Articles | Volume 18, issue 18
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-5117-2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-5117-2021
Research article
 | 
17 Sep 2021
Research article |  | 17 Sep 2021

The Bouraké semi-enclosed lagoon (New Caledonia) – a natural laboratory to study the lifelong adaptation of a coral reef ecosystem to extreme environmental conditions

Federica Maggioni, Mireille Pujo-Pay, Jérome Aucan, Carlo Cerrano, Barbara Calcinai, Claude Payri, Francesca Benzoni, Yves Letourneur, and Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa

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Revised manuscript accepted for ESSD
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Cited articles

Agostini, S., Harvey, B. P., Wada, S., Kon, K., Milazzo, M., Inaba, K., and Hall-Spencer, J. M.: Ocean acidification drives community shifts towards simplified non-calcified habitats in a subtropical-temperate transition zone, Sci. Rep., 8, 11354, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29251-7, 2018. 
Aiuppa, A., Hall-Spencer, J. M., Milazzo, M., Turco, G., Caliro, S., and Di Napoli, R.: Volcanic CO2 seep geochemistry and use in understanding ocean acidification, Biogeochemistry, 152, 93–115, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-020-00737-9, 2021. 
Alderdice, R., Suggett, D. J., Cárdenas, A., Hughes, D. J., Kühl, M., Pernice, M., and Voolstra, C. R.: Divergent expression of hypoxia response systems under deoxygenation in reef-forming corals aligns with bleaching susceptibility, Glob. Change Biol., 27, 312–326, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15436, 2021. 
Alongi, D. M., Sasekumar, A., Chong, V. C., Pfitzner, J., Trott, L. A., Tirendi, F., Dixon, P., and Brunskill, G. J.: Sediment accumulation and organic material flux in a managed mangrove ecosystem: Estimates of land-ocean-atmosphere exchange in peninsular Malaysia, Mar. Geol., 208, 383–402, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2004.04.016, 2004. 
Anthony, K. R. N. and Fabricius, K. E.: Shifting roles of heterotrophy and autotrophy in coral energetics under varying turbidity, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 252, 221–253, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(00)00237-9, 2000. 
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Based on current experimental evidence, climate change will affect up to 90 % of coral reefs worldwide. The originality of this study arises from our recent discovery of an exceptional study site where environmental conditions (temperature, pH, and oxygen) are even worse than those forecasted for the future. While these conditions are generally recognized as unfavorable for marine life, we found a rich and abundant coral reef thriving under such extreme environmental conditions.
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