathematical vegetation model, we studied the impact of single years of extreme rainfall on the vegetation in the Sahel. We found a contrasting response of grasses and trees to these extremes, strongly dependent on the way precipitation is spread over the rainy season, as well as a long-term impact on CO2 uptake.
Yong Zhang, Sinéad Collins, and Kunshan Gao
Biogeosciences, 17, 6357–6375,Short summary
Our results show that ocean acidification, warming, increased light exposure and reduced nutrient availability significantly reduce the growth rate but increase particulate organic and inorganic carbon in cells in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, indicating biogeochemical consequences of future ocean changes on the calcifying microalga. Concurrent changes in nutrient concentrations and pCO2 levels predominantly affected E. huxleyi growth, photosynthetic carbon fixation and calcification.
Rong Bi, Stefanie M. H. Ismar-Rebitz, Ulrich Sommer, Hailong Zhang, and Meixun Zhao
Biogeosciences, 17, 6287–6307,Short summary
Lipids provide crucial insight into the trajectory of ecological functioning in changing environments. We experimentally explore responses of lipid biomarker production in phytoplankton to projected changes in temperature, nutrients and pCO2. Differential responses of lipid biomarkers indicate rearrangements of cellular carbon pools under future ocean scenarios. Such variations in lipid biomarker production would have important impacts on marine ecological functions and biogeochemical cycles.
George Roff, Jennifer Joseph, and Peter J. Mumby
Biogeosciences, 17, 5909–5918,Short summary
In recent decades, extensive mortality of reef-building corals throughout the Caribbean region has led to the erosion of reef frameworks and declines in biodiversity. Using field observations, models, and high-precision U–Th dating, we quantified changes in the structural complexity of coral reef frameworks over the past 2 decades. Structural complexity was stable at reef scales, yet bioerosion led to declines in small-scale microhabitat complexity with cascading effects on cryptic fauna.
Yota Harada, Rod M. Connolly, Brian Fry, Damien T. Maher, James Z. Sippo, Luke C. Jeffrey, Adam J. Bourke, and Shing Yip Lee
Biogeosciences, 17, 5599–5613,Short summary
In 2015–2016, an extensive area of mangroves along ~ 1000 km of coastline in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, experienced dieback as a result of a climatic extreme event that included drought conditions and low sea levels. Multiannual field campaigns conducted from 2016 to 2018 show substantial recovery of the mangrove vegetation. However, stable isotopes suggest long-lasting changes in carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling following the dieback.
Lena R. Boysen, Victor Brovkin, Julia Pongratz, David M. Lawrence, Peter Lawrence, Nicolas Vuichard, Philippe Peylin, Spencer Liddicoat, Tomohiro Hajima, Yanwu Zhang, Matthias Rocher, Christine Delire, Roland Séférian, Vivek K. Arora, Lars Nieradzik, Peter Anthoni, Wim Thiery, Marysa M. Laguë, Deborah Lawrence, and Min-Hui Lo
Biogeosciences, 17, 5615–5638,Short summary
We find a biogeophysically induced global cooling with strong carbon losses in a 20 million square kilometre idealized deforestation experiment performed by nine CMIP6 Earth system models. It takes many decades for the temperature signal to emerge, with non-local effects playing an important role. Despite a consistent experimental setup, models diverge substantially in their climate responses. This study offers unprecedented insights for understanding land use change effects in CMIP6 models.
Vivek K. Arora, Anna Katavouta, Richard G. Williams, Chris D. Jones, Victor Brovkin, Pierre Friedlingstein, Jörg Schwinger, Laurent Bopp, Olivier Boucher, Patricia Cadule, Matthew A. Chamberlain, James R. Christian, Christine Delire, Rosie A. Fisher, Tomohiro Hajima, Tatiana Ilyina, Emilie Joetzjer, Michio Kawamiya, Charles D. Koven, John P. Krasting, Rachel M. Law, David M. Lawrence, Andrew Lenton, Keith Lindsay, Julia Pongratz, Thomas Raddatz, Roland Séférian, Kaoru Tachiiri, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Andy Wiltshire, Tongwen Wu, and Tilo Ziehn
Biogeosciences, 17, 4173–4222,Short summary
Since the preindustrial period, land and ocean have taken up about half of the carbon emitted into the atmosphere by humans. Comparison of different earth system models with the carbon cycle allows us to assess how carbon uptake by land and ocean differs among models. This yields an estimate of uncertainty in our understanding of how land and ocean respond to increasing atmospheric CO2. This paper summarizes results from two such model intercomparison projects that use an idealized scenario.
Daniel E. Pabon-Moreno, Talie Musavi, Mirco Migliavacca, Markus Reichstein, Christine Römermann, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 17, 3991–4006,Short summary
Ecosystem CO2 uptake changes in time depending on climate conditions. In this study, we analyze how different climate variables affect the timing when CO2 uptake is at a maximum (DOYGPPmax). We found that the joint effects of radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit are the most relevant controlling factors of DOYGPPmax and that if they increase, DOYGPPmax will happen earlier. These results help us to better understand how CO2 uptake could be affected by climate change.
Thomas A. M. Pugh, Tim Rademacher, Sarah L. Shafer, Jörg Steinkamp, Jonathan Barichivich, Brian Beckage, Vanessa Haverd, Anna Harper, Jens Heinke, Kazuya Nishina, Anja Rammig, Hisashi Sato, Almut Arneth, Stijn Hantson, Thomas Hickler, Markus Kautz, Benjamin Quesada, Benjamin Smith, and Kirsten Thonicke
Biogeosciences, 17, 3961–3989,Short summary
The length of time that carbon remains in forest biomass is one of the largest uncertainties in the global carbon cycle. Estimates from six contemporary models found this time to range from 12.2 to 23.5 years for the global mean for 1985–2014. Future projections do not give consistent results, but 13 model-based hypotheses are identified, along with recommendations for pragmatic steps to test them using existing and novel observations, which would help to reduce large current uncertainty.
Natalya D. Gallo, Kevin Hardy, Nicholas C. Wegner, Ashley Nicoll, Haleigh Yang, and Lisa A. Levin
Biogeosciences, 17, 3943–3960,Short summary
Environmental exposure histories can affect organismal sensitivity to climate change and ocean deoxygenation. The natural variability of environmental conditions for nearshore deep-sea habitats is poorly known due to technological challenges. We develop and test a novel, autonomous, hand-deployable lander outfitted with environmental sensors and a camera system and use it to characterize high-frequency oxygen, temperature, and pH variability at 100–400 m as well as seafloor community responses.
Vincent Echevin, Manon Gévaudan, Dante Espinoza-Morriberón, Jorge Tam, Olivier Aumont, Dimitri Gutierrez, and François Colas
Biogeosciences, 17, 3317–3341,Short summary
The coasts of Peru encompass the richest fisheries in the entire ocean. It is therefore very important for this country to understand how the nearshore marine ecosystem may evolve under climate change. Fine-scale numerical models are very useful because they can represent precisely the evolution of key parameters such as temperature, water oxygenation, and plankton biomass. Here we study the evolution of the Peruvian marine ecosystem in the 21st century under the worst-case climate scenario.
Andrew H. MacDougall, Thomas L. Frölicher, Chris D. Jones, Joeri Rogelj, H. Damon Matthews, Kirsten Zickfeld, Vivek K. Arora, Noah J. Barrett, Victor Brovkin, Friedrich A. Burger, Micheal Eby, Alexey V. Eliseev, Tomohiro Hajima, Philip B. Holden, Aurich Jeltsch-Thömmes, Charles Koven, Nadine Mengis, Laurie Menviel, Martine Michou, Igor I. Mokhov, Akira Oka, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Gary Shaffer, Andrei Sokolov, Kaoru Tachiiri, Jerry Tjiputra, Andrew Wiltshire, and Tilo Ziehn
Biogeosciences, 17, 2987–3016,Short summary
The Zero Emissions Commitment (ZEC) is the change in global temperature expected to occur following the complete cessation of CO2 emissions. Here we use 18 climate models to assess the value of ZEC. For our experiment we find that ZEC 50 years after emissions cease is between −0.36 to +0.29 °C. The most likely value of ZEC is assessed to be close to zero. However, substantial continued warming for decades or centuries following cessation of CO2 emission cannot be ruled out.
Doron Pinko, Sigal Abramovich, and Danna Titelboim
Biogeosciences, 17, 2341–2348,Short summary
Future warming threatens many marine organisms; among these are large benthic foraminifera. These symbiont-bearing protists are major carbonate producers and ecosystem engineers. To assess the relative contribution of host and symbiont algae to the holobiont thermal tolerance, we evaluated the calcification rate and photosynthetic activity under future warming scenarios.
Wagner de Oliveira Garcia, Thorben Amann, Jens Hartmann, Kristine Karstens, Alexander Popp, Lena R. Boysen, Pete Smith, and Daniel Goll
Biogeosciences, 17, 2107–2133,Short summary
Biomass-based terrestrial negative emission technologies (tNETS) have high potential to sequester CO2. Many CO2 uptake estimates do not include the effect of nutrient deficiencies in soils on biomass production. We show that nutrients can be partly resupplied by enhanced weathering (EW) rock powder application, increasing the effectiveness of tNETs. Depending on the deployed amounts of rock powder, EW could also improve soil hydrology, adding a new dimension to the coupling of tNETs with EW.
Thomas L. Frölicher, Luca Ramseyer, Christoph C. Raible, Keith B. Rodgers, and John Dunne
Biogeosciences, 17, 2061–2083,Short summary
Climate variations can have profound impacts on marine ecosystems. Here we show that on global scales marine ecosystem drivers such as temperature, pH, O2 and NPP are potentially predictable 3 (at the surface) and more than 10 years (subsurface) in advance. However, there are distinct regional differences in the potential predictability of these drivers. Our study suggests that physical–biogeochemical forecast systems have considerable potential for use in marine resource management.
Angélique Hameau, Thomas L. Frölicher, Juliette Mignot, and Fortunat Joos
Biogeosciences, 17, 1877–1895,Short summary
Ocean deoxygenation and warming are observed and projected to intensify under continued greenhouse gas emissions. Whereas temperature is considered the main climate change indicator, we show that in certain regions, thermocline doxygenation may be detectable before warming.
Didier G. Leibovici, Shaun Quegan, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Maria Val Martin, Mathieu Guimberteau, Arsène Druel, Dan Zhu, and Philippe Ciais
Biogeosciences, 17, 1821–1844,Short summary
Analysing the impact of environmental changes due to climate change, e.g. geographical spread of climate-sensitive infections (CSIs) and agriculture crop modelling, may require land surface modelling (LSM) to predict future land surface conditions. There are multiple LSMs to choose from. The paper proposes a multivariate spatio-temporal data science method to understand the inherent uncertainties in four LSMs and the variations between them in Nordic areas for the net primary production.
Joeran Maerz, Katharina D. Six, Irene Stemmler, Soeren Ahmerkamp, and Tatiana Ilyina
Biogeosciences, 17, 1765–1803,Short summary
Marine micro-algae bind carbon dioxide, CO2. During their decay, snowflake-like aggregates form that sink, remineralize and transport organically bound CO2 to depth; this is referred to as the biological carbon pump. In our model study, we elucidate how variable aggregate composition impacts the global pattern of vertical carbon fluxes. Our mechanistic model approach advances the representation of the global biological carbon pump and promotes a more realistic projection under climate change.
Allan Buras, Anja Rammig, and Christian S. Zang
Biogeosciences, 17, 1655–1672,Short summary
This study compares the climatic conditions and ecosystem response of the extreme European drought of 2018 with the previous extreme drought of 2003. Using gridded climate data and satellite-based remote sensing information, our analyses qualify 2018 as the new European record drought with wide-ranging negative impacts on European ecosystems. Given the observation of forest-legacy effects in 2019 we call for Europe-wide forest monitoring to assess forest vulnerability to climate change.
Sten Anslan, Mina Azizi Rad, Johannes Buckel, Paula Echeverria Galindo, Jinlei Kai, Wengang Kang, Laura Keys, Philipp Maurischat, Felix Nieberding, Eike Reinosch, Handuo Tang, Tuong Vi Tran, Yuyang Wang, and Antje Schwalb
Biogeosciences, 17, 1261–1279,Short summary
Due to the high elevation, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is affected more strongly than the global average by climate warming. As a result of increasing air temperature, several environmental processes have accelerated, such as melting glaciers, thawing permafrost and grassland degradation. We review several modern and paleoenvironmental changes forced by climate warming in the lake system of Nam Co to shape our understanding of global warming effects on current and future geobiodiversity.
Natalia Gnatiuk, Iuliia Radchenko, Richard Davy, Evgeny Morozov, and Leonid Bobylev
Biogeosciences, 17, 1199–1212,Short summary
We analysed the ability of 34 climate models to reproduce main factors affecting the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi blooms in six Arctic and sub-Arctic seas. Furthermore, we proposed a procedure of ranking and selecting these models based on the model’s skill in reproducing 10 important oceanographic, meteorological, and biochemical variables in comparison with observation data and demonstrated that the proposed methodology shows a better result than commonly used all-model averaging.
M. Rosario Lorenzo, María Segovia, Jay T. Cullen, and María T. Maldonado
Biogeosciences, 17, 757–770,Short summary
Pritha Tutasi and Ruben Escribano
Biogeosciences, 17, 455–473,Short summary
Vertical migration of zooplankton has rarely been studied under the effect of a variable community structure, which depending on the behavior and size of its groups can strongly alter the magnitude of C being actively taken to depth by migrants. Here, we address this issue in a highly productive upwelling system, where a high amount of zooplankton can daily move below the mixed layer despite presence of an extremely low–oxygen water and so contribute to a significant export of C to depth.
Frances E. Hopkins, Philip D. Nightingale, John A. Stephens, C. Mark Moore, Sophie Richier, Gemma L. Cripps, and Stephen D. Archer
Biogeosciences, 17, 163–186,Short summary
We investigated the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on the production of climate active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) in polar waters. We found that polar DMS production was unaffected by OA – in contrast to temperate waters, where large increases in DMS occurred. The regional differences in DMS response may reflect natural variability in community adaptation to ambient carbonate chemistry and should be taken into account in predicting the influence of future DMS emissions on Earth's climate.
Nidhi Jha, Nitin Kumar Tripathi, Wirong Chanthorn, Warren Brockelman, Anuttara Nathalang, Raphaël Pélissier, Siriruk Pimmasarn, Pierre Ploton, Nophea Sasaki, Salvatore G. P. Virdis, and Maxime Réjou-Méchain
Biogeosciences, 17, 121–134,Short summary
Carbon stocks and dynamics are both uncertain in tropical forests, especially in Asia. We here quantify the carbon stock and recovery rate of a Thai landscape using airborne lidar and four decades of Landsat data. We show that the landscape has a high carbon stock despite its disturbance history and that secondary forests are accumulating carbon at high rate. Our study shows the potential synergy of remote sensing and field data to characterize the carbon dynamics of tropical forests.
Thorben Amann, Jens Hartmann, Eric Struyf, Wagner de Oliveira Garcia, Elke K. Fischer, Ivan Janssens, Patrick Meire, and Jonas Schoelynck
Biogeosciences, 17, 103–119,Short summary
Weathering is a major control on atmospheric CO2 at geologic timescales. Enhancement of this process can be used to actively remove CO2 from the atmosphere. Field results are still scarce and with this experiment we try to add some near-natural insights into dissolution processes. Results show CO2 sequestration potentials but also highlight the strong variability of outcomes that can be expected in natural environments. Such experiments are of the utmost importance to identify key processes.
Rachel Dietrich and Madhur Anand
Biogeosciences, 16, 4815–4827,Short summary
In shade-tolerant tree species, growth is not strictly related to tree age. In this study we show that novel tree ring standardization models that incorporate tree size in the year of ring formation produce more accurate chronologies than those produced by contemporary, age-based standardization models. These findings are important for accurate and reliable long-term trend reconstruction in tree ring studies in all species but are especially so for shade-tolerant species.
Albright, R., Mason, B., and Langdon, L.: Effect of aragonite saturation state on settlement and post-settlement growth of Porites astreoides larvae, Coral Reefs, 27, 485–490, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-008-0392-5, 2008.
Albright, R., Mason, B., Miller, M., and Langdon, C.: Ocean acidification compromises recruitment success of the threatened Caribbean coral Acropora palmata, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107, 20400–20404, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1007273107, 2010.
Albright, R., Langdon, C.: (2011) Ocean acidification impacts multiple early life history processes of the Caribbean coral Porites asteroids, Glob., Change Biol., 17, 2478–2487, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02404.x, 2011.
Albright, R.: Reviewing the Effects of Ocean Acidification on Sexual Reproduction and Early Life History Stages of Reef-Building Corals, J. Mar. Biol., 2011, 473615, https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/473615, 2011.
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