Articles | Volume 17, issue 19
Research article 02 Oct 2020
Research article | 02 Oct 2020
Canal blocking optimization in restoration of drained peatlands
Iñaki Urzainki et al.
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Nataliia Kozii, Kersti Haahti, Pantana Tor-ngern, Jinshu Chi, Eliza Maher Hasselquist, Hjalmar Laudon, Samuli Launiainen, Ram Oren, Matthias Peichl, Jörgen Wallerman, and Niles J. Hasselquist
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 2999–3014,Short summary
The hydrologic cycle is one of the greatest natural processes on Earth and strongly influences both regional and global climate as well as ecosystem functioning. Results from this study clearly show the central role trees play in regulating the water cycle of boreal catchments, implying that forest management impacts on stand structure as well as climate change effects on tree growth are likely to have large cascading effects on the way water moves through boreal forested landscapes.
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Florian Ellsäßer, Christian Stiegler, Alexander Röll, Tania June, Hendrayanto, Alexander Knohl, and Dirk Hölscher
Biogeosciences, 18, 861–872,Short summary
Recording land surface temperatures using drones offers new options to predict evapotranspiration based on energy balance models. This study compares predictions from three energy balance models with the eddy covariance method. A model II Deming regression indicates interchangeability for latent heat flux estimates from certain modeling methods and eddy covariance measurements. This complements the available methods for evapotranspiration studies by fine grain and spatially explicit assessments.
Andrew F. Feldman, Daniel J. Short Gianotti, Alexandra G. Konings, Pierre Gentine, and Dara Entekhabi
Biogeosciences, 18, 831–847,Short summary
We quantify global plant water uptake durations after rainfall using satellite-based plant water content measurements. In wetter regions, plant water uptake occurs within a day due to rapid coupling between soil and plant water content. Drylands show multi-day plant water uptake after rain pulses, providing widespread evidence for slow rehydration responses and pulse-driven growth responses. Our results suggest that drylands are sensitive to projected shifts in rainfall intensity and frequency.
Estefanía Muñoz and Andrés Ochoa
Biogeosciences, 18, 573–584,Short summary
We inspect for climatic traits in the shape of the PDF of the clear-day (c) and the clearness (k) indices at 37 FLUXNET sites for the SW and the PAR spectral bands. We identified three types of PDF, unimodal with low dispersion, unimodal with high dispersion and bimodal, with no difference in the PDF type between c and k at each site. We found that latitude, global climate zone and Köppen climate type have a weak relation and the Holdridge life zone a stronger relation with c and k PDF types.
Conrad Jackisch, Samuel Knoblauch, Theresa Blume, Erwin Zehe, and Sibylle K. Hassler
Biogeosciences, 17, 5787–5808,Short summary
We developed software to calculate the root water uptake (RWU) of beech tree roots from soil moisture dynamics. We present our approach and compare RWU to measured sap flow in the tree stem. The study relates to two sites that are similar in topography and weather but with contrasting soils. While sap flow is very similar between the two sites, the RWU is different. This suggests that soil characteristics have substantial influence. Our easy-to-implement RWU estimate may help further studies.
Hannes P. T. De Deurwaerder, Marco D. Visser, Matteo Detto, Pascal Boeckx, Félicien Meunier, Kathrin Kuehnhammer, Ruth-Kristina Magh, John D. Marshall, Lixin Wang, Liangju Zhao, and Hans Verbeeck
Biogeosciences, 17, 4853–4870,Short summary
The depths at which plants take up water is challenging to observe directly. To do so, scientists have relied on measuring the isotopic composition of xylem water as this provides information on the water’s source. Our work shows that this isotopic composition changes throughout the day, which complicates the interpretation of the water’s source and has been currently overlooked. We build a model to help understand the origin of these composition changes and their consequences for science.
Andreia Filipa Silva Ribeiro, Ana Russo, Célia Marina Gouveia, Patrícia Páscoa, and Jakob Zscheischler
Biogeosciences, 17, 4815–4830,Short summary
This study investigates the impacts of compound dry and hot extremes on crop yields, namely wheat and barley, over two regions in Spain dominated by rainfed agriculture. We provide estimates of the conditional probability of crop loss under compound dry and hot conditions, which could be an important tool for responsible authorities to mitigate the impacts magnified by the interactions between the different hazards.
Marcus Breil, Edouard L. Davin, and Diana Rechid
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
The physical processes behind varying evapotranspiration rates of forests and grasslands in Europe are investigated in a regional model study with idealized afforestation scenarios. The results show that the evapotranspiration response to afforestation depends on the interplay of two counteracting factors; the transpiration facilitating characteristics of a forest and the reduced saturation deficits of forests caused by an increased surface roughness and associated lower surface temperatures.
René Orth, Georgia Destouni, Martin Jung, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 17, 2647–2656,Short summary
Drought duration is a key control of the large-scale biospheric drought response. Thereby, the vegetation responds linearly to drought duration at large spatial scales. The slope of the linear relationship between the vegetation drought response and drought duration is steeper in drier climates.
Jeroen Claessen, Annalisa Molini, Brecht Martens, Matteo Detto, Matthias Demuzere, and Diego G. Miralles
Biogeosciences, 16, 4851–4874,Short summary
Bidirectional interactions between vegetation and climate are unraveled over short (monthly) and long (inter-annual) temporal scales. Analyses use a novel causal inference method based on wavelet theory. The performance of climate models at representing these interactions is benchmarked against satellite data. Climate models can reproduce the overall climate controls on vegetation at all temporal scales, while their performance at representing biophysical feedbacks on climate is less adequate.
Martin G. De Kauwe, Belinda E. Medlyn, Andrew J. Pitman, John E. Drake, Anna Ukkola, Anne Griebel, Elise Pendall, Suzanne Prober, and Michael Roderick
Biogeosciences, 16, 903–916,Short summary
Recent experimental evidence suggests that during heat extremes, trees may reduce photosynthesis to near zero but increase transpiration. Using eddy covariance data and examining the 3 days leading up to a temperature extreme, we found evidence of reduced photosynthesis and sustained or increased latent heat fluxes at Australian wooded flux sites. However, when focusing on heatwaves, we were unable to disentangle photosynthetic decoupling from the effect of increasing vapour pressure deficit.
Daniele Penna, Luisa Hopp, Francesca Scandellari, Scott T. Allen, Paolo Benettin, Matthias Beyer, Josie Geris, Julian Klaus, John D. Marshall, Luitgard Schwendenmann, Till H. M. Volkmann, Jana von Freyberg, Anam Amin, Natalie Ceperley, Michael Engel, Jay Frentress, Yamuna Giambastiani, Jeff J. McDonnell, Giulia Zuecco, Pilar Llorens, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Todd E. Dawson, and James W. Kirchner
Biogeosciences, 15, 6399–6415,Short summary
Understanding how water flows through ecosystems is needed to provide society and policymakers with the scientific background to manage water resources sustainably. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water are a powerful tool for tracking water fluxes, although the heterogeneity of natural systems and practical methodological issues still limit their full application. Here, we examine the challenges in this research field and highlight new perspectives based on interdisciplinary research.
Ned Haughton, Gab Abramowitz, Martin G. De Kauwe, and Andy J. Pitman
Biogeosciences, 15, 4495–4513,Short summary
This project explores predictability in energy, water, and carbon fluxes in the free-use Tier 1 of the FLUXNET 2015 dataset using a uniqueness metric based on comparison of locally and globally trained models. While there is broad spread in predictability between sites, we found strikingly few strong patterns. Nevertheless, these results can contribute to the standardisation of site selection for land surface model evaluation and help pinpoint regions that are ripe for further FLUXNET research.
Georg Frenck, Georg Leitinger, Nikolaus Obojes, Magdalena Hofmann, Christian Newesely, Mario Deutschmann, Ulrike Tappeiner, and Erich Tasser
Biogeosciences, 15, 1065–1078,Short summary
For central Europe in addition to rising temperatures, an increasing variability in precipitation is predicted. In a replicated mesocosm experiment we compared evapotranspiration and the biomass productivity of two differently drought-adapted vegetation communities during two irrigation regimes (with and without drought periods). Significant differences between the different communities were found in the response to variations in the water supply and biomass production.
Martin G. De Kauwe, Belinda E. Medlyn, Jürgen Knauer, and Christopher A. Williams
Biogeosciences, 14, 4435–4453,Short summary
Understanding the sensitivity of transpiration to stomatal conductance is critical to simulating the water cycle. This sensitivity is a function of the degree of coupling between the vegetation and the atmosphere. We combined an extensive literature summary with estimates of coupling derived from FLUXNET data. We found notable departures from the values previously reported. These data form a model benchmarking metric to test existing coupling assumptions.
Helene Hoffmann, Rasmus Jensen, Anton Thomsen, Hector Nieto, Jesper Rasmussen, and Thomas Friborg
Biogeosciences, 13, 6545–6563,Short summary
This study investigates whether the UAV (drone) based WDI can determine crop water stress from fields with open canopies (land surface consisting of both soil and canopy) and from fields where canopies are starting to senesce. This utility could solve issues that arise when applying the commonly used CWSI stress index. The WDI succeeded in providing accurate, high-resolution estimates of crop water stress at different growth stages of barley.
Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Alfredo Huete, Kevin Davies, James Cleverly, Jason Beringer, Derek Eamus, Eva van Gorsel, Lindsay B. Hutley, and Wayne S. Meyer
Biogeosciences, 13, 5587–5608,Short summary
We re-evaluated the connection between satellite greenness products and C-flux tower data in four Australian ecosystems. We identify key mechanisms driving the carbon cycle, and provide an ecological basis for the interpretation of vegetation indices. We found relationships between productivity and greenness to be non-significant in meteorologically driven evergreen forests and sites where climate and vegetation phenology were asynchronous, and highly correlated in phenology-driven ecosystems.
Zahra Thomas, Benjamin W. Abbott, Olivier Troccaz, Jacques Baudry, and Gilles Pinay
Biogeosciences, 13, 1863–1875,Short summary
Direct human impact on a catchment (fertilizer input, soil disturbance, urbanization) is asymmetrically linked with inherent catchment properties (geology, soil, topography), which together determine catchment vulnerability to human activity. To quantify the influence of physical, hydrologic, and anthropogenic controls on surface water quality, we used a 5-year high-frequency water chemistry data set from three contrasting headwater catchments in western France.
A. Röll, F. Niu, A. Meijide, A. Hardanto, Hendrayanto, A. Knohl, and D. Hölscher
Biogeosciences, 12, 5619–5633,Short summary
The study provides first insight into eco-hydrological consequences of the continuing oil palm expansion in the tropics. Stand transpiration rates of some studied oil palm stands compared to or even exceeded values reported for tropical forests, indicating high water use of oil palms under certain conditions. Oil palm landscapes show some spatial variations in (evapo)transpiration rates, e.g. due to varying plantation age, but the day-to-day variability of oil palm transpiration is rather low.
J. L. Olsen, S. Miehe, P. Ceccato, and R. Fensholt
Biogeosciences, 12, 4407–4419,Short summary
Limitations of satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for monitoring vegetation trends are investigated using observations from the Widou Thiengoly test site in northern Senegal. NDVI do not reflect the large differences found in biomass production and species composition between grazed and ungrazed plots. This is problematic for vegetation trend analysis in the context of drastically increasing numbers of Sahelian livestock in recent decades.
M. Moreno-de las Heras, R. Díaz-Sierra, L. Turnbull, and J. Wainwright
Biogeosciences, 12, 2907–2925,Short summary
Exploration of NDVI-rainfall relationships provided ready biophysically based criteria to study the spatial distribution and dynamics of ANPP for herbaceous and shrub vegetation across a grassland-shrubland Chihuahuan ecotone (Sevilleta NWR, New Mexico). Overall our results suggest that shrub encroachment has not been particularly active for 2000-2013 in the area, although future reductions in summer precipitation and/or increases in winter rainfall may intensify the shrub-encroachment process.
J. Ingwersen, K. Imukova, P. Högy, and T. Streck
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The energy balance of eddy covariance (EC) flux data is normally not closed. Therefore, EC flux data are usually post-closed, i.e. the measured turbulent fluxes are adjusted so as to close the energy balance. We propose to use in model evaluation the post-closure method uncertainty band (PUB) to account for the uncertainty in EC data originating from lacking energy balance closure. Working with only a single post-closing method might result in severe misinterpretations in model-data comparison.
C. D. Arp, M. S. Whitman, B. M. Jones, G. Grosse, B. V. Gaglioti, and K. C. Heim
Biogeosciences, 12, 29–47,Short summary
Beaded streams have deep elliptical pools connected by narrow runs that we show are common landforms in the continuous permafrost zone. These fluvial systems often initiate from lakes and occur predictably in headwater portions of moderately sloping watersheds. Snow capture along stream courses reduces ice thickness allowing thawed sediment to persist under most pools. Interpool thermal variability and hydrologic regimes provide important aquatic habitat and connectivity in Arctic landscapes.
K. Guan, S. P. Good, K. K. Caylor, H. Sato, E. F. Wood, and H. Li
Biogeosciences, 11, 6939–6954,Short summary
Climate change is expected to modify the way that rainfall arrives, namely the frequency and intensity of rainfall events and rainy season length. Yet, the quantification of the impact of these possible rainfall changes across large biomes is lacking. Our study fills this gap by developing a new modeling framework, applying it to continental Africa. We show that African ecosystems are highly sensitive to these rainfall variabilities, with esp. large sensitivity to changes in rainy season length.
T. Fischer, M. Veste, O. Bens, and R. F. Hüttl
Biogeosciences, 9, 4621–4628,
A. K. Liljedahl, L. D. Hinzman, Y. Harazono, D. Zona, C. E. Tweedie, R. D. Hollister, R. Engstrom, and W. C. Oechel
Biogeosciences, 8, 3375–3389,
S. J. Kim, J. Kim, and K. Kim
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P. Choler, W. Sea, P. Briggs, M. Raupach, and R. Leuning
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Drained peatlands (peat areas where ditches have been excavated to enhance plant production) are one of the main sources of carbon dioxide emissions globally. Blocking these ditches by building dams is a common strategy to restore the self-sustaining peat ecosystem and mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. Where should these dams be located in order to maximize the benefits? Our work tackles this question by making use of the available data, hydrological modeling and numerical optimization methods.
Drained peatlands (peat areas where ditches have been excavated to enhance plant production) are...