Articles | Volume 15, issue 7
Research article 03 Apr 2018
Research article | 03 Apr 2018
Straw incorporation increases crop yield and soil organic carbon sequestration but varies under different natural conditions and farming practices in China: a system analysis
Xiao Han et al.
No articles found.
Laura Maritza Cardenas, Roland Bol, Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Andrew Stuart Gregory, Graham Peter Matthews, William Richard Whalley, Thomas Henry Misselbrook, David Scholefield, and Reinhard Well
Biogeosciences, 14, 4691–4710,Short summary
A laboratory incubation was carried out at different soil moisture levels to measure emissions of nitrogen gases and the isotopomers (position of 15N) of nitrous oxide. Flux variability was larger in drier conditions, probably due to nutrient distribution heterogeneity created from soil cracks and consequently nutrient hot spots. Denitrification was the main source of fluxes at higher moisture, but nitrification could have occurred under drier conditions (although moisture was still high).
Xiaoqian Jiang, Roland Bol, Barbara J. Cade-Menun, Volker Nischwitz, Sabine Willbold, Sara L. Bauke, Harry Vereecken, Wulf Amelung, and Erwin Klumpp
Biogeosciences, 14, 1153–1164,Short summary
It is the first study to distinguish the species of nano-sized (d=1−20 nm), small-sized (d=20−450 nm) colloidal P, and dissolved P (d<1 nm) of hydromorphic surface grassland soils from Cambisol, Stagnic Cambisol to Stagnosol using FFF and 31P-NMR. Evidence of nano-sized associations of OC–Fe(Al)–PO43/pyrophosphate in Stagnosol. Stagnic properties affect P speciation and availability by releasing dissolved inorganic and ester-bound P forms as well as nano-sized organic matter–Fe/Al–P colloids.
C. E. M. Lloyd, K. Michaelides, D. R. Chadwick, J. A. J. Dungait, and R. P. Evershed
Biogeosciences, 13, 551–566,Short summary
Our interdisciplinary research brings together methodologies from hydrology, soil science and biogeochemistry to address key questions about the transport of cattle slurry in the environment. The paper provides a novel approach to trace dissolved and particulate components of cattle slurry through an experimental hillslope system. This work provides one of the first examples of using biomarkers to assess the effects of slope gradient and rainfall intensity on the movement of slurry derived-OM.
X. Jiang, R. Bol, S. Willbold, H. Vereecken, and E. Klumpp
Biogeosciences, 12, 6443–6452,Short summary
Overall P content increased with decreasing size of soil aggregate-sized fractions. The relative distribution and speciation of varying P forms were independent of particle size. The majority of alkaline extractable P was in the amorphous Fe/Al oxide fraction, most of which was orthophosphate. Significant amounts of monoester P were also bound to these oxides. Residual P contained similar amounts of P occluded in amorphous and crystalline Fe oxides. This P may be released by FeO dissolution.
Y. Liao, W. L. Wu, F. Q. Meng, P. Smith, and R. Lal
Biogeosciences, 12, 1403–1413,Short summary
Agricultural intensification has contributed to sustained Chinese food supply since 1980s and also influenced soil organic carbon (SOC) stock. The study, conducted in Huantai county - a typical intensive farming region in northern China, found that from 1982 to 2011, farmland SOC stock (0-20cm) of the entire county increased by 59% which can be well explained by the increasing crop residues input. More technologies must be developed for enhancement of SOC and reduction of non-CO2 GHG emissions.
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: SoilsAge distribution, extractability, and stability of mineral-bound organic carbon in central European soilsDenitrification in soil as a function of oxygen availability at the microscaleKey drivers of pyrogenic carbon redistribution during a simulated rainfall eventSubsurface flow and phosphorus dynamics in beech forest hillslopes during sprinkling experiments: how fast is phosphorus replenished?Estimating maximum fine-fraction organic carbon in UK grasslandsMillennial-age glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in forested mineral soils: 14C-based evidence for stabilization of microbial necromassParticles under stress: ultrasonication causes size and recovery rate artifacts with soil-derived POM but not with microplasticsDeepening roots can enhance carbonate weathering by amplifying CO2-rich rechargeVertical mobility of pyrogenic organic matter in soils: a column experimentVertical partitioning of CO2 production in a forest soilInteractions between biogeochemical and management factors explain soil organic carbon in Pyrenean grasslandsReviews and syntheses: Ironing out wrinkles in the soil phosphorus cycling paradigmHerbicide weed control increases nutrient leaching compared to mechanical weeding in a large-scale oil palm plantationReviews and syntheses: The mechanisms underlying carbon storage in soilLong-term bare fallow soil fractions reveal thermo-chemical properties controlling soil organic carbon dynamicsIdentification of lower-order inositol phosphates (IP5 and IP4) in soil extracts as determined by hypobromite oxidation and solution 31P NMR spectroscopyModelling dynamic interactions between soil structure and the storage and turnover of soil organic matterGeochemical zones and environmental gradients for soils from the Central Transantarctic Mountains, AntarcticaWarming increases soil respiration in a carbon-rich soil without changing microbial respiratory potentialSoil properties override climate controls on global soil organic carbon stocksReviews and syntheses: Soil responses to manipulated precipitation changes – an assessment of meta-analysesRepresenting methane emissions from wet tropical forest soils using microbial functional groups constrained by soil diffusivityFrom fibrous plant residues to mineral-associated organic carbon – the fate of organic matter in Arctic permafrost soilsRelevance of aboveground litter for soil organic matter formation – a soil profile perspectiveA revised pan-Arctic permafrost soil Hg pool based on Western Siberian peat Hg and carbon observationsUsing respiration quotients to track changing sources of soil respiration seasonally and with experimental warmingThe soil organic carbon stabilization potential of old and new wheat cultivars: a 13CO2-labeling studyDrivers and modelling of blue carbon stock variability in sediments of southeastern AustraliaA comparison of patterns of microbial C : N : P stoichiometry between topsoil and subsoil along an aridity gradientSoil total phosphorus and nitrogen explain vegetation community composition in a northern forest ecosystem near a phosphate massifContrasting conifer species productivity in relation to soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry of British Columbia perhumid rainforestsIncreasing soil carbon stocks in eight permanent forest plots in ChinaEstimates of mean residence times of phosphorus in commonly considered inorganic soil phosphorus poolsLability classification of soil organic matter in the northern permafrost regionCurrent, steady-state and historical weathering rates of base cations at two forest sites in northern and southern Sweden: a comparison of three methodsAnoxic conditions maintained high phosphorus sorption in humid tropical forest soilsReviews and syntheses: Agropedogenesis – humankind as the sixth soil-forming factor and attractors of agricultural soil degradationWeathering rates in Swedish forest soilsExogenous phosphorus compounds interact with nitrogen availability to regulate dynamics of soil inorganic phosphorus fractions in a meadow steppeThe simulated N deposition accelerates net N mineralization and nitrification in a tropical forest soilSimulated wild boar bioturbation increases the stability of forest soil carbonSpatial changes in soil stable isotopic composition in response to carrion decompositionSpatial gradients in the characteristics of soil-carbon fractions are associated with abiotic features but not microbial communitiesPhysical constraints for respiration in microbial hotspots in soil and their importance for denitrificationBiological enhancement of mineral weathering by Pinus sylvestris seedlings – effects of plants, ectomycorrhizal fungi, and elevated CO2Past aridity's effect on carbon mineralization potentials in grassland soilsPlant functional traits determine latitudinal variations in soil microbial function: evidence from forests in ChinaDynamics of deep soil carbon – insights from 14C time series across a climatic gradientA novel isotope pool dilution approach to quantify gross rates of key abiotic and biological processes in the soil phosphorus cycleFrequency and intensity of nitrogen addition alter soil inorganic sulfur fractions, but the effects vary with mowing management in a temperate steppe
Marion Schrumpf, Klaus Kaiser, Allegra Mayer, Günter Hempel, and Susan Trumbore
Biogeosciences, 18, 1241–1257,Short summary
A large amount of organic carbon (OC) in soil is protected against decay by bonding to minerals. We studied the release of mineral-bonded OC by NaF–NaOH extraction and H2O2 oxidation. Unexpectedly, extraction and oxidation removed mineral-bonded OC at roughly constant portions and of similar age distributions, irrespective of mineral composition, land use, and soil depth. The results suggest uniform modes of interactions between OC and minerals across soils in quasi-steady state with inputs.
Lena Rohe, Bernd Apelt, Hans-Jörg Vogel, Reinhard Well, Gi-Mick Wu, and Steffen Schlüter
Biogeosciences, 18, 1185–1201,Short summary
Total denitrification, i.e. N2O and (N2O + N2) fluxes, of repacked soil cores were analysed for different combinations of soils and water contents. Prediction accuracy of (N2O + N2) fluxes was highest with combined proxies for oxygen demand (CO2 flux) and oxygen supply (anaerobic soil volume fraction). Knowledge of denitrification completeness (product ratio) improved N2O predictions. Substitutions with cheaper proxies (soil organic matter, empirical diffusivity) reduced prediction accuracy.
Severin-Luca Bellè, Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Frank Hagedorn, Cristina Santin, Marcus Schiedung, Ilja van Meerveld, and Samuel Abiven
Biogeosciences, 18, 1105–1126,Short summary
Controls of pyrogenic carbon (PyC) redistribution under rainfall are largely unknown. However, PyC mobility can be substantial after initial rain in post-fire landscapes. We conducted a controlled simulation experiment on plots where PyC was applied on the soil surface. We identified redistribution of PyC by runoff and splash and vertical movement in the soil depending on soil texture and PyC characteristics (material and size). PyC also induced changes in exports of native soil organic carbon.
Michael Rinderer, Jaane Krüger, Friederike Lang, Heike Puhlmann, and Markus Weiler
Biogeosciences, 18, 1009–1027,Short summary
We quantified the lateral and vertical subsurface flow (SSF) and P concentrations of three beech forest plots with contrasting soil properties during sprinkling experiments. Vertical SSF was 2 orders of magnitude larger than lateral SSF, and both consisted mainly of pre-event water. P concentrations in SSF were high during the first 1 to 2 h (nutrient flushing) but nearly constant thereafter. This suggests that P in the soil solution was replenished fast by mineral or organic sources.
Kirsty C. Paterson, Joanna M. Cloy, Robert M. Rees, Elizabeth M. Baggs, Hugh Martineau, Dario Fornara, Andrew J. Macdonald, and Sarah Buckingham
Biogeosciences, 18, 605–620,Short summary
Soil organic carbon sequestration across agroecosystems worldwide can contribute to mitigating the effects of climate change by reducing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. The maximum carbon sequestration potential is frequently estimated using the linear regression equation developed by Hassink (1997). This work examines the suitability of this equation for use in grasslands across the United Kingdom. The results highlight the need to ensure the fit of equations to the soils being studied.
Hannah Gies, Frank Hagedorn, Maarten Lupker, Daniel Montluçon, Negar Haghipour, Tessa Sophia van der Voort, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 18, 189–205,Short summary
Understanding controls on the persistence of organic matter in soils is essential to constrain its role in the carbon cycle. Emerging concepts suggest that the soil carbon pool is predominantly comprised of stabilized microbial residues. To test this hypothesis we isolated microbial membrane lipids from two Swiss soil profiles and measured their radiocarbon age. We find that the ages of these compounds are in the range of millenia and thus provide evidence for stabilized microbial mass in soils.
Frederick Büks, Gilles Kayser, Antonia Zieger, Friederike Lang, and Martin Kaupenjohann
Biogeosciences, 18, 159–167,Short summary
Ultrasonication/density fractionation is a common method used to extract particulate organic matter (POM) and, recently, microplastic (MP) from soil samples. In this study, ultrasonic treatment with mechanical stress increasing from 0 to 500 J mL−1 caused comminution and a reduced recovery rate of soil-derived POMs but no such effects with MP particles. In consequence, the extraction of MP from soils is not affected by particle size and recovery rate artifacts.
Hang Wen, Pamela L. Sullivan, Gwendolyn L. Macpherson, Sharon A. Billings, and Li Li
Biogeosciences, 18, 55–75,Short summary
Carbonate weathering is essential in regulating carbon cycle at the century timescale. Plant roots accelerate weathering by elevating soil CO2 via respiration. It however remains poorly understood how and how much rooting characteristics modify flow paths and weathering. This work indicates that deepening roots in woodlands can enhance carbonate weathering by promoting recharge and CO2–carbonate contact in the deep, carbonate-abundant subsurface.
Marcus Schiedung, Severin-Luca Bellè, Gabriel Sigmund, Karsten Kalbitz, and Samuel Abiven
Biogeosciences, 17, 6457–6474,Short summary
The mobility of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) in soils is largely unknow, while it is a major and persistent component of the soil organic matter. With a soil column experiment, we identified that only a small proportion of PyOM can migrate through the soil, but its export is continuous. Aging and associated oxidation increase its mobility but also its retention in soils. Further, PyOM can alter the vertical mobility of native soil organic carbon during its downward migration.
Patrick Wordell-Dietrich, Anja Wotte, Janet Rethemeyer, Jörg Bachmann, Mirjam Helfrich, Kristina Kirfel, Christoph Leuschner, and Axel Don
Biogeosciences, 17, 6341–6356,Short summary
The release of CO2 from soils, known as soil respiration, plays a major role in the global carbon cycle. However, the contributions of different soil depths or the sources of soil CO2 have hardly been studied. We quantified the CO2 production for different soil layers (up to 1.5 m) in three soil profiles for 2 years. We found that 90 % of CO2 production occurs in the first 30 cm of the soil profile, and that the CO2 originated from young carbon sources, as revealed by radiocarbon measurements.
Antonio Rodríguez, Rosa Maria Canals, Josefina Plaixats, Elena Albanell, Haifa Debouk, Jordi Garcia-Pausas, Leticia San Emeterio, Àngela Ribas, Juan José Jimenez, and M.-Teresa Sebastià
Biogeosciences, 17, 6033–6050,Short summary
The novelty of our work is that it presents a series of potential interactions between drivers of soil organic carbon at broad scales in temperate mountain grasslands. The most relevant contribution of our work is that it illustrates the importance of grazing management for soil carbon stocks, indicating that interactions between grazing species and soil nitrogen and herbage quality may be promising paths in order to design further management policies for palliating climate change.
Curt A. McConnell, Jason P. Kaye, and Armen R. Kemanian
Biogeosciences, 17, 5309–5333,Short summary
Soil phosphorus (P) management is a critical challenge for agriculture worldwide; yet, simulation models of soil P processes lag those of other essential nutrients. In this review, we identify hindrances to measuring and modeling soil P pools and fluxes. We highlight the need to clarify biological and mineral interactions by defining P pools explicitly and using evolving techniques, such as tracing P in phosphates using oxygen isotopes.
Greta Formaglio, Edzo Veldkamp, Xiaohong Duan, Aiyen Tjoa, and Marife D. Corre
Biogeosciences, 17, 5243–5262,Short summary
The intensive management of large-scale oil palm plantations may result in high nutrient leaching losses which reduce soil fertility and potentially pollute water bodies. The reduction in management intensity with lower fertilization rates and with mechanical weeding instead of the use of herbicide results in lower nutrient leaching losses while maintaining high yield. Lower leaching results from lower nutrient inputs from fertilizer and from higher retention by enhanced cover vegetation.
Isabelle Basile-Doelsch, Jérôme Balesdent, and Sylvain Pellerin
Biogeosciences, 17, 5223–5242,Short summary
The 4 per 1000 initiative aims to restore carbon storage in soils to both mitigate climate change and contribute to food security. The French National Institute for Agricultural Research conducted a study to determine the carbon storage potential in French soils and associated costs. This paper is a part of that study. It reviews recent advances concerning the mechanisms that controls C stabilization in soils. Synthetic figures integrating new concepts should be of pedagogical interest.
Mathieu Chassé, Suzanne Luftalla, Lauric Cécillon, François Baudin, Samuel Abiven, Claire Chenu, and Pierre Barré
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Evolution of organic carbon content in soils could be a major driver of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations over the next century. Understanding the factors controlling carbon persistence in soil is a challenge. Our study of unique long-term bare fallow samples, depleted in labile organic carbon, helps improve the separation, evaluation and characterisation of carbon pools with distinct residence time in soils and gives insight on the mechanisms explaining soil organic carbon persistence.
Jolanda E. Reusser, René Verel, Daniel Zindel, Emmanuel Frossard, and Timothy I. McLaren
Biogeosciences, 17, 5079–5095,Short summary
Inositol phosphates (IPs) are a major pool of organic P in soil. However, information on their diversity and abundance in soil is limited. We isolated IPs from soil and characterised them using solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. For the first time, we provide direct spectroscopic evidence for the existence of a multitude of lower-order IPs in soil extracts previously not detected with NMR. Our findings will help provide new insight into the cycling of IPs in ecosystems.
Katharina Hildegard Elisabeth Meurer, Claire Chenu, Elsa Coucheney, Anke Marianne Herrmann, Thomas Keller, Thomas Kätterer, David Nimblad Svensson, and Nicholas Jarvis
Biogeosciences, 17, 5025–5042,Short summary
We present a simple model that describes, for the first time, the dynamic two-way interactions between soil organic matter and soil physical properties (porosity, pore size distribution, bulk density and layer thickness). The model was able to accurately reproduce the changes in soil organic carbon, soil bulk density and surface elevation observed during 63 years in a field trial, as well as soil water retention curves measured at the end of the experimental period.
Melisa A. Diaz, Christopher B. Gardner, Susan A. Welch, W. Andrew Jackson, Byron J. Adams, Diana H. Wall, Ian D. Hogg, Noah Fierer, and W. Berry Lyons
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Water-soluble salt and nutrient concentrations of soils collected along the Shackleton Glacier, Antarctica show distinct geochemical gradients related to latitude, longitude, elevation, soil moisture, and distance from coast and glacier. Machine learning algorithms were used to estimate geochemical gradients for the region given the relationship with geography. Geography and surface exposure age drive salt and nutrient abundances, influencing invertebrate habitat suitability and biogeography.
Marion Nyberg and Mark J. Hovenden
Biogeosciences, 17, 4405–4420,Short summary
Experimental warming increased soil respiration (RS) by more than 25 % in a Tasmanian C-rich soil, but there was no impact on microbial respiration in laboratory experiments. Plant community composition had no effect on RS, suggesting the response is likely due to enhanced belowground plant respiration and C supply through rhizodeposition and root exudates. Results imply we need studies of both C inputs and losses to model net ecosystem C exchange of these crucial, C-dense systems effectively.
Zhongkui Luo and Raphael Viscarra-Rossel
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We disentangled the relative importance of biotic, climatic and edaphic variables in controlling global SOC stocks. The results suggested that soil physiochemical properties are more important than climatic variables for controlling global SOC stocks, challenging current climate-driven framework of SOC dynamics.
Akane O. Abbasi, Alejandro Salazar, Youmi Oh, Sabine Reinsch, Maria del Rosario Uribe, Jianghanyang Li, Irfan Rashid, and Jeffrey S. Dukes
Biogeosciences, 17, 3859–3873,Short summary
In this study, we provide a holistic view of soil responses to precipitation changes. A total of 16 meta-analyses focusing on the effects of precipitation changes on 42 soil response variables were compared. A strong agreement was found that the belowground carbon and nitrogen cycling accelerate under increased precipitation and slow under decreased precipitation, while bacterial and fungal communities are relatively resistant to decreased precipitation. Knowledge gaps were also identified.
Debjani Sihi, Xiaofeng Xu, Mónica Salazar Ortiz, Christine S. O'Connell, Whendee L. Silver, Carla López-Lloreda, Julia M. Brenner, Ryan K. Quinn, Jana R. Phillips, Brent D. Newman, and Melanie A. Mayes
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Humid tropical soils are important sources and sinks of methane. We used model simulation to understand how different kinds of microbes and observed soil moisture and oxygen dynamics contribute to production and consumption of methane along a wet tropical hillslope during normal and drought conditions. Drought alters the diffusion of oxygen and microbial substrates into and out of soil
microsites, resulting in enhanced methane release from the entire hillslope during drought recovery.
Isabel Prater, Sebastian Zubrzycki, Franz Buegger, Lena C. Zoor-Füllgraff, Gerrit Angst, Michael Dannenmann, and Carsten W. Mueller
Biogeosciences, 17, 3367–3383,Short summary
Large amounts of soil organic matter stored in permafrost-affected soils from Arctic Russia are present as undecomposed plant residues. This large fibrous organic matter might be highly vulnerable to microbial decay, while small mineral-associated organic matter can most probably attenuate carbon mineralization in a warmer future. Labile soil fractions also store large amounts of nitrogen, which might be lost during permafrost collapse while fostering the decomposition of soil organic matter.
Patrick Liebmann, Patrick Wordell-Dietrich, Karsten Kalbitz, Robert Mikutta, Fabian Kalks, Axel Don, Susanne K. Woche, Leena R. Dsilva, and Georg Guggenberger
Biogeosciences, 17, 3099–3113,Short summary
We studied the contribution of litter-derived carbon (C) in the formation of subsoil organic matter (OM). Soil core sampling, 13C field labeling, density fractionation, and water extractions were used to track its contribution to different functional OM fractions down to the deep subsoil. We show that while migrating down the soil profile, OM undergoes a sequence of repeated sorption, microbial processing, and desorption. However, the contribution of litter-derived C to subsoil OM is small.
Artem G. Lim, Martin Jiskra, Jeroen E. Sonke, Sergey V. Loiko, Natalia Kosykh, and Oleg S. Pokrovsky
Biogeosciences, 17, 3083–3097,Short summary
To better understand the mercury (Hg) content in northern soils, we measured Hg concentration in peat cores across a 1700 km permafrost gradient in Siberia. We demonstrated a northward increase in Hg concentration in peat and Hg pools in frozen peatlands. We revised the 0–30 cm northern soil Hg pool to be 72 Gg, which is 7 % of the global soil Hg pool of 1086 Gg. The results are important for understanding Hg exchange between soil, water, and the atmosphere under climate change in the Arctic.
Caitlin Hicks Pries, Alon Angert, Cristina Castanha, Boaz Hilman, and Margaret S. Torn
Biogeosciences, 17, 3045–3055,Short summary
The apparent respiration quotient (ARQ) changes according to which substrates microbes consume, allowing sources of soil respiration to be traced. In a forest soil warming experiment, ARQ had a strong seasonal pattern that reflected a shift from respiration being fueled by sugars and organic acids derived from roots during the growing season to respiration being fueled by dead microbes during winter. ARQ values also changed with experimental warming.
Marijn Van de Broek, Shiva Ghiasi, Charlotte Decock, Andreas Hund, Samuel Abiven, Cordula Friedli, Roland A. Werner, and Johan Six
Biogeosciences, 17, 2971–2986,Short summary
Four wheat cultivars were labeled with 13CO2 to quantify the effect of rooting depth and root biomass on the belowground transfer of organic carbon. We found no clear relation between the time since cultivar development and the amount of carbon inputs to the soil. Therefore, the hypothesis that wheat cultivars with a larger root biomass and deeper roots promote carbon stabilization was rejected. The amount of root biomass that will be stabilized in the soil on the long term is, however, unknown.
Carolyn J. Ewers Lewis, Mary A. Young, Daniel Ierodiaconou, Jeffrey A. Baldock, Bruce Hawke, Jonathan Sanderman, Paul E. Carnell, and Peter I. Macreadie
Biogeosciences, 17, 2041–2059,Short summary
Blue carbonecosystems – tidal marsh, mangrove, and seagrass – serve as important organic carbon sinks, mitigating impacts of climate change. We utilized a robust regional carbon stock dataset to identify ecological, geomorphological, and anthropogenic drivers of carbon stock variability and create high-spatial-resolution predictive carbon stock maps. This work facilitates strategic conservation and restoration of coastal blue carbon ecosystems to contribute to climate change mitigation.
Yuqing Liu, Wenhong Ma, Dan Kou, Xiaxia Niu, Tian Wang, Yongliang Chen, Dima Chen, Xiaoqin Zhu, Mengying Zhao, Baihui Hao, Jinbo Zhang, Yuanhe Yang, and Huifeng Hu
Biogeosciences, 17, 2009–2019,Short summary
The microbial C : N ratio increased with aridity, while the microbial N : P ratio decreased with aridity, which implied that drought-stimulated microbes tend to be more N conservative. Among all examined ecological factors, substrate supply and microbial structure together controlled the microbial stoichiometry. Overall, these results illustrated N and P limitation in microbial biomass at deeper soil depths along the aridity gradient and limited responses to ecological factors in the subsoil.
Laura Matkala, Maija Salemaa, and Jaana Bäck
Biogeosciences, 17, 1535–1556,Short summary
We studied how species number and abundance of the understorey vegetation correlates with nutrient contents of soil and tree leaves at a northern boreal forest site. The phosphorus (P) content of the humus layer showed higher correlation with vegetation than the nitrogen (N) content. Usually N is considered more important in boreal forests. The plots with high P content in humus had birch as the dominant tree species, implying that birch leaf litter is an important source of P to the plants.
John Marty Kranabetter, Ariana Sholinder, and Louise de Montigny
Biogeosciences, 17, 1247–1260,Short summary
Temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest often have productive soils with high levels of organic matter. We describe the nitrogen and phosphorus attributes of this soil organic matter in relation to the growth of four conifer species. Sitka spruce thrived on high-nitrogen soils, more so than the other conifer species, but productivity overall is likely constrained by phosphorus deficiencies. Study results will guide wood production, carbon sequestration and conservation priorities.
Jianxiao Zhu, Chuankuan Wang, Zhang Zhou, Guoyi Zhou, Xueyang Hu, Lai Jiang, Yide Li, Guohua Liu, Chengjun Ji, Shuqing Zhao, Peng Li, Jiangling Zhu, Zhiyao Tang, Chengyang Zheng, Richard A. Birdsey, Yude Pan, and Jingyun Fang
Biogeosciences, 17, 715–726,Short summary
Soil is the largest carbon pool in forests. Whether forest soils function as a sink or source of atmospheric carbon remains controversial. Here, we investigated the 20-year changes in the soil organic carbon pool at eight permanent forest plots in China. Our results revealed that the soils sequestered 3.6–16.3 % of the annual net primary production across the investigated sites, demonstrating that these forest soils have functioned as an important C sink during the past 2 decades.
Julian Helfenstein, Chiara Pistocchi, Astrid Oberson, Federica Tamburini, Daniel S. Goll, and Emmanuel Frossard
Biogeosciences, 17, 441–454,Short summary
In this article we provide estimates of mean residence times of phosphorus in inorganic soil phosphorus pools. These values improve our understanding of the dynamics of phosphorus cycling and can be used to improve global land surface models.
Peter Kuhry, Jiří Bárta, Daan Blok, Bo Elberling, Samuel Faucherre, Gustaf Hugelius, Christian J. Jørgensen, Andreas Richter, Hana Šantrůčková, and Niels Weiss
Biogeosciences, 17, 361–379,
Sophie Casetou-Gustafson, Harald Grip, Stephen Hillier, Sune Linder, Bengt A. Olsson, Magnus Simonsson, and Johan Stendahl
Biogeosciences, 17, 281–304,Short summary
Reliable methods are required for estimating mineral supply rates to forest growth from weathering. We applied the depletion method, the PROFILE model and the base cation budget method to two forest sites in Sweden. The highest weathering rate was obtained from the budget method and the lowest from the depletion method. The high rate by the budget method suggests that there were additional sources for tree uptake not captured by measurements.
Yang Lin, Avner Gross, Christine S. O'Connell, and Whendee L. Silver
Biogeosciences, 17, 89–101,Short summary
Phosphorus (P) is an important soil nutrient that often limits plant growth and microbial activity in humid tropical forests. These ecosystems receive a large amount of rainfall that helps create frequent anoxic events in soils. Our results show that anoxic conditions reduced the strength of soil minerals to bind P even though a large amount of P was still bound to minerals. Our study suggests that anoxic events might serve as hot moments for plants and microbes to acquire P.
Yakov Kuzyakov and Kazem Zamanian
Biogeosciences, 16, 4783–4803,Short summary
Agropedogenesis, i.e. soil development under agricultural use, is the anthropogenic modification of soil and environmental factors for optimization of crop production. Maximization of only this function, crop production, leads to declines in all other soil functions and consequently promotes uniformity in soil properties around the globe. Here we developed a new scientific background for the theory of agropedogenesis and the identification of soil degradation stages.
Cecilia Akselsson, Salim Belyazid, Johan Stendahl, Roger Finlay, Bengt A. Olsson, Martin Erlandsson Lampa, Håkan Wallander, Jon Petter Gustafsson, and Kevin Bishop
Biogeosciences, 16, 4429–4450,Short summary
The release of elements from soil through weathering is an important process, controlling nutrient availability for plants and recovery from acidification. However, direct measurements cannot be done, and present estimates are burdened with high uncertainties. In this paper we use different approaches to quantify weathering rates in different scales in Sweden and discuss the pros and cons. The study contributes to more robust assessments of sustainable harvesting of forest biomass.
Heyong Liu, Ruzhen Wang, Hongyi Wang, Yanzhuo Cao, Feike A. Dijkstra, Zhan Shi, Jiangping Cai, Zhengwen Wang, Hongtao Zou, and Yong Jiang
Biogeosciences, 16, 4293–4306,
Yanxia Nie, Xiaoge Han, Jie Chen, Mengcen Wang, and Weijun Shen
Biogeosciences, 16, 4277–4291,Short summary
The N–transformation rates and N–related functional gene abundance were surveyed in a tropical forest soil with experimental N additions. The C : N ratio was the determinant factor for N transformations in the dry season while the microbial biomass was the one in the wet season. This study also found that high N addition imposed significant positive effects on the functional gene abundance of AOA amoA and nirK but negative effects on that of AOB amoA and nosZ.
Axel Don, Christina Hagen, Erik Grüneberg, and Cora Vos
Biogeosciences, 16, 4145–4155,Short summary
Forest soils have a steep carbon gradient from the forest floor to the mineral soil, indicating that carbon is prevented from entry into the soil. Wild boar are effective in mixing the soil when searching for food. In a 6–year field study, we found no significant changes in soil organic carbon stocks in the wild boar treatment plots. However, around 50 % of forest floor carbon was transferred with mixing into mineral soil carbon and increased the stabilised fraction of soil organic carbon.
Sarah W. Keenan, Sean M. Schaeffer, and Jennifer M. DeBruyn
Biogeosciences, 16, 3929–3939,Short summary
Decaying animals perturb soil biogeochemical cycles. Stable δ15N composition, which reflects the sum of all biogeochemical processes, increases during decay and persists for years. Enrichment following beaver decay persisted after at least 1 year, and was evident up to 10 cm depth and 60 cm from the decaying animals, beyond where soils were visibly impacted by decomposition. Nutrients sourced from decaying animals represent an integral and long–lived component of nitrogen cycling in soils.
Aditi Sengupta, Julia Indivero, Cailene Gunn, Malak M. Tfaily, Rosalie K. Chu, Jason Toyoda, Vanessa L. Bailey, Nicholas D. Ward, and James C. Stegen
Biogeosciences, 16, 3911–3928,Short summary
Coastal terrestrial–aquatic interfaces represent dynamic yet poorly understood zones of biogeochemical cycles. We evaluated associations between the soil salinity gradient, molecular-level soil-C chemistry, and microbial community assembly processes in a coastal watershed on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, USA. Results revealed salinity-driven gradients in molecular-level C chemistry, with little evidence of an association between C chemistry and microbial community assembly processes.
Steffen Schlüter, Jan Zawallich, Hans-Jörg Vogel, and Peter Dörsch
Biogeosciences, 16, 3665–3678,Short summary
A combination of gas chromatography and X-ray CT reveals the microscale processes that govern soil respiration. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration in microbial hotspots depends not only on the quality and quantity of soil organic matter, but also on the spatial distribution of hotspots. Denitrification kinetics are mainly governed by hotspot architecture due to local competition for oxygen during growth. Cumulative behavior is mainly governed by water saturation due to the overall supply with O2.
Nicholas P. Rosenstock, Patrick A. W. van Hees, Petra M. A. Fransson, Roger D. Finlay, and Anna Rosling
Biogeosciences, 16, 3637–3649,Short summary
We examined the effects of elevated CO2, pine seedlings, and ectomycorrhizal fungi on mineral weathering. Seedlings significantly increased mineral weathering, while elevated CO2 increased plant growth and organic acid concentrations but had no effect on weathering. Ectomycorrhial fungi showed some tendency to increase weathering. We conclude that nutrient uptake, which reduces transport limitation to weathering, is the primary mechanism by which plants enhanced weathering in this system.
Zhenjiao Cao, Yufu Jia, Yue Cai, Xin Wang, Huifeng Hu, Jinbo Zhang, Juan Jia, and Xiaojuan Feng
Biogeosciences, 16, 3605–3619,Short summary
Using pathway analysis, we demonstrate that past aridity's effect is mediated by differential mechanisms for substrates of varied complexity. While microbial biomass plays a more important role in the decomposition of fresh litter, enzyme-catalyzed extracellular reactions predominantly govern the mineralization of SOC. Our findings have significant implications for assessing and modeling decomposition in different aridity regimes.
Zhiwei Xu, Guirui Yu, Qiufeng Wang, Xinyu Zhang, Ruili Wang, Ning Zhao, Nianpeng He, and Ziping Liu
Biogeosciences, 16, 3333–3349,Short summary
Plant functional traits have increasingly been studied as determinants of ecosystem properties. While the relationships between biological community structures and ecological functions remain poorly understood at the large scale, we found that there was considerable variation in the profiles of different substrate uses along the NSTEC. The soil silt content and plant functional traits together shaped the biogeographical pattern of the soil microbial substrate use.
Tessa Sophia van der Voort, Utsav Mannu, Frank Hagedorn, Cameron McIntyre, Lorenz Walthert, Patrick Schleppi, Negar Haghipour, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 16, 3233–3246,Short summary
The carbon stored in soils is the largest reservoir of organic carbon on land. In the context of greenhouse gas emissions and a changing climate, it is very important to understand how stable the carbon in the soil is and why. The deeper parts of the soil have often been overlooked even though they store a lot of carbon. In this paper, we discovered that although deep soil carbon is expected to be old and stable, there can be a significant young component that cycles much faster.
Wolfgang Wanek, David Zezula, Daniel Wasner, Maria Mooshammer, and Judith Prommer
Biogeosciences, 16, 3047–3068,Short summary
Efforts to understand the global phosphorus (P) cycle are limited by the scarcity of global data on rates of soil P processes, as well as on its environmental controls. Here, we present a novel approach using radiophosphorus labeling of soils, which allows for the measurement of fluxes of abiotic and biotic soil P processes. This approach is also suitable for strongly weathered and P-depleted soils. Biotic processes are corrected for abiotic processes by comparing live and sterile soils.
Tianpeng Li, Heyong Liu, Ruzhen Wang, Xiao-Tao Lü, Junjie Yang, Yunhai Zhang, Peng He, Zhirui Wang, Xingguo Han, and Yong Jiang
Biogeosciences, 16, 2891–2904,
Amundson, R., Berhe, A. A., Hopmans, J. W., Olson, C., Sztein, A. E., and Sparks, D. L.: Soil and human security in the 21st century, Science, 348, 1–6, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1261071, 2015.
Bai, Z. G., Dent, D. L., Olsson, L., and Schaepman, M. E.: Proxy global assessment of land degradation, Soil Use Manage., 24, 223–234, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2008.00169.x, 2008.
Bi, L. D., Zhang, B., Liu, G. R., Li, Z. Z., Liu, Y. R., Ye, C., Yu, X. C., Lai, T., Zhang, J. G., Yin, J. M., and Liang, Y.: Long-term effects of organic amendments on the rice yields for double rice cropping systems in subtropical China, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 129, 534–541, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2008.11.007, 2009.
Bindraban, P. S., van der Velde, M., Ye, L. M., van den Berg, M., Materechera, S., Kiba, D. I., Tamene, L., Ragnarsdottir, K. V., Jongschaap, R., Hoogmoed, M., Hoogmoed, W., van Beek, C., and van Lynden, G.: Assessing the impact of soil degradation on food production, Curr. Opin. Env. Sust., 4, 478–488, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2012.09.015, 2012.
Blanco-Canqui, H. and Lal, R.: Crop residue management and soil carbon dynamics, in: Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect, 2nd Edn., edited by: Lal, R. and Follett, R. F., Soil Science Society of America, Madison, USA, 291–309, 2009.
Bolinder, M. A., Andren, O., Katterer, T., de Jong, R., VandenBygaart, A. J., Angers, D. A., Parent, L. E., and Gregorich, E. G.: Soil carbon dynamics in Canadian Agricultural Ecoregions: Quantifying climatic influence on soil biological activity, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 122, 461–470, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2007.03.001, 2007.
Borenstein, M., Hedges, L. V., Higgins, J. P. T., and Rothsein, H. R.: Introduction to Meta-Analysis, 1st Edn., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2009.
Cai, Z. C. and Qin, S. W.: Dynamics of crop yields and soil organic carbon in a long-term fertilization experiment in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China, Geoderma, 136, 708–715, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2006.05.008, 2006.
Central People's Government–PRC: National Guideline on Medium- and Long-Term Program for Food security (2008–2020), http://www.gov.cn/test/2008-11/14/content_1148698.htm, last access: 4 April 2008.
Chivenge, P., Vanlauwe, B., and Six, J.: Does the combined application of organic and mineral nutrient sources influence maize productivity? A meta-analysis, Plant Soil, 342, 1–30, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-010-0626-5, 2011.
Cui, J., Zhang, R., Bu, N., Zhang, H., Tang, B., Li, Z., Jiang, L., Chen, J., and Fang, C.: Changes in soil carbon sequestration and soil respiration following afforestation on paddy fields in north subtropical China, J. Plant Ecol., 6, 240–252, https://doi.org/10.1093/jpe/rts023, 2012.
Dungait, J. A., Cardenas, L. M., Blackwell, M. S., Wu, L., Withers, P. J., Chadwick, D. R., Bol, R., Murray, P. J., MacDonald, A. J., Whitmore, A. P., and Goulding, K. W.: Advances in the understanding of nutrient dynamics and management in UK agriculture, Sci. Total Environ., 434, 39–50, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.04.029, 2012.
Erb, K. H., Fetzel, T., Plutzar, C., Kastner, T., Lauk, C., Mayer, A., Niedertscheider, M., Korner, C., and Haberl, H.: Biomass turnover time in terrestrial ecosystems halved by land use, Nat. Geosci., 9, 674–682, https://doi.org/10.1038/NGEO2782, 2016.
Fischer, G., Van Velthuizen, H., Shah, M., and Nachtergaele, F. O.: Global Agro-ecological Assessment for Agriculture in the 21st Century: Methodology and Results, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria; and FAO, Rome, Italy, 2002.
Gao, G., Wang, J., Li, S., and Pei, J.: Changes of organic carbon density and storage in northeastern black soil areas in past 30 years, Chinese J. Soil Sci., 46, 774–780, https://doi.org/10.19336/j.cnki.trtb.2015.04.002, 2015 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Gong, W., Yan, X. Y., Wang, J. Y., Hu, T. X., and Gong, Y. B.: Long-term manuring and fertilization effects on soil organic carbon pools under a wheat-maize cropping system in North China Plain, Plant Soil, 314, 67–76, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-008-9705-2, 2009.
Gong, W., Yan, X. Y., and Wang, J. Y.: The effect of chemical fertilizer application on carbon input and export in soil – A pot experiment with wheat using natural 13C abundance method, Geoderma, 189, 170–175, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.05.007, 2012.
Gurevitch, J., Curtis, P. S., and Jones, M. H.: Meta-analysis in ecology, Adv. Ecol. Res., 32, 199–247, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2504(01)32013-5, 2001.
Han, G. Z., Zhang, G. L., Gong, Z. T., and Wang, G. F.: Pedotransfer functions for estimating soil bulk density in China, Soil Sci., 177, 158–164, https://doi.org/10.1097/SS.0b013e31823fd493, 2012.
Hansen, E. M., Munkholm, L. J., Olesen, J. E., and Melander, B.: Nitrate leaching, yields and carbon sequestration after noninversion tillage, catch crops, and straw retention, J. Environ. Qual., 44, 868–881, https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2014.11.0482, 2015.
Hartmann, T. E., Yue, S., Schulz, R., Chen, X., Zhang, F., and Müller, T.: Nitrogen dynamics, apparent mineralization and balance calculations in a maize–wheat double cropping system of the North China Plain, Field Crop. Res., 160, 22–30, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2014.02.014, 2014.
Hedges, L. V., Gurevitch, J., and Curtis, P. S.: The meta-analysis of response ratios in experimental ecology, Ecology, 80, 1150–1156, https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(1999)080[1150:Tmaorr]2.0.Co;2, 1999.
Hijbeek, R., van Ittersum, M. K., ten Berge, H. F. M., Gort, G., Spiegel, H., and Whitmore, A. P.: Do organic inputs matter – a meta-analysis of additional yield effects for arable crops in Europe, Plant Soil, 411, 293–303, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-016-3031-x, 2017.
Huang, S., Sun, Y. N., and Zhang, W. J.: Changes in soil organic carbon stocks as affected by cropping systems and cropping duration in China's paddy fields: A meta-analysis, Climatic Change, 112, 847–858, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0255-x, 2012.
Huang, S., Zeng, Y. J., Wu, J. F., Shi, Q. H., and Pan, X. H.: Effect of crop residue retention on rice yield in China: A meta-analysis, Field Crop. Res., 154, 188–194, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2013.08.013, 2013.
IPCC: Land use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000.
Ju, X. T., Liu, X. J., Zhang, F. S., and Roelcke, M.: Nitrogen fertilization, soil nitrate accumulation, and policy recommendations in several agricultural regions of China, Ambio, 33, 300–305, https://doi.org/10.1639/0044-7447(2004)033[0300:Nfsnaa]2.0.Co;2, 2004.
Karhu, K., Auffret, M. D., Dungait, J. A. J., Hopkins, D. W., Prosser, J. I., Singh, B. K., Subke, J.-A., Wookey, P. A., Agren, G. I., Sebastia, M.-T., Gouriveau, F., Bergkvist, G., Meir, P., Nottingham, A. T., Salinas, N., and Hartley, I. P.: Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration rates enhanced by microbial community response, Nature, 513, 81–84, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature13604, 2014.
Khan, S. A., Mulvaney, R. L., Ellsworth, T. R., and Boast, C. W.: The myth of nitrogen fertilization for soil carbon sequestration, J. Environ. Qual., 36, 1821–1832, https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2007.0099, 2007.
Kong, A. Y. Y., Six, J., Bryant, D. C., Denison, R. F., and van Kessel, C.: The relationship between carbon input, aggregation, and soil organic carbon stabilization in sustainable cropping systems, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 69, 1078–1085, https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2004.0215, 2005.
Kong, X. B., Lal, R., Li, B. G., Liu, H. B., Li, K. J., Feng, G. L., Zhang, Q. P., and Zhang, B. B.: Fertilizer Intensification and its Impacts in China's HHH Plains, in: Advances in Agronomy, edited by: Sparks, D. L., Academic Press, Burlington, USA, 135–169, 2014.
Kong, X. B., Zhang, X. L., Lal, R., Zhang, F. R., Chen, X. H., Niu, Z. G., Han, L., and Song, W.: Groundwater Depletion by Agricultural Intensification in China's HHH Plains, Since 1980s, in: Advances in Agronomy, edited by: Sparks, D. L., Academic Press, Burlington, USA, 59–106, 2016.
Kuzyakov, Y. and Domanski, G.: Carbon input by plants into the soil, Review, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sc., 163, 421–431, https://doi.org/10.1002/1522-2624(200008)163:4<421::Aid-Jpln421>3.0.Co;2-R, 2000.
Ladha, J. K., Reddy, C. K., Padre, A. T., and van Kessel, C.: Role of nitrogen fertilization in sustaining organic matter in cultivated soils, J. Environ. Qual., 40, 1756–1766, https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2011.0064, 2011.
Lal, R.: Soil carbon sequestration in China through agricultural intensification, and restoration of degraded and desertified ecosystems, Land Degrad. Dev., 13, 469–478, https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.531, 2002.
Lal, R.: Food security in a changing climate, Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology, 13, 8–21, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecohyd.2013.03.006, 2013.
Lehtinen, T., Schlatter, N., Baumgarten, A., Bechini, L., Kruger, J., Grignani, C., Zavattaro, L., Costamagna, C., and Spiegel, H.: Effect of crop residue incorporation on soil organic carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in European agricultural soils, Soil Use Manage., 30, 524–538, https://doi.org/10.1111/sum.12151, 2014.
Li, C. S., Zhuang, Y. H., Frolking, S., Galloway, J., Harriss, R., Moore, B., Schimel, D., and Wang, X. K.: Modeling soil organic carbon change in croplands of China, Ecol. Appl., 13, 327–336, https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2003)013[0327:Msocci]2.0.Co;2, 2003.
Liao, Y., Wu, W. L., Meng, F. Q., Smith, P., and Lal, R.: Increase in soil organic carbon by agricultural intensification in northern China, Biogeosciences, 12, 1403–1413, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-1403-2015, 2015.
Liu, C., Lu, M., Cui, J., Li, B., and Fang, C.: Effects of straw carbon input on carbon dynamics in agricultural soils: A meta-analysis, Glob. Change Biol., 20, 1366–1381, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12517, 2014.
Liu, S., Zamanian, K., Schleuss, P.-M., Zarebanadkouki, M., and Kuzyakov, Y.: Degradation of Tibetan grasslands: Consequences for carbon and nutrient cycles, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 252, 93–104, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2017.10.011, 2018.
Lohila, A., Aurela, M., Regina, K., and Laurila, T.: Soil and total ecosystem respiration in agricultural fields: effect of soil and crop type, Plant Soil, 251, 303–317, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1023004205844, 2003.
Lu, F., Wang, X. K., Han, B., Ouyang, Z. Y., Duan, X. N., Zheng, H., and Miao, H.: Soil carbon sequestrations by nitrogen fertilizer application, straw return and no-tillage in China's cropland, Glob. Change Biol., 15, 281–305, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01743.x, 2009.
Luo, Z., Wang, E., and Sun, O.: Can no-tillage stimulate carbon sequestration in agricultural soils? A meta-analysis of paired experiments, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 139, 224–231, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.08.006, 2010.
MacDonald, B. H., Ross, J. D., Soomai, S. S., and Wells, P. G.: How information in grey literature informs policy and decision-making: A perspective on the need to understand the processes, Sixteenth International Conference on Grey Literature, Washington, DC, December, 2015.
Maillard, E. and Angers, D. A.: Animal manure application and soil organic carbon stocks: A meta-analysis, Glob. Change Biol., 20, 666–679, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12438, 2014.
Meinshausen, M., Meinshausen, N., Hare, W., Raper, S. C., Frieler, K., Knutti, R., Frame, D. J., and Allen, M. R.: Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2°, Nature, 458, 1158–1162, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08017, 2009.
Meng, F. Q., Dungait, J. A. J., Xu, X., Bol, R., Zhang, X., and Wu, W. L.: Coupled incorporation of maize (Zea mays L.) straw with nitrogen fertilizer increased soil organic carbon in Fluvic Cambisol, Geoderma, 304, 19–27, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.09.010, 2016.
Mikha, M. M., Rice, C. W., and Milliken, G. A.: Carbon and nitrogen mineralization as affected by drying and wetting cycles, Soil Biol. Biochem., 37, 339–347, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.08.003, 2005.
Ministry of Agriculture–PRC: National Modern Agriculture Development Plan (2011–2015), http://english.agri.gov.cn/hottopics/five/, last access: 21 April 2013.
Ministry of Agriculture–PRC: Implementation Opinions of the Ministry of Agriculture on Conducting Campaign of Non-point Pollution Control, http://english.agri.gov.cn/governmentaffairs/gaz/201506/t20150608_25790.htm, last access: 8 June 2015.
Mulumba, L. N. and Lal, R.: Mulching effects on selected soil physical properties, Soil Till. Res., 98, 106–111, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2007.10.011, 2008.
National Agro-Tech Extension Center: Chinese Organic Fertilizer Handbook, Chinese Agricultural Press, Beijing, China, 1999 (in Chinese).
National Bureau of Statistics of China: Bulletin on the National Grain Output in 2016, http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/zxfb/201612/t20161208_1439012.html, last access: 12 August 2016.
Neff, J. C., Townsend, A. R., Gleixner, G., Lehman, S. J., Turnbull, J., and Bowman, W. D.: Variable effects of nitrogen additions on the stability and turnover of soil carbon, Nature, 419, 915–917, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01136, 2002.
Pan, G., Li, L., Wu, L., and Zhang, X.: Storage and sequestration potential of topsoil organic carbon in China's paddy soils, Glob. Change Biol., 10, 79–92, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2003.00717.x, 2003.
Pan, G. X., Xu, X. W., Smith, P., Pan, W. N., and Lal, R.: An increase in topsoil SOC stock of China's croplands between 1985 and 2006 revealed by soil monitoring, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 136, 133–138, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2009.12.011, 2010.
Power, A. G.: Ecosystem services and agriculture: tradeoffs and synergies, Phil. T. R. Soc. B, 365, 2959–2971, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0143, 2010.
Rosenberg, M. S., Adams, D. C., and Gurevitch, J.: MetaWin: Statistical Software for Meta-Analysis, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, USA, 2000.
Shi, T. T., Liu, Y. Q., Zhang, L. B., Hao, L., and Gao, Z. Q.: Burning in agricultural landscapes: An emerging natural and human issue in China, Landscape Ecol., 29, 1785–1798, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10980-014-0060-9, 2014.
Singh, M., Singh, V. P., and Reddy, D. D.: Potassium balance and release kinetics under continuous rice-wheat cropping system in Vertisol, Field Crop. Res., 77, 81–91, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(01)00206-4, 2002.
Singh, S., Batra, R., Mishra, M. M., Kapoor, K. K., and Goyal, S.: Decomposition of paddy straw in soil and the effect of straw incorporation in the field on the yield of wheat, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sc., 155, 307–311, https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.19921550411, 1992.
Six, J., Conant, R. T., Paul, E. A., and Paustian, K.: Stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter: Implications for C-saturation of soils, Plant Soil, 241, 155–176, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016125726789, 2002.
Smith, P.: Carbon sequestration in croplands: the potential in Europe and the global context, Eur. J. Agron., 20, 229–236, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2003.08.002, 2004.
Smith, P., Davies, C. A., Ogle, S., Zanchi, G., Bellarby, J., Bird, N., Boddey, R. M., McNamara, N. P., Powlson, D., Cowie, A., van Noordwijk, M., Davis, S. C., Richter, D. D., Kryzanowski, L., van Wijk, M. T., Stuart, J., Kirton, A., Eggar, D., Newton-Cross, G., Adhya, T. K., and Braimoh, A. K.: Towards an integrated global framework to assess the impacts of land use and management change on soil carbon: current capability and future vision, Glob. Change Biol., 18, 2089–2101, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02689.x, 2012.
Soane, B. D.: The role of organic-matter in soil compactibility−a review of some practical aspects, Soil Till. Res., 16, 179–201, https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-1987(90)90029-D, 1990.
Song, G. H., Li, L. Q., Pan, G. X., and Zhang, Q.: Topsoil organic carbon storage of China and its loss by cultivation, Biogeochemistry, 74, 47–62, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-004-2222-3, 2005.
Tan, Y. C., Xu, C., Liu, D. X., Wu, W. L., Lal, R., and Meng, F. Q.: Effects of optimized N fertilization on greenhouse gas emission and crop production in the North China Plain, Field Crop. Res., 205, 135–146, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2017.01.003, 2017.
Tian, K., Zhao, Y. C., Xu, X. H., Hai, N., Huang, B. A., and Deng, W. J.: Effects of long-term fertilization and residue management on soil organic carbon changes in paddy soils of China: A meta-analysis, Agr Ecosyst Environ, 204, 40–50, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2015.02.008, 2015.
Wang, J. Z., Wang, X. J., Xu, M. G., Feng, G., Zhang, W. J., and Lu, C. A.: Crop yield and soil organic matter after long-term straw return to soil in China, Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosys., 102, 371–381, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-015-9710-9, 2015.
Watson, R. T., Noble, I. R., and Bolin, B.: Land use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry: A Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000.
West, T. O. and Six, J.: Considering the influence of sequestration duration and carbon saturation on estimates of soil carbon capacity, Climatic Change, 80, 25–41, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-011-0255-x, 2007.
Xu, C., Han, X., Bol, R., Smith, P., Wu, W. L., and Meng, F. Q.: Impacts of natural factors and farming practices on greenhouse gas emissions in the North China Plain: A meta-analysis, Ecol. Evol., 7, 6702–6715, https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3211, 2017.
Yan, X. Y., Cai, Z. C., Wang, S. W., and Smith, P.: Direct measurement of soil organic carbon content change in the croplands of China, Glob. Change Biol., 17, 1487–1496, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02286.x, 2011.
Yao, Z., Yan, G., Zheng, X., Wang, R., Liu, C., and Butterbach-Bahl, K.: Straw return reduces yield-scaled N2O plus NO emissions from annual winter wheat-based cropping systems in the North China Plain, Sci. Total Environ., 590/591, 174–185, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.02.194, 2017.
Yu, Y. Q., Huang, Y., and Zhang, W.: Modeling soil organic carbon change in croplands of China, 1980–2009, Glob Planet. Change, 82/83, 115–128, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.12.005, 2012.
Zhang, G., Lu, F., Zhao, H., Yang, G., Wang, X., and Ouyang, Z.: Residue usage and farmers' recognition and attitude toward residue retention in China's croplands, Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 36, 981–988, https://doi.org/10.11654/jaes.2016-1505, 2017 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Zhang, P., Wei, T., Jia, Z. K., Han, Q. F., and Ren, X. L.: Soil aggregate and crop yield changes with different rates of straw incorporation in semiarid areas of northwest China, Geoderma, 230, 41–49, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2014.04.007, 2014.
Zhang, X., Bol, R., Rahn, C., Xiao, G. M., Meng, F. Q., and Wu, W. L.: Agricultural sustainable intensification improved nitrogen use efficiency and maintained high crop yield during 1980–2014 in Northern China, Sci. Total Environ., 596/597, 61–68, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.064, 2017.
Zhao, G. M., Miao, Y. X., Wang, H. Y., Su, M. M., Fan, M. S., Zhang, F. S., Jiang, R. F., Zhang, Z. J., Liu, C., Liu, P. H., and Ma, D. Q.: A preliminary precision rice management system for increasing both grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency, Field Crop. Res., 154, 23–30, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2013.07.019, 2013.
Zhao, H., Sun, B. F., Lu, F., Zhang, G., Wang, X. K., and Ouyang, Z. Y.: Straw incorporation strategy on cereal crop yield in China, Crop. Sci., 55, 1773–1781, https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2014.09.0599, 2015.
Straw incorporation increases soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and crop yields in experimental trials across China, regardless of the climate or land use. This conclusion is based on a wide range of soils and climate conditions and suggests that farmers across the world may use this simple management tool to increase their outputs by improving the quality of their outputs by improving the quality of their soil, while mitigating climate change.
Straw incorporation increases soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and crop yields in experimental...