Articles | Volume 12, issue 14
Biogeosciences, 12, 4221–4233, 2015
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Freshwater ecosystems in changing permafrost landscapes
20 Jul 2015
Research article | 20 Jul 2015
The role of watershed characteristics, permafrost thaw, and wildfire on dissolved organic carbon biodegradability and water chemistry in Arctic headwater streams
J. R. Larouche et al.
No articles found.
Arial J. Shogren, Jay P. Zarnetske, Benjamin W. Abbott, Samuel Bratsman, Brian Brown, Michael P. Carey, Randy Fulweber, Heather E. Greaves, Emma Haines, Frances Iannucci, Joshua C. Koch, Alexander Medvedeff, Jonathan A. O'Donnell, Leika Patch, Brett A. Poulin, Tanner J. Williamson, and William B. Bowden
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 95–116,Short summary
Rapidly sampling multiple points in an entire river network provides a high-resolution snapshot in time that can reveal where nutrients and carbon are being taken up and released. Here, we describe two such datasets of river network chemistry in six Arctic watersheds in northern Alaska. We describe how these repeated snapshots can be used as an indicator of ecosystem response to climate change and to improve predictions of future release of carbon, nutrient, and other solutes.
Hang Wen, Julia Perdrial, Benjamin W. Abbott, Susana Bernal, Rémi Dupas, Sarah E. Godsey, Adrian Harpold, Donna Rizzo, Kristen Underwood, Thomas Adler, Gary Sterle, and Li Li
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 945–966,Short summary
Lateral carbon fluxes from terrestrial to aquatic systems remain central uncertainties in determining ecosystem carbon balance. This work explores how temperature and hydrology control production and export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at the catchment scale. Results illustrate the asynchrony of DOC production, controlled by temperature, and export, governed by flow paths; concentration–discharge relationships are determined by the relative contribution of shallow versus groundwater flow.
Michael M. Loranty, Benjamin W. Abbott, Daan Blok, Thomas A. Douglas, Howard E. Epstein, Bruce C. Forbes, Benjamin M. Jones, Alexander L. Kholodov, Heather Kropp, Avni Malhotra, Steven D. Mamet, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Susan M. Natali, Jonathan A. O'Donnell, Gareth K. Phoenix, Adrian V. Rocha, Oliver Sonnentag, Ken D. Tape, and Donald A. Walker
Biogeosciences, 15, 5287–5313,Short summary
Vegetation and soils strongly influence ground temperature in permafrost ecosystems across the Arctic and sub-Arctic. These effects will cause differences rates of permafrost thaw related to the distribution of tundra and boreal forests. As the distribution of forests and tundra change, the effects of climate change on permafrost will also change. We review the ecosystem processes that will influence permafrost thaw and outline how they will feed back to climate warming.
Andrew W. Balser, Jeremy B. Jones, and M. Torre Jorgenson
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
The permafrost carbon feedback is an important climate change feedback, but quantifying the effect across the Arctic is difficult because permafrost includes a very broad variety of properties among landscapes which respond differently to climate perturbations. Permafrost properties are integrally linked with surface vegetation and terrain properties, but the relationships are complex. We test the ability to characterize these relationships spatially across landscapes in northern Alaska.
Zahra Thomas, Benjamin W. Abbott, Olivier Troccaz, Jacques Baudry, and Gilles Pinay
Biogeosciences, 13, 1863–1875,Short summary
Direct human impact on a catchment (fertilizer input, soil disturbance, urbanization) is asymmetrically linked with inherent catchment properties (geology, soil, topography), which together determine catchment vulnerability to human activity. To quantify the influence of physical, hydrologic, and anthropogenic controls on surface water quality, we used a 5-year high-frequency water chemistry data set from three contrasting headwater catchments in western France.
J. E. Vonk, S. E. Tank, W. B. Bowden, I. Laurion, W. F. Vincent, P. Alekseychik, M. Amyot, M. F. Billet, J. Canário, R. M. Cory, B. N. Deshpande, M. Helbig, M. Jammet, J. Karlsson, J. Larouche, G. MacMillan, M. Rautio, K. M. Walter Anthony, and K. P. Wickland
Biogeosciences, 12, 7129–7167,Short summary
In this review, we give an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding how permafrost thaw affects aquatic systems. We describe the general impacts of thaw on aquatic ecosystems, pathways of organic matter and contaminant release and degradation, resulting emissions and burial, and effects on ecosystem structure and functioning. We conclude with an overview of potential climate effects and recommendations for future research.
J. E. Vonk, S. E. Tank, P. J. Mann, R. G. M. Spencer, C. C. Treat, R. G. Striegl, B. W. Abbott, and K. P. Wickland
Biogeosciences, 12, 6915–6930,Short summary
We found that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in arctic soils and aquatic systems is increasingly degradable with increasing permafrost extent. Also, DOC seems less degradable when moving down the fluvial network in continuous permafrost regions, i.e. from streams to large rivers, suggesting that highly bioavailable DOC is lost in headwater streams. We also recommend a standardized DOC incubation protocol to facilitate future comparison on processing and transport of DOC in a changing Arctic.
B. W. Abbott, J. B. Jones, S. E. Godsey, J. R. Larouche, and W. B. Bowden
Biogeosciences, 12, 3725–3740,Short summary
As high latitudes warm, carbon and nitrogen stored in permafrost soil will be vulnerable to erosion and transport to Arctic streams and rivers. We sampled outflow from 83 permafrost collapse features in Alaska. Permafrost collapse caused substantial increases in dissolved organic carbon and inorganic nitrogen but decreased methane concentration by 90%. Upland thermokarst may be a dominant linkage transferring carbon and nutrients from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems as the Arctic warms.
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Rivers & StreamsOrganic matter transformations are disconnected between surface water and the hyporheic zoneCO2 emissions from peat-draining rivers regulated by water pHHigh-resolution vertical biogeochemical profiles in the hyporheic zone reveal insights into microbial methane cyclingEffects of peatland management on aquatic carbon concentrations and fluxesResistance and resilience of stream metabolism to high flow disturbancesEnhanced bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in human-disturbed streams in Alpine fluvial networksSpatial and temporal variability of pCO2 and CO2 emissions from the Dong River in south ChinaFluvial carbon dioxide emission from the Lena River basin during the spring floodDiel patterns in stream nitrate concentration produced by in-stream processesComplex interactions of in-stream dissolved organic matter and nutrient spiralling unravelled by Bayesian regression analysisSpatial–temporal variations in riverine carbon strongly influenced by local hydrological events in an alpine catchmentRapid soil organic carbon decomposition in river systems: effects of the aquatic microbial community and hydrodynamical disturbanceIncreased carbon capture by a silicate-treated forested watershed affected by acid depositionThermokarst amplifies fluvial inorganic carbon cycling and export across watershed scales on the Peel Plateau, CanadaTemporary and net sinks of atmospheric CO2 due to chemical weathering in subtropical catchment with mixing carbonate and silicate lithologyFrom canals to the coast: dissolved organic matter and trace metal composition in rivers draining degraded tropical peatlands in IndonesiaDistribution and flux of dissolved iron in the peatland-draining rivers and estuaries of Sarawak, Malaysian BorneoComparisons of dissolved organic matter and its optical characteristics in small low and high Arctic catchmentsHigh-frequency measurements explain quantity and quality of dissolved organic carbon mobilization in a headwater catchmentDissolved inorganic nitrogen in a tropical estuary in Malaysia: transport and transformationBehaviour of Dissolved Phosphorus with the associated nutrients in relation to phytoplankton biomass of the Rajang River-South China Sea continuumSynchrony in catchment stream colour levels is driven by both local and regional climateThe post-monsoon carbon biogeochemistry of the Hooghly–Sundarbans estuarine system under different levels of anthropogenic impactsRiverine particulate C and N generated at the permafrost thaw front: case study of western Siberian rivers across a 1700 km latitudinal transectGeochemistry of the dissolved loads during high-flow season of rivers in the southeastern coastal region of China: anthropogenic impact on chemical weathering and carbon sequestrationCO2 partial pressure and CO2 emission along the lower Red River (Vietnam)Stable isotopes of nitrate reveal different nitrogen processing mechanisms in streams across a land use gradient during wet and dry periodsRiverine carbon export in the arid to semiarid Wuding River catchment on the Chinese Loess PlateauUse of argon to measure gas exchange in turbulent mountain streamsReviews and syntheses: Anthropogenic perturbations to carbon fluxes in Asian river systems – concepts, emerging trends, and research challengesShifts in stream hydrochemistry in responses to typhoon and non-typhoon precipitationQUAL-NET, a high temporal-resolution eutrophication model for large hydrographic networksDiel fluctuations of viscosity-driven riparian inflow affect streamflow DOC concentrationA comprehensive biogeochemical record and annual flux estimates for the Sabaki River (Kenya)Hydro-ecological controls on dissolved carbon dynamics in groundwater and export to streams in a temperate pine forestRegional-scale lateral carbon transport and CO2 evasion in temperate stream catchmentsCarbon and nutrient export regimes from headwater catchments to downstream reachesInfluence of infrastructure on water quality and greenhouse gas dynamics in urban streamsHydromorphological restoration stimulates river ecosystem metabolismQuantifying nutrient fluxes with a new hyporheic passive flux meter (HPFM)Sources, cycling and export of nitrogen on the Greenland Ice SheetVariability in runoff fluxes of dissolved and particulate carbon and nitrogen from two watersheds of different tree species during intense storm eventsShift in the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter in the Congo River networkTechnical note: Assessing gas equilibration systems for continuous pCO2 measurements in inland watersSource and flux of POC in a karstic area in the Changjiang River watershed: impacts of reservoirs and extreme droughtSediment trap efficiency of paddy fields at the watershed scale in a mountainous catchment in northwest VietnamAlong-stream transport and transformation of dissolved organic matter in a large tropical riverGlobal riverine N and P transport to ocean increased during the 20th century despite increased retention along the aquatic continuumOptical properties and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter along a flow-path continuum from soil pore waters to the Kolyma River mainstem, East SiberiaTrace element transport in western Siberian rivers across a permafrost gradient
James C. Stegen, Sarah J. Fansler, Malak M. Tfaily, Vanessa A. Garayburu-Caruso, Amy E. Goldman, Robert E. Danczak, Rosalie K. Chu, Lupita Renteria, Jerry Tagestad, and Jason Toyoda
Biogeosciences, 19, 3099–3110,Short summary
Rivers are vital to Earth, and in rivers, organic matter (OM) is an energy source for microbes that make greenhouse gas and remove contaminants. Predicting Earth’s future requires understanding how and why river OM is transformed. Our results help meet this need. We found that the processes influencing OM transformations diverge between river water and riverbed sediments. This can be used to build new models for predicting the future of rivers and, in turn, the Earth system.
Alexandra Klemme, Tim Rixen, Denise Müller-Dum, Moritz Müller, Justus Notholt, and Thorsten Warneke
Biogeosciences, 19, 2855–2880,Short summary
Tropical peat-draining rivers contain high amounts of carbon. Surprisingly, measured carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from those rivers are comparatively moderate. We compiled data from 10 Southeast Asian rivers and found that CO2 production within these rivers is hampered by low water pH, providing a natural threshold for CO2 emissions. Furthermore, we find that enhanced carbonate input, e.g. caused by human activities, suspends this natural threshold and causes increased CO2 emissions.
Tamara Michaelis, Anja Wunderlich, Ömer K. Coskun, William Orsi, Thomas Baumann, and Florian Einsiedl
The greenhouse gas methane (CH4) drives climate change. Microorganisms in river sediments produce CH4 when degrading organic matter, but the contribution of rivers to atmospheric CH4 concentrations is uncertain. To better understand riverine CH4 cycling, we measured concentration profiles of CH4 and relevant reactants that might influence the CH4 cycle. We found substantial CH4 production, especially in fine, organic-rich sediments during summer and signs for microbial CH4 consumption.
Amy E. Pickard, Marcella Branagan, Mike F. Billett, Roxane Andersen, and Kerry J. Dinsmore
Biogeosciences, 19, 1321–1334,Short summary
Peatlands have been subject to a range of land management regimes over the past century. This has affected the amount of carbon that drains into surrounding streams and rivers. In our study, we measured carbon concentrations in streams draining from drained, non-drained, and restored areas of the Flow Country blanket bog in N Scotland. We found that drained peatland had higher concentrations and fluxes of carbon relative to non-drained areas. Restored peatland areas were highly variable.
Brynn O'Donnell and Erin R. Hotchkiss
Biogeosciences, 19, 1111–1134,Short summary
A stream is defined by flowing water, but higher flow from storms is also a frequent disturbance. This paper tests how higher flow changes stream metabolism (respiration and photosynthesis, R and P). P was less resistant to changes in flow compared to R, and P took longer to recover from storms than R (2.2 versus 0.6 d). Further work on metabolic responses to flow disturbance is critical given projected increases in storms and the influence of higher flows on ecosystem health and functioning.
Thibault Lambert, Pascal Perolo, Nicolas Escoffier, and Marie-Elodie Perga
Biogeosciences, 19, 187–200,Short summary
The bacterial mineralization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in inland waters contributes to CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Human activities affect DOM sources. However, the implications on DOM mineralization are poorly known. Combining sampling and incubations, we showed that higher bacterial respiration in agro-urban streams related to a labile pool from aquatic origin. Therefore, human activities may have a limited impact on the net carbon exchanges between inland waters and atmosphere.
Boyi Liu, Mingyang Tian, Kaimin Shih, Chun Ngai Chan, Xiankun Yang, and Lishan Ran
Biogeosciences, 18, 5231–5245,Short summary
Spatial and temporal patterns of pCO2 in the subtropical Dong River basin were mainly affected by C inputs and in-stream metabolism, both of which varied due to differential catchment settings, land cover, and hydrological conditions. CO2 fluxes in the wet season were 2-fold larger than in the dry season due to high pCO2 and turbulence caused by high flow velocity. The absence of high CO2 fluxes in small rivers could be associated with the depletion effect caused by abundant precipitation.
Sergey N. Vorobyev, Jan Karlsson, Yuri Y. Kolesnichenko, Mikhail A. Korets, and Oleg S. Pokrovsky
Biogeosciences, 18, 4919–4936,Short summary
In order to quantify riverine carbon (C) exchange with the atmosphere in permafrost regions, we report a first assessment of CO2 and CH4 concentration and fluxes of the largest permafrost-affected river, the Lena River, during the peak of spring flow. The results allowed identification of environmental factors controlling GHG concentrations and emission in the Lena River watershed; this new knowledge can be used for foreseeing future changes in C balance in permafrost-affected Arctic rivers.
Jan Greiwe, Markus Weiler, and Jens Lange
Biogeosciences, 18, 4705–4715,Short summary
We analyzed variability in diel nitrate patterns at three locations in a lowland stream. Comparison of time lags between monitoring sites with water travel time indicated that diel patterns were created by in-stream processes rather than transported downstream from an upstream point of origin. Most of the patterns (70 %) could be explained by assimilatory nitrate uptake. The remaining patterns suggest seasonally varying dominance and synchronicity of different biochemical processes.
Matthias Pucher, Peter Flödl, Daniel Graeber, Klaus Felsenstein, Thomas Hein, and Gabriele Weigelhofer
Biogeosciences, 18, 3103–3122,Short summary
Dissolved organic matter is an important carbon source in aquatic ecosystems, yet the uptake processes are not totally understood. We found evidence for the release of degradation products, efficiency loss in the uptake with higher concentrations, stimulating effects, and quality-dependent influences from the benthic zone. To conduct this analysis, we included interactions in the equations of the nutrient spiralling concept and solve it with a Bayesian non-linear fitting algorithm.
Xin Wang, Ting Liu, Liang Wang, Zongguang Liu, Erxiong Zhu, Simin Wang, Yue Cai, Shanshan Zhu, and Xiaojuan Feng
Biogeosciences, 18, 3015–3028,Short summary
We show a comprehensive monitoring dataset on the discharge and carbon transport in a small alpine river on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau, where riverine carbon increased downstream in the pre-monsoon season due to an increasing contribution of organic matter derived from seasonal permafrost thaw while it fluctuated in the monsoon season induced by sporadic precipitation. These results indicate a high sensitivity of riverine carbon in alpine headwater catchments to local hydrological events.
Man Zhao, Liesbet Jacobs, Steven Bouillon, and Gerard Govers
Biogeosciences, 18, 1511–1523,Short summary
We investigate the relative importance of two individual factors (hydrodynamical disturbance and aquatic microbial community) that possibly control SOC decomposition rates in river systems. We found aquatic microbial organisms led to rapid SOC decomposition, while effect of mechanical disturbance is relative minor. We propose a simple conceptual model: hydrodynamic disturbance is only important when soil aggregates are strong enough to withstand the disruptive forces imposed by water immersions.
Lyla L. Taylor, Charles T. Driscoll, Peter M. Groffman, Greg H. Rau, Joel D. Blum, and David J. Beerling
Biogeosciences, 18, 169–188,Short summary
Enhanced rock weathering (ERW) is a carbon dioxide removal (CDR) strategy involving soil amendments with silicate rock dust. Over 15 years, a small silicate application led to net CDR of 8.5–11.5 t CO2/ha in an acid-rain-impacted New Hampshire forest. We accounted for the total carbon cost of treatment and compared effects with an adjacent, untreated forest. Our results suggest ERW can improve the greenhouse gas balance of similar forests in addition to mitigating acid rain effects.
Scott Zolkos, Suzanne E. Tank, Robert G. Striegl, Steven V. Kokelj, Justin Kokoszka, Cristian Estop-Aragonés, and David Olefeldt
Biogeosciences, 17, 5163–5182,Short summary
High-latitude warming thaws permafrost, exposing minerals to weathering and fluvial transport. We studied the effects of abrupt thaw and associated weathering on carbon cycling in western Canada. Permafrost collapse affected < 1 % of the landscape yet enabled carbonate weathering associated with CO2 degassing in headwaters and increased bicarbonate export across watershed scales. Weathering may become a driver of carbon cycling in ice- and mineral-rich permafrost terrain across the Arctic.
Yingjie Cao, Yingxue Xuan, Changyuan Tang, Shuai Guan, and Yisheng Peng
Biogeosciences, 17, 3875–3890,Short summary
About half of the global CO2 sequestration due to chemical weathering occurs in warm and high-runoff regions. To evaluate the temporary and net sinks of atmospheric CO2 due to chemical weathering, we selected a typical subtropical catchment as our study area and did fieldwork to sample surface water along the main channel and major tributaries in 1 hydrological year. The result of mass balance calculation showed that human activities dramatically decreased the CO2 net sink.
Laure Gandois, Alison M. Hoyt, Stéphane Mounier, Gaël Le Roux, Charles F. Harvey, Adrien Claustres, Mohammed Nuriman, and Gusti Anshari
Biogeosciences, 17, 1897–1909,Short summary
Worldwide, peatlands are important sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and trace metals (TMs) to surface waters, and these fluxes may increase with peatland degradation. In Southeast Asia, tropical peatlands are being rapidly deforested and drained. This work aims to address the fate of organic carbon and its role as a trace metal carrier in drained peatlands of Indonesia.
Xiaohui Zhang, Moritz Müller, Shan Jiang, Ying Wu, Xunchi Zhu, Aazani Mujahid, Zhuoyi Zhu, Mohd Fakharuddin Muhamad, Edwin Sien Aun Sia, Faddrine Holt Ajon Jang, and Jing Zhang
Biogeosciences, 17, 1805–1819,Short summary
This study offered detailed information on dFe concentrations, distribution and the magnitude of yield in the Rajang River, the largest river in Malaysia. Three blackwater rivers, draining from peatlands, were also included in our study. Compared with the Rajang River, the dFe concentrations and yield from three blackwater rivers were much higher. The precipitation and agricultural activities, such as palm oil plantations, may markedly increase the concentration dFe in these tropical rivers.
Caroline Coch, Bennet Juhls, Scott F. Lamoureux, Melissa J. Lafrenière, Michael Fritz, Birgit Heim, and Hugues Lantuit
Biogeosciences, 16, 4535–4553,Short summary
Climate change affects Arctic ecosystems. This includes thawing of permafrost (ground below 0 °C) and an increase in rainfall. Both have substantial impacts on the chemical composition of river water. We compared the composition of small rivers in the low and high Arctic with the large Arctic rivers. In comparison, dissolved organic matter in the small rivers is more susceptible to degradation; thus, it could potentially increase carbon dioxide emissions. Rainfall events have a similar effect.
Benedikt J. Werner, Andreas Musolff, Oliver J. Lechtenfeld, Gerrit H. de Rooij, Marieke R. Oosterwoud, and Jan H. Fleckenstein
Biogeosciences, 16, 4497–4516,Short summary
Increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in streams can pose a threat to downstream water resources. Analyzing data from an in-stream probe we found that hydroclimatic and hydrological drivers can describe up to 72 % of the observed DOC concentration and composition variability. Variability was found to be highest during discharge events with warm and dry preconditions. The findings suggest an impact of climate change on DOC exports and thus also on downstream water quality.
Shan Jiang, Moritz Müller, Jie Jin, Ying Wu, Kun Zhu, Guosen Zhang, Aazani Mujahid, Tim Rixen, Mohd Fakharuddin Muhamad, Edwin Sien Aun Sia, Faddrine Holt Ajon Jang, and Jing Zhang
Biogeosciences, 16, 2821–2836,Short summary
Three cruises were conducted in the Rajang River estuary, Malaysia. The results revealed that the decomposition of terrestrial organic matter and the subsequent soil leaching were the main sources of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the fresh river water. Porewater exchange and ammonification enhanced DIN concentrations in the estuary water, while intensities of DIN addition varied between seasons. The riverine DIN flux could reach 101.5 ton(N) / d, supporting the coastal primary producers.
Edwin Sien Aun Sia, Jing Zhang, Shan Jiang, Zhuoyi Zhu, Gonzalo Carrasco, Faddrine Holt Jang, Aazani Mujahid, and Moritz Müller
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Nutrient loads carried by large rivers and discharged into the continental shelf and coastal waters are vital to support primary production. Our knowledge of tropical river systems is fragmented with very few seasonal studies available for Southeast Asia (SEA). We present data from three sampling campaigns on the longest river in Malaysia, the Rajang river. Our results show the generalization of SEA as a nutrient hotspot might not hold true for all regions and requires further investigation.
Brian C. Doyle, Elvira de Eyto, Mary Dillane, Russell Poole, Valerie McCarthy, Elizabeth Ryder, and Eleanor Jennings
Biogeosciences, 16, 1053–1071,Short summary
This study explores the drivers of variation in the water colour of rivers, and hence organic carbon export, in a blanket peatland catchment. We used 6 years of weekly river water colour data (2011 to 2016) from three proximate river sub-catchments in western Ireland. in tandem with a range of topographical, hydrological and climate data, to discover the principle environmental drivers controlling changes in colour concentration in the rivers.
Manab Kumar Dutta, Sanjeev Kumar, Rupa Mukherjee, Prasun Sanyal, and Sandip Kumar Mukhopadhyay
Biogeosciences, 16, 289–307,Short summary
The study focused on understanding C biogeochemistry of two adjacently located estuaries undergoing different levels of anthropogenic stresses. Different parameters related to C cycling were measured in an anthropogenically influenced and a mangrove-dominated estuary. Although the entire estuarine system acted as a source of carbon dioxide to the regional atmosphere, emission approximately 17 times higher was noticed from the anthropogenically affected estuary compared to mangrove-dominated one.
Ivan V. Krickov, Artem G. Lim, Rinat M. Manasypov, Sergey V. Loiko, Liudmila S. Shirokova, Sergey N. Kirpotin, Jan Karlsson, and Oleg S. Pokrovsky
Biogeosciences, 15, 6867–6884,Short summary
We tested the effect of climate, permafrost and physio-geographical landscape parameters on particulate C, N and P concentrations in small- and medium- sized rivers in the Western Siberian Lowland (WSL). We discovered a maximum of particulate C and N concentrations at the beginning of the permafrost appearance. A northward shift of permafrost boundaries may increase the particulate C and N export by WSL rivers to the Arctic Ocean by a factor of 2.
Wenjing Liu, Zhifang Xu, Huiguo Sun, Tong Zhao, Chao Shi, and Taoze Liu
Biogeosciences, 15, 4955–4971,Short summary
The southeastern coastal region is the top acid-rain-impacted area in China. It is worth evaluating the acid deposition impacts on chemical weathering and CO2 consumption there. River water geochemistry evidenced an overestimation of CO2 sequestration if H2SO4/HNO3 involvement was ignored, which accounted for 33.6 % of the total flux by silicate weathering in this area. This study quantitatively highlights the anthropogenic acid effects on chemical weathering and associated CO2 consumption.
Thi Phuong Quynh Le, Cyril Marchand, Cuong Tu Ho, Nhu Da Le, Thi Thuy Duong, XiXi Lu, Phuong Kieu Doan, Trung Kien Nguyen, Thi Mai Huong Nguyen, and Duy An Vu
Biogeosciences, 15, 4799–4814,Short summary
The Red River is a typical south-east Asian river, strongly affected by climate and human activity. This study showed the spatial and seasonal variability of CO2 emissions at the water–air interface of the lower part of this river due to natural conditions (meteo-hydrological-geomorphological characteristics) and human activities (dam impoundment, population, land use). The Red River water was supersaturated with CO2, providing a mean water–air CO2 ﬂux of 530 ± 17 mmol m−2 d−1.
Wei Wen Wong, Jesse Pottage, Fiona Y. Warry, Paul Reich, Keryn L. Roberts, Michael R. Grace, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 15, 3953–3965,Short summary
Over-enrichment of nitrate can pose substantial risk to the quality of freshwater ecosystems. Hence, understanding the dynamics of nitrate is the key to better management of waterways. This study evaluates the relationship between the effects of land use and rainfall on the major sources and processing of nitrate within and between five streams in five catchments spanning an agricultural land use gradient. We found that rainfall exerted significant control over the fate of nitrate.
Lishan Ran, Mingyang Tian, Nufang Fang, Suiji Wang, Xixi Lu, Xiankun Yang, and Frankie Cho
Biogeosciences, 15, 3857–3871,Short summary
We systematically assessed the transport and fate of riverine carbon in the moderate-sized Wuding catchment on the Chinese Loess Plateau by constructing a riverine carbon budget and further relating it to terrestrial ecosystem productivity. The riverine carbon export accounted for 16 % of the catchment's net ecosystem production (NEP). It seems that a significant fraction of terrestrial NEP in this catchment is laterally transported from the terrestrial biosphere to the drainage network.
Robert O. Hall Jr. and Hilary L. Madinger
Biogeosciences, 15, 3085–3092,Short summary
Streams exchange oxygen with the atmosphere, but this rate is difficult to measure. We added argon to small mountain streams to estimate gas exchange. We compared these rates with sulfur hexafluoride, an intense greenhouse gas. Argon worked well to measure gas exchange, but had higher-than-predicted rates than sulfur hexafluoride. Argon exchange is more likely to represent that for oxygen because they share similar physical properties. We suggest argon to measure gas exchange in small streams.
Ji-Hyung Park, Omme K. Nayna, Most S. Begum, Eliyan Chea, Jens Hartmann, Richard G. Keil, Sanjeev Kumar, Xixi Lu, Lishan Ran, Jeffrey E. Richey, Vedula V. S. S. Sarma, Shafi M. Tareq, Do Thi Xuan, and Ruihong Yu
Biogeosciences, 15, 3049–3069,Short summary
Human activities are drastically altering water and material flows in river systems across Asia. This review provides a conceptual framework for assessing the human impacts on Asian river C fluxes and an update on anthropogenic alterations of riverine C fluxes, focusing on the impacts of water pollution and river impoundments on CO2 outgassing from the rivers draining South, Southeast, and East Asian regions that account for the largest fraction of river discharge and C exports from Asia.
Chung-Te Chang, Jr-Chuan Huang, Lixin Wang, Yu-Ting Shih, and Teng-Chiu Lin
Biogeosciences, 15, 2379–2391,Short summary
Our analysis of ion input–output budget illustrates that hydrochemical responses to typhoon storms are distinctly different from those of regular storms. In addition, even mild land use change may have large impacts on nutrient exports/losses. We propose that hydrological models should separate hydrochemical processes into regular and extreme conditions to better capture the whole spectrum of hydrochemical responses to a variety of climate conditions.
Camille Minaudo, Florence Curie, Yann Jullian, Nathalie Gassama, and Florentina Moatar
Biogeosciences, 15, 2251–2269,Short summary
We developed the model QUALity-NETwork (QUAL-NET) to simulate water quality variations in large drainage networks. This model is accurate enough to represent processes occurring over short periods of time such as storm events and helps to fully understand water quality variations in stream networks in the context of climate change and varying human pressures. It was tested on the Loire River and provided good performances and a new understanding of the functioning of the river.
Michael P. Schwab, Julian Klaus, Laurent Pfister, and Markus Weiler
Biogeosciences, 15, 2177–2188,Short summary
We studied the diel fluctuations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in a small stream in Luxembourg. We identified an increased proportion of DOC from terrestrial sources as responsible for the peaks in DOC in the afternoon. Warmer water temperatures in the riparian zone in the afternoon increased the amount of water flowing towards the stream. Consequently, an increased amount of DOC-rich water from the riparian zone was entering the stream.
Trent R. Marwick, Fredrick Tamooh, Bernard Ogwoka, Alberto V. Borges, François Darchambeau, and Steven Bouillon
Biogeosciences, 15, 1683–1700,Short summary
A 2-year biogeochemical record provides annual sediment and element flux estimates for the non-dammed Sabaki River, Kenya, establishing a baseline for future research in light of impending construction of the first major upstream reservoir. Over 80 % of material fluxes occur across the wet season, with annual yields comparable to the adjacent, and dammed, Tana River. Observations at low-flow periods suggest large mammalian herbivores may be vectors of terrestrial subsidies to the water column.
Loris Deirmendjian, Denis Loustau, Laurent Augusto, Sébastien Lafont, Christophe Chipeaux, Dominique Poirier, and Gwenaël Abril
Biogeosciences, 15, 669–691,Short summary
Carbon leaching to streams represents a very small (~ 2 %) fraction of forest net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Such weak export of carbon from forest ecosystems, at least in temperate regions, is at odds with recent studies that attempt to integrate the contribution of inland waters in the continent carbon budget. Understanding why local and global carbon mass balances strongly diverge on the proportion of land NEE exported to aquatic systems is a major challenge for research in this field.
Katrin Magin, Celia Somlai-Haase, Ralf B. Schäfer, and Andreas Lorke
Biogeosciences, 14, 5003–5014,Short summary
We analyzed the relationship between terrestrial net primary production (NPP) and the rate at which carbon is exported from catchments in a temperate stream network. The carbon exported by streams and rivers corresponds to 2.7 % of the terrestrial NPP. CO2 evasion and downstream transport contribute about equally to this flux. A review of existing studies suggests that the catchment-specific carbon export varies in a relatively narrow range across different study regions and spatial scales.
Rémi Dupas, Andreas Musolff, James W. Jawitz, P. Suresh C. Rao, Christoph G. Jäger, Jan H. Fleckenstein, Michael Rode, and Dietrich Borchardt
Biogeosciences, 14, 4391–4407,Short summary
Carbon and nutrient export regimes were analyzed from archetypal headwater catchments to downstream reaches. In headwater catchments, land use and lithology determine land-to-stream C, N and P transfer processes. The crucial role of riparian zones in C, N and P coupling was investigated. In downstream reaches, point-source contributions and in-stream processes alter C, N and P export regimes.
Rose M. Smith, Sujay S. Kaushal, Jake J. Beaulieu, Michael J. Pennino, and Claire Welty
Biogeosciences, 14, 2831–2849,Short summary
Urban streams receive excess nitrogen from numerous sources. We hypothesized that variations in carbon availability and subsurface infrastructure influence emissions of N2O and other greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) as excess N is utilized by microbes. We sampled eight streams draining four categories of stormwater and sanitary infrastructure. Dissolved nitrogen concentration was the strongest predictor of CO2 and N2O concentrations, while C : N ratio was the strongest predictor of CH4 in streams.
Benjamin Kupilas, Daniel Hering, Armin W. Lorenz, Christoph Knuth, and Björn Gücker
Biogeosciences, 14, 1989–2002,Short summary
Modern ecosystem restoration should consider a wide range of environmental characteristics, including functional ones, such as rates and patterns of ecosystem metabolism. We show that hydromorphological river restoration enhanced habitat availability and abundance of macrophytes, promoting river primary productivity and respiration. Incorporating ecosystem functioning into monitoring programs enables a more holistic assessment of river health and a better understanding of restoration effects.
Julia Vanessa Kunz, Michael D. Annable, Jaehyun Cho, Wolf von Tümpling, Kirk Hatfield, Suresh Rao, Dietrich Borchardt, and Michael Rode
Biogeosciences, 14, 631–649,Short summary
The hyporheic zone, the subsurface region of streams, is a key compartment for in-stream nutrient retention. Knowledge on actual hyporheic processing rates is still limited due to methodological restrictions which are mainly related to the high local and temporal variability of subsurface flow patterns and nutrient transformation processes. We present a new device which allows quantitative assessment of hyporheic nutrient fluxes and demonstrate its advantages in an exemplary field testing.
Jemma Louise Wadham, Jonathan Hawkings, Jon Telling, Dave Chandler, Jon Alcock, Emily O'Donnell, Preeti Kaur, Elizabeth Bagshaw, Martyn Tranter, Andre Tedstone, and Peter Nienow
Biogeosciences, 13, 6339–6352,Short summary
Fjord and continental shelf environments in the polar regions are host to some of the planet's most productive ecosystems and support economically important fisheries. A key limiting nutrient for many of these marine phytoplankton is nitrogen. Here we evaluate the potential for a melting Greenland Ice Sheet to supply nitrogen to Arctic coastal ecosystems. We show nitrogen fluxes of a similar order of magnitude to one large Arctic river but yields that are double those typical of Arctic rivers.
Mi-Hee Lee, Jean-Lionel Payeur-Poirier, Ji-Hyung Park, and Egbert Matzner
Biogeosciences, 13, 5421–5432,Short summary
Heavy storm events may increase the organic matter fluxes from forested watersheds and deteriorate water quality. Our study in two forested watershed in Korea revealed, that a larger proportion of coniferous forests likely leads to less organic carbon and larger of inorganic nitrogen fluxes to the receiving surface water bodies. More severe monsoon storms in the future will increase the fluxes of dissolved organic matter.
Thibault Lambert, Steven Bouillon, François Darchambeau, Philippe Massicotte, and Alberto V. Borges
Biogeosciences, 13, 5405–5420,Short summary
This paper aims to investigate the spatial variability in dissolved organic matter (DOM) in terms of both concentration and composition in the Congo River network. Stable carbon isotopes and absorption and fluorescent properties of DOM were used as proxies for DOM composition. This study shows that DOM degradation within the Congo Basin results in the transition from aromatic to aliphatic DOM as well as the role of landscape and water residence time on this transition.
Tae Kyung Yoon, Hyojin Jin, Neung-Hwan Oh, and Ji-Hyung Park
Biogeosciences, 13, 3915–3930,Short summary
Spray- and marble-type equilibrators and a membrane-enclosed CO2 sensor were compared to assess their suitability for continuous pCO2 measurements in inland waters. The results suggest that the fast response of the equilibration systems facilitates capturing large spatial variations in pCO2 during short underway measurements. The membrane-enclosed sensor would be suitable for long-term continuous measurements if biofouling could be overcome by antifouling measures such as copper mesh coverings.
Hongbing Ji, Cai Li, Huaijian Ding, and Yang Gao
Biogeosciences, 13, 3687–3699,Short summary
The mineral composition, C / N ratios as well as 13C and 15N, of POC was firstly analyzed in suspended and surface sediments in the Wujiang River after the Three Gorges Dam began impounding sediment in 2004. A comparison of POC yield was made between karstic rivers and non-karstic rivers to evaluate the influence of carbonate distribution on POC transport. Considering the cascade reservoir and climate in the Wujiang River, the impacts of reservoirs and extreme drought were estimated in this study.
Johanna I. F. Slaets, Petra Schmitter, Thomas Hilger, Tran Duc Vien, and Georg Cadisch
Biogeosciences, 13, 3267–3281,Short summary
Maize production on steep slopes causes erosion. Where the eroded material ends up is not well understood. This study assessed transport of sediment in mountainous Vietnam, where maize is cultivated on slopes and rice is cultivated in valleys. Per year, 64 tons per hectare of sediments are brought into the rice fields and 28 tons of those are deposited there. The sediment fraction captured by the paddies is mostly sandy, while fertile silt and clay are exported. Upland erosion thus impacts rice production.
Thibault Lambert, Cristian R. Teodoru, Frank C. Nyoni, Steven Bouillon, François Darchambeau, Philippe Massicotte, and Alberto V. Borges
Biogeosciences, 13, 2727–2741,Short summary
This manuscript presents a detailed analysis of transport and transformation of dissolved organic matter along the Zambezi River and its largest tributary. A particular focus is put on the effects of floodplains/wetlands and reservoirs as well as low-flow vs. high-flow conditions on the longitudinal patterns in DOM concentration and composition. It is the first study to present such a detailed analysis for a whole, large river system, and in particular for a tropical river other than the Amazon.
Arthur H. W. Beusen, Alexander F. Bouwman, Ludovicus P. H. Van Beek, José M. Mogollón, and Jack J. Middelburg
Biogeosciences, 13, 2441–2451,Short summary
Intensifying anthropogenic activity over the 20th century including agriculture, water consumption, urbanization, and aquaculture has almost doubled the global nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) delivery to streams and steadily increased the N : P ratio in freshwater bodies. Concurrently, the cumulative number of reservoirs has driven a rise in freshwater nutrient retention and removal. Still, river nutrient transport to the ocean has also nearly doubled, potentially stressing coastal environments.
Karen E. Frey, William V. Sobczak, Paul J. Mann, and Robert M. Holmes
Biogeosciences, 13, 2279–2290,Short summary
In this study, we provide new findings with regards to the spatial distribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration, bioavailability, and optical properties during mid-summer hydrologic conditions throughout the Kolyma River basin in northeast Siberia. This is particularly critical for this region, where the future fate of organic carbon currently frozen in permafrost soils (and whether it ultimately is released as CO2 and CH4) is tightly linked to the lability of this material.
Oleg S. Pokrovsky, Rinat M. Manasypov, Sergey V. Loiko, Ivan A. Krickov, Sergey G. Kopysov, Larisa G. Kolesnichenko, Sergey N. Vorobyev, and Sergey N. Kirpotin
Biogeosciences, 13, 1877–1900,Short summary
Climate change in western Siberia and permafrost boundary migration will essentially affect the elements controlled by underground water feeding (DIC, alkaline earth elements (Ca, Sr), oxyanions (Mo, Sb, As) and U). The thickening of the active layer may increase the export of trivalent and tetravalent hydrolysates in the form of organo-ferric colloids.
Abbott, B. W., Larouche, J. R., Jones, J. B., Bowden, W. B., and Balser, A. W.: Elevated dissolved organic carbon biodegradability from thawing and collapsing permafrost, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 2014JG002678, https://doi.org/10.1002/2014jg002678, 2014.
Balcarczyk, K., Jones Jr., J., Jaffé, R., and Maie, N.: Stream dissolved organic matter bioavailability and composition in watersheds underlain with discontinuous permafrost, Biogeochemistry, 94, 255–270, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-009-9324-x, 2009.
Balser, A. W., Jones, J. B., and Gens, R.: Timing of retrogressive thaw slump initiation in the Noatak Basin, northwest Alaska, USA, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 119, 2013JF002889, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013jf002889, 2014.
Bayley, S. E., Schindler, D. W., Beaty, K. G., Parker, B. R., and Stainton, M. P.: Effects of Multiple Fires on Nutrient Yields from Streams Draining Boreal Forest and Fen Watersheds: Nitrogen and Phosphorus, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 49, 584–596, https://doi.org/10.1139/f92-068, 1992a.
Bayley, S. E., Schindler, D. W., Parker, B. R., Stainton, M. P., and Beaty, K. G.: Effects of forest fire and drought on acidity of a base-poor boreal forest stream: similarities between climatic warming and acidic precipitation, Biogeochemistry, 17, 191–204, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00004041, 1992b.
Belshe, E. F., Schuur, E. A. G., and Grosse, G.: Quantification of upland thermokarst features with high resolution remote sensing, Environ. Res. Lett., 8, 1–10, 2013.
Betts, E. F. and Jones, J. B.: Impact of Wildfire on Stream Nutrient Chemistry and Ecosystem Metabolism in Boreal Forest Catchments of Interior Alaska, Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 41, 407–417, https://doi.org/10.1657/1938-4246-41.4.407, 2009.
Bowden, W. B., Gooseff, M. N., Balser, A., Green, A., Peterson, B. J., and Bradford, J.: Sediment and nutrient delivery from thermokarst features in the foothills of the North Slope, Alaska: Potential impacts on headwater stream ecosystems, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 113, G02026, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007jg000470, 2008.
Brosten, T. R., Bradford, J. H., McNamara, J. P., Zarnetske, J. P., Gooseff, M. N., and Bowden, W. B.: Profiles of temporal thaw depths beneath two arctic stream types using ground-penetrating radar, Permafrost Periglac., 17, 341–355, https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.566, 2006.
Burn, C. R.: The response (1958–1997) of permafrost and near-surface ground temperatures to forest fire, Takhini River valley, southern Yukon Territory, Can. J. Earth Sci., 35, 184–199, https://doi.org/10.1139/e97-105, 1998.
Chorover, J., Vitousek, P., Everson, D., Esperanza, A., and Turner, D.: Solution chemistry profiles of mixed-conifer forests before and after fire, Biogeochemistry, 26, 115–144, https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02182882, 1994.
Cory, R. M., Crump, B. C., Dobkowski, J. A., and Kling, G. W.: Surface exposure to sunlight stimulates CO2 release from permafrost soil carbon in the Arctic, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 110, 3429–3434, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1214104110, 2013.
Cory, R. M., Ward, C. P., Crump, B. C., and Kling, G. W.: Sunlight controls water column processing of carbon in arctic fresh waters, Science, 345, 925–928, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1253119, 2014.
Dittmar, T. and Kattner, G.: The biogeochemistry of the river and shelf ecosystem of the Arctic Ocean: a review, Mar. Chem., 83, 103–120, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4203(03)00105-1, 2003.
Dugan, H. A., Lamoureux, S. F., Lewis, T., and Lafrenière, M. J.: The Impact of Permafrost Disturbances and Sediment Loading on the Limnological Characteristics of Two High Arctic Lakes, Permafrost Periglac., 23, 119–126, https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.1735, 2012.
Fellman, J. B., Hood, E., Edwards, R. T., and D'Amore, D. V.: Changes in the concentration, biodegradability, and fluorescent properties of dissolved organic matter during stormflows in coastal temperate watersheds, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 114, G01021, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008jg000790, 2009.
Frey, K. E. and McClelland, J. W.: Impacts of permafrost degradation on arctic river biogeochemistry, Hydrol. Process., 23, 169–182, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.7196, 2009.
Gooseff, M. N., Balser, A., Bowden, W. B., and Jones, J. B.: Effects of Hillslope Thermokarst in Northern Alaska, Eos Trans. AGU, 90, 29–30, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009eo040001, 2009.
Greenwald, M. J., Bowden, W. B., Gooseff, M. N., Zarnetske, J. P., McNamara, J. P., Bradford, J. H., and Brosten, T. R.: Hyporheic exchange and water chemistry of two arctic tundra streams of contrasting geomorphology, J. Geophys. Res., 113, G02029, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JG000549, 2008.
Hamilton, T. D.: Surficial geology of the Dalton Highway (Itkillik-Sagavanirktok rivers) area, southern Arctic foothills, Alaska, Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys Professional Report 121, 32 pp., 1 sheet, scale 1:63, 360, https://doi.org/10.14509/7191, 2003.
Hamilton, T. D.: Guide to surficial geology and river-bluff exposures, Noatak National Preserve, northwestern Alaska, 116 pp., 2009.
Hamilton, T. D. and Labay, K. A.: Surficial Geologic Map of the Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Alaska, U.S. Geological Survey (in cooperation with U.S. National Park Service), Scientific Investigations Map 3125, 1 : 300000 scale, and accompanying report, 19 pp., 2011.
Harms, T., Abbott, B., and Jones, J.: Thermo-erosion gullies increase nitrogen available for hydrologic export, Biogeochemistry, 117, 299–311, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-013-9862-0, 2014.
Higuera, P. E., Chipman, M. L., Barnes, J. L., Urban, M. A., and Hu, F. S.: Variability of tundra fire regimes in Arctic Alaska: millennial-scale patterns and ecological implications, Ecol. Appl., 21, 3211–3226, https://doi.org/10.1890/11-0387.1, 2011.
Hobbie, S. E. and Gough, L.: Litter decomposition in moist acidic and non-acidic tundra with different glacial histories, Oecologia, 140, 113–124, 2004.
Holmes, R., McClelland, J., Peterson, B., Tank, S., Bulygina, E., Eglinton, T., Gordeev, V., Gurtovaya, T., Raymond, P., Repeta, D., Staples, R., Striegl, R., Zhulidov, A., and Zimov, S.: Seasonal and Annual Fluxes of Nutrients and Organic Matter from Large Rivers to the Arctic Ocean and Surrounding Seas, Estuar. Coasts, 35, 369–382, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-011-9386-6, 2012.
Holmes, R. M., Peterson, B. J., Gordeev, V. V., Zhulidov, A. V., Meybeck, M., Lammers, R. B., and Vörösmarty, C. J.: Flux of nutrients from Russian rivers to the Arctic Ocean: Can we establish a baseline against which to judge future changes?, Water Resour. Res., 36, 2309–2320, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000wr900099, 2000.
Holmes, R. M., McClelland, J. W., Raymond, P. A., Frazer, B. B., Peterson, B. J., and Stieglitz, M.: Lability of DOC transported by Alaskan rivers to the arctic ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L03402, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007gl032837, 2008.
Hynes, H. B. N.: The stream and its valley, 1–15, 1975.
Jenny, H.: The Soil Resource Origin and Behavior, Ecological Studies, 37, Springer-Verlag, New York, 377 pp., 1980.
Jones, B. M., Kolden, C., Jandt, R., Abatzoglu, J., Urban, F., and Arp, C.: Fire behavior, weather, and burn severity of the 2007 Anaktuvuk River tundra fire, North Slope, Alaska, Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 41, 309–316, 2009.
Jorgenson, M., Yoshikawa, K., Kaveskiy, M., Shur, Y., Romanovsky, V., Marchenko, S., Grosse, G., Brown, J., and Jones, B.: Permafrost characteristics of Alaska, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Permafrost, Fairbanks, Alaska, 121–122, 2008.
Jorgenson, M. T., Roth, J. E., Miller, P. F., Macander, M. J., Duffy, M. S., Wells, A. F., Frost, G. V., and Pullman, E. R.: An ecological land survey and landcover map of the Arctic Network, Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/ARCN/NRTR–2009/270, edited, National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado, 2010.
Jorgenson, M. T., Shur, Y. L., and Pullman, E. R.: Abrupt increase in permafrost degradation in Arctic Alaska, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L02503, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005gl024960, 2006.
Kokelj, S. V. and Jorgenson, M. T.: Advances in Thermokarst Research, Permafrost Periglac., 24, 108–119, https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.1779, 2013.
Kokelj, S. V., Jenkins, R. E., Milburn, D., Burn, C. R., and Snow, N.: The influence of thermokarst disturbance on the water quality of small upland lakes, Mackenzie Delta Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, Permafrost Periglac., 16, 343–353, https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.536, 2005.
Kokelj, S. V., Zajdlik, B., and Thompson, M. S.: The Impacts of Thawing Permafrost on the Chemistry of Lakes across the Subarctic Boreal-Tundra Transition, Mackenzie Delta Region, Canada, Permafrost Periglac., 20, 185–199, https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.641, 2009.
Kokelj, S. V., Lacelle, D., Lantz, T. C., Tunnicliffe, J., Malone, L., Clark, I. D., and Chin, K. S.: Thawing of massive ground ice in mega slumps drives increases in stream sediment and solute flux across a range of watershed scales, J. Geophys. Res.-Earth, 118, 681–692, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrf.20063, 2013.
Krieger, K. C.: The topographic form and evolustion of thermal erosion features: A first analysis using airborne and ground-based LiDAR in Arctic Alaska, MS, Department of Geosciences, Idaho State University, 98 pp., 2012.
Lafrenière, M. J. and Lamoureux, S. F.: Thermal Perturbation and Rainfall Runoff have Greater Impact on Seasonal Solute Loads than Physical Disturbance of the Active Layer, Permafrost Periglac., 24, 241–251, https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp.1784, 2013.
Lamoureux, S. and Lafrenière, M.: Fluvial Impact of Extensive Active Layer Detachments, Cape Bounty, Melville Island, Canada, Arct. Antarct. Alp. Res., 41, 59–68, https://doi.org/10.1657/1938-4246(08-030)[lamoureux]2.0.co;2, 2009.
Lamoureux, S. F. and Lafreniere, M. J.: Seasonal fluxes and age of particulate organic carbon exported from Arctic catchments impacted by localized permafrost slope disturbances, Environ. Res. Lett., 9, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/9/4/045002, 2014.
Lane, D. M.: Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD). Encyclopedia of Research Design, SAGE Publications, Inc, SAGE Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, 1566–1571, 2010.
Larouche, J. R.: Thermokarst and Wildfire: Effects of Disturbances Related to Climate Change on the Ecological Characteristics and Functions of Arctic Headwater Streams, PhD, Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, 220 pp., 2015.
Larouche, J. R., Bowden, W. B., Giordano, R., Flinn, M. B., and Crump, B. C.: Microbial Biogeography of Arctic Streams: Exploring Influences of Lithology and Habitat, Front. Microb., 3, 309, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2012.00309, 2012.
Levene, H.: Contributions to Probability and Statistics: Essays in Honor of Harold Hotelling, I, edited by: Olkin, I., Stanford University Press, 278–292, 1960.
Lewis, T., Lafrenière, M. J., and Lamoureux, S. F.: Hydrochemical and sedimentary responses of paired High Arctic watersheds to unusual climate and permafrost dis 26, 2003–2018, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.8335, 2012.
Mack, M. C., Bret-Harte, M. S., Hollingsworth, T. N., Jandt, R. R., Schuur, E. A. G., Shaver, G. R., and Verbyla, D. L.: Carbon loss from an unprecedented Arctic tundra wildfire, Nature, 475, 489–492, 2011.
Malone, L., Lacelle, D., Kokelj, S., and Clark, I. D.: Impacts of hillslope thaw slumps on the geochemistry of permafrost catchments (Stony Creek watershed, NWT, Canada), Chem. Geol., 356, 38–49, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2013.07.010, 2013.
Mann, P. J., Davydova, A., Zimov, N., Spencer, R. G. M., Davydov, S., Bulygina, E., Zimov, S., and Holmes, R. M.: Controls on the composition and lability of dissolved organic matter in Siberia's Kolyma River basin, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 117, G01028, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jg001798, 2012.
McClelland, J. W., Stieglitz, M., Pan, F., Holmes, R. M., and Peterson, B. J.: Recent changes in nitrate and dissolved organic carbon export from the upper Kuparuk River, North Slope, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 112, G04s60, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006jg000371, 2007.
McDowell, W. H. and Likens, G. E.: Origin, Composition, and Flux of Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Hubbard Brook Valley, Ecol. Monogr., 58, 177–195, https://doi.org/10.2307/2937024, 1988.
McDowell, W. H., Zsolnay, A., Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. A., Gregorich, E. G., Jones, D. L., Jödemann, D., Kalbitz, K., Marschner, B., and Schwesig, D.: A comparison of methods to determine the biodegradable dissolved organic carbon from different terrestrial sources, Soil Biol. Biochem., 38, 1933–1942, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.12.018, 2006.
McGuire, A. D., Anderson, L. G., Christensen, T. R., Dallimore, S., Guo, L., Hayes, D. J., Heimann, M., Lorenson, T. D., Macdonald, R. W., and Roulet, N.: Sensitivity of the carbon cycle in the Arctic to climate change, Ecol. Monogr., 79, 523–555, https://doi.org/10.1890/08-2025.1, 2009.
Nolan, M.: Distribution of a Star3i DEM of the Kuparuk River watershed. Joint Office for Scientific Support, Boulder, Colorado, 2003.
O'Donnell, J. A., Aiken, G. R., Walvoord, M. A., and Butler, K. D.: Dissolved organic matter composition of winter flow in the Yukon River basin: Implications of permafrost thaw and increased groundwater discharge, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 26, GB0E06, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012gb004341, 2012.
Olefeldt, D., Turetsky, M., and Blodau, C.: Altered Composition and Microbial versus UV-Mediated Degradation of Dissolved Organic Matter in Boreal Soils Following Wildfire, Ecosystems, 16, 1396–1412, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-013-9691-y, 2013.
Osterkamp, T. E. and Romanovsky, V. E.: Evidence for warming and thawing of discontinuous permafrost in Alaska, Permafrost Periglac., 10, 17–37, https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1099-1530(199901/03)10:1< 17::aid-ppp303>3.0.co;2-4, 1999.
Petrone, K. C., Hinzman, L. D., Shibata, H., Jones, J. B., and Boone, R. D.: The influence of fire and permafrost on sub-arctic stream chemistry during storms, Hydrol. Process., 21, 423–434, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.6247, 2007.
Randerson, J. T., Liu, H., Flanner, M. G., Chambers, S. D., Jin, Y., Hess, P. G., Pfister, G., Mack, M. C., Treseder, K. K., Welp, L. R., Chapin, F. S., Harden, J. W., Goulden, M. L., Lyons, E., Neff, J. C., Schuur, E. A. G., and Zender, C. S.: The Impact of Boreal Forest Fire on Climate Warming, Science, 314, 1130–1132, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1132075, 2006.
Raymond, P. A., McClelland, J. W., Holmes, R. M., Zhulidov, A. V., Mull, K., P eterson, B. J., Striegl, R. G., Aiken, G. R., and Gurtovaya, T. Y.: Flux and age of dissolved organic carbon exported to the Arctic Ocean: A carbon isotopic study of the five largest arctic rivers, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 21, GB4011, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007gb002934, 2007.
Rocha, A. V., Loranty, M. M., Higuera, P. E., Mack, M. C., Feng Sheng, H., Jones, B.M., Breen, A. L., Rastetter, E. B., Goetz, S. J., and Shaver, G. R..: The footprint of Alaskan tundra fires during the past half-century: implications for surface properties and radiative forcing, Environ. Res. Lett., 7, 1–8, 2012.
Romanovsky, V., Burgess, M., Smith, S., Yoshikawa, K., and Brown, J.: Permafrost temperature records: Indicators of climate change, Eos Trans. AGU, 83, 589–594, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002eo000402, 2002.
Romanovsky, V., Oberman, N., Drozdov, D., Malkova, G., Kholodov, A., and Marchenko, S.: Permafrost in State of the Climate in 2010, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 92, 152–153, 2011.
Schindler, D., Curtis, P. J., Bayley, S., Parker, B., Beaty, K., and Stainton, M.: Climate-induced changes in the dissolved organic carbon budgets of boreal lakes, Biogeochemistry, 36, 9–28, https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1005792014547, 1997.
Shiklomanov, N. I., Streletskiy, D. A., Nelson, F. E., Hollister, R. D., Romanovsky, V. E., Tweedie, C. E., Bockheim, J. G., and Brown, J.: Decadal variations of active-layer thickness in moisture-controlled landscapes, Barrow, Alaska, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 115, G00I04, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009jg001248, 2010.
Shirokova, L. S., Pokrovsky, O. S., Kirpotin, S. N., Desmukh, C., Pokrovsky, B. G., Audry, S., and Viers, J.: Biogeochemistry of organic carbon, CO2, CH4, and trace elements in thermokarst water bodies in discontinuous permafrost zones of Western Siberia, Biogeochemistry, 113, 573–593, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-012-9790-4, 2013.
Spencer, R. G. M., Aiken, G. R., Wickland, K. P., Striegl, R. G., and Hernes, P. J.: Seasonal and spatial variability in dissolved organic matter quantity and composition from the Yukon River basin, Alaska, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 22, GB4002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008gb003231, 2008.
Stohlgren, T., Bachand, R., Onami, Y., and Binkley, D.: Species-environment relationships and vegetation patterns: effects of spatial scale and tree life-stage, Plant Ecol., 135, 215–228, https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1009788326991, 1998.
Striegl, R. G., Aiken, G. R., Dornblaser, M. M., Raymond, P. A., and Wickland, K. P.: A decrease in discharge-normalized DOC export by the Yukon River during summer through autumn, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L21413, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005gl024413, 2005.
Tank, S. E., Frey, K. E., Striegl, R. G., Raymond, P. A., Holmes, R. M., McClelland, J. W., and Peterson, B. J.: Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 26, GB0E02, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012gb004299, 2012.
Thienpont, J. R., RÜHland, K. M., Pisaric, M. F. J., Kokelj, S. V., Kimpe, L. E., Blais, J. M., and Smol, J. P.: Biological responses to permafrost thaw slumping in Canadian Arctic lakes, Freshwater Biol., 58, 337–353, https://doi.org/10.1111/fwb.12061, 2013.
Thompson, M. S., Kokelj, S. V., Wrona, F. J., and Prowse, T. D.: The impact of sediments derived from thawing permafrost on tundra lake water chemistry: An experimental approach, in: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Permafrost, edited by: Kane, D. L. and Hinkel, K. M., Fairbanks Alaska, Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2, 1763–1768, 2008.
Toolik Environmental Data Center Team: Meterological monitoring program at Toolik, Alaska, Toolik Field Station, Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks Alaska, 2011.
Viereck, L. A., Dyrness, C. T., Batten, A. R., and Wenzlick, K. J.: The Alaska Vegetation Classification, edited by: U.S.D.A. Forest Service, 278 pp., Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-286, Portland, Oregon, 1992.
Vonk, J. E., Mann, P. J., Davydov, S., Davydova, A., Spencer, R. G. M., Schade, J., Sobczak, W. V., Zimov, N., Zimov, S., Bulygina, E., Eglinton, T. I., and Holmes, R. M.: High biolability of ancient permafrost carbon upon thaw, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2689–2693, https://doi.org/10.1002/grl.50348, 2013.
Wang, X., Ma, H., Li, R., Song, Z., and Wu, J.: Seasonal fluxes and source variation of organic carbon transported by two major Chinese Rivers: The Yellow River and Changjiang (Yangtze) River, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 26, GB2025, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011gb004130, 2012.
Weishaar, J. L., Aiken, G. R., Bergamaschi, B. A., Fram, M. S., Fujii, R., and Mopper, K.: Evaluation of specific ultraviolet absorbance as an indicator of the chemical composition and reactivity of dissolved organic carbon, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, 4702–4708, https://doi.org/10.1021/es030360x, 2003.
Wickland, K., Neff, J., and Aiken, G.: Dissolved Organic Carbon in Alaskan Boreal Forest: Sources, Chemical Characteristics, and Biodegradability, Ecosystems, 10, 1323–1340, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-007-9101-4, 2007.
Woods, G. C., Simpson, M. J., Pautler, B. G., Lamoureux, S. F., Lafrenière, M. J., and Simpson, A. J.: Evidence for the enhanced lability of dissolved organic matter following permafrost slope disturbance in the Canadian High Arctic, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 75, 7226–7241, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2011.08.013, 2011.
Western Regional Climate Center: available at: http://www.wrcc.dri.edu (last access: September 2014), 2011.
Yoshikawa, K., Bolton, W. R., Romanovsky, V. E., Fukuda, M., and Hinzman, L. D.: Impacts of wildfire on the permafrost in the boreal forests of Interior Alaska, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, 8148, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001jd000438, 2002.
Yueyang, J., Rastetter, E. B., Rocha, A., Pearce, A. R., Kwiatkowski, B. L., and Shaver, G.: Carbon-Nutrient interactions during the early recovery of tundra after fire, Ecol. Appl., https://doi.org/10.1890/14-1921.1, in press, 2015.