Articles | Volume 12, issue 4
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
The vertical distribution of buoyant plastics at sea: an observational study in the North Atlantic Gyre
School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering and UWA Oceans Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
The Ocean Cleanup Foundation, Delft, the Netherlands
Roger Williams University, Bristol, USA
K. du Plessis
Pangaea Exploration, Miami, USA
School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering and UWA Oceans Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, Brazil
J. de Sonneville
The Ocean Cleanup Foundation, Delft, the Netherlands
Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
School of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering and UWA Oceans Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
No articles found.
Jessica Louise Kolbusz, Jan David Zika, Charitha Pattiaratchi, and Alan John Jamieson
We collected observations of the ocean environment at depths over 6000 meters in the Southern Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Western Pacific using sensor-equipped landers. We found that trench locations impact the water characteristics over these depths. Moving northward, they generally warmed but differed due to their position along bottom water circulation paths. These insights stress the importance of further research in understanding the environment of these deep regions and their importance.
Jessica Kolbusz, Tim Langlois, Charitha Pattiaratchi, and Simon de Lestang
Biogeosciences, 19, 517–539,Short summary
Western rock lobster larvae spend up to 11 months in offshore waters before ocean currents and their ability to swim transport them back to the coast. In 2008, there was a reduction in the number of puerulus (larvae) settling into the fishery. We use an oceanographic model to see how the environment may have contributed to the reduction. Our results show that a combination of effects from local currents and a widespread quiet period in the ocean off WA likely led to less puerulus settlement.
Charitha Pattiaratchi, Mirjam van der Mheen, Cathleen Schlundt, Bhavani E. Narayanaswamy, Appalanaidu Sura, Sara Hajbane, Rachel White, Nimit Kumar, Michelle Fernandes, and Sarath Wijeratne
Ocean Sci., 18, 1–28,Short summary
The Indian Ocean receives a large proportion of plastics, but very few studies have addressed the sources, transport pathways, and sinks. There is a scarcity of observational data for the Indian Ocean. Most plastic sources are derived from rivers, although the amount derived from fishing activity (ghost nets, discarded ropes) is unknown. The unique topographic features of the Indian Ocean that create the monsoons and reversing currents have a large influence on the transport and sinks.
Mirjam van der Mheen, Erik van Sebille, and Charitha Pattiaratchi
Ocean Sci., 16, 1317–1336,Short summary
A large percentage of global ocean plastic enters the Indian Ocean through rivers, but the fate of these plastics is generally unknown. In this paper, we use computer simulations to show that floating plastics
beachand end up on coastlines throughout the Indian Ocean. Coastlines where a lot of plastic enters the ocean are heavily affected by beaching plastic, but plastics can also beach far from the source on remote islands and countries that contribute little plastic pollution of their own.
Miaoju Chen, Charitha B. Pattiaratchi, Anas Ghadouani, and Christine Hanson
Ocean Sci., 15, 333–348,
Julie A. Trotter, Charitha Pattiaratchi, Paolo Montagna, Marco Taviani, James Falter, Ron Thresher, Andrew Hosie, David Haig, Federica Foglini, Quan Hua, and Malcolm T. McCulloch
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
The first ROV exploration of the Perth Canyon offshore southwest Australia discovered diverse
hot spotsof deep-sea biota to depths of ~ 2000 m. Some corals were living below the carbonate saturation horizon. Extensive coral graveyards found at ~ 700 and ~ 1700 m are between ~ 18 000 and ~ 30 000 years old, indicating these corals flourished during the last ice age. Anthropogenic carbon detected within the upper ~ 800 m highlights the increasing threat of climate change to deep-sea ecosystems.
Sarik Salim, Charitha Pattiaratchi, Rafael Tinoco, Giovanni Coco, Yasha Hetzel, Sarath Wijeratne, and Ravindra Jayaratne
Earth Surf. Dynam., 5, 399–415,Short summary
The aim of this paper was to verify the existence of a mean critical velocity concept in terms of turbulent bursting phenomena. Laboratory experiments were undertaken in a unidirectional current flume where an acoustic Doppler velocimeter was used. Results in the laboratory conditions both above and below the measured mean critical velocity highlighted the need to re-evaluate the accuracy of a single time-averaged critical velocity for the initiation of sediment entrainment.
Peter R. Oke, Roger Proctor, Uwe Rosebrock, Richard Brinkman, Madeleine L. Cahill, Ian Coghlan, Prasanth Divakaran, Justin Freeman, Charitha Pattiaratchi, Moninya Roughan, Paul A. Sandery, Amandine Schaeffer, and Sarath Wijeratne
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3297–3307,Short summary
The Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is designed to help ocean modellers hit the ground running. Usually, setting up an ocean model involves a handful of technical steps that time and effort. MARVL provides a user-friendly interface that allows users to choose what options they want for their model, including the region, time period, and input data sets. The user then hits "go", and MARVL does the rest – delivering a "take-away bundle" that contains all the files needed to run the model.
A. de Vos, C. B. Pattiaratchi, and E. M. S. Wijeratne
Biogeosciences, 11, 5909–5930,
S. R. Kularatne, J. Doucette, and C. B. Pattiaratchi
Earth Surf. Dynam. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
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Anna-Marie Winter, Nadezda Vasilyeva, and Artem Vladimirov
Biogeosciences, 20, 3683–3716,Short summary
There is an increasing number of fish in poor state, and many do not recover, even when fishing pressure is ceased. An Allee effect can hinder population recovery because it suppresses the fish's productivity at low abundance. With a model fitted to 17 Atlantic cod stocks, we find that ocean warming and fishing can cause an Allee effect. If present, the Allee effect hinders fish recovery. This shows that Allee effects are dynamic, not uncommon, and calls for precautionary management measures.
Afrah Alothman, Daffne López-Sandoval, Carlos M. Duarte, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 20, 3613–3624,Short summary
This study investigates bacterial dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation in the Red Sea, an oligotrophic ecosystem, using stable-isotope labeling and spectroscopy. The research reveals that bacterial DIC fixation significantly contributes to total DIC fixation, in the surface and deep water. The study demonstrates that as primary production decreases, the role of bacterial DIC fixation increases, emphasizing its importance with photosynthesis in estimating oceanic carbon dioxide production.
Arianna Zampollo, Thomas Cornulier, Rory O'Hara Murray, Jacqueline Fiona Tweddle, James Dunning, and Beth E. Scott
Biogeosciences, 20, 3593–3611,Short summary
This paper highlights the use of the bottom mixed layer depth (BMLD: depth between the end of the pycnocline and the mixed layer below) to investigate subsurface Chlorophyll a (a proxy of primary production) in temperate stratified shelf waters. The strict correlation between subsurface Chl a and BMLD becomes relevant in shelf-productive waters where multiple stressors (e.g. offshore infrastructure) will change the stratification--mixing balance and related carbon fluxes.
Marco Fusi, Sylvain Rigaud, Giovanna Guadagnin, Alberto Barausse, Ramona Marasco, Daniele Daffonchio, Julie Régis, Louison Huchet, Capucine Camin, Laura Pettit, Cristina Vina-Herbon, and Folco Giomi
Biogeosciences, 20, 3509–3521,Short summary
Oxygen availability in marine water and freshwater is very variable at daily and seasonal scales. The dynamic nature of oxygen fluctuations has important consequences for animal and microbe physiology and ecology, yet it is not fully understood. In this paper, we showed the heterogeneous nature of the aquatic oxygen landscape, which we defined here as the
oxyscape, and we addressed the importance of considering the oxyscape in the modelling and managing of aquatic ecosystems.
Anne L. Morée, Tayler M. Clarke, William W. L. Cheung, and Thomas L. Frölicher
Biogeosciences, 20, 2425–2454,Short summary
Ocean temperature and oxygen shape marine habitats together with species’ characteristics. We calculated the impacts of projected 21st-century warming and oxygen loss on the contemporary habitat volume of 47 marine species and described the drivers of these impacts. Most species lose less than 5 % of their habitat at 2 °C of global warming, but some species incur losses 2–3 times greater than that. We also calculate which species may be most vulnerable to climate change and why this is the case.
Markus A. Min, David M. Needham, Sebastian Sudek, Nathan Kobun Truelove, Kathleen J. Pitz, Gabriela M. Chavez, Camille Poirier, Bente Gardeler, Elisabeth von der Esch, Andrea Ludwig, Ulf Riebesell, Alexandra Z. Worden, and Francisco P. Chavez
Biogeosciences, 20, 1277–1298,Short summary
Emerging molecular methods provide new ways of understanding how marine communities respond to changes in ocean conditions. Here, environmental DNA was used to track the temporal evolution of biological communities in the Peruvian coastal upwelling system and in an adjacent enclosure where upwelling was simulated. We found that the two communities quickly diverged, with the open ocean being one found during upwelling and the enclosure evolving to one found under stratified conditions.
Wojciech Majewski, Witold Szczuciński, and Andrew J. Gooday
Biogeosciences, 20, 523–544,Short summary
We studied foraminifera living in the fjords of South Georgia, a sub-Antarctic island sensitive to climate change. As conditions in water and on the seafloor vary, different associations of these microorganisms dominate far inside, in the middle, and near fjord openings. Assemblages in inner and middle parts of fjords are specific to South Georgia, but they may become widespread with anticipated warming. These results are important for interpretating fossil records and monitoring future change.
Allanah Joy Paul, Lennart Thomas Bach, Javier Arístegui, Elisabeth von der Esch, Nauzet Hernández-Hernández, Jonna Piiparinen, Laura Ramajo, Kristian Spilling, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 19, 5911–5926,Short summary
We investigated how different deep water chemistry and biology modulate the response of surface phytoplankton communities to upwelling in the Peruvian coastal zone. Our results show that the most influential drivers were the ratio of inorganic nutrients (N : P) and the microbial community present in upwelling source water. These led to unexpected and variable development in the phytoplankton assemblage that could not be predicted by the amount of inorganic nutrients alone.
Hanna M. Kauko, Philipp Assmy, Ilka Peeken, Magdalena Różańska-Pluta, Józef M. Wiktor, Gunnar Bratbak, Asmita Singh, Thomas J. Ryan-Keogh, and Sebastien Moreau
Biogeosciences, 19, 5449–5482,Short summary
This article studies phytoplankton (microscopic
plantsin the ocean capable of photosynthesis) in Kong Håkon VII Hav in the Southern Ocean. Different species play different roles in the ecosystem, and it is therefore important to assess the species composition. We observed that phytoplankton blooms in this area are formed by large diatoms with strong silica armors, which can lead to high silica (and sometimes carbon) export to depth and be important prey for krill.
Chloe Carbonne, Steeve Comeau, Phoebe T. W. Chan, Keyla Plichon, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, and Núria Teixidó
Biogeosciences, 19, 4767–4777,Short summary
For the first time, our study highlights the synergistic effects of a 9-month warming and acidification combined stress on the early life stages of a Mediterranean azooxanthellate coral, Astroides calycularis. Our results predict a decrease in dispersion, settlement, post-settlement linear extention, budding and survival under future global change and that larvae and recruits of A. calycularis are stages of interest for this Mediterranean coral resistance, resilience and conservation.
Iris E. Hendriks, Anna Escolano-Moltó, Susana Flecha, Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer, Marlene Wesselmann, and Núria Marbà
Biogeosciences, 19, 4619–4637,Short summary
Seagrasses are marine plants with the capacity to act as carbon sinks due to their high primary productivity, using carbon for growth. This capacity can play a key role in climate change mitigation. We compiled and published data showing that two Mediterranean seagrass species have different metabolic rates, while the study method influences the rates of the measurements. Most communities act as carbon sinks, while the western basin might be more productive than the eastern Mediterranean.
Raúl Tapia, Sze Ling Ho, Hui-Yu Wang, Jeroen Groeneveld, and Mahyar Mohtadi
Biogeosciences, 19, 3185–3208,Short summary
We report census counts of planktic foraminifera in depth-stratified plankton net samples off Indonesia. Our results show that the vertical distribution of foraminifera species routinely used in paleoceanographic reconstructions varies in hydrographically distinct regions, likely in response to food availability. Consequently, the thermal gradient based on mixed layer and thermocline dwellers also differs for these regions, suggesting potential implications for paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Ricardo González-Gil, Neil S. Banas, Eileen Bresnan, and Michael R. Heath
Biogeosciences, 19, 2417–2426,Short summary
In oceanic waters, the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in winter, when light still limits growth, is attributed to a decrease in grazing as the mixed layer deepens. However, in coastal areas, it is not clear whether winter biomass can accumulate without this deepening. Using 21 years of weekly data, we found that in the Scottish coastal North Sea, the seasonal increase in light availability triggers the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in winter, when light limitation is strongest.
Birgit Koehler, Mårten Erlandsson, Martin Karlsson, and Lena Bergström
Biogeosciences, 19, 2295–2312,Short summary
Understanding species richness patterns remains a challenge for biodiversity management. We estimated fish species richness over a coastal salinity gradient (3–32) with a method that allowed comparing data from various sources. Species richness was 3-fold higher at high vs. low salinity, and salinity influenced species’ habitat preference, mobility and feeding type. If climate change causes upper-layer freshening of the Baltic Sea, further shifts along the identified patterns may be expected.
Uri Obolski, Thomas Wichard, Alvaro Israel, Alexander Golberg, and Alexander Liberzon
Biogeosciences, 19, 2263–2271,Short summary
The algal genus Ulva plays a major role in coastal ecosystems worldwide and is a promising prospect as an seagriculture crop. A substantial hindrance to cultivating Ulva arises from sudden sporulation, leading to biomass loss. This process is not yet well understood. Here, we characterize the dynamics of Ulva growth, considering the potential impact of sporulation inhibitors, using a mathematical model. Our findings are an essential step towards understanding the dynamics of Ulva growth.
Emanuela Fanelli, Samuele Menicucci, Sara Malavolti, Andrea De Felice, and Iole Leonori
Biogeosciences, 19, 1833–1851,Short summary
Zooplankton play a key role in marine ecosystems, forming the base of the marine food web and a link between primary producers and higher-order consumers, such as fish. This aspect is crucial in the Adriatic basin, one of the most productive and overexploited areas of the Mediterranean Sea. A better understanding of community and food web structure and their response to water mass changes is essential under a global warming scenario, as zooplankton are sensitive to climate change.
Masaya Yoshikai, Takashi Nakamura, Rempei Suwa, Sahadev Sharma, Rene Rollon, Jun Yasuoka, Ryohei Egawa, and Kazuo Nadaoka
Biogeosciences, 19, 1813–1832,Short summary
This study presents a new individual-based vegetation model to investigate salinity control on mangrove productivity. The model incorporates plant hydraulics and tree competition and predicts unique and complex patterns of mangrove forest structures that vary across soil salinity gradients. The presented model does not hold an empirical expression of salinity influence on productivity and thus may provide a better understanding of mangrove forest dynamics in future climate change.
Coulson A. Lantz, William Leggat, Jessica L. Bergman, Alexander Fordyce, Charlotte Page, Thomas Mesaglio, and Tracy D. Ainsworth
Biogeosciences, 19, 891–906,Short summary
Coral bleaching events continue to drive the degradation of coral reefs worldwide. In this study we measured rates of daytime coral reef community calcification and photosynthesis during a reef-wide bleaching event. Despite a measured decline in coral health across several taxa, there was no change in overall daytime community calcification and photosynthesis. These findings highlight potential limitations of these community-level metrics to reflect actual changes in coral health.
Hyewon Heather Kim, Jeff S. Bowman, Ya-Wei Luo, Hugh W. Ducklow, Oscar M. Schofield, Deborah K. Steinberg, and Scott C. Doney
Biogeosciences, 19, 117–136,Short summary
Heterotrophic marine bacteria are tiny organisms responsible for taking up organic matter in the ocean. Using a modeling approach, this study shows that characteristics (taxonomy and physiology) of bacteria are associated with a subset of ecological processes in the coastal West Antarctic Peninsula region, a system susceptible to global climate change. This study also suggests that bacteria will become more active, in particular large-sized cells, in response to changing climates in the region.
Alice E. Webb, Didier M. de Bakker, Karline Soetaert, Tamara da Costa, Steven M. A. C. van Heuven, Fleur C. van Duyl, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Lennart J. de Nooijer
Biogeosciences, 18, 6501–6516,Short summary
The biogeochemical behaviour of shallow reef communities is quantified to better understand the impact of habitat degradation and species composition shifts on reef functioning. The reef communities investigated barely support reef functions that are usually ascribed to conventional coral reefs, and the overall biogeochemical behaviour is found to be similar regardless of substrate type. This suggests a decrease in functional diversity which may therefore limit services provided by this reef.
Emmanuel Devred, Andrea Hilborn, and Cornelia Elizabeth den Heyer
Biogeosciences, 18, 6115–6132,Short summary
A theoretical model of grey seal seasonal abundance on Sable Island (SI) coupled with chlorophyll-a concentration [chl-a] measured by satellite revealed the impact of seal nitrogen fertilization on the surrounding waters of SI, Canada. The increase in seals from about 100 000 in 2003 to about 360 000 in 2018 during the breeding season is consistent with an increase in [chl-a] leeward of SI. The increase in seal abundance explains 8 % of the [chl-a] increase.
Julie Meilland, Michael Siccha, Maike Kaffenberger, Jelle Bijma, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 18, 5789–5809,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera population dynamics has long been assumed to be controlled by synchronous reproduction and ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM). Due to contradictory observations, this concept became controversial. We here test it in the Atlantic ocean for four species of foraminifera representing the main clades. Our observations support the existence of synchronised reproduction and OVM but show that more than half of the population does not follow the canonical trajectory.
Federica Maggioni, Mireille Pujo-Pay, Jérome Aucan, Carlo Cerrano, Barbara Calcinai, Claude Payri, Francesca Benzoni, Yves Letourneur, and Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa
Biogeosciences, 18, 5117–5140,Short summary
Based on current experimental evidence, climate change will affect up to 90 % of coral reefs worldwide. The originality of this study arises from our recent discovery of an exceptional study site where environmental conditions (temperature, pH, and oxygen) are even worse than those forecasted for the future. While these conditions are generally recognized as unfavorable for marine life, we found a rich and abundant coral reef thriving under such extreme environmental conditions.
Nisan Sariaslan and Martin R. Langer
Biogeosciences, 18, 4073–4090,Short summary
Analyses of foraminiferal assemblages from the Mamanguape mangrove estuary (northern Brazil) revealed highly diverse, species-rich, and structurally complex biotas. The atypical fauna resembles shallow-water offshore assemblages and are interpreted to be the result of highly saline ocean waters penetrating deep into the estuary. The findings contrast with previous studies, have implications for the fossil record, and provide novel perspectives for reconstructing mangrove environments.
Jutta E. Wollenburg, Jelle Bijma, Charlotte Cremer, Ulf Bickmeyer, and Zora Mila Colomba Zittier
Biogeosciences, 18, 3903–3915,Short summary
Cultured at in situ high-pressure conditions Cibicides and Cibicidoides taxa develop lasting ectoplasmic structures that cannot be retracted or resorbed. An ectoplasmic envelope surrounds their test and may protect the shell, e.g. versus carbonate aggressive bottom water conditions. Ectoplasmic roots likely anchor the specimens in areas of strong bottom water currents, trees enable them to elevate themselves above ground, and twigs stabilize and guide the retractable pseudopodial network.
Biogeosciences, 18, 3631–3635,Short summary
The Indian Ocean Rim hosts many of the underdeveloped and emerging economies that depend on ocean resources for the livelihood of millions. Operational ocean information services cater to the requirements of resource managers and end-users to efficiently harness resources, mitigate threats and ensure safety. This paper outlines existing tools and explores the ongoing research that has the potential to convert the findings into operational services in the near- to midterm.
Finn Mielck, Rune Michaelis, H. Christian Hass, Sarah Hertel, Caroline Ganal, and Werner Armonies
Biogeosciences, 18, 3565–3577,Short summary
Marine sand mining is becoming more and more important to nourish fragile coastlines that face global change. We investigated the largest sand extraction site in the German Bight. The study reveals that after more than 35 years of mining, the excavation pits are still detectable on the seafloor while the sediment composition has largely changed. The organic communities living in and on the seafloor were strongly decimated, and no recovery is observable towards previous conditions.
France Van Wambeke, Elvira Pulido, Philippe Catala, Julie Dinasquet, Kahina Djaoudi, Anja Engel, Marc Garel, Sophie Guasco, Barbara Marie, Sandra Nunige, Vincent Taillandier, Birthe Zäncker, and Christian Tamburini
Biogeosciences, 18, 2301–2323,Short summary
Michaelis–Menten kinetics were determined for alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase in the Mediterranean Sea. Although the ectoenzymatic-hydrolysis contribution to heterotrophic prokaryotic needs was high in terms of N, it was low in terms of C. This study points out the biases in interpretation of the relative differences in activities among the three tested enzymes in regard to the choice of added concentrations of fluorogenic substrates.
Oscar E. Romero, Simon Ramondenc, and Gerhard Fischer
Biogeosciences, 18, 1873–1891,Short summary
Upwelling intensity along NW Africa varies on the interannual to decadal timescale. Understanding its changes is key for the prediction of future changes of CO2 sequestration in the northeastern Atlantic. Based on a multiyear (1988–2009) sediment trap experiment at the site CBmeso, fluxes and the species composition of the diatom assemblage are presented. Our data help in establishing the scientific basis for forecasting and modeling future states of this ecosystem and its decadal changes.
Katharine T. Bigham, Ashley A. Rowden, Daniel Leduc, and David A. Bowden
Biogeosciences, 18, 1893–1908,Short summary
Turbidity flows – underwater avalanches – are large-scale physical disturbances believed to have profound impacts on productivity and diversity of benthic communities in the deep sea. We reviewed published studies and found that current evidence for changes in productivity is ambiguous at best, but the influence on regional and local diversity is clearer. We suggest study design criteria that may lead to a better understanding of large-scale disturbance effects on deep-sea benthos.
Phillip Williamson, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Steve Widdicombe, and Jean-Pierre Gattuso
Biogeosciences, 18, 1787–1792,Short summary
The reliability of ocean acidification research was challenged in early 2020 when a high-profile paper failed to corroborate previously observed impacts of high CO2 on the behaviour of coral reef fish. We now know the reason why: the
replicatedstudies differed in many ways. Open-minded and collaborative assessment of all research results, both negative and positive, remains the best way to develop process-based understanding of the impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms.
Michael Lintner, Bianca Lintner, Wolfgang Wanek, Nina Keul, and Petra Heinz
Biogeosciences, 18, 1395–1406,Short summary
Foraminifera are unicellular marine organisms that play an important role in the marine element cycle. Changes of environmental parameters such as salinity or temperature have a significant impact on the faunal assemblages. Our experiments show that changes in salinity immediately influence the foraminiferal activity. Also the light regime has a significant impact on carbon or nitrogen processing in foraminifera which contain no kleptoplasts.
Michele Casini, Martin Hansson, Alessandro Orio, and Karin Limburg
Biogeosciences, 18, 1321–1331,Short summary
In the past 20 years the condition of the eastern Baltic cod has dropped, with large implications for the fishery. Our results show that simultaneously the cod population has moved deeper while low-oxygenated waters detrimental for cod growth have become shallower. Cod have thus dwelled more in detrimental waters, explaining the drop in its condition. This study, using long-term fish and hydrological monitoring data, evidences the impact of deoxygenation on fish biology and fishing.
Elizabeth D. LaBone, Kenneth A. Rose, Dubravko Justic, Haosheng Huang, and Lixia Wang
Biogeosciences, 18, 487–507,Short summary
The hypoxic zone is an area of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Gulf of Mexico. Fish can be killed by exposure to hypoxia and can be negatively impacted by exposure to low, nonlethal DO concentrations (sublethal DO). We found that high sublethal area resulted in higher exposure and DO variability had a small effect on exposure. There was a large variation in exposure among individuals, which when combined with spatial variability of DO, can result in an underestimation of exposure when averaged.
Svenja Reents, Peter Mueller, Hao Tang, Kai Jensen, and Stefanie Nolte
Biogeosciences, 18, 403–411,Short summary
By conducting a flooding experiment with two genotypes of the salt-marsh grass Elymus athericus, we show considerable differences in biomass response to flooding within the same species. As biomass production plays a major role in sedimentation processes and thereby salt-marsh accretion, we emphasise the importance of taking intraspecific differences into account when evaluating ecosystem resilience to accelerated sea level rise.
Cara Nissen and Meike Vogt
Biogeosciences, 18, 251–283,Short summary
Using a regional Southern Ocean ecosystem model, we find that the relative importance of Phaeocystis and diatoms at high latitudes is controlled by iron and temperature variability, with light levels controlling the seasonal succession in coastal areas. Yet, biomass losses via aggregation and grazing matter as well. We show that the seasonal succession of Phaeocystis and diatoms impacts the seasonality of carbon export fluxes with ramifications for nutrient cycling and food web dynamics.
Jiangtao Li, Lingyuan Gu, Shijie Bai, Jie Wang, Lei Su, Bingbing Wei, Li Zhang, and Jiasong Fang
Biogeosciences, 18, 113–133,Short summary
Few studies have focused on the particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) microbes of the deep ocean. Here we determined PA and FL microbial communities along depth profiles of the SCS. PA and FL fractions accommodated divergent microbial compositions, and most of them are potentially generalists with PA and FL dual lifestyles. A potential vertical connectivity between surface-specific microbes and those in the deep ocean was indicated, likely through microbial attachment to sinking particles.
Saskia Brix, Karen J. Osborn, Stefanie Kaiser, Sarit B. Truskey, Sarah M. Schnurr, Nils Brenke, Marina Malyutina, and Pedro Martinez Arbizu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6163–6184,Short summary
The Clarion–Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ) located in the Pacific is commercially the most important area of proposed manganese nodule mining. Extraction of this will influence the life and distribution of small deep-sea invertebrates like peracarid crustaceans, of which >90 % are undescribed species new to science. We are doing a species delimitation approach as baseline for an ecological interpretation of species distribution and discuss the results in light of future deep-sea conservation.
Amal Jayakumar and Bess B. Ward
Biogeosciences, 17, 5953–5966,Short summary
Diversity and community composition of nitrogen-fixing microbes in the three main oxygen minimum zones of the world ocean were investigated using nifH clone libraries. Representatives of three main clusters of nifH genes were detected. Sequences were most diverse in the surface waters. The most abundant OTUs were affiliated with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. The sequences were biogeographically distinct and the dominance of a few OTUs was commonly observed in OMZs in this (and other) studies.
Guillermo Feliú, Marc Pagano, Pamela Hidalgo, and François Carlotti
Biogeosciences, 17, 5417–5441,Short summary
The impact of Saharan dust deposition events on the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem was studied during a basin-scale survey (PEACETIME cruise, May–June 2017). Short-term responses of the zooplankton community were observed after episodic dust deposition events, highlighting the impact of these events on productivity up to the zooplankton level in the poorly fertilized pelagic ecosystems of the southern Mediterranean Sea.
Douglas Lessa, Raphaël Morard, Lukas Jonkers, Igor M. Venancio, Runa Reuter, Adrian Baumeister, Ana Luiza Albuquerque, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 17, 4313–4342,Short summary
We observed that living planktonic foraminifera had distinct vertically distributed communities across the Subtropical South Atlantic. In addition, a hierarchic alternation of environmental parameters was measured to control the distribution of planktonic foraminifer's species depending on the water depth. This implies that not only temperature but also productivity and subsurface processes are signed in fossil assemblages, which could be used to perform paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Karl M. Attard and Ronnie N. Glud
Biogeosciences, 17, 4343–4353,Short summary
Light-use efficiency defines the ability of primary producers to convert sunlight energy to primary production. This report provides a framework to compute hourly and daily light-use efficiency using underwater eddy covariance, a recent technological development that produces habitat-scale rates of primary production for many different habitat types. The approach, tested on measured flux data, provides a useful means to compare habitat productivity across time and space.
Stacy Deppeler, Kai G. Schulz, Alyce Hancock, Penelope Pascoe, John McKinlay, and Andrew Davidson
Biogeosciences, 17, 4153–4171,Short summary
Our study showed how ocean acidification can exert both direct and indirect influences on the interactions among trophic levels within the microbial loop. Microbial grazer abundance was reduced at CO2 concentrations at and above 634 µatm, while microbial communities increased in abundance, likely due to a reduction in being grazed. Such changes in predator–prey interactions with ocean acidification could have significant effects on the food web and biogeochemistry in the Southern Ocean.
Mirjana Najdek, Marino Korlević, Paolo Paliaga, Marsej Markovski, Ingrid Ivančić, Ljiljana Iveša, Igor Felja, and Gerhard J. Herndl
Biogeosciences, 17, 3299–3315,Short summary
The response of Cymodocea nodosa to environmental changes was reported during a 15-month period. The meadow decline was triggered in spring by the simultaneous reduction of available light in the water column and the creation of anoxic conditions in the rooted area. This disturbance was critical for the plant since it took place during its recruitment phase when metabolic needs are maximal and stored reserves minimal. The loss of such habitat-forming seagrass is a major environmental concern.
Timm Schoening, Autun Purser, Daniel Langenkämper, Inken Suck, James Taylor, Daphne Cuvelier, Lidia Lins, Erik Simon-Lledó, Yann Marcon, Daniel O. B. Jones, Tim Nattkemper, Kevin Köser, Martin Zurowietz, Jens Greinert, and Jose Gomes-Pereira
Biogeosciences, 17, 3115–3133,Short summary
Seafloor imaging is widely used in marine science and industry to explore and monitor areas of interest. The selection of the most appropriate imaging gear and deployment strategy depends on the target application. This paper compares imaging platforms like autonomous vehicles or towed camera frames and different deployment strategies of those in assessing the megafauna abundance of polymetallic-nodule fields. The deep-sea mining industry needs that information for robust impact monitoring.
Tatsuro Tanioka and Katsumi Matsumoto
Biogeosciences, 17, 2939–2954,Short summary
We conducted an extensive literature survey (meta-analysis) on how the C : N : P ratio varies with change in key environmental drivers. We found that the expected reduction in nutrients and warming under the future climate change scenario is likely to result in increased C : P and C : N of marine phytoplankton. Further, our findings highlight the greater stoichiometric plasticity of eukaryotes over prokaryotes, which provide us insights on how to understand and model plankton.
Vanessa Joglar, Antero Prieto, Esther Barber-Lluch, Marta Hernández-Ruiz, Emilio Fernández, and Eva Teira
Biogeosciences, 17, 2807–2823,Short summary
Coastal marine ecosystems are among the most ecologically and economically productive areas providing a large fraction of ecosystem goods and services to human populations, and B vitamins have long been considered important growth factors for phytoplankton. Our findings indicate that the responses of microbial plankton to B-vitamin supply are mainly driven by the bacterial community composition and that microbial plankton in this area seems to be well adapted to cope with B-vitamin shortage.
Tasnim Patel, Henri Robert, Cedric D'Udekem D'Acoz, Koen Martens, Ilse De Mesel, Steven Degraer, and Isa Schön
Biogeosciences, 17, 2731–2744,Short summary
Exploitation of deep-sea resources in one of the largest ecosystems on the planet has rendered research of its biodiversity more urgent than ever before. We investigated the known habitats and connectivity of deep-sea scavenging amphipods and obtained important knowledge about several species. We also demonstrated that a long-term disturbance experiment has possibly reduced amphipod biodiversity. These data and further sampling expeditions are instrumental for formulating sustainable policies.
Daphne Cuvelier, Pedro A. Ribeiro, Sofia P. Ramalho, Daniel Kersken, Pedro Martinez Arbizu, and Ana Colaço
Biogeosciences, 17, 2657–2680,Short summary
Polymetallic nodule mining will remove hard substrata from the abyssal deep-sea floor. The only neighbouring ecosystems featuring hard substratum are seamounts, and their inhabiting fauna could aid in recovery post-mining. Nevertheless, first observations of seamount megafauna were very different from nodule-associated megafauna and showed little overlap. The possible uniqueness of these ecosystems implies that they should be included in management plans for the conservation of biodiversity.
Karen F. Wishner, Brad Seibel, and Dawn Outram
Biogeosciences, 17, 2315–2339,Short summary
Increasing deoxygenation and oxygen minimum zone expansion are consequences of global warming. Copepod species had different vertical distribution strategies and physiologies associated with oxygen profile variability (0–1000 m). Species (1) changed vertical distributions and maximum abundance depth, (2) shifted diapause depth, (3) changed diel vertical migration depths, or (4) changed epipelagic depth range in the aerobic mixed layer. Present-day variability helps predict future scenarios.
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Subsurface observations of ocean plastics are very scarce but essential for adequate estimates of marine plastic pollution levels. We sampled plastics from the sea surface to a depth of 5m, at 0.5m intervals. Vertical mixing was dependent on sea state and affected the abundance, mass, and sizes of plastic debris floating at the sea surface. This has important implications for studies assessing at-sea plastic load, size distribution, drifting pattern, and impact on marine species and habitats.
Subsurface observations of ocean plastics are very scarce but essential for adequate estimates...