Articles | Volume 14, issue 9
05 May 2017
Research article | 05 May 2017
Quantification of dynamic soil–vegetation feedbacks following an isotopically labelled precipitation pulse
Arndt Piayda et al.
A. Piayda, M. Dubbert, C. Rebmann, O. Kolle, F. Costa e Silva, A. Correia, J. S. Pereira, C. Werner, and M. Cuntz
Biogeosciences, 11, 7159–7178,
Haoyu Diao, Philipp Schuler, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Matthias Saurer, and Marco M. Lehmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5835–5847,Short summary
We systematically investigate the uncertainties in previously observed isotopic offsets between plant source water and water extracted by cryogenic vacuum distillation. Our results show that hydrogen isotope exchange between organic material and water is a real phenomenon. However, the isotopic offsets are rather influenced by the actual amount of extracted water, sublimation, and evaporation. Our findings will help improve interpretations of ecohydrological processes in isotope-based studies.
Adrian Dahlmann, Mathias Hoffmann, Gernot Verch, Marten Schmidt, Michael Sommer, Jürgen Augustin, and Maren Dubbert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
In light of ongoing global climate crisis, it is crucial to understand the ecosystem water cycle. Evapotranspiration plays a pivotal role, returning up to 90 % of precipitation to the atmosphere. We studied impacts of soil type and management on an agroecosystem using an automated system coupled with modern gap-filling approaches. We were able to calculate ET in a high spatial and temporal resolution and found significant differences between yield and smaller differences in evapotranspiration.
Aaron Smith, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Jessica Landgraf, Maren Dubbert, and Chris Soulsby
Biogeosciences, 19, 2465–2485,Short summary
This research utilizes high-spatiotemporal-resolution soil and vegetation measurements, including water stable isotopes, within an ecohydrological model to partition water flux dynamics and identify flow paths and durations. Results showed high vegetation water use and high spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation water source and vegetation isotopes. The evaluation of these dynamics further revealed relatively fast flow paths through both shallow soil and vegetation.
Jessica Landgraf, Dörthe Tetzlaff, Maren Dubbert, David Dubbert, Aaron Smith, and Chris Soulsby
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 2073–2092,Short summary
Using water stable isotopes, we studied from which water source (lake water, stream water, groundwater, or soil water) two willows were taking their water. We monitored the environmental conditions (e.g. air temperature and soil moisture) and the behaviour of the trees (water flow in the stem). We found that the most likely water sources of the willows were the upper soil layers but that there were seasonal dynamics.
Youri Rothfuss, Maria Quade, Nicolas Brüggemann, Alexander Graf, Harry Vereecken, and Maren Dubbert
Biogeosciences, 18, 3701–3732,Short summary
The partitioning of evapotranspiration into evaporation from soil and transpiration from plants is crucial for a wide range of parties, from farmers to policymakers. In this work, we focus on a particular partitioning method, based on the stable isotopic analysis of water. In particular, we aim at highlighting the challenges that this method is currently facing and, in light of recent methodological developments, propose ways forward for the isotopic-partitioning community.
Rafael Poyatos, Víctor Granda, Víctor Flo, Mark A. Adams, Balázs Adorján, David Aguadé, Marcos P. M. Aidar, Scott Allen, M. Susana Alvarado-Barrientos, Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Luiza Maria Aparecido, M. Altaf Arain, Ismael Aranda, Heidi Asbjornsen, Robert Baxter, Eric Beamesderfer, Z. Carter Berry, Daniel Berveiller, Bethany Blakely, Johnny Boggs, Gil Bohrer, Paul V. Bolstad, Damien Bonal, Rosvel Bracho, Patricia Brito, Jason Brodeur, Fernando Casanoves, Jérôme Chave, Hui Chen, Cesar Cisneros, Kenneth Clark, Edoardo Cremonese, Hongzhong Dang, Jorge S. David, Teresa S. David, Nicolas Delpierre, Ankur R. Desai, Frederic C. Do, Michal Dohnal, Jean-Christophe Domec, Sebinasi Dzikiti, Colin Edgar, Rebekka Eichstaedt, Tarek S. El-Madany, Jan Elbers, Cleiton B. Eller, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Brent Ewers, Patrick Fonti, Alicia Forner, David I. Forrester, Helber C. Freitas, Marta Galvagno, Omar Garcia-Tejera, Chandra Prasad Ghimire, Teresa E. Gimeno, John Grace, André Granier, Anne Griebel, Yan Guangyu, Mark B. Gush, Paul J. Hanson, Niles J. Hasselquist, Ingo Heinrich, Virginia Hernandez-Santana, Valentine Herrmann, Teemu Hölttä, Friso Holwerda, James Irvine, Supat Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Paul G. Jarvis, Hubert Jochheim, Carlos A. Joly, Julia Kaplick, Hyun Seok Kim, Leif Klemedtsson, Heather Kropp, Fredrik Lagergren, Patrick Lane, Petra Lang, Andrei Lapenas, Víctor Lechuga, Minsu Lee, Christoph Leuschner, Jean-Marc Limousin, Juan Carlos Linares, Maj-Lena Linderson, Anders Lindroth, Pilar Llorens, Álvaro López-Bernal, Michael M. Loranty, Dietmar Lüttschwager, Cate Macinnis-Ng, Isabelle Maréchaux, Timothy A. Martin, Ashley Matheny, Nate McDowell, Sean McMahon, Patrick Meir, Ilona Mészáros, Mirco Migliavacca, Patrick Mitchell, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Georgianne W. Moore, Ryogo Nakada, Furong Niu, Rachael H. Nolan, Richard Norby, Kimberly Novick, Walter Oberhuber, Nikolaus Obojes, A. Christopher Oishi, Rafael S. Oliveira, Ram Oren, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Teemu Paljakka, Oscar Perez-Priego, Pablo L. Peri, Richard L. Peters, Sebastian Pfautsch, William T. Pockman, Yakir Preisler, Katherine Rascher, George Robinson, Humberto Rocha, Alain Rocheteau, Alexander Röll, Bruno H. P. Rosado, Lucy Rowland, Alexey V. Rubtsov, Santiago Sabaté, Yann Salmon, Roberto L. Salomón, Elisenda Sánchez-Costa, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Bernhard Schuldt, Alexandr Shashkin, Clément Stahl, Marko Stojanović, Juan Carlos Suárez, Ge Sun, Justyna Szatniewska, Fyodor Tatarinov, Miroslav Tesař, Frank M. Thomas, Pantana Tor-ngern, Josef Urban, Fernando Valladares, Christiaan van der Tol, Ilja van Meerveld, Andrej Varlagin, Holm Voigt, Jeffrey Warren, Christiane Werner, Willy Werner, Gerhard Wieser, Lisa Wingate, Stan Wullschleger, Koong Yi, Roman Zweifel, Kathy Steppe, Maurizio Mencuccini, and Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2607–2649,Short summary
Transpiration is a key component of global water balance, but it is poorly constrained from available observations. We present SAPFLUXNET, the first global database of tree-level transpiration from sap flow measurements, containing 202 datasets and covering a wide range of ecological conditions. SAPFLUXNET and its accompanying R software package
sapfluxnetrwill facilitate new data syntheses on the ecological factors driving water use and drought responses of trees and forests.
Jan Pisek, Angela Erb, Lauri Korhonen, Tobias Biermann, Arnaud Carrara, Edoardo Cremonese, Matthias Cuntz, Silvano Fares, Giacomo Gerosa, Thomas Grünwald, Niklas Hase, Michal Heliasz, Andreas Ibrom, Alexander Knohl, Johannes Kobler, Bart Kruijt, Holger Lange, Leena Leppänen, Jean-Marc Limousin, Francisco Ramon Lopez Serrano, Denis Loustau, Petr Lukeš, Lars Lundin, Riccardo Marzuoli, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Matthias Peichl, Corinna Rebmann, Eva Rubio, Margarida Santos-Reis, Crystal Schaaf, Marius Schmidt, Guillaume Simioni, Kamel Soudani, and Caroline Vincke
Biogeosciences, 18, 621–635,Short summary
Understory vegetation is the most diverse, least understood component of forests worldwide. Understory communities are important drivers of overstory succession and nutrient cycling. Multi-angle remote sensing enables us to describe surface properties by means that are not possible when using mono-angle data. Evaluated over an extensive set of forest ecosystem experimental sites in Europe, our reported method can deliver good retrievals, especially over different forest types with open canopies.
Richard Essery, Hyungjun Kim, Libo Wang, Paul Bartlett, Aaron Boone, Claire Brutel-Vuilmet, Eleanor Burke, Matthias Cuntz, Bertrand Decharme, Emanuel Dutra, Xing Fang, Yeugeniy Gusev, Stefan Hagemann, Vanessa Haverd, Anna Kontu, Gerhard Krinner, Matthieu Lafaysse, Yves Lejeune, Thomas Marke, Danny Marks, Christoph Marty, Cecile B. Menard, Olga Nasonova, Tomoko Nitta, John Pomeroy, Gerd Schädler, Vladimir Semenov, Tatiana Smirnova, Sean Swenson, Dmitry Turkov, Nander Wever, and Hua Yuan
The Cryosphere, 14, 4687–4698,Short summary
Climate models are uncertain in predicting how warming changes snow cover. This paper compares 22 snow models with the same meteorological inputs. Predicted trends agree with observations at four snow research sites: winter snow cover does not start later, but snow now melts earlier in spring than in the 1980s at two of the sites. Cold regions where snow can last until late summer are predicted to be particularly sensitive to warming because the snow then melts faster at warmer times of year.
Matthias Beyer, Kathrin Kühnhammer, and Maren Dubbert
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4413–4440,Short summary
Water isotopes are a scientific tool that can be used to identify sources of water and answer questions such as
From which soil depths do plants take up water?, which are highly relevant under changing climatic conditions. In the past, the measurement of water isotopes required tremendous effort. In the last decade methods have advanced and can now be applied in the field. Herein, we review the current status of direct field measurements of water isotopes and discuss future applications.
Stephan Thober, Matthias Cuntz, Matthias Kelbling, Rohini Kumar, Juliane Mai, and Luis Samaniego
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2501–2521,Short summary
We present a model that aggregates simulated runoff along a river (i.e. a routing model). The unique feature of the model is that it can be run at multiple resolutions without any modifications to the input data. The model internally (dis-)aggregates all input data to the resolution given by the user. The model performance does not depend on the chosen resolution. This allows efficient model calibration at coarse resolution and subsequent model application at fine resolution.
Olga V. Churakova (Sidorova), Marina V. Fonti, Matthias Saurer, Sébastien Guillet, Christophe Corona, Patrick Fonti, Vladimir S. Myglan, Alexander V. Kirdyanov, Oksana V. Naumova, Dmitriy V. Ovchinnikov, Alexander V. Shashkin, Irina P. Panyushkina, Ulf Büntgen, Malcolm K. Hughes, Eugene A. Vaganov, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, and Markus Stoffel
Clim. Past, 15, 685–700,Short summary
We present a unique dataset of multiple tree-ring and stable isotope parameters, representing temperature-sensitive Siberian ecotones, to assess climatic impacts after six large stratospheric volcanic eruptions at 535, 540, 1257, 1640, 1815, and 1991 CE. Besides the well-documented effects of temperature derived from tree-ring width and latewood density, stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in tree-ring cellulose provide information about moisture and sunshine duration changes after the events.
Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Sabine Braun, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, and Gregory R. Goldsmith
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 1199–1210,Short summary
We used stable isotopes of xylem water to study differences in the seasonal origin of water in more than 900 individual trees from three dominant species in 182 Swiss forested sites. We discovered that midsummer transpiration was mostly supplied by winter precipitation across diverse humid climates. Our findings provide new insights into tree vulnerability to droughts, transport of water (and thus solutes) in soils, and the climatic information conveyed by plant-tissue isotopes.
Gerhard Krinner, Chris Derksen, Richard Essery, Mark Flanner, Stefan Hagemann, Martyn Clark, Alex Hall, Helmut Rott, Claire Brutel-Vuilmet, Hyungjun Kim, Cécile B. Ménard, Lawrence Mudryk, Chad Thackeray, Libo Wang, Gabriele Arduini, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Paul Bartlett, Julia Boike, Aaron Boone, Frédérique Chéruy, Jeanne Colin, Matthias Cuntz, Yongjiu Dai, Bertrand Decharme, Jeff Derry, Agnès Ducharne, Emanuel Dutra, Xing Fang, Charles Fierz, Josephine Ghattas, Yeugeniy Gusev, Vanessa Haverd, Anna Kontu, Matthieu Lafaysse, Rachel Law, Dave Lawrence, Weiping Li, Thomas Marke, Danny Marks, Martin Ménégoz, Olga Nasonova, Tomoko Nitta, Masashi Niwano, John Pomeroy, Mark S. Raleigh, Gerd Schaedler, Vladimir Semenov, Tanya G. Smirnova, Tobias Stacke, Ulrich Strasser, Sean Svenson, Dmitry Turkov, Tao Wang, Nander Wever, Hua Yuan, Wenyan Zhou, and Dan Zhu
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 5027–5049,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of a coordinated international experiment to determine the strengths and weaknesses in how climate models treat snow. The models will be assessed at point locations using high-quality reference measurements and globally using satellite-derived datasets. How well climate models simulate snow-related processes is important because changing snow cover is an important part of the global climate system and provides an important freshwater resource for human use.
Daniele Penna, Luisa Hopp, Francesca Scandellari, Scott T. Allen, Paolo Benettin, Matthias Beyer, Josie Geris, Julian Klaus, John D. Marshall, Luitgard Schwendenmann, Till H. M. Volkmann, Jana von Freyberg, Anam Amin, Natalie Ceperley, Michael Engel, Jay Frentress, Yamuna Giambastiani, Jeff J. McDonnell, Giulia Zuecco, Pilar Llorens, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Todd E. Dawson, and James W. Kirchner
Biogeosciences, 15, 6399–6415,Short summary
Understanding how water flows through ecosystems is needed to provide society and policymakers with the scientific background to manage water resources sustainably. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water are a powerful tool for tracking water fluxes, although the heterogeneity of natural systems and practical methodological issues still limit their full application. Here, we examine the challenges in this research field and highlight new perspectives based on interdisciplinary research.
Vanessa Haverd, Benjamin Smith, Lars Nieradzik, Peter R. Briggs, William Woodgate, Cathy M. Trudinger, Josep G. Canadell, and Matthias Cuntz
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2995–3026,Short summary
CABLE is a terrestrial biosphere model that can be applied stand-alone and provides for land surface–atmosphere exchange within a climate model. We extend CABLE for regional and global carbon–climate simulations, accounting for land use and land cover change mediated by tree demography. A novel algorithm to simulate the coordination of rate-limiting photosynthetic processes is also implemented. Simulations satisfy multiple observational constraints on the global land carbon cycle.
Natalie Orlowski, Lutz Breuer, Nicolas Angeli, Pascal Boeckx, Christophe Brumbt, Craig S. Cook, Maren Dubbert, Jens Dyckmans, Barbora Gallagher, Benjamin Gralher, Barbara Herbstritt, Pedro Hervé-Fernández, Christophe Hissler, Paul Koeniger, Arnaud Legout, Chandelle Joan Macdonald, Carlos Oyarzún, Regine Redelstein, Christof Seidler, Rolf Siegwolf, Christine Stumpp, Simon Thomsen, Markus Weiler, Christiane Werner, and Jeffrey J. McDonnell
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3619–3637,Short summary
To extract water from soils for isotopic analysis, cryogenic water extraction is the most widely used removal technique. This work presents results from a worldwide laboratory intercomparison test of cryogenic extraction systems. Our results showed large differences in retrieved isotopic signatures among participating laboratories linked to interactions between soil type and properties, system setup, extraction efficiency, extraction system leaks, and each lab’s internal accuracy.
Martin Schrön, Markus Köhli, Lena Scheiffele, Joost Iwema, Heye R. Bogena, Ling Lv, Edoardo Martini, Gabriele Baroni, Rafael Rosolem, Jannis Weimar, Juliane Mai, Matthias Cuntz, Corinna Rebmann, Sascha E. Oswald, Peter Dietrich, Ulrich Schmidt, and Steffen Zacharias
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 5009–5030,Short summary
A field-scale average of near-surface water content can be sensed by cosmic-ray neutron detectors. To interpret, calibrate, and validate the integral signal, it is important to account for its sensitivity to heterogeneous patterns like dry or wet spots. We show how point samples contribute to the neutron signal based on their depth and distance from the detector. This approach robustly improves the sensor performance and data consistency, and even reveals otherwise hidden hydrological features.
Kathrin M. Keller, Sebastian Lienert, Anil Bozbiyik, Thomas F. Stocker, Olga V. Churakova (Sidorova), David C. Frank, Stefan Klesse, Charles D. Koven, Markus Leuenberger, William J. Riley, Matthias Saurer, Rolf Siegwolf, Rosemarie B. Weigt, and Fortunat Joos
Biogeosciences, 14, 2641–2673,
Matthias Zink, Rohini Kumar, Matthias Cuntz, and Luis Samaniego
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 1769–1790,Short summary
We discuss the estimation of a long-term, high-resolution, continuous and consistent dataset of hydro-meteorological variables for Germany. Here we describe the derivation of national-scale parameter sets and analyze the uncertainty of the estimated hydrologic variables (focusing on the parametric uncertainty). Our study highlights the role of accounting for the parametric uncertainty in model-derived hydrological datasets.
Vanessa Haverd, Matthias Cuntz, Lars P. Nieradzik, and Ian N. Harman
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3111–3122,Short summary
CABLE is a global land surface model, which has been used extensively in offline and coupled simulations. We improve CABLE’s simulation of evaporation using a new scheme for drought response and a physically accurate representation of coupled energy and water fluxes in the soil. Marked improvements in predictions of evaporation are demonstrated globally. Results highlight the important roles of deep soil moisture in mediating drought response and litter in dampening soil evaporation.
M. S. Studer, R. T. W. Siegwolf, M. Leuenberger, and S. Abiven
Biogeosciences, 12, 1865–1879,Short summary
We present a new technique to label organic matter (OM) at its place of formation by the application of 13C, 18O and 2H through the gaseous phase. The label diffused into leaves was incorporated into assimilates and was detected in plant tissues. This technique can be applied in soil sciences, e.g. to trace the decomposition pathways of soil OM inputs, or in plant physiology and palaeoclimatic reconstruction, e.g. to further investigate the origin of the 18O and 2H signal in tree ring cellulose.
A. Piayda, M. Dubbert, C. Rebmann, O. Kolle, F. Costa e Silva, A. Correia, J. S. Pereira, C. Werner, and M. Cuntz
Biogeosciences, 11, 7159–7178,
M. S. Studer, R. T. W. Siegwolf, and S. Abiven
Biogeosciences, 11, 1637–1648,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Stable Isotopes & Other TracersMineralization of autochthonous particulate organic carbon is a fast channel of organic matter turnover in Germany's largest drinking water reservoirCarbon isotopic ratios of modern C3 and C4 vegetation on the Indian peninsula and changes along the plant–soil–river continuum – implications for vegetation reconstructionsControls on nitrite oxidation in the upper Southern Ocean: insights from winter kinetics experiments in the Indian sectorTracing the source of nitrate in a forested stream showing elevated concentrations during storm eventsNitrate isotope investigations reveal future impacts of climate change on nitrogen inputs and cycling in Arctic fjords: Kongsfjorden and Rijpfjorden (Svalbard)Intra-skeletal variability in phosphate oxygen isotope composition reveals regional heterothermies in marine vertebratesIsotopic differences in soil–plant–atmosphere continuum composition and control factors of different vegetation zones on the northern slope of the Qilian MountainsAn analysis of the variability in δ13C in macroalgae from the Gulf of California: indicative of carbon concentration mechanisms and isotope discrimination during carbon assimilationSummertime productivity and carbon export potential in the Weddell Sea, with a focus on the waters adjacent to Larsen C Ice ShelfParticulate biogenic barium tracer of mesopelagic carbon remineralization in the Mediterranean Sea (PEACETIME project)Hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation factors of aerobic methane oxidation in deep-sea waterHost-influenced geochemical signature in the parasitic foraminifera Hyrrokkin sarcophagaComparing modified substrate-induced respiration with selective inhibition (SIRIN) and N2O isotope approaches to estimate fungal contribution to denitrification in three arable soils under anoxic conditionsHow are oxygen budgets influenced by dissolved iron and growth of oxygenic phototrophs in an iron-rich spring system? Initial results from the Espan Spring in Fürth, GermanyStable isotope ratios in seawater nitrate reflect the influence of Pacific water along the northwest Atlantic marginHigh-resolution 14C bomb peak dating and climate response analyses of subseasonal stable isotope signals in wood of the African baobab – a case study from OmanGeographic variability in freshwater methane hydrogen isotope ratios and its implications for global isotopic source signaturesSeasonality of nitrogen sources, cycling, and loading in a New England river discerned from nitrate isotope ratiosEvaluating the response of δ13C in Haloxylon ammodendron, a dominant C4 species in Asian desert ecosystems, to water and nitrogen addition as well as the availability of its δ13C as an indicator of water use efficiencyModern silicon dynamics of a small high-latitude subarctic lakeRadium-228-derived ocean mixing and trace element inputs in the South AtlanticNitrogen isotopic fractionations during nitric oxide production in an agricultural soilSilicon uptake and isotope fractionation dynamics by crop speciesBarium stable isotopes as a fingerprint of biological cycling in the Amazon River basinBottomland hardwood forest growth and stress response to hydroclimatic variation: evidence from dendrochronology and tree ring Δ13C valuesN2O isotope approaches for source partitioning of N2O production and estimation of N2O reduction – validation with the 15N gas-flux method in laboratory and field studiesTechnical note: Single-shell δ11B analysis of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi using femtosecond laser ablation MC-ICPMS and secondary ion mass spectrometryBiogeochemical evidence of anaerobic methane oxidation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a stratified lake using stable isotopesEffects of 238U variability and physical transport on water column 234Th downward fluxes in the coastal upwelling system off PeruDo degree and rate of silicate weathering depend on plant productivity?Alpine Holocene tree-ring dataset: age-related trends in the stable isotopes of cellulose show species-specific patternsIdeas and perspectives: The same carbon behaves like different elements – an insight into position-specific isotope distributionsSeasonal dynamics of the COS and CO2 exchange of a managed temperate grasslandLeaf-scale quantification of the effect of photosynthetic gas exchange on Δ17O of atmospheric CO2The stable carbon isotope signature of methane produced by saprotrophic fungiUnderstanding the effects of early degradation on isotopic tracers: implications for sediment source attribution using compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA)Oxygen isotope composition of waters recorded in carbonates in strong clumped and oxygen isotopic disequilibriumIsotopic evidence for alteration of nitrous oxide emissions and producing pathways' contribution under nitrifying conditionsTrace element composition of size-fractionated suspended particulate matter samples from the Qatari Exclusive Economic Zone of the Arabian Gulf: the role of atmospheric dustBenthic carbon fixation and cycling in diffuse hydrothermal and background sediments in the Bransfield Strait, AntarcticaChanges in gross oxygen production, net oxygen production, and air-water gas exchange during seasonal ice melt in Whycocomagh Bay, a Canadian estuary in the Bras d'Or Lake systemPlants or bacteria? 130 years of mixed imprints in Lake Baldegg sediments (Switzerland), as revealed by compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and biomarker analysisCommercial traceability of Arapaima spp. fisheries in the Amazon basin: can biogeochemical tags be useful?Distribution of Fe isotopes in particles and colloids in the salinity gradient along the Lena River plume, Laptev SeaEarly season N2O emissions under variable water management in rice systems: source-partitioning emissions using isotope ratios along a depth profileEvolution of 231Pa and 230Th in overflow waters of the North AtlanticSouthern Ocean controls of the vertical marine δ13C gradient – a modelling studyNegligible isotopic fractionation of nitrogen within temperate Zostera spp. meadowsEcosystem fluxes of carbonyl sulfide in an old-growth forest: temporal dynamics and responses to diffuse radiation and heat wavesExport flux of unprocessed atmospheric nitrate from temperate forested catchments: a possible new index for nitrogen saturation
Marlene Dordoni, Michael Seewald, Karsten Rinke, Kurt Friese, Robert van Geldern, Jakob Schmidmeier, and Johannes A. C. Barth
Biogeosciences, 19, 5343–5355,Short summary
Organic matter (OM) turnover into dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was investigated by means of carbon isotope mass balances in Germany's largest water reservoir. This includes a metalimnetic oxygen minimum (MOM). Autochthonous particulate organic carbon (POC) was the main contributor to DIC, with rates that were highest for the MOM. Generally low turnover rates outline the environmental fragility of this water body in the case that OM loads increase due to storm events or land use changes.
Frédérique M. S. A. Kirkels, Hugo J. de Boer, Paulina Concha Hernández, Chris R. T. Martes, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, Sayak Basu, Muhammed O. Usman, and Francien Peterse
Biogeosciences, 19, 4107–4127,Short summary
The distinct carbon isotopic values of C3 and C4 plants are widely used to reconstruct past hydroclimate, where more C3 plants reflect wetter and C4 plants drier conditions. Here we examine the impact of regional hydroclimatic conditions on plant isotopic values in the Godavari River basin, India. We find that it is crucial to identify regional plant isotopic values and consider drought stress, which introduces a bias in C3 / C4 plant estimates and associated hydroclimate reconstructions.
Mhlangabezi Mdutyana, Tanya Marshall, Xin Sun, Jessica M. Burger, Sandy J. Thomalla, Bess B. Ward, and Sarah E. Fawcett
Biogeosciences, 19, 3425–3444,Short summary
Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the winter Southern Ocean show a high affinity for nitrite but require a minimum (i.e., "threshold") concentration before they increase their rates of nitrite oxidation significantly. The classic Michaelis–Menten model thus cannot be used to derive the kinetic parameters, so a modified equation was employed that also yields the threshold nitrite concentration. Dissolved iron availability may play an important role in limiting nitrite oxidation.
Weitian Ding, Urumu Tsunogai, Fumiko Nakagawa, Takashi Sambuichi, Hiroyuki Sase, Masayuki Morohashi, and Hiroki Yotsuyanagi
Biogeosciences, 19, 3247–3261,Short summary
Excessive leaching of nitrate from forested catchments during storm events degrades water quality and causes eutrophication in downstream areas. Thus, tracing the source of nitrate increase during storm events in forested streams is important for sustainable forest management. Based on the isotopic compositions of stream nitrate, including Δ17O, this study clarifies that the source of stream nitrate increase during storm events was soil nitrate in the riparian zone.
Marta Santos-Garcia, Raja Singaravelu Ganeshram, Robyn Elizabeth Tuerena, Margot Christine Frédérique Debyser, Katrine Husum, Philipp Assmy, and Haakon Hop
Terrestrial sources of nitrate are important contributors to the nutrient pool in the fjords of Kongsfjorden and Rijpfjorden in Svalbard during the summer and they sustain most of the fjord primary productivity. Ongoing tidewater glacier retreat is postulated to favour light limitation and less dynamic circulation in fjords. This is suggested to encourage the export of nutrients to the middle and outer part of the fjord system, which may enhance primary production within and in offshore areas.
Nicolas Séon, Romain Amiot, Guillaume Suan, Christophe Lécuyer, François Fourel, Fabien Demaret, Arnauld Vinçon-Laugier, Sylvain Charbonnier, and Peggy Vincent
Biogeosciences, 19, 2671–2681,Short summary
We analysed the oxygen isotope composition of bones and teeth of four marine species possessing regional heterothermies. We observed a consistent link between oxygen isotope composition and temperature heterogeneities recorded by classical methods. This opens up new perspectives on the determination of the thermoregulatory strategies of extant marine vertebrates where conventional methods are difficult to apply, but also allows us to investigate thermophysiologies of extinct vertebrates.
Yuwei Liu, Guofeng Zhu, Zhuanxia Zhang, Zhigang Sun, Leilei Yong, Liyuan Sang, Lei Wang, and Kailiang Zhao
Biogeosciences, 19, 877–889,Short summary
We took the water cycle process of soil–plant–atmospheric precipitation as the research objective. In the water cycle of soil–plant–atmospheric precipitation, precipitation plays the main controlling role. The main source of replenishment for alpine meadow plants is precipitation and alpine meltwater; the main source of replenishment for forest plants is soil water; and the plants in the arid foothills mainly use groundwater.
Roberto Velázquez-Ochoa, María Julia Ochoa-Izaguirre, and Martín Federico Soto-Jiménez
Biogeosciences, 19, 1–27,Short summary
Our research is the first approximation to understand the δ13C macroalgal variability in one of the most diverse marine ecosystems in the world, the Gulf of California. The life-form is the principal cause of δ13C macroalgal variability, mainly taxonomy. However, changes in habitat characteristics and environmental conditions also influence the δ13C macroalgal variability. The δ13C macroalgae is indicative of carbon concentration mechanisms and isotope discrimination during carbon assimilation.
Raquel F. Flynn, Thomas G. Bornman, Jessica M. Burger, Shantelle Smith, Kurt A. M. Spence, and Sarah E. Fawcett
Biogeosciences, 18, 6031–6059,Short summary
Biological activity in the shallow Weddell Sea affects the biogeochemistry of recently formed deep waters. To investigate the drivers of carbon and nutrient export, we measured rates of primary production and nitrogen uptake, characterized the phytoplankton community, and estimated nutrient depletion ratios across the under-sampled western Weddell Sea in mid-summer. Carbon export was highest at the ice shelves and was determined by a combination of physical, chemical, and biological factors.
Stéphanie H. M. Jacquet, Christian Tamburini, Marc Garel, Aurélie Dufour, France Van Vambeke, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Nagib Bhairy, and Sophie Guasco
Biogeosciences, 18, 5891–5902,Short summary
We compared carbon remineralization rates (MRs) in the western and central Mediterranean Sea in late spring during the PEACETIME cruise, as assessed using the barium tracer. We reported higher and deeper (up to 1000 m depth) MRs in the western basin, potentially sustained by an additional particle export event driven by deep convection. The central basin is the site of a mosaic of blooming and non-blooming water masses and showed lower MRs that were restricted to the upper mesopelagic layer.
Shinsuke Kawagucci, Yohei Matsui, Akiko Makabe, Tatsuhiro Fukuba, Yuji Onishi, Takuro Nunoura, and Taichi Yokokawa
Biogeosciences, 18, 5351–5362,Short summary
Hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios of methane as well as the relevant biogeochemical parameters and microbial community compositions in hydrothermal plumes in the Okinawa Trough were observed. We succeeded in simultaneously determining hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation factors associated with aerobic oxidation of methane in seawater (εH = 49.4 ± 5.0 ‰, εC = 5.2 ± 0.4 ‰) – the former being the first of its kind ever reported.
Nicolai Schleinkofer, David Evans, Max Wisshak, Janina Vanessa Büscher, Jens Fiebig, André Freiwald, Sven Härter, Horst R. Marschall, Silke Voigt, and Jacek Raddatz
Biogeosciences, 18, 4733–4753,Short summary
We have measured the chemical composition of the carbonate shells of the parasitic foraminifera Hyrrokkin sarcophaga in order to test if it is influenced by the host organism (bivalve or coral). We find that both the chemical and isotopic composition is influenced by the host organism. For example strontium is enriched in foraminifera that grew on corals, whose skeleton is built from aragonite, which is naturally enriched in strontium compared to the bivalves' calcite shell.
Lena Rohe, Traute-Heidi Anderson, Heinz Flessa, Anette Goeske, Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, and Reinhard Well
Biogeosciences, 18, 4629–4650,Short summary
This is the first experimental setup combining a complex set of methods (microbial inhibitors and isotopic approaches) to differentiate between N2O produced by fungi or bacteria during denitrification in three soils. Quantifying the fungal fraction with inhibitors was not successful due to large amounts of uninhibited N2O production. All successful methods suggested a small or missing fungal contribution. Artefacts occurring with microbial inhibition to determine N2O fluxes are discussed.
Inga Köhler, Raul E. Martinez, David Piatka, Achim J. Herrmann, Arianna Gallo, Michelle M. Gehringer, and Johannes A. C. Barth
Biogeosciences, 18, 4535–4548,Short summary
We investigated how high Fe(II) levels influence the O2 budget of a circum-neutral Fe(II)-rich spring and if a combined study of dissolved O (DO) and its isotopic composition can help assess this effect. We showed that dissolved Fe(II) can exert strong effects on the δ18ODO even though a constant supply of atmospheric O2 occurs. In the presence of photosynthesis, direct effects of Fe oxidation become masked. Critical Fe(II) concentrations indirectly control the DO by enhancing photosynthesis.
Owen A. Sherwood, Samuel H. Davin, Nadine Lehmann, Carolyn Buchwald, Evan N. Edinger, Moritz F. Lehmann, and Markus Kienast
Biogeosciences, 18, 4491–4510,Short summary
Pacific water flowing eastward through the Canadian Arctic plays an important role in redistributing nutrients to the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Using samples collected from northern Baffin Bay to the southern Labrador Shelf, we show that stable isotopic ratios in seawater nitrate reflect the fraction of Pacific to Atlantic water. These results provide a new framework for interpreting patterns of nitrogen isotopic variability recorded in modern and archival organic materials in the region.
Franziska Slotta, Lukas Wacker, Frank Riedel, Karl-Uwe Heußner, Kai Hartmann, and Gerhard Helle
Biogeosciences, 18, 3539–3564,Short summary
The African baobab is a challenging climate and environmental archive for its semi-arid habitat due to dating uncertainties and parenchyma-rich wood anatomy. Annually resolved F14C data of tree-ring cellulose (1941–2005) from a tree in Oman show the annual character of the baobab’s growth rings but were up to 8.8 % lower than expected for 1964–1967. Subseasonal δ13C and δ18O patterns reveal years with low average monsoon rain as well as heavy rainfall events from pre-monsoonal cyclones.
Peter M. J. Douglas, Emerald Stratigopoulos, Sanga Park, and Dawson Phan
Biogeosciences, 18, 3505–3527,Short summary
Hydrogen isotopes could be a useful tool to help resolve the geographic distribution of methane emissions from freshwater environments. We analyzed an expanded global dataset of freshwater methane hydrogen isotope ratios and found significant geographic variation linked to water isotopic composition. This geographic variability could be used to resolve changing methane fluxes from freshwater environments and provide more accurate estimates of the relative balance of global methane sources.
Veronica R. Rollinson, Julie Granger, Sydney C. Clark, Mackenzie L. Blanusa, Claudia P. Koerting, Jamie M. P. Vaudrey, Lija A. Treibergs, Holly C. Westbrook, Catherine M. Matassa, Meredith G. Hastings, and Craig R. Tobias
Biogeosciences, 18, 3421–3444,Short summary
We measured nutrients and the naturally occurring nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) stable isotope ratios of nitrate discharged from a New England river over an annual cycle, to monitor N loading and identify dominant sources from the watershed. We uncovered a seasonality to loading and sources of N from the watershed. Seasonality in the nitrate isotope ratios also informed on N cycling, conforming to theoretical expectations of riverine nutrient cycling.
Zixun Chen, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoqing Cui, Yaowen Han, Guoan Wang, and Jiazhu Li
Biogeosciences, 18, 2859–2870,Short summary
δ13C in plants is a sensitive long-term indicator of physiological acclimatization. The present study suggests that precipitation change and increasing atmospheric N deposition have little impact on δ13C of H. ammodendron, a dominant plant in central Asian deserts, but affect its gas exchange. In addition, this study shows that δ13C of H. ammodendron could not indicate its water use efficiency (WUE), suggesting that whether δ13C of C4 plants indicates WUE is species-specific.
Petra Zahajská, Carolina Olid, Johanna Stadmark, Sherilyn C. Fritz, Sophie Opfergelt, and Daniel J. Conley
Biogeosciences, 18, 2325–2345,Short summary
The drivers of high accumulation of single-cell siliceous algae (diatoms) in a high-latitude lake have not been fully characterized before. We studied silicon cycling of the lake through water, radon, silicon, and stable silicon isotope balances. Results showed that groundwater brings 3 times more water and dissolved silica than the stream inlet. We demonstrate that groundwater discharge and low sediment deposition have driven the high diatom accumulation in the studied lake in the past century.
Yu-Te Hsieh, Walter Geibert, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, Neil J. Wyatt, Maeve C. Lohan, Eric P. Achterberg, and Gideon M. Henderson
Biogeosciences, 18, 1645–1671,Short summary
The South Atlantic near 40° S is one of the high-productivity and most dynamic nutrient regions in the oceans, but the sources and fluxes of trace elements (TEs) to this region remain unclear. This study investigates seawater Ra-228 and provides important constraints on ocean mixing and dissolved TE fluxes to this region. Vertical mixing is a more important source than aeolian or shelf inputs in this region, but particulate or winter deep-mixing inputs may be required to balance the TE budgets.
Zhongjie Yu and Emily M. Elliott
Biogeosciences, 18, 805–829,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrated distinct nitrogen isotope effects for nitric oxide (NO) production from major microbial and chemical NO sources in an agricultural soil. These results highlight characteristic bond-forming and breaking mechanisms associated with microbial and chemical NO production and implicate that simultaneous isotopic analyses of NO and nitrous oxide (N2O) can lead to unprecedented insights into the sources and processes controlling NO and N2O emissions from agricultural soils.
Daniel A. Frick, Rainer Remus, Michael Sommer, Jürgen Augustin, Danuta Kaczorek, and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 6475–6490,Short summary
Silicon is taken up by some plants to increase structural stability and to develop stress resistance and is rejected by others. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we used the stable isotopes of silicon that shift in their relative abundance depending on the biochemical transformation involved. On species with a rejective (tomato, mustard) and active (wheat) uptake mechanism, grown in hydroculture, we found that the transport of silicic acid is controlled by the precipitation of biogenic opal.
Quentin Charbonnier, Julien Bouchez, Jérôme Gaillardet, and Éric Gayer
Biogeosciences, 17, 5989–6015,Short summary
The abundance and isotope composition of the trace metal barium (Ba) allows us to track and quantify nutrient cycling throughout the Amazon Basin. In particular, we show that the Ba biological fingerprint evolves from that of a strong net nutrient uptake in the mountainous area of the Andes towards efficient nutrient recycling on the plains of the Lower Amazon. Our study highlights the fact that the geochemical signature of rock-derived nutrients transported by the Amazon is scarred by life.
Ajinkya G. Deshpande, Thomas W. Boutton, Ayumi Hyodo, Charles W. Lafon, and Georgianne W. Moore
Biogeosciences, 17, 5639–5653,Short summary
Wetland forests in the southern USA are threatened by changing climate and human-induced pressures. We used tree ring widths and C isotopes as indicators of forest growth and physiological stress, respectively, and compared these to past climate data. We observed that vegetation growing in the drier patches is susceptible to stress, while vegetation growth and physiology in wetter patches is less sensitive to unfavorable environmental conditions, highlighting the importance of optimal wetness.
Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Maciej Piotr Lewicki, and Reinhard Well
Biogeosciences, 17, 5513–5537,Short summary
We present the first validation of N2O isotopic approaches for estimating N2O source pathways and N2O reduction. These approaches are widely used for tracing soil nitrogen cycling, but the results of these estimations are very uncertain. Here we report the results from parallel treatments allowing for precise validation of these approaches, and we propose the best strategies for results interpretation, including the new idea of an isotope model integrating three isotopic signatures of N2O.
Markus Raitzsch, Claire Rollion-Bard, Ingo Horn, Grit Steinhoefel, Albert Benthien, Klaus-Uwe Richter, Matthieu Buisson, Pascale Louvat, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 17, 5365–5375,Short summary
The isotopic composition of boron in carbonate shells of marine unicellular organisms is a popular tool to estimate seawater pH. Usually, many shells need to be dissolved and measured for boron isotopes, but the information on their spatial distribution is lost. Here, we investigate two techniques that allow for measuring boron isotopes within single shells and show that they yield robust mean values but provide additional information on the heterogeneity within and between single shells.
Florian Einsiedl, Anja Wunderlich, Mathieu Sebilo, Ömer K. Coskun, William D. Orsi, and Bernhard Mayer
Biogeosciences, 17, 5149–5161,Short summary
Nitrate pollution of freshwaters and methane emissions into the atmosphere are crucial factors in deteriorating the quality of drinking water and in contributing to global climate change. Here, we report vertical concentration and stable isotope profiles of CH4, NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ in the water column of Fohnsee (southern Bavaria, Germany) that may indicate linkages between nitrate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium.
Ruifang C. Xie, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Insa Rapp, Jan Lüdke, Beat Gasser, Marcus Dengler, Volker Liebetrau, and Eric P. Achterberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4919–4936,Short summary
Thorium-234 (234Th) is widely used to study carbon fluxes from the surface ocean to depth. But few studies stress the relevance of oceanic advection and diffusion on the downward 234Th fluxes in nearshore environments. Our study in offshore Peru showed strong temporal variations in both the importance of physical processes on 234Th flux estimates and the oceanic residence time of 234Th, whereas salinity-derived seawater 238U activities accounted for up to 40 % errors in 234Th flux estimates.
Ralf A. Oeser and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4883–4917,Short summary
We present a novel strategy to decipher the relative impact of biogenic and abiotic drivers of weathering. We parameterized the nutrient fluxes in four ecosystems along a climate and vegetation gradient situated on the Chilean Coastal Cordillera. We investigated how nutrient demand by plants drives weathering. We found that the increase in biomass nutrient demand is accommodated by faster nutrient recycling rather than an increase in the weathering–release rates.
Tito Arosio, Malin M. Ziehmer, Kurt Nicolussi, Christian Schlüchter, and Markus Leuenberger
Biogeosciences, 17, 4871–4882,Short summary
Stable isotopes in tree-ring cellulose are tools for climatic reconstructions, but interpretation is challenging due to nonclimate trends. We analyzed the tree-age trends in tree-ring isotopes of deciduous larch and evergreen cembran pine. Samples covering the whole Holocene were collected at the tree line in the Alps. For cambial ages over 100 years, we prove the absence of age trends in δD, δ18O, and δ13C for both species. For lower cambial ages, trends differ for each isotope and species.
Yuyang He, Xiaobin Cao, and Huiming Bao
Biogeosciences, 17, 4785–4795,Short summary
Different carbon sites in a large organic molecule have different isotope compositions. Different carbon sites may not have the chance to exchange isotopes at all. The lack of appreciation of this notion might be blamed for an unsettled debate on the thermodynamic state of an organism. Here we demonstrate using minerals, N2O, and acetic acid that the dearth of exchange among different carbon sites renders them as independent as if they were different elements in organic molecules.
Felix M. Spielmann, Albin Hammerle, Florian Kitz, Katharina Gerdel, and Georg Wohlfahrt
Biogeosciences, 17, 4281–4295,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be used as a proxy for plant photosynthesis on an ecosystem scale. However, the relationships between COS and CO2 fluxes and their dependence on daily to seasonal changes in environmental drivers are still poorly understood. We examined COS and CO2 ecosystem fluxes above an agriculturally used mountain grassland for 6 months. Harvesting of the grassland disturbed the otherwise stable COS-to-CO2 uptake ratio. We even found the canopy to release COS during those times.
Getachew Agmuas Adnew, Thijs L. Pons, Gerbrand Koren, Wouter Peters, and Thomas Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 3903–3922,Short summary
We measured the effect of photosynthesis, the largest flux in the carbon cycle, on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 at the leaf level during gas exchange using three plant species. The main factors that limit the impact of land vegetation on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 are identified, characterized and discussed. The effect of photosynthesis on the isotopic composition of CO2 is commonly quantified as discrimination (ΔA).
Moritz Schroll, Frank Keppler, Markus Greule, Christian Eckhardt, Holger Zorn, and Katharina Lenhart
Biogeosciences, 17, 3891–3901,Short summary
Fungi have recently been identified to produce the greenhouse gas methane. Here, we investigated the stable carbon isotope values of methane produced by saprotrophic fungi. Our results show that stable isotope values of methane from fungi are dependent on the fungal species and the metabolized substrate. They cover a broad range and overlap with stable carbon isotope values of methane reported for methanogenic archaea, the thermogenic degradation of organic matter, and other eukaryotes.
Pranav Hirave, Guido L. B. Wiesenberg, Axel Birkholz, and Christine Alewell
Biogeosciences, 17, 2169–2180,Short summary
Sediment input into water bodies is a prominent threat to freshwater ecosystems. We tested the stability of tracers employed in freshwater sediment tracing based on compound-specific isotope analysis during early degradation in soil. While bulk δ13C values showed no stability, δ13C values of plant-derived fatty acids and n-alkanes were stably transferred to the soil without soil particle size dependency after an early degradation in organic horizons, thus indicating their suitability as tracers.
Caroline Thaler, Amandine Katz, Magali Bonifacie, Bénédicte Ménez, and Magali Ader
Biogeosciences, 17, 1731–1744,Short summary
Paleoenvironment reconstructions, retrieved from δ18O and Δ47 values measured in carbonate, are compromised when crystallization occurs in isotopic disequilibrium. We show that some paleoenvironmental information can still be retrieved from these paired disequilibrium Δ47 and δ18O values. The possibility of retrieving information on paleowaters, sediments' interstitial waters, or organisms' body water at the carbonate precipitation loci will help understand past Earth and life evolution.
Guillaume Humbert, Mathieu Sébilo, Justine Fiat, Longqi Lang, Ahlem Filali, Véronique Vaury, Mathieu Spérandio, and Anniet M. Laverman
Biogeosciences, 17, 979–993,Short summary
Mitigating emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O requires understanding of the relative contribution of its producing processes in response to environmental variables. We show, using isotopic analysis, that N2O emissions from a nitrifying system were sensitive to oxygenation, temperature and NH4+ concentrations with nitrite reduction being the main N2O source. Temperature appears to be the main control on N2O production, due to its dissimilar effects on ammonium and nitrite oxidizing activities.
Oguz Yigiterhan, Ebrahim Mohd Al-Ansari, Alex Nelson, Mohamed Alaa Abdel-Moati, Jesse Turner, Hamood Abdulla Alsaadi, Barbara Paul, Ibrahim Abdullatif Al-Maslamani, Mehsin Abdulla Al-Ansi Al-Yafei, and James W. Murray
Biogeosciences, 17, 381–404,Short summary
We analyze net-tow samples of plankton and associated particulate matter from the Exclusive Economic Zone, Qatar, Arabian Gulf, using net tows with mesh sizes of 50 and 200 μm to examine the composition of plankton populations. We also focus on the role and composition of the atmospheric dust, representative of terrigenous material, deposited in the Gulf. We concluded that Al, Fe, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Li are of dust origin and As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, and Ca are of anthropogenic/biogenic origin.
Clare Woulds, James B. Bell, Adrian G. Glover, Steven Bouillon, and Louise S. Brown
Biogeosciences, 17, 1–12,Short summary
Sedimented hydrothermal vents occur where heated, mineral-rich (hydrothermal) water seeps through seafloor sediments. They host chemosynthetic microbes, which use chemical energy to fix dissolved carbon dioxide into sugars (chemosynthesis). We conducted carbon tracing experiments, and observed chemosynthesis at both vent and non-vent sites. Thus, chemosynthesis occurred over a much larger area than expected, suggesting it is more widespread than previously thought.
Cara C. Manning, Rachel H. R. Stanley, David P. Nicholson, Brice Loose, Ann Lovely, Peter Schlosser, and Bruce G. Hatcher
Biogeosciences, 16, 3351–3376,Short summary
We measured rates of biological activity and gas exchange in a Canadian estuary during ice melt. We quantified gas exchange using inert, deliberately released tracers and found that the gas transfer rate at > 90 % ice cover was 6 % of the rate for nearly ice-free conditions. We measured oxygen concentration and isotopic composition and used the data to detect changes in the rates of photosynthesis and respiration (autotrophy and heterotrophy) as the ice melted.
Marlène Lavrieux, Axel Birkholz, Katrin Meusburger, Guido L. B. Wiesenberg, Adrian Gilli, Christian Stamm, and Christine Alewell
Biogeosciences, 16, 2131–2146,Short summary
A fingerprinting approach using compound-specific stable isotopes was applied to a lake sediment core to reconstruct erosion processes over the past 150 years in a Swiss catchment. Even though the reconstruction of land use and eutrophication history was successful, the observation of comparatively low δ13C values of plant-derived fatty acids in the sediment suggests their alteration within the lake. Thus, their use as a tool for source attribution in sediment cores needs further investigation.
Luciana A. Pereira, Roberto V. Santos, Marília Hauser, Fabrice Duponchelle, Fernando Carvajal, Christophe Pecheyran, Sylvain Bérail, and Marc Pouilly
Biogeosciences, 16, 1781–1797,Short summary
This study presents the first step for a chemical origin certification of pirarucu fishery in the Amazon. A preliminary isotopic tool to improve the actual tracking system integrates ecological, social, and economic aspects of Amazon dynamics. The geographic origin validation of farmed and wild fishes contributes to environmental and social practices, secures food and income to communities, helps manage endangered species, reinforces aquaculture, and combats illegal fisheries.
Sarah Conrad, Johan Ingri, Johan Gelting, Fredrik Nordblad, Emma Engström, Ilia Rodushkin, Per S. Andersson, Don Porcelli, Örjan Gustafsson, Igor Semiletov, and Björn Öhlander
Biogeosciences, 16, 1305–1319,Short summary
Iron analysis of the particulate, colloidal, and truly dissolved fractions along the Lena River freshwater plume showed that the particulate iron dominates close to the coast. Over 99 % particulate and about 90 % colloidal iron were lost, while the truly dissolved phase was almost constant. Iron isotopes suggest that the shelf acts as a sink for particles and colloids with negative iron isotope values, while colloids with positive iron isotope values travel further out into the Arctic Ocean.
Elizabeth Verhoeven, Matti Barthel, Longfei Yu, Luisella Celi, Daniel Said-Pullicino, Steven Sleutel, Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Johan Six, and Charlotte Decock
Biogeosciences, 16, 383–408,Short summary
This study utilized state-of-the-art measurements of nitrogen isotopes to evaluate nitrogen cycling and to assess the biological sources of the potent greenhouse gas, N2O, in response to water-saving practices in rice systems. Water-saving practices did emit more N2O, and high N2O production had a lower 15N isotope signature. Modeling and visual interpretation indicate that these emissions mostly came from denitrification or nitrifier denitrification, controlled upstream by nitrification rates.
Feifei Deng, Gideon M. Henderson, Maxi Castrillejo, Fiz F. Perez, and Reiner Steinfeldt
Biogeosciences, 15, 7299–7313,Short summary
To better use Pa / Th to reconstruct deep water ventilation rate, we assessed controls on 230Th and 231Pa in the northern North Atlantic. With extended optimum multi-parameter analysis and CFC-based water-mass age, we found the imprint of young overflow water on Th and Pa and enhanced scavenging near the seafloor. A significantly higher advective loss of Pa to the south relative to Th in the Atlantic was estimated, supporting the use of Pa / Th for assessing basin-scale meridional transport.
Anne L. Morée, Jörg Schwinger, and Christoph Heinze
Biogeosciences, 15, 7205–7223,Short summary
Changes in the distribution of the carbon isotope 13C can be used to study the climate system if the governing processes (ocean circulation and biogeochemistry) are understood. We show the Southern Ocean importance for the global 13C distribution and that changes in 13C can be strongly influenced by biogeochemistry. Interpretation of 13C as a proxy for climate signals needs to take into account the effects of changes in biogeochemistry in addition to changes in ocean circulation.
Douglas G. Russell, Wei Wen Wong, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 15, 7225–7234,Short summary
Nitrogen is an important nutrient in marine environments and is continually converted from one form to another. One way these processes can be investigated is by looking at the ratio of the 15N and 14N stable isotopes of different nitrogen-containing compounds. To date few studies have compared these ratios in seagrass beds, their associated sediments and the porewater NH4+ pool. The strong relationship between these nitrogen pools suggests that nitrogen is tightly recycled within seagrass beds.
Bharat Rastogi, Max Berkelhammer, Sonia Wharton, Mary E. Whelan, Frederick C. Meinzer, David Noone, and Christopher J. Still
Biogeosciences, 15, 7127–7139,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has gained prominence as an independent tracer for gross primary productivity, which is usually modelled by partitioning net CO2 fluxes. Here, we present a simple empirical model for estimating ecosystem-scale OCS fluxes for a temperate old-growth forest and find that OCS sink strength scales with independently estimated CO2 uptake and is sensitive to the the fraction of downwelling diffuse light. We also examine the response of OCS and CO2 fluxes to sequential heat waves.
Fumiko Nakagawa, Urumu Tsunogai, Yusuke Obata, Kenta Ando, Naoyuki Yamashita, Tatsuyoshi Saito, Shigeki Uchiyama, Masayuki Morohashi, and Hiroyuki Sase
Biogeosciences, 15, 7025–7042,Short summary
To clarify the biological processing of nitrate within temperate forested catchments using unprocessed atmospheric nitrate exported from each catchment as a tracer, we continuously monitored stream nitrate concentrations and stable isotopic compositions in three forested catchments for more than 2 years. We concluded that the export flux of unprocessed atmospheric nitrate relative to the deposition flux in each forest ecosystem is applicable as an index for nitrogen saturation.
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Bhark, E. W. and Small, E. E.: Association between plant canopies and the spatial patterns of infiltration in shrubland and grassland of the Chihuahuan Desert, New Mexico, Ecosystems, 6, 185–196, 2003.
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Complex plant–soil interactions in the hydrological cycle of a Mediterranean cork oak ecosystem are investigated with stable water isotopes. Trees largely foster infiltration due to altered microclimatic conditions below crowns but compete with understorey plants for the same water source in deeper soil layers. The presence of understorey plants does not alter water losses compared to bare soil, but water utilization for carbon sequestration and nitrogen fixation is largely increased.
Complex plant–soil interactions in the hydrological cycle of a Mediterranean cork oak ecosystem...