Articles | Volume 18, issue 16
Research article 20 Aug 2021
Research article | 20 Aug 2021
Host-influenced geochemical signature in the parasitic foraminifera Hyrrokkin sarcophaga
Nicolai Schleinkofer et al.
Nicolai Schleinkofer, Jacek Raddatz, André Freiwald, David Evans, Lydia Beuck, Andres Rüggeberg, and Volker Liebetrau
Biogeosciences, 16, 3565–3582,Short summary
In this study we tried to correlate Na / Ca ratios from cold-water corals with environmental parameters such as salinity, temperature and pH. We do not observe a correlation between Na / Ca ratios and seawater salinity, but we do observe a strong correlation with temperature. Na / Ca data from warm-water corals (Porites spp.) and bivalves (Mytilus edulis) support this correlation, indicating that similar controls on the incorporation of sodium exist in these aragonitic organisms.
Emilija Krsnik, Katharina Methner, Marion Campani, Svetlana Botsyun, Sebastian G. Mutz, Todd A. Ehlers, Oliver Kempf, Jens Fiebig, Fritz Schlunegger, and Andreas Mulch
Solid Earth, 12, 2615–2631,Short summary
Here we present new surface elevation constraints for the middle Miocene Central Alps based on stable and clumped isotope geochemical analyses. Our reconstructed paleoelevation estimate is supported by isotope-enabled paleoclimate simulations and indicates that the Miocene Central Alps were characterized by a heterogeneous and spatially transient topography with high elevations locally exceeding 4000 m.
André Bahr, Monika Doubrawa, Jürgen Titschack, Gregor Austermann, Andreas Koutsodendris, Dirk Nürnberg, Ana Luiza Albuquerque, Oliver Friedrich, and Jacek Raddatz
Biogeosciences, 17, 5883–5908,Short summary
We explore the sensitivity of cold-water corals (CWCs) to environmental changes utilizing a multiproxy approach on a coral-bearing sediment core from off southeastern Brazil. Our results reveal that over the past 160 kyr, CWCs flourished during glacial high-northern-latitude cold events (Heinrich stadials). These periods were associated with anomalous wet phases on the continent enhancing terrigenous nutrient and organic-matter supply to the continental margin, boosting food supply to the CWCs.
Gordon N. Inglis, Fran Bragg, Natalie J. Burls, Margot J. Cramwinckel, David Evans, Gavin L. Foster, Matthew Huber, Daniel J. Lunt, Nicholas Siler, Sebastian Steinig, Jessica E. Tierney, Richard Wilkinson, Eleni Anagnostou, Agatha M. de Boer, Tom Dunkley Jones, Kirsty M. Edgar, Christopher J. Hollis, David K. Hutchinson, and Richard D. Pancost
Clim. Past, 16, 1953–1968,Short summary
This paper presents estimates of global mean surface temperatures and climate sensitivity during the early Paleogene (∼57–48 Ma). We employ a multi-method experimental approach and show that i) global mean surface temperatures range between 27 and 32°C and that ii) estimates of
bulkequilibrium climate sensitivity (∼3 to 4.5°C) fall within the range predicted by the IPCC AR5 Report. This work improves our understanding of two key climate metrics during the early Paleogene.
Bernd R. Schöne, Aliona E. Meret, Sven M. Baier, Jens Fiebig, Jan Esper, Jeffrey McDonnell, and Laurent Pfister
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 673–696,Short summary
We present the first annually resolved stable isotope record (1819–1998) from shells of Swedish river mussels. Data reflect hydrological processes in the catchment and changes in the isotope value of local precipitation. The latter is related to the origin of moisture from which precipitation formed (North Atlantic or the Arctic) and governed by large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. Results help to better understand climate dynamics and constrain ecological changes in river ecosystems.
Ulrike Hanz, Claudia Wienberg, Dierk Hebbeln, Gerard Duineveld, Marc Lavaleye, Katriina Juva, Wolf-Christian Dullo, André Freiwald, Leonardo Tamborrino, Gert-Jan Reichart, Sascha Flögel, and Furu Mienis
Biogeosciences, 16, 4337–4356,Short summary
Along the Namibian and Angolan margins, low oxygen conditions do not meet environmental ranges for cold–water corals and hence are expected to be unsuitable habitats. Environmental conditions show that tidal movements deliver water with more oxygen and high–quality organic matter, suggesting that corals compensate unfavorable conditions with availability of food. With the expected expansion of oxygen minimum zones in the future, this study provides an example how ecosystems cope with extremes.
Max Wisshak and Liane Hüne
Foss. Rec., 22, 77–90,Short summary
Here, we describe an enigmatic new microfossil that was found encrusting a belemnite from the Middle Jurassic of the Falaises des Vaches Noires in Normandy, France. The organism has produced a conspicuous attachment etching on the belemnite for better adhesion and this trace fossil is new to science as well. Based on morphological criteria and the capacity to bioerode, the new microproblematicum can best be compared to encrusting bryozoans and foraminiferans.
Nicolai Schleinkofer, Jacek Raddatz, André Freiwald, David Evans, Lydia Beuck, Andres Rüggeberg, and Volker Liebetrau
Biogeosciences, 16, 3565–3582,Short summary
In this study we tried to correlate Na / Ca ratios from cold-water corals with environmental parameters such as salinity, temperature and pH. We do not observe a correlation between Na / Ca ratios and seawater salinity, but we do observe a strong correlation with temperature. Na / Ca data from warm-water corals (Porites spp.) and bivalves (Mytilus edulis) support this correlation, indicating that similar controls on the incorporation of sodium exist in these aragonitic organisms.
Christopher J. Hollis, Tom Dunkley Jones, Eleni Anagnostou, Peter K. Bijl, Margot J. Cramwinckel, Ying Cui, Gerald R. Dickens, Kirsty M. Edgar, Yvette Eley, David Evans, Gavin L. Foster, Joost Frieling, Gordon N. Inglis, Elizabeth M. Kennedy, Reinhard Kozdon, Vittoria Lauretano, Caroline H. Lear, Kate Littler, Lucas Lourens, A. Nele Meckler, B. David A. Naafs, Heiko Pälike, Richard D. Pancost, Paul N. Pearson, Ursula Röhl, Dana L. Royer, Ulrich Salzmann, Brian A. Schubert, Hannu Seebeck, Appy Sluijs, Robert P. Speijer, Peter Stassen, Jessica Tierney, Aradhna Tripati, Bridget Wade, Thomas Westerhold, Caitlyn Witkowski, James C. Zachos, Yi Ge Zhang, Matthew Huber, and Daniel J. Lunt
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3149–3206,Short summary
The Deep-Time Model Intercomparison Project (DeepMIP) is a model–data intercomparison of the early Eocene (around 55 million years ago), the last time that Earth's atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeded 1000 ppm. Previously, we outlined the experimental design for climate model simulations. Here, we outline the methods used for compilation and analysis of climate proxy data. The resulting climate
atlaswill provide insights into the mechanisms that control past warm climate states.
Kim Alix Jakob, Jörg Pross, Christian Scholz, Jens Fiebig, and Oliver Friedrich
Clim. Past, 14, 1079–1095,Short summary
Eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) thermocline dynamics during the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (iNHG; ~ 2.5 Ma) currently remain unclear. In light of this uncertainty, we generated geochemical, faunal and sedimentological data for EEP Site 849 (~ 2.75–2.4 Ma). We recorded a thermocline depth change shortly before the final phase of the iNHG, which supports the hypothesis that tropical thermocline shoaling may have contributed to substantial Northern Hemisphere ice growth.
Max Wisshak and Christian Neumann
Foss. Rec., 21, 1–9,Short summary
A new bioerosion trace fossil, the rosette-shaped microboring Neodendrina carnelia igen. et isp. n., is described from a giant clam (Tridacna maxima) discovered in Pleistocene to Holocene coral reef deposits of the Egyptian Red Sea coast. The trace was formed as a complex attachment scar after the host had ceased. The biological identity of the trace maker, probably either a benthic foraminiferan or a macrophyte, is discussed.
Max Wisshak, Jürgen Titschack, Wolf-Achim Kahl, and Peter Girod
Foss. Rec., 20, 173–199,Short summary
The ongoing technical revolution in non-destructive 3-D visualisation via micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) finds a valuable application in the studies of bioerosion trace fossils, since their three-dimensional architecture lies hidden within hard substrates. Selected examples of such cases are illustrated by reference to bioerosion trace fossils preserved in Late Cretaceous belemnite guards from the European Chalk Province, including the description of two new trace fossil ichnospecies.
Michael J. Henehan, David Evans, Madison Shankle, Janet E. Burke, Gavin L. Foster, Eleni Anagnostou, Thomas B. Chalk, Joseph A. Stewart, Claudia H. S. Alt, Joseph Durrant, and Pincelli M. Hull
Biogeosciences, 14, 3287–3308,Short summary
It is still unclear whether foraminifera (calcifying plankton that play an important role in cycling carbon) will have difficulty in making their shells in more acidic oceans, with different studies often reporting apparently conflicting results. We used live lab cultures, mathematical models, and fossil measurements to test this question, and found low pH does reduce calcification. However, we find this response is likely size-dependent, which may have obscured this response in other studies.
Daniel J. Lunt, Matthew Huber, Eleni Anagnostou, Michiel L. J. Baatsen, Rodrigo Caballero, Rob DeConto, Henk A. Dijkstra, Yannick Donnadieu, David Evans, Ran Feng, Gavin L. Foster, Ed Gasson, Anna S. von der Heydt, Chris J. Hollis, Gordon N. Inglis, Stephen M. Jones, Jeff Kiehl, Sandy Kirtland Turner, Robert L. Korty, Reinhardt Kozdon, Srinath Krishnan, Jean-Baptiste Ladant, Petra Langebroek, Caroline H. Lear, Allegra N. LeGrande, Kate Littler, Paul Markwick, Bette Otto-Bliesner, Paul Pearson, Christopher J. Poulsen, Ulrich Salzmann, Christine Shields, Kathryn Snell, Michael Stärz, James Super, Clay Tabor, Jessica E. Tierney, Gregory J. L. Tourte, Aradhna Tripati, Garland R. Upchurch, Bridget S. Wade, Scott L. Wing, Arne M. E. Winguth, Nicky M. Wright, James C. Zachos, and Richard E. Zeebe
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 889–901,Short summary
In this paper we describe the experimental design for a set of simulations which will be carried out by a range of climate models, all investigating the climate of the Eocene, about 50 million years ago. The intercomparison of model results is called 'DeepMIP', and we anticipate that we will contribute to the next IPCC report through an analysis of these simulations and the geological data to which we will compare them.
Claudia Färber, Jürgen Titschack, Christine Hanna Lydia Schönberg, Karsten Ehrig, Karin Boos, Daniel Baum, Bernhard Illerhaus, Ulla Asgaard, Richard Granville Bromley, André Freiwald, and Max Wisshak
Biogeosciences, 13, 3461–3474,Short summary
In this study we present results from the first long-term bioerosion experiment (1–14 years of exposure) outside the tropical realm. A novel micro-CT approach was used to visualise and to quantify the development of macrobioerosion traces. After 14 years, 30 % of the original substrate volume was excavated chiefly by sponges. High spatio-temporal variability prohibited clear conclusions about the onset of macrobioerosion equilibrium conditions, calling for further long-term experiments.
Oliver Friedrich, Sietske J. Batenburg, Kazuyoshi Moriya, Silke Voigt, Cécile Cournède, Iris Möbius, Peter Blum, André Bornemann, Jens Fiebig, Takashi Hasegawa, Pincelli M. Hull, Richard D. Norris, Ursula Röhl, Thomas Westerhold, Paul A. Wilson, and IODP Expedition
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
A lack of knowledge on the timing of Late Cretaceous climatic change inhibits our understanding of underlying causal mechanisms. Therefore, we used an expanded deep ocean record from the North Atlantic that shows distinct sedimentary cyclicity suggesting orbital forcing. A high-resolution carbon-isotope record from bulk carbonates allows to identify global trends in the carbon cycle. Our new carbon isotope record and the established cyclostratigraphy may serve as a future reference site.
David Evans, Bridget S. Wade, Michael Henehan, Jonathan Erez, and Wolfgang Müller
Clim. Past, 12, 819–835,Short summary
We show that seawater pH exerts a substantial control on planktic foraminifera Mg / Ca, a widely applied palaeothermometer. As a result, temperature reconstructions based on this proxy are likely inaccurate over climatic events associated with a significant change in pH. We examine the implications of our findings for hydrological and temperature shifts over the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and for the degree of surface ocean precursor cooling before the Eocene-Oligocene transition.
N. A. G. M. van Helmond, A. Sluijs, J. S. Sinninghe Damsté, G.-J. Reichart, S. Voigt, J. Erbacher, J. Pross, and H. Brinkhuis
Clim. Past, 11, 495–508,Short summary
Based on the chemistry and microfossils preserved in sediments deposited in a shallow sea, in the current Lower Saxony region (NW Germany), we conclude that changes in Earth’s orbit around the Sun led to enhanced rainfall and organic matter production. The additional supply of organic matter, depleting oxygen upon degradation, and freshwater, inhibiting the mixing of oxygen-rich surface waters with deeper waters, caused the development of oxygen-poor waters about 94 million years ago.
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Roberto Velázquez-Ochoa, María Julia Ochoa-Izaguirre, and Martín Federico Soto-Jiménez
Biogeosciences, 19, 1–27,Short summary
Our research is the first approximation to understand the δ13C macroalgal variability in one of the most diverse marine ecosystems in the world, the Gulf of California. The life-form is the principal cause of δ13C macroalgal variability, mainly taxonomy. However, changes in habitat characteristics and environmental conditions also influence the δ13C macroalgal variability. The δ13C macroalgae is indicative of carbon concentration mechanisms and isotope discrimination during carbon assimilation.
Raquel F. Flynn, Thomas G. Bornman, Jessica M. Burger, Shantelle Smith, Kurt A. M. Spence, and Sarah E. Fawcett
Biogeosciences, 18, 6031–6059,Short summary
Biological activity in the shallow Weddell Sea affects the biogeochemistry of recently formed deep waters. To investigate the drivers of carbon and nutrient export, we measured rates of primary production and nitrogen uptake, characterized the phytoplankton community, and estimated nutrient depletion ratios across the under-sampled western Weddell Sea in mid-summer. Carbon export was highest at the ice shelves and was determined by a combination of physical, chemical, and biological factors.
Stéphanie H. M. Jacquet, Christian Tamburini, Marc Garel, Aurélie Dufour, France Van Vambeke, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Nagib Bhairy, and Sophie Guasco
Biogeosciences, 18, 5891–5902,Short summary
We compared carbon remineralization rates (MRs) in the western and central Mediterranean Sea in late spring during the PEACETIME cruise, as assessed using the barium tracer. We reported higher and deeper (up to 1000 m depth) MRs in the western basin, potentially sustained by an additional particle export event driven by deep convection. The central basin is the site of a mosaic of blooming and non-blooming water masses and showed lower MRs that were restricted to the upper mesopelagic layer.
Shinsuke Kawagucci, Yohei Matsui, Akiko Makabe, Tatsuhiro Fukuba, Yuji Onishi, Takuro Nunoura, and Taichi Yokokawa
Biogeosciences, 18, 5351–5362,Short summary
Hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios of methane as well as the relevant biogeochemical parameters and microbial community compositions in hydrothermal plumes in the Okinawa Trough were observed. We succeeded in simultaneously determining hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation factors associated with aerobic oxidation of methane in seawater (εH = 49.4 ± 5.0 ‰, εC = 5.2 ± 0.4 ‰) – the former being the first of its kind ever reported.
Lena Rohe, Traute-Heidi Anderson, Heinz Flessa, Anette Goeske, Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, and Reinhard Well
Biogeosciences, 18, 4629–4650,Short summary
This is the first experimental setup combining a complex set of methods (microbial inhibitors and isotopic approaches) to differentiate between N2O produced by fungi or bacteria during denitrification in three soils. Quantifying the fungal fraction with inhibitors was not successful due to large amounts of uninhibited N2O production. All successful methods suggested a small or missing fungal contribution. Artefacts occurring with microbial inhibition to determine N2O fluxes are discussed.
Inga Köhler, Raul E. Martinez, David Piatka, Achim J. Herrmann, Arianna Gallo, Michelle M. Gehringer, and Johannes A. C. Barth
Biogeosciences, 18, 4535–4548,Short summary
We investigated how high Fe(II) levels influence the O2 budget of a circum-neutral Fe(II)-rich spring and if a combined study of dissolved O (DO) and its isotopic composition can help assess this effect. We showed that dissolved Fe(II) can exert strong effects on the δ18ODO even though a constant supply of atmospheric O2 occurs. In the presence of photosynthesis, direct effects of Fe oxidation become masked. Critical Fe(II) concentrations indirectly control the DO by enhancing photosynthesis.
Owen A. Sherwood, Samuel H. Davin, Nadine Lehmann, Carolyn Buchwald, Evan N. Edinger, Moritz F. Lehmann, and Markus Kienast
Biogeosciences, 18, 4491–4510,Short summary
Pacific water flowing eastward through the Canadian Arctic plays an important role in redistributing nutrients to the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Using samples collected from northern Baffin Bay to the southern Labrador Shelf, we show that stable isotopic ratios in seawater nitrate reflect the fraction of Pacific to Atlantic water. These results provide a new framework for interpreting patterns of nitrogen isotopic variability recorded in modern and archival organic materials in the region.
Franziska Slotta, Lukas Wacker, Frank Riedel, Karl-Uwe Heußner, Kai Hartmann, and Gerhard Helle
Biogeosciences, 18, 3539–3564,Short summary
The African baobab is a challenging climate and environmental archive for its semi-arid habitat due to dating uncertainties and parenchyma-rich wood anatomy. Annually resolved F14C data of tree-ring cellulose (1941–2005) from a tree in Oman show the annual character of the baobab’s growth rings but were up to 8.8 % lower than expected for 1964–1967. Subseasonal δ13C and δ18O patterns reveal years with low average monsoon rain as well as heavy rainfall events from pre-monsoonal cyclones.
Peter M. J. Douglas, Emerald Stratigopoulos, Sanga Park, and Dawson Phan
Biogeosciences, 18, 3505–3527,Short summary
Hydrogen isotopes could be a useful tool to help resolve the geographic distribution of methane emissions from freshwater environments. We analyzed an expanded global dataset of freshwater methane hydrogen isotope ratios and found significant geographic variation linked to water isotopic composition. This geographic variability could be used to resolve changing methane fluxes from freshwater environments and provide more accurate estimates of the relative balance of global methane sources.
Veronica R. Rollinson, Julie Granger, Sydney C. Clark, Mackenzie L. Blanusa, Claudia P. Koerting, Jamie M. P. Vaudrey, Lija A. Treibergs, Holly C. Westbrook, Catherine M. Matassa, Meredith G. Hastings, and Craig R. Tobias
Biogeosciences, 18, 3421–3444,Short summary
We measured nutrients and the naturally occurring nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) stable isotope ratios of nitrate discharged from a New England river over an annual cycle, to monitor N loading and identify dominant sources from the watershed. We uncovered a seasonality to loading and sources of N from the watershed. Seasonality in the nitrate isotope ratios also informed on N cycling, conforming to theoretical expectations of riverine nutrient cycling.
Yuwei Liu, Guofeng Zhu, Zhuanxia Zhang, Zhigang Sun, Leilei Yong, Liyuan Sang, Lei Wang, and Kailiang Zhao
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We took the water cycle process of soil-plant-atmospheric precipitation as the research objective. In the water cycle of soil-plant-atmospheric precipitation, precipitation is the main controlling role. The main source of replenishment for alpine meadow plants is precipitation and alpine meltwater, the main source of replenishment for forest plants is soil water, and the plants in the arid foothills mainly use groundwater.
Zixun Chen, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoqing Cui, Yaowen Han, Guoan Wang, and Jiazhu Li
Biogeosciences, 18, 2859–2870,Short summary
δ13C in plants is a sensitive long-term indicator of physiological acclimatization. The present study suggests that precipitation change and increasing atmospheric N deposition have little impact on δ13C of H. ammodendron, a dominant plant in central Asian deserts, but affect its gas exchange. In addition, this study shows that δ13C of H. ammodendron could not indicate its water use efficiency (WUE), suggesting that whether δ13C of C4 plants indicates WUE is species-specific.
Petra Zahajská, Carolina Olid, Johanna Stadmark, Sherilyn C. Fritz, Sophie Opfergelt, and Daniel J. Conley
Biogeosciences, 18, 2325–2345,Short summary
The drivers of high accumulation of single-cell siliceous algae (diatoms) in a high-latitude lake have not been fully characterized before. We studied silicon cycling of the lake through water, radon, silicon, and stable silicon isotope balances. Results showed that groundwater brings 3 times more water and dissolved silica than the stream inlet. We demonstrate that groundwater discharge and low sediment deposition have driven the high diatom accumulation in the studied lake in the past century.
Yu-Te Hsieh, Walter Geibert, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, Neil J. Wyatt, Maeve C. Lohan, Eric P. Achterberg, and Gideon M. Henderson
Biogeosciences, 18, 1645–1671,Short summary
The South Atlantic near 40° S is one of the high-productivity and most dynamic nutrient regions in the oceans, but the sources and fluxes of trace elements (TEs) to this region remain unclear. This study investigates seawater Ra-228 and provides important constraints on ocean mixing and dissolved TE fluxes to this region. Vertical mixing is a more important source than aeolian or shelf inputs in this region, but particulate or winter deep-mixing inputs may be required to balance the TE budgets.
Zhongjie Yu and Emily M. Elliott
Biogeosciences, 18, 805–829,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrated distinct nitrogen isotope effects for nitric oxide (NO) production from major microbial and chemical NO sources in an agricultural soil. These results highlight characteristic bond-forming and breaking mechanisms associated with microbial and chemical NO production and implicate that simultaneous isotopic analyses of NO and nitrous oxide (N2O) can lead to unprecedented insights into the sources and processes controlling NO and N2O emissions from agricultural soils.
Daniel A. Frick, Rainer Remus, Michael Sommer, Jürgen Augustin, Danuta Kaczorek, and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 6475–6490,Short summary
Silicon is taken up by some plants to increase structural stability and to develop stress resistance and is rejected by others. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we used the stable isotopes of silicon that shift in their relative abundance depending on the biochemical transformation involved. On species with a rejective (tomato, mustard) and active (wheat) uptake mechanism, grown in hydroculture, we found that the transport of silicic acid is controlled by the precipitation of biogenic opal.
Quentin Charbonnier, Julien Bouchez, Jérôme Gaillardet, and Éric Gayer
Biogeosciences, 17, 5989–6015,Short summary
The abundance and isotope composition of the trace metal barium (Ba) allows us to track and quantify nutrient cycling throughout the Amazon Basin. In particular, we show that the Ba biological fingerprint evolves from that of a strong net nutrient uptake in the mountainous area of the Andes towards efficient nutrient recycling on the plains of the Lower Amazon. Our study highlights the fact that the geochemical signature of rock-derived nutrients transported by the Amazon is scarred by life.
Ajinkya G. Deshpande, Thomas W. Boutton, Ayumi Hyodo, Charles W. Lafon, and Georgianne W. Moore
Biogeosciences, 17, 5639–5653,Short summary
Wetland forests in the southern USA are threatened by changing climate and human-induced pressures. We used tree ring widths and C isotopes as indicators of forest growth and physiological stress, respectively, and compared these to past climate data. We observed that vegetation growing in the drier patches is susceptible to stress, while vegetation growth and physiology in wetter patches is less sensitive to unfavorable environmental conditions, highlighting the importance of optimal wetness.
Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Maciej Piotr Lewicki, and Reinhard Well
Biogeosciences, 17, 5513–5537,Short summary
We present the first validation of N2O isotopic approaches for estimating N2O source pathways and N2O reduction. These approaches are widely used for tracing soil nitrogen cycling, but the results of these estimations are very uncertain. Here we report the results from parallel treatments allowing for precise validation of these approaches, and we propose the best strategies for results interpretation, including the new idea of an isotope model integrating three isotopic signatures of N2O.
Markus Raitzsch, Claire Rollion-Bard, Ingo Horn, Grit Steinhoefel, Albert Benthien, Klaus-Uwe Richter, Matthieu Buisson, Pascale Louvat, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 17, 5365–5375,Short summary
The isotopic composition of boron in carbonate shells of marine unicellular organisms is a popular tool to estimate seawater pH. Usually, many shells need to be dissolved and measured for boron isotopes, but the information on their spatial distribution is lost. Here, we investigate two techniques that allow for measuring boron isotopes within single shells and show that they yield robust mean values but provide additional information on the heterogeneity within and between single shells.
Florian Einsiedl, Anja Wunderlich, Mathieu Sebilo, Ömer K. Coskun, William D. Orsi, and Bernhard Mayer
Biogeosciences, 17, 5149–5161,Short summary
Nitrate pollution of freshwaters and methane emissions into the atmosphere are crucial factors in deteriorating the quality of drinking water and in contributing to global climate change. Here, we report vertical concentration and stable isotope profiles of CH4, NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ in the water column of Fohnsee (southern Bavaria, Germany) that may indicate linkages between nitrate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium.
Ruifang C. Xie, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Insa Rapp, Jan Lüdke, Beat Gasser, Marcus Dengler, Volker Liebetrau, and Eric P. Achterberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4919–4936,Short summary
Thorium-234 (234Th) is widely used to study carbon fluxes from the surface ocean to depth. But few studies stress the relevance of oceanic advection and diffusion on the downward 234Th fluxes in nearshore environments. Our study in offshore Peru showed strong temporal variations in both the importance of physical processes on 234Th flux estimates and the oceanic residence time of 234Th, whereas salinity-derived seawater 238U activities accounted for up to 40 % errors in 234Th flux estimates.
Ralf A. Oeser and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4883–4917,Short summary
We present a novel strategy to decipher the relative impact of biogenic and abiotic drivers of weathering. We parameterized the nutrient fluxes in four ecosystems along a climate and vegetation gradient situated on the Chilean Coastal Cordillera. We investigated how nutrient demand by plants drives weathering. We found that the increase in biomass nutrient demand is accommodated by faster nutrient recycling rather than an increase in the weathering–release rates.
Tito Arosio, Malin M. Ziehmer, Kurt Nicolussi, Christian Schlüchter, and Markus Leuenberger
Biogeosciences, 17, 4871–4882,Short summary
Stable isotopes in tree-ring cellulose are tools for climatic reconstructions, but interpretation is challenging due to nonclimate trends. We analyzed the tree-age trends in tree-ring isotopes of deciduous larch and evergreen cembran pine. Samples covering the whole Holocene were collected at the tree line in the Alps. For cambial ages over 100 years, we prove the absence of age trends in δD, δ18O, and δ13C for both species. For lower cambial ages, trends differ for each isotope and species.
Yuyang He, Xiaobin Cao, and Huiming Bao
Biogeosciences, 17, 4785–4795,Short summary
Different carbon sites in a large organic molecule have different isotope compositions. Different carbon sites may not have the chance to exchange isotopes at all. The lack of appreciation of this notion might be blamed for an unsettled debate on the thermodynamic state of an organism. Here we demonstrate using minerals, N2O, and acetic acid that the dearth of exchange among different carbon sites renders them as independent as if they were different elements in organic molecules.
Felix M. Spielmann, Albin Hammerle, Florian Kitz, Katharina Gerdel, and Georg Wohlfahrt
Biogeosciences, 17, 4281–4295,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be used as a proxy for plant photosynthesis on an ecosystem scale. However, the relationships between COS and CO2 fluxes and their dependence on daily to seasonal changes in environmental drivers are still poorly understood. We examined COS and CO2 ecosystem fluxes above an agriculturally used mountain grassland for 6 months. Harvesting of the grassland disturbed the otherwise stable COS-to-CO2 uptake ratio. We even found the canopy to release COS during those times.
Getachew Agmuas Adnew, Thijs L. Pons, Gerbrand Koren, Wouter Peters, and Thomas Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 3903–3922,Short summary
We measured the effect of photosynthesis, the largest flux in the carbon cycle, on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 at the leaf level during gas exchange using three plant species. The main factors that limit the impact of land vegetation on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 are identified, characterized and discussed. The effect of photosynthesis on the isotopic composition of CO2 is commonly quantified as discrimination (ΔA).
Moritz Schroll, Frank Keppler, Markus Greule, Christian Eckhardt, Holger Zorn, and Katharina Lenhart
Biogeosciences, 17, 3891–3901,Short summary
Fungi have recently been identified to produce the greenhouse gas methane. Here, we investigated the stable carbon isotope values of methane produced by saprotrophic fungi. Our results show that stable isotope values of methane from fungi are dependent on the fungal species and the metabolized substrate. They cover a broad range and overlap with stable carbon isotope values of methane reported for methanogenic archaea, the thermogenic degradation of organic matter, and other eukaryotes.
Pranav Hirave, Guido L. B. Wiesenberg, Axel Birkholz, and Christine Alewell
Biogeosciences, 17, 2169–2180,Short summary
Sediment input into water bodies is a prominent threat to freshwater ecosystems. We tested the stability of tracers employed in freshwater sediment tracing based on compound-specific isotope analysis during early degradation in soil. While bulk δ13C values showed no stability, δ13C values of plant-derived fatty acids and n-alkanes were stably transferred to the soil without soil particle size dependency after an early degradation in organic horizons, thus indicating their suitability as tracers.
Caroline Thaler, Amandine Katz, Magali Bonifacie, Bénédicte Ménez, and Magali Ader
Biogeosciences, 17, 1731–1744,Short summary
Paleoenvironment reconstructions, retrieved from δ18O and Δ47 values measured in carbonate, are compromised when crystallization occurs in isotopic disequilibrium. We show that some paleoenvironmental information can still be retrieved from these paired disequilibrium Δ47 and δ18O values. The possibility of retrieving information on paleowaters, sediments' interstitial waters, or organisms' body water at the carbonate precipitation loci will help understand past Earth and life evolution.
Guillaume Humbert, Mathieu Sébilo, Justine Fiat, Longqi Lang, Ahlem Filali, Véronique Vaury, Mathieu Spérandio, and Anniet M. Laverman
Biogeosciences, 17, 979–993,Short summary
Mitigating emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O requires understanding of the relative contribution of its producing processes in response to environmental variables. We show, using isotopic analysis, that N2O emissions from a nitrifying system were sensitive to oxygenation, temperature and NH4+ concentrations with nitrite reduction being the main N2O source. Temperature appears to be the main control on N2O production, due to its dissimilar effects on ammonium and nitrite oxidizing activities.
Oguz Yigiterhan, Ebrahim Mohd Al-Ansari, Alex Nelson, Mohamed Alaa Abdel-Moati, Jesse Turner, Hamood Abdulla Alsaadi, Barbara Paul, Ibrahim Abdullatif Al-Maslamani, Mehsin Abdulla Al-Ansi Al-Yafei, and James W. Murray
Biogeosciences, 17, 381–404,Short summary
We analyze net-tow samples of plankton and associated particulate matter from the Exclusive Economic Zone, Qatar, Arabian Gulf, using net tows with mesh sizes of 50 and 200 μm to examine the composition of plankton populations. We also focus on the role and composition of the atmospheric dust, representative of terrigenous material, deposited in the Gulf. We concluded that Al, Fe, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Li are of dust origin and As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, and Ca are of anthropogenic/biogenic origin.
Clare Woulds, James B. Bell, Adrian G. Glover, Steven Bouillon, and Louise S. Brown
Biogeosciences, 17, 1–12,Short summary
Sedimented hydrothermal vents occur where heated, mineral-rich (hydrothermal) water seeps through seafloor sediments. They host chemosynthetic microbes, which use chemical energy to fix dissolved carbon dioxide into sugars (chemosynthesis). We conducted carbon tracing experiments, and observed chemosynthesis at both vent and non-vent sites. Thus, chemosynthesis occurred over a much larger area than expected, suggesting it is more widespread than previously thought.
Cara C. Manning, Rachel H. R. Stanley, David P. Nicholson, Brice Loose, Ann Lovely, Peter Schlosser, and Bruce G. Hatcher
Biogeosciences, 16, 3351–3376,Short summary
We measured rates of biological activity and gas exchange in a Canadian estuary during ice melt. We quantified gas exchange using inert, deliberately released tracers and found that the gas transfer rate at > 90 % ice cover was 6 % of the rate for nearly ice-free conditions. We measured oxygen concentration and isotopic composition and used the data to detect changes in the rates of photosynthesis and respiration (autotrophy and heterotrophy) as the ice melted.
Marlène Lavrieux, Axel Birkholz, Katrin Meusburger, Guido L. B. Wiesenberg, Adrian Gilli, Christian Stamm, and Christine Alewell
Biogeosciences, 16, 2131–2146,Short summary
A fingerprinting approach using compound-specific stable isotopes was applied to a lake sediment core to reconstruct erosion processes over the past 150 years in a Swiss catchment. Even though the reconstruction of land use and eutrophication history was successful, the observation of comparatively low δ13C values of plant-derived fatty acids in the sediment suggests their alteration within the lake. Thus, their use as a tool for source attribution in sediment cores needs further investigation.
Luciana A. Pereira, Roberto V. Santos, Marília Hauser, Fabrice Duponchelle, Fernando Carvajal, Christophe Pecheyran, Sylvain Bérail, and Marc Pouilly
Biogeosciences, 16, 1781–1797,Short summary
This study presents the first step for a chemical origin certification of pirarucu fishery in the Amazon. A preliminary isotopic tool to improve the actual tracking system integrates ecological, social, and economic aspects of Amazon dynamics. The geographic origin validation of farmed and wild fishes contributes to environmental and social practices, secures food and income to communities, helps manage endangered species, reinforces aquaculture, and combats illegal fisheries.
Sarah Conrad, Johan Ingri, Johan Gelting, Fredrik Nordblad, Emma Engström, Ilia Rodushkin, Per S. Andersson, Don Porcelli, Örjan Gustafsson, Igor Semiletov, and Björn Öhlander
Biogeosciences, 16, 1305–1319,Short summary
Iron analysis of the particulate, colloidal, and truly dissolved fractions along the Lena River freshwater plume showed that the particulate iron dominates close to the coast. Over 99 % particulate and about 90 % colloidal iron were lost, while the truly dissolved phase was almost constant. Iron isotopes suggest that the shelf acts as a sink for particles and colloids with negative iron isotope values, while colloids with positive iron isotope values travel further out into the Arctic Ocean.
Elizabeth Verhoeven, Matti Barthel, Longfei Yu, Luisella Celi, Daniel Said-Pullicino, Steven Sleutel, Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Johan Six, and Charlotte Decock
Biogeosciences, 16, 383–408,Short summary
This study utilized state-of-the-art measurements of nitrogen isotopes to evaluate nitrogen cycling and to assess the biological sources of the potent greenhouse gas, N2O, in response to water-saving practices in rice systems. Water-saving practices did emit more N2O, and high N2O production had a lower 15N isotope signature. Modeling and visual interpretation indicate that these emissions mostly came from denitrification or nitrifier denitrification, controlled upstream by nitrification rates.
Feifei Deng, Gideon M. Henderson, Maxi Castrillejo, Fiz F. Perez, and Reiner Steinfeldt
Biogeosciences, 15, 7299–7313,Short summary
To better use Pa / Th to reconstruct deep water ventilation rate, we assessed controls on 230Th and 231Pa in the northern North Atlantic. With extended optimum multi-parameter analysis and CFC-based water-mass age, we found the imprint of young overflow water on Th and Pa and enhanced scavenging near the seafloor. A significantly higher advective loss of Pa to the south relative to Th in the Atlantic was estimated, supporting the use of Pa / Th for assessing basin-scale meridional transport.
Anne L. Morée, Jörg Schwinger, and Christoph Heinze
Biogeosciences, 15, 7205–7223,Short summary
Changes in the distribution of the carbon isotope 13C can be used to study the climate system if the governing processes (ocean circulation and biogeochemistry) are understood. We show the Southern Ocean importance for the global 13C distribution and that changes in 13C can be strongly influenced by biogeochemistry. Interpretation of 13C as a proxy for climate signals needs to take into account the effects of changes in biogeochemistry in addition to changes in ocean circulation.
Douglas G. Russell, Wei Wen Wong, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 15, 7225–7234,Short summary
Nitrogen is an important nutrient in marine environments and is continually converted from one form to another. One way these processes can be investigated is by looking at the ratio of the 15N and 14N stable isotopes of different nitrogen-containing compounds. To date few studies have compared these ratios in seagrass beds, their associated sediments and the porewater NH4+ pool. The strong relationship between these nitrogen pools suggests that nitrogen is tightly recycled within seagrass beds.
Bharat Rastogi, Max Berkelhammer, Sonia Wharton, Mary E. Whelan, Frederick C. Meinzer, David Noone, and Christopher J. Still
Biogeosciences, 15, 7127–7139,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has gained prominence as an independent tracer for gross primary productivity, which is usually modelled by partitioning net CO2 fluxes. Here, we present a simple empirical model for estimating ecosystem-scale OCS fluxes for a temperate old-growth forest and find that OCS sink strength scales with independently estimated CO2 uptake and is sensitive to the the fraction of downwelling diffuse light. We also examine the response of OCS and CO2 fluxes to sequential heat waves.
Fumiko Nakagawa, Urumu Tsunogai, Yusuke Obata, Kenta Ando, Naoyuki Yamashita, Tatsuyoshi Saito, Shigeki Uchiyama, Masayuki Morohashi, and Hiroyuki Sase
Biogeosciences, 15, 7025–7042,Short summary
To clarify the biological processing of nitrate within temperate forested catchments using unprocessed atmospheric nitrate exported from each catchment as a tracer, we continuously monitored stream nitrate concentrations and stable isotopic compositions in three forested catchments for more than 2 years. We concluded that the export flux of unprocessed atmospheric nitrate relative to the deposition flux in each forest ecosystem is applicable as an index for nitrogen saturation.
Lucie Cassarino, Christopher D. Coath, Joana R. Xavier, and Katharine R. Hendry
Biogeosciences, 15, 6959–6977,Short summary
Using a simple model, we show that the silicon isotopic composition of sponges can be used to estimate the silicic acid concentration of seawater, a key parameter linked to nutrient and carbon cycling. However, our data illustrate that skeletal type and growth rate also control silicon isotopic composition of sponges. Our study demonstrates the paleoceanographic utility of sponges as an archive for ocean silica content provided that suitable skeleton types are selected.
Laurie C. Hofmann and Svenja Heesch
Biogeosciences, 15, 6139–6149,Short summary
The ability of marine macroalgae to adapt to changing ocean chemistry will depend on the flexibility of their inorganic carbon uptake mechanisms across biogeographic ranges. Therefore, we investigated the plasticity of inorganic carbon uptake mechanisms in north Atlantic rhodoliths – free-living calcifying red algae that form important benthic habitats in coastal environments. We observed flexible mechanisms related to seawater DIC concentrations, indicating the potential for adaptation.
Jacqueline Bertlich, Dirk Nürnberg, Ed C. Hathorne, Lennart J. de Nooijer, Eveline M. Mezger, Markus Kienast, Steffanie Nordhausen, Gert-Jan Reichart, Joachim Schönfeld, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 15, 5991–6018,
Jill N. Sutton, Gregory F. de Souza, Maribel I. García-Ibáñez, and Christina L. De La Rocha
Biogeosciences, 15, 5663–5676,Short summary
The silicon stable isotope distribution determined from samples collected from the North Atlantic Ocean indicates that water mass subduction and circulation are the dominant processes controlling the distribution of dissolved silicon in this region. In addition, these data provide a clear view of the direct interaction between northern and southern water masses and the extent to which the silicon isotope composition of these silica-poor waters is influenced by hydrography.
Maxi Castrillejo, Núria Casacuberta, Marcus Christl, Christof Vockenhuber, Hans-Arno Synal, Maribel I. García-Ibáñez, Pascale Lherminier, Géraldine Sarthou, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, and Pere Masqué
Biogeosciences, 15, 5545–5564,Short summary
The investigation of water mass transport pathways and timescales is important to understand the global ocean circulation. Following earlier studies, we use artificial radionuclides introduced to the oceans in the 1950s to investigate the water transport in the subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA). For the first time, we combine measurements of the long-lived iodine-129 and uranium-236 to confirm earlier findings/hypotheses and to better understand shallow and deep ventilation processes in the SPNA.
Gustaf Granath, Håkan Rydin, Jennifer L. Baltzer, Fia Bengtsson, Nicholas Boncek, Luca Bragazza, Zhao-Jun Bu, Simon J. M. Caporn, Ellen Dorrepaal, Olga Galanina, Mariusz Gałka, Anna Ganeva, David P. Gillikin, Irina Goia, Nadezhda Goncharova, Michal Hájek, Akira Haraguchi, Lorna I. Harris, Elyn Humphreys, Martin Jiroušek, Katarzyna Kajukało, Edgar Karofeld, Natalia G. Koronatova, Natalia P. Kosykh, Mariusz Lamentowicz, Elena Lapshina, Juul Limpens, Maiju Linkosalmi, Jin-Ze Ma, Marguerite Mauritz, Tariq M. Munir, Susan M. Natali, Rayna Natcheva, Maria Noskova, Richard J. Payne, Kyle Pilkington, Sean Robinson, Bjorn J. M. Robroek, Line Rochefort, David Singer, Hans K. Stenøien, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Kai Vellak, Anouk Verheyden, James Michael Waddington, and Steven K. Rice
Biogeosciences, 15, 5189–5202,Short summary
Peat constitutes a long-term archive for climate reconstruction by using the isotopic composition of carbon and oxygen. We analysed isotopes in two peat moss species across North America and Eurasia. Peat (moss tissue) isotope composition was predicted by soil moisture and isotopic composition of the rainwater but differed between species. Our results suggest that isotope composition can be used on a large scale for climatic reconstructions but that such models should be species-specific.
Joshua A. Haslun, Nathaniel E. Ostrom, Eric L. Hegg, and Peggy H. Ostrom
Biogeosciences, 15, 3873–3882,Short summary
N2O δ15N and δ18O values changed non-linearly during in vitro N2O production by bacterial denitrification of NO3−, an argument against their use in N2O apportionment. We present a novel approach for describing non-linear isotopic behaviour, which may be applied to other multi-step reactions. We also show that the intramolecular distribution of 15N in N2O, used to apportion N2O emissions to denitrification and nitrification, is unaffected by electron donor source and electron donor concentration.
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We have measured the chemical composition of the carbonate shells of the parasitic foraminifera Hyrrokkin sarcophaga in order to test if it is influenced by the host organism (bivalve or coral). We find that both the chemical and isotopic composition is influenced by the host organism. For example strontium is enriched in foraminifera that grew on corals, whose skeleton is built from aragonite, which is naturally enriched in strontium compared to the bivalves' calcite shell.
We have measured the chemical composition of the carbonate shells of the parasitic foraminifera...