Articles | Volume 16, issue 8
Research article
26 Apr 2019
Research article |  | 26 Apr 2019

Assessment of time of emergence of anthropogenic deoxygenation and warming: insights from a CESM simulation from 850 to 2100 CE

Angélique Hameau, Juliette Mignot, and Fortunat Joos

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Cited articles

Ammann, C. M., Joos, F., Schimel, D. S., Otto-Bliesner, B. L., and Tomas, R. A.: Solar Influence on Climate during the Past Millennium: Results from Transient Simulations with the NCAR Climate System Model, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 3713–3718,, 2007. a
Andres, R. J., Boden, T. A., Bréon, F.-M., Ciais, P., Davis, S., Erickson, D., Gregg, J. S., Jacobson, A., Marland, G., Miller, J., Oda, T., Olivier, J. G. J., Raupach, M. R., Rayner, P., and Treanton, K.: A synthesis of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, Biogeosciences, 9, 1845–1871,, 2012. a
Armstrong, R. A., Lee, C., Hedges, J. I., Honjo, S., and Wakeham, S. G.: A New, Mechanistic Model for Organic Carbon Fluxes in the Ocean Based on the Quantitative Association of POC with Ballast Minerals, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 219–236,, 2001. a
Bakun, A.: Climate Change and Ocean Deoxygenation within Intensified Surface-Driven Upwelling Circulations, Philos. T. R. Soc. A, 375, 20160327,, 2017. a
Bard, E., Raisbeck, G., Yiou, F., and Jouzel, J.: Solar Irradiance during the Last 1200 Years Based on Cosmogenic Nuclides, Tellus B, 52, 985–992,, 2000. a
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The observed decrease of oxygen and warming in the ocean may adversely affect marine ecosystems and their services. We analyse results from an Earth system model for the last millennium and the 21st century. We find changes in temperature and oxygen due to fossil fuel burning and other human activities to exceed natural variations in many ocean regions already today. Natural variability is biased low in earlier studies neglecting forcing from past volcanic eruptions and solar change.
Final-revised paper