Articles | Volume 10, issue 11
Research article 07 Nov 2013
Research article | 07 Nov 2013
Soil organic carbon dynamics of black locust plantations in the middle Loess Plateau area of China
N. Lu et al.
J. Zhou, B. J. Fu, N. Lü, G. Y. Gao, Y. H. Lü, and S. Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Shuang Song, Shuai Wang, Xutong Wu, Yongyuan Huang, and Bojie Fu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
A reasonable assessment of the contribution of the water resources in a river basin to domestic crops supplies will be the first step in balancing the water-food nexus. Our results showed that although the Yellow River Basin had reduced its virtual water outflow, its importance to crop production in China had been increasing when water footprint networks were considered. Our complexity-based approach provides a new perspective for understanding changes in a basin with a severe water shortage.
Xuejing Leng, Xiaoming Feng, Bojie Fu, and Yu Zhang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
At present, there is a lack of time series of runoff generated by glacial regions in the world. In this paper, we quantified glacial runoff (including meltwater runoff and delayed runoff) in arid regions of China from 1961 to 2015 by using remote sensing datasets of glacier mass balance with high resolution. Glacier runoff is the water resource used by oases in arid regions of China. The long-term glacial runoff data can indicate the climate risk faced by different basins in arid regions.
Maierdang Keyimu, Zongshan Li, Bojie Fu, Guohua Liu, Weiliang Chen, Zexin Fan, Keyan Fang, Xiuchen Wu, and Xiaochun Wang
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for CPShort summary
We created a residual tree-ring width chronology and reconstructed non-growth season precipitation (NGSP) over the period spanning from A.D 1475–2005 in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (SETP), China. Reconstruction model verification and similar variations of NGSP reconstruction and Palmer Drought Severity Index reconstructions from surrounding region indicated the reliability of present reconstruction. Our reconstruction was representative of the NGSP variability of a large region in the SETP.
Yongzhe Chen, Xiaoming Feng, and Bojie Fu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1–31,Short summary
Soil moisture can greatly influence the ecosystem but is hard to monitor at the global scale. By calibrating and combining 11 different products derived from satellite observation, we developed a new global surface soil moisture dataset spanning from 2003 to 2018 with high accuracy. Using this new dataset, not only can the global long-term trends be derived, but also the seasonal variation and spatial distribution of surface soil moisture at different latitudes can be better studied.
Xianfeng Liu, Xiaoming Feng, Philippe Ciais, and Bojie Fu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3663–3676,Short summary
Freshwater availability is crucial for sustainable development across the Asian and eastern European regions. Our results indicate widespread decline in terrestrial water storage (TWS) over the region during 2002–2017, primarily due to the intensive over-extraction of groundwater and warmth-induced surface water loss. The findings provide insights into changes in TWS and its components over the Asian and eastern European regions, where there is growing demand for food grains and water supplies.
Jianjun Zhang, Guangyao Gao, Bojie Fu, Cong Wang, Hoshin V. Gupta, Xiaoping Zhang, and Rui Li
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 809–826,Short summary
We proposed an approach that integrates universal multifractals and a segmentation algorithm to precisely identify extreme precipitation (EP) and assess spatiotemporal EP variation over the Loess Plateau, using daily data. Our results explain how EP contributes to the widely distributed severe natural hazards. These findings are of great significance for ecological management in the Loess Plateau. Our approach is also helpful for spatiotemporal EP assessment at the regional scale.
Chuan Yuan, Guangyao Gao, Bojie Fu, Daming He, Xingwu Duan, and Xiaohua Wei
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4077–4095,Short summary
The stemflow dynamics of two xerophytic shrubs were investigated at the inter- and intra-event scales with high-temporal-resolution data in 54 rain events. Stemflow process was depicted by intensity, duration and time lags to rain events. Funneling ratio was calculated as the ratio of stemflow to rainfall intensities. Rainfall intensity and raindrop momentum controlled stemflow intensity and time lags. Influences of rainfall characteristics on stemflow variables showed temporal dependence.
Linhua Wang, Haw Yen, Xinhui E, Liding Chen, and Yafeng Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 3141–3153,Short summary
A high-frequency approach was used to monitor dynamic changes of DOC exported during the concentrated rainfall season in LPR, China. DOC concentration and flux from an ecologically restored catchment in the LPR was investigated. Hysteresis analysis indicated non-linear relationships between DOC concentration and discharge rate in a rainfall event. DOC export is substantially affected by the interaction of rainfall and antecedent conditions for a rainfall event.
Linhua Wang, Haw Yen, Liding Chen, Xinhui E, and Yafeng Wang
Biogeosciences, 15, 3345–3356,Short summary
(1) We obtained a better understanding of wet dissolved carbon deposition during a concentrated rainy season at a semi-arid catchment in the Loess Plateau region. (2) Wet dissolved carbon deposition concentration exhibited large variations and may be influenced by dissolved carbon source, rainfall characteristics, and the interactions between ions. (3) The estimated annual DOC and DIC deposition fluxes were 1.91 and 1.89 g C m−2 yr−1 and indicated a substantial input to the semi-arid catchment.
Yuan Zhang, Xiaoming Feng, Xiaofeng Wang, and Bojie Fu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1749–1766,Short summary
We characterized drought by linking climate anomalies with the change in precipitation–runoff relationships in China's Loess Plateau, where drought is of major concern for revegetation. Multi-year drought causes a change in the precipitation–runoff relationship in this water limited area. The drought causing a decrease in runoff ratio is vital to ecosystem management. The revegetation in the Loess Plateau should live with the spatially varied drought.
Guangyao Gao, Jianjun Zhang, Yu Liu, Zheng Ning, Bojie Fu, and Murugesu Sivapalan
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 4363–4378,Short summary
This study extracted spatio-temporal patterns in the effects of LUCC and precipitation variability on sediment yield across the Loess Plateau during 1961–2011. The impacts of precipitation on sediment yield declined with time and the precipitation-sediment relationship showed a coherent spatial pattern. The sediment coefficient, representing the effect of LUCC, decreases linearly with fraction of area treated with erosion control measures and the slopes were highly variable among the catchments.
Yonggang Yang and Bojie Fu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1757–1767,Short summary
This paper investigates soil water migration processes in the Loess Plateau using isotopes. The soil water migration is dominated by piston-type flow, but rarely preferential flow. Soil water from the soil lay (20–40 cm) contributed to 6–12% of plant xylem water, while soil water at the depth of 40–60 cm is the largest component (range from 60 to 66 %), soil water below 60 cm depth contributed 8–14 % to plant xylem water, and only 5–8 % is derived from precipitation.
Ji Zhou, Bojie Fu, Guangyao Gao, Yihe Lü, and Shuai Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1491–1514,Short summary
We constructed an integrated probabilistic assessment to describe, simulate and evaluate the stochasticity of soil erosion in restoration vegetation in the Loess Plateau. We found that morphological structures in vegetation are the source of different stochasticities of soil erosion, and proved that the Poisson model is fit for predicting erosion stochasticity. This assessment could be an important complement to develop restoration strategies to improve understanding of stochasticity of erosion.
Chuan Yuan, Guangyao Gao, and Bojie Fu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1421–1438,Short summary
We computed stemflow yield and efficiency, and analyzed the influential mechanism at smaller scales of leaf and raindrop. We found that precipitation was the most influential meteorological feature on stemflow. The smaller threshold precipitation to start stemflow and the more beneficial leaf traits might partly explain the larger and more efficient stemflow production. At defoliated period, the newly exposed stems replaced leaves to intercept raindrops and might really matter in stemflow yield.
J. Zhou, B. J. Fu, N. Lü, G. Y. Gao, Y. H. Lü, and S. Wang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Y. D. Xu, B. J. Fu, and C. S. He
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 2185–2193,
G. H. S. Guendehou, J. Liski, M. Tuomi, M. Moudachirou, B. Sinsin, and R. Mäkipää
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
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Our incubation experiment shows that flooding of polluted floodplain soils may induce pulses of both mercury (Hg) and methylmercury to the soil solution and threaten downstream ecosystems. We demonstrate that mobilization of Hg bound to manganese oxides is a relevant process in organic-matter-poor soils. Addition of organic amendments accelerates this mobilization but also facilitates the formation of nanoparticulate Hg and the subsequent fixation of Hg from soil solution to the soil.
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Marion Schrumpf, Klaus Kaiser, Allegra Mayer, Günter Hempel, and Susan Trumbore
Biogeosciences, 18, 1241–1257,Short summary
A large amount of organic carbon (OC) in soil is protected against decay by bonding to minerals. We studied the release of mineral-bonded OC by NaF–NaOH extraction and H2O2 oxidation. Unexpectedly, extraction and oxidation removed mineral-bonded OC at roughly constant portions and of similar age distributions, irrespective of mineral composition, land use, and soil depth. The results suggest uniform modes of interactions between OC and minerals across soils in quasi-steady state with inputs.
Lena Rohe, Bernd Apelt, Hans-Jörg Vogel, Reinhard Well, Gi-Mick Wu, and Steffen Schlüter
Biogeosciences, 18, 1185–1201,Short summary
Total denitrification, i.e. N2O and (N2O + N2) fluxes, of repacked soil cores were analysed for different combinations of soils and water contents. Prediction accuracy of (N2O + N2) fluxes was highest with combined proxies for oxygen demand (CO2 flux) and oxygen supply (anaerobic soil volume fraction). Knowledge of denitrification completeness (product ratio) improved N2O predictions. Substitutions with cheaper proxies (soil organic matter, empirical diffusivity) reduced prediction accuracy.
Severin-Luca Bellè, Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Frank Hagedorn, Cristina Santin, Marcus Schiedung, Ilja van Meerveld, and Samuel Abiven
Biogeosciences, 18, 1105–1126,Short summary
Controls of pyrogenic carbon (PyC) redistribution under rainfall are largely unknown. However, PyC mobility can be substantial after initial rain in post-fire landscapes. We conducted a controlled simulation experiment on plots where PyC was applied on the soil surface. We identified redistribution of PyC by runoff and splash and vertical movement in the soil depending on soil texture and PyC characteristics (material and size). PyC also induced changes in exports of native soil organic carbon.
Michael Rinderer, Jaane Krüger, Friederike Lang, Heike Puhlmann, and Markus Weiler
Biogeosciences, 18, 1009–1027,Short summary
We quantified the lateral and vertical subsurface flow (SSF) and P concentrations of three beech forest plots with contrasting soil properties during sprinkling experiments. Vertical SSF was 2 orders of magnitude larger than lateral SSF, and both consisted mainly of pre-event water. P concentrations in SSF were high during the first 1 to 2 h (nutrient flushing) but nearly constant thereafter. This suggests that P in the soil solution was replenished fast by mineral or organic sources.
Kirsty C. Paterson, Joanna M. Cloy, Robert M. Rees, Elizabeth M. Baggs, Hugh Martineau, Dario Fornara, Andrew J. Macdonald, and Sarah Buckingham
Biogeosciences, 18, 605–620,Short summary
Soil organic carbon sequestration across agroecosystems worldwide can contribute to mitigating the effects of climate change by reducing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The maximum carbon sequestration potential is frequently estimated using the linear regression equation developed by Hassink (1997). This work examines the suitability of this equation for use in grasslands across the United Kingdom. The results highlight the need to ensure the fit of equations to the soils being studied.
Hannah Gies, Frank Hagedorn, Maarten Lupker, Daniel Montluçon, Negar Haghipour, Tessa Sophia van der Voort, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 18, 189–205,Short summary
Understanding controls on the persistence of organic matter in soils is essential to constrain its role in the carbon cycle. Emerging concepts suggest that the soil carbon pool is predominantly comprised of stabilized microbial residues. To test this hypothesis we isolated microbial membrane lipids from two Swiss soil profiles and measured their radiocarbon age. We find that the ages of these compounds are in the range of millenia and thus provide evidence for stabilized microbial mass in soils.
Frederick Büks, Gilles Kayser, Antonia Zieger, Friederike Lang, and Martin Kaupenjohann
Biogeosciences, 18, 159–167,Short summary
Ultrasonication/density fractionation is a common method used to extract particulate organic matter (POM) and, recently, microplastic (MP) from soil samples. In this study, ultrasonic treatment with mechanical stress increasing from 0 to 500 J mL−1 caused comminution and a reduced recovery rate of soil-derived POMs but no such effects with MP particles. In consequence, the extraction of MP from soils is not affected by particle size and recovery rate artifacts.
Hang Wen, Pamela L. Sullivan, Gwendolyn L. Macpherson, Sharon A. Billings, and Li Li
Biogeosciences, 18, 55–75,Short summary
Carbonate weathering is essential in regulating carbon cycle at the century timescale. Plant roots accelerate weathering by elevating soil CO2 via respiration. It however remains poorly understood how and how much rooting characteristics modify flow paths and weathering. This work indicates that deepening roots in woodlands can enhance carbonate weathering by promoting recharge and CO2–carbonate contact in the deep, carbonate-abundant subsurface.
Marcus Schiedung, Severin-Luca Bellè, Gabriel Sigmund, Karsten Kalbitz, and Samuel Abiven
Biogeosciences, 17, 6457–6474,Short summary
The mobility of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) in soils is largely unknow, while it is a major and persistent component of the soil organic matter. With a soil column experiment, we identified that only a small proportion of PyOM can migrate through the soil, but its export is continuous. Aging and associated oxidation increase its mobility but also its retention in soils. Further, PyOM can alter the vertical mobility of native soil organic carbon during its downward migration.
Patrick Wordell-Dietrich, Anja Wotte, Janet Rethemeyer, Jörg Bachmann, Mirjam Helfrich, Kristina Kirfel, Christoph Leuschner, and Axel Don
Biogeosciences, 17, 6341–6356,Short summary
The release of CO2 from soils, known as soil respiration, plays a major role in the global carbon cycle. However, the contributions of different soil depths or the sources of soil CO2 have hardly been studied. We quantified the CO2 production for different soil layers (up to 1.5 m) in three soil profiles for 2 years. We found that 90 % of CO2 production occurs in the first 30 cm of the soil profile, and that the CO2 originated from young carbon sources, as revealed by radiocarbon measurements.
Antonio Rodríguez, Rosa Maria Canals, Josefina Plaixats, Elena Albanell, Haifa Debouk, Jordi Garcia-Pausas, Leticia San Emeterio, Àngela Ribas, Juan José Jimenez, and M.-Teresa Sebastià
Biogeosciences, 17, 6033–6050,Short summary
The novelty of our work is that it presents a series of potential interactions between drivers of soil organic carbon at broad scales in temperate mountain grasslands. The most relevant contribution of our work is that it illustrates the importance of grazing management for soil carbon stocks, indicating that interactions between grazing species and soil nitrogen and herbage quality may be promising paths in order to design further management policies for palliating climate change.
Curt A. McConnell, Jason P. Kaye, and Armen R. Kemanian
Biogeosciences, 17, 5309–5333,Short summary
Soil phosphorus (P) management is a critical challenge for agriculture worldwide; yet, simulation models of soil P processes lag those of other essential nutrients. In this review, we identify hindrances to measuring and modeling soil P pools and fluxes. We highlight the need to clarify biological and mineral interactions by defining P pools explicitly and using evolving techniques, such as tracing P in phosphates using oxygen isotopes.
Greta Formaglio, Edzo Veldkamp, Xiaohong Duan, Aiyen Tjoa, and Marife D. Corre
Biogeosciences, 17, 5243–5262,Short summary
The intensive management of large-scale oil palm plantations may result in high nutrient leaching losses which reduce soil fertility and potentially pollute water bodies. The reduction in management intensity with lower fertilization rates and with mechanical weeding instead of the use of herbicide results in lower nutrient leaching losses while maintaining high yield. Lower leaching results from lower nutrient inputs from fertilizer and from higher retention by enhanced cover vegetation.
Isabelle Basile-Doelsch, Jérôme Balesdent, and Sylvain Pellerin
Biogeosciences, 17, 5223–5242,Short summary
The 4 per 1000 initiative aims to restore carbon storage in soils to both mitigate climate change and contribute to food security. The French National Institute for Agricultural Research conducted a study to determine the carbon storage potential in French soils and associated costs. This paper is a part of that study. It reviews recent advances concerning the mechanisms that controls C stabilization in soils. Synthetic figures integrating new concepts should be of pedagogical interest.
Jolanda E. Reusser, René Verel, Daniel Zindel, Emmanuel Frossard, and Timothy I. McLaren
Biogeosciences, 17, 5079–5095,Short summary
Inositol phosphates (IPs) are a major pool of organic P in soil. However, information on their diversity and abundance in soil is limited. We isolated IPs from soil and characterised them using solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. For the first time, we provide direct spectroscopic evidence for the existence of a multitude of lower-order IPs in soil extracts previously not detected with NMR. Our findings will help provide new insight into the cycling of IPs in ecosystems.
Katharina Hildegard Elisabeth Meurer, Claire Chenu, Elsa Coucheney, Anke Marianne Herrmann, Thomas Keller, Thomas Kätterer, David Nimblad Svensson, and Nicholas Jarvis
Biogeosciences, 17, 5025–5042,Short summary
We present a simple model that describes, for the first time, the dynamic two-way interactions between soil organic matter and soil physical properties (porosity, pore size distribution, bulk density and layer thickness). The model was able to accurately reproduce the changes in soil organic carbon, soil bulk density and surface elevation observed during 63 years in a field trial, as well as soil water retention curves measured at the end of the experimental period.
Marion Nyberg and Mark J. Hovenden
Biogeosciences, 17, 4405–4420,Short summary
Experimental warming increased soil respiration (RS) by more than 25 % in a Tasmanian C-rich soil, but there was no impact on microbial respiration in laboratory experiments. Plant community composition had no effect on RS, suggesting the response is likely due to enhanced belowground plant respiration and C supply through rhizodeposition and root exudates. Results imply we need studies of both C inputs and losses to model net ecosystem C exchange of these crucial, C-dense systems effectively.
Akane O. Abbasi, Alejandro Salazar, Youmi Oh, Sabine Reinsch, Maria del Rosario Uribe, Jianghanyang Li, Irfan Rashid, and Jeffrey S. Dukes
Biogeosciences, 17, 3859–3873,Short summary
In this study, we provide a holistic view of soil responses to precipitation changes. A total of 16 meta-analyses focusing on the effects of precipitation changes on 42 soil response variables were compared. A strong agreement was found that the belowground carbon and nitrogen cycling accelerate under increased precipitation and slow under decreased precipitation, while bacterial and fungal communities are relatively resistant to decreased precipitation. Knowledge gaps were also identified.
Isabel Prater, Sebastian Zubrzycki, Franz Buegger, Lena C. Zoor-Füllgraff, Gerrit Angst, Michael Dannenmann, and Carsten W. Mueller
Biogeosciences, 17, 3367–3383,Short summary
Large amounts of soil organic matter stored in permafrost-affected soils from Arctic Russia are present as undecomposed plant residues. This large fibrous organic matter might be highly vulnerable to microbial decay, while small mineral-associated organic matter can most probably attenuate carbon mineralization in a warmer future. Labile soil fractions also store large amounts of nitrogen, which might be lost during permafrost collapse while fostering the decomposition of soil organic matter.
Patrick Liebmann, Patrick Wordell-Dietrich, Karsten Kalbitz, Robert Mikutta, Fabian Kalks, Axel Don, Susanne K. Woche, Leena R. Dsilva, and Georg Guggenberger
Biogeosciences, 17, 3099–3113,Short summary
We studied the contribution of litter-derived carbon (C) in the formation of subsoil organic matter (OM). Soil core sampling, 13C field labeling, density fractionation, and water extractions were used to track its contribution to different functional OM fractions down to the deep subsoil. We show that while migrating down the soil profile, OM undergoes a sequence of repeated sorption, microbial processing, and desorption. However, the contribution of litter-derived C to subsoil OM is small.
Artem G. Lim, Martin Jiskra, Jeroen E. Sonke, Sergey V. Loiko, Natalia Kosykh, and Oleg S. Pokrovsky
Biogeosciences, 17, 3083–3097,Short summary
To better understand the mercury (Hg) content in northern soils, we measured Hg concentration in peat cores across a 1700 km permafrost gradient in Siberia. We demonstrated a northward increase in Hg concentration in peat and Hg pools in frozen peatlands. We revised the 0–30 cm northern soil Hg pool to be 72 Gg, which is 7 % of the global soil Hg pool of 1086 Gg. The results are important for understanding Hg exchange between soil, water, and the atmosphere under climate change in the Arctic.
Caitlin Hicks Pries, Alon Angert, Cristina Castanha, Boaz Hilman, and Margaret S. Torn
Biogeosciences, 17, 3045–3055,Short summary
The apparent respiration quotient (ARQ) changes according to which substrates microbes consume, allowing sources of soil respiration to be traced. In a forest soil warming experiment, ARQ had a strong seasonal pattern that reflected a shift from respiration being fueled by sugars and organic acids derived from roots during the growing season to respiration being fueled by dead microbes during winter. ARQ values also changed with experimental warming.
Marijn Van de Broek, Shiva Ghiasi, Charlotte Decock, Andreas Hund, Samuel Abiven, Cordula Friedli, Roland A. Werner, and Johan Six
Biogeosciences, 17, 2971–2986,Short summary
Four wheat cultivars were labeled with 13CO2 to quantify the effect of rooting depth and root biomass on the belowground transfer of organic carbon. We found no clear relation between the time since cultivar development and the amount of carbon inputs to the soil. Therefore, the hypothesis that wheat cultivars with a larger root biomass and deeper roots promote carbon stabilization was rejected. The amount of root biomass that will be stabilized in the soil on the long term is, however, unknown.
Carolyn J. Ewers Lewis, Mary A. Young, Daniel Ierodiaconou, Jeffrey A. Baldock, Bruce Hawke, Jonathan Sanderman, Paul E. Carnell, and Peter I. Macreadie
Biogeosciences, 17, 2041–2059,Short summary
Blue carbonecosystems – tidal marsh, mangrove, and seagrass – serve as important organic carbon sinks, mitigating impacts of climate change. We utilized a robust regional carbon stock dataset to identify ecological, geomorphological, and anthropogenic drivers of carbon stock variability and create high-spatial-resolution predictive carbon stock maps. This work facilitates strategic conservation and restoration of coastal blue carbon ecosystems to contribute to climate change mitigation.
Yuqing Liu, Wenhong Ma, Dan Kou, Xiaxia Niu, Tian Wang, Yongliang Chen, Dima Chen, Xiaoqin Zhu, Mengying Zhao, Baihui Hao, Jinbo Zhang, Yuanhe Yang, and Huifeng Hu
Biogeosciences, 17, 2009–2019,Short summary
The microbial C : N ratio increased with aridity, while the microbial N : P ratio decreased with aridity, which implied that drought-stimulated microbes tend to be more N conservative. Among all examined ecological factors, substrate supply and microbial structure together controlled the microbial stoichiometry. Overall, these results illustrated N and P limitation in microbial biomass at deeper soil depths along the aridity gradient and limited responses to ecological factors in the subsoil.
Laura Matkala, Maija Salemaa, and Jaana Bäck
Biogeosciences, 17, 1535–1556,Short summary
We studied how species number and abundance of the understorey vegetation correlates with nutrient contents of soil and tree leaves at a northern boreal forest site. The phosphorus (P) content of the humus layer showed higher correlation with vegetation than the nitrogen (N) content. Usually N is considered more important in boreal forests. The plots with high P content in humus had birch as the dominant tree species, implying that birch leaf litter is an important source of P to the plants.
John Marty Kranabetter, Ariana Sholinder, and Louise de Montigny
Biogeosciences, 17, 1247–1260,Short summary
Temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest often have productive soils with high levels of organic matter. We describe the nitrogen and phosphorus attributes of this soil organic matter in relation to the growth of four conifer species. Sitka spruce thrived on high-nitrogen soils, more so than the other conifer species, but productivity overall is likely constrained by phosphorus deficiencies. Study results will guide wood production, carbon sequestration and conservation priorities.
Jianxiao Zhu, Chuankuan Wang, Zhang Zhou, Guoyi Zhou, Xueyang Hu, Lai Jiang, Yide Li, Guohua Liu, Chengjun Ji, Shuqing Zhao, Peng Li, Jiangling Zhu, Zhiyao Tang, Chengyang Zheng, Richard A. Birdsey, Yude Pan, and Jingyun Fang
Biogeosciences, 17, 715–726,Short summary
Soil is the largest carbon pool in forests. Whether forest soils function as a sink or source of atmospheric carbon remains controversial. Here, we investigated the 20-year changes in the soil organic carbon pool at eight permanent forest plots in China. Our results revealed that the soils sequestered 3.6–16.3 % of the annual net primary production across the investigated sites, demonstrating that these forest soils have functioned as an important C sink during the past 2 decades.
Julian Helfenstein, Chiara Pistocchi, Astrid Oberson, Federica Tamburini, Daniel S. Goll, and Emmanuel Frossard
Biogeosciences, 17, 441–454,Short summary
In this article we provide estimates of mean residence times of phosphorus in inorganic soil phosphorus pools. These values improve our understanding of the dynamics of phosphorus cycling and can be used to improve global land surface models.
Peter Kuhry, Jiří Bárta, Daan Blok, Bo Elberling, Samuel Faucherre, Gustaf Hugelius, Christian J. Jørgensen, Andreas Richter, Hana Šantrůčková, and Niels Weiss
Biogeosciences, 17, 361–379,
Sophie Casetou-Gustafson, Harald Grip, Stephen Hillier, Sune Linder, Bengt A. Olsson, Magnus Simonsson, and Johan Stendahl
Biogeosciences, 17, 281–304,Short summary
Reliable methods are required for estimating mineral supply rates to forest growth from weathering. We applied the depletion method, the PROFILE model and the base cation budget method to two forest sites in Sweden. The highest weathering rate was obtained from the budget method and the lowest from the depletion method. The high rate by the budget method suggests that there were additional sources for tree uptake not captured by measurements.
Yang Lin, Avner Gross, Christine S. O'Connell, and Whendee L. Silver
Biogeosciences, 17, 89–101,Short summary
Phosphorus (P) is an important soil nutrient that often limits plant growth and microbial activity in humid tropical forests. These ecosystems receive a large amount of rainfall that helps create frequent anoxic events in soils. Our results show that anoxic conditions reduced the strength of soil minerals to bind P even though a large amount of P was still bound to minerals. Our study suggests that anoxic events might serve as hot moments for plants and microbes to acquire P.
Yakov Kuzyakov and Kazem Zamanian
Biogeosciences, 16, 4783–4803,Short summary
Agropedogenesis, i.e. soil development under agricultural use, is the anthropogenic modification of soil and environmental factors for optimization of crop production. Maximization of only this function, crop production, leads to declines in all other soil functions and consequently promotes uniformity in soil properties around the globe. Here we developed a new scientific background for the theory of agropedogenesis and the identification of soil degradation stages.
Cecilia Akselsson, Salim Belyazid, Johan Stendahl, Roger Finlay, Bengt A. Olsson, Martin Erlandsson Lampa, Håkan Wallander, Jon Petter Gustafsson, and Kevin Bishop
Biogeosciences, 16, 4429–4450,Short summary
The release of elements from soil through weathering is an important process, controlling nutrient availability for plants and recovery from acidification. However, direct measurements cannot be done, and present estimates are burdened with high uncertainties. In this paper we use different approaches to quantify weathering rates in different scales in Sweden and discuss the pros and cons. The study contributes to more robust assessments of sustainable harvesting of forest biomass.
Heyong Liu, Ruzhen Wang, Hongyi Wang, Yanzhuo Cao, Feike A. Dijkstra, Zhan Shi, Jiangping Cai, Zhengwen Wang, Hongtao Zou, and Yong Jiang
Biogeosciences, 16, 4293–4306,
Yanxia Nie, Xiaoge Han, Jie Chen, Mengcen Wang, and Weijun Shen
Biogeosciences, 16, 4277–4291,Short summary
The N–transformation rates and N–related functional gene abundance were surveyed in a tropical forest soil with experimental N additions. The C : N ratio was the determinant factor for N transformations in the dry season while the microbial biomass was the one in the wet season. This study also found that high N addition imposed significant positive effects on the functional gene abundance of AOA amoA and nirK but negative effects on that of AOB amoA and nosZ.
Axel Don, Christina Hagen, Erik Grüneberg, and Cora Vos
Biogeosciences, 16, 4145–4155,Short summary
Forest soils have a steep carbon gradient from the forest floor to the mineral soil, indicating that carbon is prevented from entry into the soil. Wild boar are effective in mixing the soil when searching for food. In a 6–year field study, we found no significant changes in soil organic carbon stocks in the wild boar treatment plots. However, around 50 % of forest floor carbon was transferred with mixing into mineral soil carbon and increased the stabilised fraction of soil organic carbon.
Sarah W. Keenan, Sean M. Schaeffer, and Jennifer M. DeBruyn
Biogeosciences, 16, 3929–3939,Short summary
Decaying animals perturb soil biogeochemical cycles. Stable δ15N composition, which reflects the sum of all biogeochemical processes, increases during decay and persists for years. Enrichment following beaver decay persisted after at least 1 year, and was evident up to 10 cm depth and 60 cm from the decaying animals, beyond where soils were visibly impacted by decomposition. Nutrients sourced from decaying animals represent an integral and long–lived component of nitrogen cycling in soils.
Aditi Sengupta, Julia Indivero, Cailene Gunn, Malak M. Tfaily, Rosalie K. Chu, Jason Toyoda, Vanessa L. Bailey, Nicholas D. Ward, and James C. Stegen
Biogeosciences, 16, 3911–3928,Short summary
Coastal terrestrial–aquatic interfaces represent dynamic yet poorly understood zones of biogeochemical cycles. We evaluated associations between the soil salinity gradient, molecular-level soil-C chemistry, and microbial community assembly processes in a coastal watershed on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, USA. Results revealed salinity-driven gradients in molecular-level C chemistry, with little evidence of an association between C chemistry and microbial community assembly processes.
Steffen Schlüter, Jan Zawallich, Hans-Jörg Vogel, and Peter Dörsch
Biogeosciences, 16, 3665–3678,Short summary
A combination of gas chromatography and X-ray CT reveals the microscale processes that govern soil respiration. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration in microbial hotspots depends not only on the quality and quantity of soil organic matter, but also on the spatial distribution of hotspots. Denitrification kinetics are mainly governed by hotspot architecture due to local competition for oxygen during growth. Cumulative behavior is mainly governed by water saturation due to the overall supply with O2.
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