Articles | Volume 15, issue 22
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Reviews and syntheses: 210Pb-derived sediment and carbon accumulation rates in vegetated coastal ecosystems – setting the record straight
Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
School of Science and Centre for Marine Ecosystems Research, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia
UWA Oceans Institute & School of Physics, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley 6009, Australia
Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
School of Science and Centre for Marine Ecosystems Research, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia
Environmental Hydraulics Institute “IH Cantabria”, Universidad de Cantabria, C/Isabel Torres No. 15, Parque Científico y Tecnológico de Cantabria, 39011, Santander, Spain
Global Change Research Group, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB) Institut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats, C/Miguel Marqués 21, 07190 Esporles (Mallorca), Spain
Catherine E. Lovelock
School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia QLD 4072, Australia
Paul S. Lavery
School of Science and Centre for Marine Ecosystems Research, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup WA 6027, Australia
Centro de Estudios Avanzados de Blanes, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 17300 Blanes, Spain
Carlos M. Duarte
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Red Sea Research Center (RSRC), Thuwal, 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
No articles found.
Afrah Alothman, Daffne López-Sandoval, Carlos M. Duarte, and Susana Agustí
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
The study validated the significant involvement of bacteria in CO2 fixation throughout the entire oxygenated water column of the oligotrophic Red Sea. Our study showed that the importance of dark CO2 fixation influencing the carbon flux when contributing to the large fraction of total CO2 fixation in case of low or absent primary production. Therefore, dark anaplerotic DIC fixation and chemo-autotrophic processes must be accounted as a crucial component of the CO2 flux in the oceans.
Iris E. Hendriks, Anna Escolano-Moltó, Susana Flecha, Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer, Marlene Wesselmann, and Núria Marbà
Biogeosciences, 19, 4619–4637,Short summary
Seagrasses are marine plants with the capacity to act as carbon sinks due to their high primary productivity, using carbon for growth. This capacity can play a key role in climate change mitigation. We compiled and published data showing that two Mediterranean seagrass species have different metabolic rates, while the study method influences the rates of the measurements. Most communities act as carbon sinks, while the western basin might be more productive than the eastern Mediterranean.
Marc Diego-Feliu, Valentí Rodellas, Aaron Alorda-Kleinglass, Maarten Saaltink, Albert Folch, and Jordi Garcia-Orellana
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4619–4635,Short summary
Rainwater infiltrates aquifers and travels a long subsurface journey towards the ocean where it eventually enters below sea level. In its path towards the sea, water becomes enriched in many compounds that are naturally or artificially present within soils and sediments. We demonstrate that extreme rainfall events may significantly increase the inflow of water to the ocean, thereby increasing the supply of these compounds that are fundamental for the sustainability of coastal ecosystems.
Sònia Jou-Claus, Albert Folch, and Jordi Garcia-Orellana
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4789–4805,Short summary
Satellite thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is a useful method for identifying coastal springs in karst aquifers both locally and regionally. The limiting factors include technical limitations, geological and hydrogeological characteristics, environmental and marine conditions, and coastal geomorphology. Also, it can serve as a tool to use for a first screening of the coastal water surface temperature to identify possible thermal anomalies that will help narrow the sampling survey.
Ana Moreno, Miguel Bartolomé, Juan Ignacio López-Moreno, Jorge Pey, Juan Pablo Corella, Jordi García-Orellana, Carlos Sancho, María Leunda, Graciela Gil-Romera, Penélope González-Sampériz, Carlos Pérez-Mejías, Francisco Navarro, Jaime Otero-García, Javier Lapazaran, Esteban Alonso-González, Cristina Cid, Jerónimo López-Martínez, Belén Oliva-Urcia, Sérgio Henrique Faria, María José Sierra, Rocío Millán, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, and José M. García-Ruíz
The Cryosphere, 15, 1157–1172,Short summary
Our study of the chronological sequence of Monte Perdido Glacier in the Central Pyrenees (Spain) reveals that, although the intense warming associated with the Roman period or Medieval Climate Anomaly produced important ice mass losses, it was insufficient to make this glacier disappear. By contrast, recent global warming has melted away almost 600 years of ice accumulated since the Little Ice Age, jeopardising the survival of this and other southern European glaciers over the next few decades.
James Z. Sippo, Isaac R. Santos, Christian J. Sanders, Patricia Gadd, Quan Hua, Catherine E. Lovelock, Nadia S. Santini, Scott G. Johnston, Yota Harada, Gloria Reithmeir, and Damien T. Maher
Biogeosciences, 17, 4707–4726,Short summary
In 2015–2016, a massive mangrove dieback event occurred along ~1000 km of coastline in Australia. Multiple lines of evidence from climate data, wood and sediment samples suggest low water availability within the dead mangrove forest. Wood and sediments also reveal a large increase in iron concentrations in mangrove sediments during the dieback. This study supports the hypothesis that the forest dieback was associated with low water availability driven by a climate-change-related ENSO event.
Viena Puigcorbé, Pere Masqué, and Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1267–1285,Short summary
The biological carbon pump is a mechanism by which the oceans capture atmospheric carbon dioxide thanks to microscopic marine algae. Quantifying its strength and efficiency is crucial to understand the global carbon budget and be able to forecast its trends. The radioactive pair 234Th : 238U has been extensively used for that purpose. This is a global compilation of carbon-to-234Th ratios (needed to convert the 234Th fluxes to carbon fluxes) that will contribute to improve our modeling efforts.
Nadia Burgoa, Francisco Machín, Ángeles Marrero-Díaz, Ángel Rodríguez-Santana, Antonio Martínez-Marrero, Javier Arístegui, and Carlos Manuel Duarte
Ocean Sci., 16, 483–511,Short summary
The main objective of the study is to analyze the export of carbon to the open ocean from the rich waters of the upwelling system of North Africa. South of the Canary Islands, permanent upwelling interacts with other physical processes impacting the main biogeochemical processes. Taking advantage of data from two cruises combined with the outputs of models, important conclusions from the differences observed between seasons are obtained, largely related to changes in the CVFZ in this area.
Celina Burkholz, Neus Garcias-Bonet, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 1717–1730,Short summary
Seagrass meadows store carbon in their biomass and sediments, but they have also been shown to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). We experimentally investigated the effect of warming and prolonged darkness on CO2 and CH4 fluxes in Red Sea seagrass (Halophila stipulacea) communities. Our results indicated that sublethal warming may lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases from seagrass meadows which may contribute to further enhance global warming.
Kimberlee Baldry, Vincent Saderne, Daniel C. McCorkle, James H. Churchill, Susana Agusti, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 423–439,Short summary
The carbon cycling of coastal ecosystems over large spatial scales is not well measured relative to the open ocean. In this study we measure the carbonate system in the three habitats, to measure ecosystem-driven changes compared to offshore waters. We find (1) 70 % of seagrass meadows and mangrove forests show large ecosystem-driven changes, and (2) mangrove forests show strong and consistent trends over large scales, while seagrass meadows display more variability.
Miguel Agulles, Gabriel Jordà, Burt Jones, Susana Agustí, and Carlos M. Duarte
Ocean Sci., 16, 149–166,Short summary
The Red Sea holds one of the most diverse marine ecosystems in the world, although fragile and vulnerable to ocean warming. To better understand the long-term variability and trends of temperature in the whole water column, we produce a 3-D gridded temperature product (TEMPERSEA) for the period 1958–2017, based on a large number of in situ observations, covering the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden.
Susana Agustí, Jeffrey W. Krause, Israel A. Marquez, Paul Wassmann, Svein Kristiansen, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 35–45,Short summary
We found that 24 % of the total diatoms community in the Arctic water column (450 m depth) was located below the photic layer. Healthy diatom communities in active spring–bloom stages remained in the photic layer. Dying diatom communities exported a large fraction of the biomass to the aphotic zone, fuelling carbon sequestration and benthic ecosystems in the Arctic. The results of the study conform to a conceptual model where diatoms grow during the bloom until silicic acid stocks are depleted.
Sarah Paradis, Antonio Pusceddu, Pere Masqué, Pere Puig, Davide Moccia, Tommaso Russo, and Claudio Lo Iacono
Biogeosciences, 16, 4307–4320,Short summary
Chronic deep bottom trawling in the Gulf of Castellammare (SW Mediterranean) erodes large volumes of sediment, exposing over-century-old sediment depleted in organic matter. Nevertheless, the arrival of fresh and nutritious sediment recovers superficial organic matter in trawling grounds and leads to high turnover rates, partially and temporarily mitigating the impacts of bottom trawling. However, this deposition is ephemeral and it will be swiftly eroded by the passage of the next trawler.
Daffne C. López-Sandoval, Katherine Rowe, Paloma Carillo-de-Albonoz, Carlos M. Duarte, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 16, 2983–2995,Short summary
We addressed how the intertwined effect of temperature and nutrients modulates the metabolic response of planktonic communities in the Red Sea, one of the warmest seas on earth. Our study unveiled that photosynthesis increases at a faster pace than respiration rates for this group of organisms formed by microalgae, bacteria, and drifting animals. This anomaly is likely due to the nature of the basin where the warmest waters are frequently enriched with nutrients, which favours microalgae growth.
Susann Rossbach, Vincent Saderne, Andrea Anton, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 16, 2635–2650,Short summary
Giant clams including the species Tridacna maxima are unique among bivalves as they live in symbiosis with unicellular algae and generally function as net photoautotrophs. Light is therefore crucial for these species to thrive. We show that net calcification and photosynthetic rates of T. maxima are light dependent, with maximum rates at conditions comparable to 4 m water depth, reflected also in the depth-related distribution in the Red Sea with maximum abundances in shallow sunlit coral reefs.
Yi Tang, Nolwenn Lemaitre, Maxi Castrillejo, Montserrat Roca-Martí, Pere Masqué, and Gillian Stewart
Biogeosciences, 16, 309–327,Short summary
Oceanographers try to understand the ocean’s role in the global carbon cycle. Trace levels of natural radionuclides can inform this connection and their half-lives provide an estimate of the timing of processes. We used the 210Po and 210Pb pair to examine the export of carbon from the surface ocean to depth along the GEOVIDE GEOTRACES cruise track. We found that the flux was regionally variable, that upwelling was an important regional factor, and that both large and small particles drove flux.
Neus Garcias-Bonet, Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer, Carlos M. Duarte, and Núria Marbà
Biogeosciences, 16, 167–175,Short summary
We assess the impact of warming on nitrogen fixation in three key Mediterranean macrophytes by experimentally measuring sediment nitrogen fixation rates at current and projected seawater temperature by 2100 under a scenario of moderate greenhouse gas emissions. The temperature dependence of nitrogen fixation could potentially increase rates by 37 % by the end of the century, with important consequences for primary production in coastal ecosystems.
Neus Garcias-Bonet, Marco Fusi, Muhammad Ali, Dario R. Shaw, Pascal E. Saikaly, Daniele Daffonchio, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 15, 7333–7346,Short summary
Nitrogen (N) loads are detrimental for coastal ecosystems. We measured the balance between N losses and gains in a Red Sea seagrass. The N loss was higher than N2 fixed, pointing out the importance of seagrasses in removing N from the system. N2 losses increased with temperature. Therefore, the forecasted warming could increase the N2 flux to the atmosphere, potentially impacting seagrass productivity and their capacity to mitigate climate change but also enhancing their potential N removal.
Jeffrey W. Krause, Carlos M. Duarte, Israel A. Marquez, Philipp Assmy, Mar Fernández-Méndez, Ingrid Wiedmann, Paul Wassmann, Svein Kristiansen, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 15, 6503–6517,Short summary
Diatoms can dominate the Arctic Ocean spring bloom, the key annual event for regional food webs. Diatom growth requires silicon and this nutrient has been declining in the European Arctic. This study communicates an unprecedented combination of silicon-cycling measurements around Svalbard during the spring and shows that dissolved silicon can limit diatom production. These results suggest an important coupling of silicon and carbon cycling during the spring bloom in the European Arctic.
Alistair Grinham, Simon Albert, Nathaniel Deering, Matthew Dunbabin, David Bastviken, Bradford Sherman, Catherine E. Lovelock, and Christopher D. Evans
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5281–5298,Short summary
Artificial water bodies are a major source of methane and an important contributor to flooded land greenhouse gas emissions. Past studies focussed on large water supply or hydropower reservoirs with small artificial water bodies (ponds) almost completely ignored. This regional study demonstrated ponds accounted for one-third of flooded land surface area and emitted over 1.6 million t CO2 eq. yr−1 (10 % of land use sector emissions). Ponds should be included in regional GHG inventories.
Maxi Castrillejo, Núria Casacuberta, Marcus Christl, Christof Vockenhuber, Hans-Arno Synal, Maribel I. García-Ibáñez, Pascale Lherminier, Géraldine Sarthou, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, and Pere Masqué
Biogeosciences, 15, 5545–5564,Short summary
The investigation of water mass transport pathways and timescales is important to understand the global ocean circulation. Following earlier studies, we use artificial radionuclides introduced to the oceans in the 1950s to investigate the water transport in the subpolar North Atlantic (SPNA). For the first time, we combine measurements of the long-lived iodine-129 and uranium-236 to confirm earlier findings/hypotheses and to better understand shallow and deep ventilation processes in the SPNA.
Yi Tang, Maxi Castrillejo, Montserrat Roca-Martí, Pere Masqué, Nolwenn Lemaitre, and Gillian Stewart
Biogeosciences, 15, 5437–5453,Short summary
We measured two natural radio-isotopes, 210Po and 210Pb, in the dissolved and particulate phase along the GEOVIDE cruise track to try to understand the cycling of these isotopes across a diverse combination of currents, basins, and conditions in the North Atlantic Ocean. Other groups collected data on many other trace elements and isotopes in order to map them as part of the GEOTRACES program. We found that Po and Pb activity was concentrated on small particles and varied within/between basins.
Mallory A. Sea, Neus Garcias-Bonet, Vincent Saderne, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 15, 5365–5375,Short summary
Mangroves are capable of storing carbon in their roots, leaves, and in the sediment; however they can also emit carbon as greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere. In this study, we collected sediment cores and calculated GHG flux rates from mangrove forests along the Red Sea coastline. Using flux rates reported in this study, we determined that Red Sea mangroves are net carbon sinks, storing more carbon than they emit. This study provides rationale to conserve and expand Red Sea mangroves.
Aisling Fontanini, Alexandra Steckbauer, Sam Dupont, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 15, 3717–3729,Short summary
Invertebrate species of the Gullmar Fjord (Sweden) were exposed to four different treatments (high/low oxygen and low/high CO2) and respiration measured. Respiration responses of species of contrasting habitats and life-history strategies to single and multiple stressors was evaluated. Results show that the responses of the respiration were highly species specific as we observed both synergetic as well as antagonistic responses, and neither phylum nor habitat explained trends in respiration.
Francesca Iuculano, Carlos Maria Duarte, Núria Marbà, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 14, 5069–5075,
Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 14, 301–310,Short summary
Vegetated coastal habitats (mangroves, seagrass meadows, salt marshes and macroalgal beds) are key contributors to the marine carbon budget, but remain hidden in the representation of the coastal carbon budget. While they have been acknowledged to play an important role in carbon burial, this is small compared to the export flow, which may lead to carbon sequestration beyond these habitats. The carbon fluxes supported by vegetated coastal habitats are globally relevant.
Oscar Serrano, Paul S. Lavery, Carlos M. Duarte, Gary A. Kendrick, Antoni Calafat, Paul H. York, Andy Steven, and Peter I. Macreadie
Biogeosciences, 13, 4915–4926,Short summary
We explored the relationship between organic carbon and mud (i.e. silt and clay) contents in seagrass ecosystems to address whether mud can be used to predict soil C content, thereby enabling robust scaling up exercises at a low cost as part of blue carbon stock assessments. We show that mud is not a universal proxy for blue carbon content in seagrass ecosystems, but it can be used to estimate soil Corg content when low biomass seagrass species (i.e. Zostera, Halodule and Halophila) are present.
Oscar Serrano, Aurora M. Ricart, Paul S. Lavery, Miguel Angel Mateo, Ariane Arias-Ortiz, Pere Masque, Mohammad Rozaimi, Andy Steven, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 13, 4581–4594,Short summary
The recent focus on carbon (C) trading has intensified interest in "Blue Carbon" – C sequestered by coastal vegetation. However, the factors influencing C storage are poorly understood. The patterns found in this study support that C storage in Posidonia seagrass soils is influenced by interactions of biological, chemical and physical factors within the meadow. We conclude that there is a need to improve global estimates accounting for biogeochemical factors driving variability within habitats.
I. Mazarrasa, N. Marbà, C. E. Lovelock, O. Serrano, P. S. Lavery, J. W. Fourqurean, H. Kennedy, M. A. Mateo, D. Krause-Jensen, A. D. L. Steven, and C. M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 12, 4993–5003,Short summary
There has been growing interest in quantifying the capacity of seagrass ecosystems to act as carbon sinks as a natural way of offsetting anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. However, most of the efforts have focused on the organic fraction and ignored the inorganic carbon pool. This study offers the first global assessment of PIC stocks and accumulation rates in seagrass sediments, identifying these ecosystems as important contributors to carbonate dynamics in coastal areas.
D. Krause-Jensen, C. M. Duarte, I. E. Hendriks, L. Meire, M. E. Blicher, N. Marbà, and M. K. Sejr
Biogeosciences, 12, 4895–4911,Short summary
The Arctic Ocean is considered the most vulnerable ecosystem to ocean acidification (OA), but very little information is available on natural variability of pH in the Arctic coastal zone. We report pH variability at various scales in a Greenland fjord. Variability ranged up to 0.2-0.3 pH units horizontally and vertically in the fjord, between seasons and on diel basis in kelp forests and was extreme in tidal pools. Overall, primary producers played a fundamental role in producing mosaics of pH.
L. S. García-Corral, E. Barber, A. Regaudie-de-Gioux, S. Sal, J. M. Holding, S. Agustí, N. Navarro, P. Serret, P. Mozetič, and C. M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 11, 4529–4540,
I. E. Hendriks, Y. S. Olsen, L. Ramajo, L. Basso, A. Steckbauer, T. S. Moore, J. Howard, and C. M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 11, 333–346,
S. Lasternas, M. Piedeleu, P. Sangrà, C. M. Duarte, and S. Agustí
Biogeosciences, 10, 2129–2143,
R. Vaquer-Sunyer, C. M. Duarte, J. Holding, A. Regaudie-de-Gioux, L. S. García-Corral, M. Reigstad, and P. Wassmann
Biogeosciences, 10, 1451–1469,
M. Alcaraz, R. Almeda, E. Saiz, A. Calbet, C. M. Duarte, S. Agustí, R. Santiago, and A. Alonso
Biogeosciences, 10, 689–697,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: WetlandsSedimentary blue carbon dynamics based on chronosequential observations in a tropical restored mangrove forestDuration of extraction determines CO2 and CH4 emissions from an actively extracted peatland in eastern Quebec, CanadaNutrient release and flux dynamics of CO2, CH4, and N2O in a coastal peatland driven by actively induced rewetting with brackish water from the Baltic SeaQuantification of blue carbon in salt marshes of the Pacific coast of CanadaCutting peatland CO2 emissions with water management practicesTracking vegetation phenology of pristine northern boreal peatlands by combining digital photography with CO2 flux and remote sensing dataWarming accelerates belowground litter turnover in salt marshes – insights from a Tea Bag Index assayDissolved organic matter concentration and composition discontinuity at the peat–pool interface in a boreal peatlandEffects of brackish water inflow on methane-cycling microbial communities in a freshwater rewetted coastal fenHigh peatland methane emissions following permafrost thaw: enhanced acetoclastic methanogenesis during early successional stagesOrigin, transport, and retention of fluvial sedimentary organic matter in South Africa's largest freshwater wetland, Mkhuze Wetland SystemPeat macropore networks – new insights into episodic and hotspot methane emissionMangrove sediment organic carbon storage and sources in relation to forest age and position along a deltaic salinity gradientPlant genotype controls wetland soil microbial functioning in response to sea-level riseSoil greenhouse gas fluxes from tropical coastal wetlands and alternative agricultural land usesCarbon balance of a Finnish bog: temporal variability and limiting factors based on 6 years of eddy-covariance dataHigh-resolution induced polarization imaging of biogeochemical carbon turnover hotspots in a peatlandCommitted and projected future changes in global peatlands – continued transient model simulations since the Last Glacial MaximumFactors controlling Carex brevicuspis leaf litter decomposition and its contribution to surface soil organic carbon pool at different water levelsExploring constraints on a wetland methane emission ensemble (WetCHARTs) using GOSAT observationsGlobal peatland area and carbon dynamics from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present – a process-based model investigationVascular plants affect properties and decomposition of moss-dominated peat, particularly at elevated temperaturesDenitrification and associated nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide emissions from the Amazonian wetlandsDrivers of seasonal- and event-scale DOC dynamics at the outlet of mountainous peatlands revealed by high-frequency monitoringComparison of eddy covariance CO2 and CH4 fluxes from mined and recently rewetted sections in a northwestern German cutover bogMicrotopography is a fundamental organizing structure of vegetation and soil chemistry in black ash wetlandsInteracting effects of vegetation components and water level on methane dynamics in a boreal fenLow methane emissions from a boreal wetland constructed on oil sand mine tailingsEvidence for preferential protein depolymerization in wetland soils in response to external nitrogen availability provided by a novel FTIR routineSaltwater reduces potential CO2 and CH4 production in peat soils from a coastal freshwater forested wetlandReviews and syntheses: Greenhouse gas exchange data from drained organic forest soils – a review of current approaches and recommendations for future researchEffects of sterilization techniques on chemodenitrification and N2O production in tropical peat soil microcosmsModelling long-term blanket peatland development in eastern ScotlandCushion bogs are stronger carbon dioxide net sinks than moss-dominated bogs as revealed by eddy covariance measurements on Tierra del Fuego, ArgentinaHumic surface waters of frozen peat bogs (permafrost zone) are highly resistant to bio- and photodegradationMulti-year methane 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Raghab Ray, Rempei Suwa, Toshihiro Miyajima, Jeffrey Munar, Masaya Yoshikai, Maria Lourdes San Diego-McGlone, and Kazuo Nadaoka
Biogeosciences, 20, 911–928,Short summary
Mangroves are blue carbon ecosystems known to store large amounts of organic carbon in the sediments. This study is a first attempt to apply a chronosequence (or space-for-time substitution) approach to evaluate the distribution and accumulation rate of carbon in a 30-year-old (maximum age) restored mangrove forest. Using this approach, the contribution of restored or planted mangroves to sedimentary organic carbon presents an increasing pattern with mangrove age.
Laura Clark, Ian B. Strachan, Maria Strack, Nigel T. Roulet, Klaus-Holger Knorr, and Henning Teickner
Biogeosciences, 20, 737–751,Short summary
We determine the effect that duration of extraction has on CO2 and CH4 emissions from an actively extracted peatland. Peat fields had high net C emissions in the first years after opening, and these then declined to half the initial value for several decades. Findings contribute to knowledge on the atmospheric burden that results from these activities and are of use to industry in their life cycle reporting and government agencies responsible for greenhouse gas accounting and policy.
Daniel L. Pönisch, Anne Breznikar, Cordula N. Gutekunst, Gerald Jurasinski, Maren Voss, and Gregor Rehder
Biogeosciences, 20, 295–323,Short summary
Peatland rewetting is known to reduce dissolved nutrients and greenhouse gases; however, short-term nutrient leaching and high CH4 emissions shortly after rewetting are likely to occur. We investigated the rewetting of a coastal peatland with brackish water and its effects on nutrient release and greenhouse gas fluxes. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the peatland than in the adjacent bay, leading to an export. CH4 emissions did not increase, which is in contrast to freshwater rewetting.
Stephen G. Chastain, Karen E. Kohfeld, Marlow G. Pellatt, Carolina Olid, and Maija Gailis
Biogeosciences, 19, 5751–5777,Short summary
Salt marshes are thought to be important carbon sinks because of their ability to store carbon in their soils. We provide the first estimates of how much blue carbon is stored in salt marshes on the Pacific coast of Canada. We find that the carbon stored in the marshes is low compared to other marshes around the world, likely because of their young age. Still, the high marshes take up carbon at rates faster than the global average, making them potentially important carbon sinks in the future.
Jim Boonman, Mariet M. Hefting, Corine J. A. van Huissteden, Merit van den Berg, Jacobus (Ko) van Huissteden, Gilles Erkens, Roel Melman, and Ype van der Velde
Biogeosciences, 19, 5707–5727,Short summary
Draining peat causes high CO2 emissions, and rewetting could potentially help solve this problem. In the dry year 2020 we measured that subsurface irrigation reduced CO2 emissions by 28 % and 83 % on two research sites. We modelled a peat parcel and found that the reduction depends on seepage and weather conditions and increases when using pressurized irrigation or maintaining high ditchwater levels. We found that soil temperature and moisture are suitable as indicators of peat CO2 emissions.
Maiju Linkosalmi, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Olli Nevalainen, Mikko Peltoniemi, Cemal M. Taniş, Ali N. Arslan, Juuso Rainne, Annalea Lohila, Tuomas Laurila, and Mika Aurela
Biogeosciences, 19, 4747–4765,Short summary
Vegetation greenness was monitored with digital cameras in three northern peatlands during five growing seasons. The greenness index derived from the images was highest at the most nutrient-rich site. Greenness indicated the main phases of phenology and correlated with CO2 uptake, though this was mainly related to the common seasonal cycle. The cameras and Sentinel-2 satellite showed consistent results, but more frequent satellite data are needed for reliable detection of phenological phases.
Hao Tang, Stefanie Nolte, Kai Jensen, Roy Rich, Julian Mittmann-Goetsch, and Peter Mueller
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
In order to gain a first mechanistic insight into warming effects and litter breakdown dynamics across whole-soil profiles. We used a unique field warming experiment and standardized plant litter to investigate the degree to which rising soil temperatures can accelerate belowground litter breakdown in coastal wetland ecosystem. The central finding is warming strongly increases the initial rate of labile litter decomposition, but has less consistent effects on the stabilization of this material.
Antonin Prijac, Laure Gandois, Laurent Jeanneau, Pierre Taillardat, and Michelle Garneau
Biogeosciences, 19, 4571–4588,Short summary
Pools are common features of peatlands. We documented dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition in pools and peat of an ombrotrophic boreal peatland to understand its origin and potential role in the peatland carbon budget. The survey reveals that DOM composition differs between pools and peat, although it is derived from the peat vegetation. We investigated which processes are involved and estimated that the contribution of carbon emissions from DOM processing in pools could be substantial.
Cordula Nina Gutekunst, Susanne Liebner, Anna-Kathrina Jenner, Klaus-Holger Knorr, Viktoria Unger, Franziska Koebsch, Erwin Don Racasa, Sizhong Yang, Michael Ernst Böttcher, Manon Janssen, Jens Kallmeyer, Denise Otto, Iris Schmiedinger, Lucas Winski, and Gerald Jurasinski
Biogeosciences, 19, 3625–3648,Short summary
Methane emissions decreased after a seawater inflow and a preceding drought in freshwater rewetted coastal peatland. However, our microbial and greenhouse gas measurements did not indicate that methane consumers increased. Rather, methane producers co-existed in high numbers with their usual competitors, the sulfate-cycling bacteria. We studied the peat soil and aimed to cover the soil–atmosphere continuum to better understand the sources of methane production and consumption.
Liam Heffernan, Maria A. Cavaco, Maya P. Bhatia, Cristian Estop-Aragonés, Klaus-Holger Knorr, and David Olefeldt
Biogeosciences, 19, 3051–3071,Short summary
Permafrost thaw in peatlands leads to waterlogged conditions, a favourable environment for microbes producing methane (CH4) and high CH4 emissions. High CH4 emissions in the initial decades following thaw are due to a vegetation community that produces suitable organic matter to fuel CH4-producing microbes, along with warm and wet conditions. High CH4 emissions after thaw persist for up to 100 years, after which environmental conditions are less favourable for microbes and high CH4 emissions.
Julia Gensel, Marc Steven Humphries, Matthias Zabel, David Sebag, Annette Hahn, and Enno Schefuß
Biogeosciences, 19, 2881–2902,Short summary
We investigated organic matter (OM) and plant-wax-derived biomarkers in sediments and plants along the Mkhuze River to constrain OM's origin and transport pathways within South Africa's largest freshwater wetland. Presently, it efficiently captures OM, so neither transport from upstream areas nor export from the swamp occurs. Thus, we emphasize that such geomorphological features can alter OM provenance, questioning the assumption of watershed-integrated information in downstream sediments.
Petri Kiuru, Marjo Palviainen, Tiia Grönholm, Maarit Raivonen, Lukas Kohl, Vincent Gauci, Iñaki Urzainki, and Annamari Laurén
Biogeosciences, 19, 1959–1977,Short summary
Peatlands are large sources of methane (CH4), and peat structure controls CH4 production and emissions. We used X-ray microtomography imaging, complex network theory methods, and pore network modeling to describe the properties of peat macropore networks and the role of macropores in CH4-related processes. We show that conditions for gas transport and CH4 production vary with depth and are affected by hysteresis, which may explain the hotspots and episodic spikes in peatland CH4 emissions.
Rey Harvey Suello, Simon Lucas Hernandez, Steven Bouillon, Jean-Philippe Belliard, Luis Dominguez-Granda, Marijn Van de Broek, Andrea Mishell Rosado Moncayo, John Ramos Veliz, Karem Pollette Ramirez, Gerard Govers, and Stijn Temmerman
Biogeosciences, 19, 1571–1585,Short summary
This research shows indications that the age of the mangrove forest and its position along a deltaic gradient (upstream–downstream) play a vital role in the amount and sources of carbon stored in the mangrove sediments. Our findings also imply that carbon capture by the mangrove ecosystem itself contributes partly but relatively little to long-term sediment organic carbon storage. This finding is particularly relevant for budgeting the potential of mangrove ecosystems to mitigate climate change.
Hao Tang, Susanne Liebner, Svenja Reents, Stefanie Nolte, Kai Jensen, Fabian Horn, and Peter Mueller
Biogeosciences, 18, 6133–6146,Short summary
We examined if sea-level rise and plant genotype interact to affect soil microbial functioning in a mesocosm experiment using two genotypes of a dominant salt-marsh grass characterized by differences in flooding sensitivity. Larger variability in microbial community structure, enzyme activity, and litter breakdown in soils with the more sensitive genotype supports our hypothesis that effects of climate change on soil microbial functioning can be controlled by plant intraspecific adaptations.
Naima Iram, Emad Kavehei, Damien T. Maher, Stuart E. Bunn, Mehran Rezaei Rashti, Bahareh Shahrabi Farahani, and Maria Fernanda Adame
Biogeosciences, 18, 5085–5096,Short summary
Greenhouse gas emissions were measured and compared from natural coastal wetlands and their converted agricultural lands across annual seasonal cycles in tropical Australia. Ponded pastures emitted ~ 200-fold-higher methane than any other tested land use type, suggesting the highest greenhouse gas mitigation potential and financial incentives by the restoration of ponded pastures to natural coastal wetlands.
Pavel Alekseychik, Aino Korrensalo, Ivan Mammarella, Samuli Launiainen, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Ilkka Korpela, and Timo Vesala
Biogeosciences, 18, 4681–4704,Short summary
Bogs of northern Eurasia represent a major type of peatland ecosystem and contain vast amounts of carbon, but carbon balance monitoring studies on bogs are scarce. The current project explores 6 years of carbon balance data obtained using the state-of-the-art eddy-covariance technique at a Finnish bog Siikaneva. The results reveal relatively low interannual variability indicative of ecosystem resilience to both cool and hot summers and provide new insights into the seasonal course of C fluxes.
Timea Katona, Benjamin Silas Gilfedder, Sven Frei, Matthias Bücker, and Adrian Flores-Orozco
Biogeosciences, 18, 4039–4058,Short summary
We used electrical geophysical methods to map variations in the rates of microbial activity within a wetland. Our results show that the highest electrical conductive and capacitive properties relate to the highest concentrations of phosphates, carbon, and iron; thus, we can use them to characterize the geometry of the biogeochemically active areas or hotspots.
Jurek Müller and Fortunat Joos
Biogeosciences, 18, 3657–3687,Short summary
We present long-term projections of global peatland area and carbon with a continuous transient history since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our novel results show that large parts of today’s northern peatlands are at risk from past and future climate change, with larger emissions clearly connected to larger risks. The study includes comparisons between different emission and land-use scenarios, driver attribution through factorial simulations, and assessments of uncertainty from climate forcing.
Lianlian Zhu, Zhengmiao Deng, Yonghong Xie, Xu Li, Feng Li, Xinsheng Chen, Yeai Zou, Chengyi Zhang, and Wei Wang
Biogeosciences, 18, 1–11,Short summary
We conducted a Carex brevicuspis leaf litter input experiment to clarify the intrinsic factors controlling litter decomposition and quantify its contribution to the soil organic carbon pool at different water levels. Our results revealed that the water level in natural wetlands influenced litter decomposition mainly by leaching and microbial activity, by extension, and affected the wetland surface carbon pool.
Robert J. Parker, Chris Wilson, A. Anthony Bloom, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Joe McNorton, Hartmut Boesch, and Martyn P. Chipperfield
Biogeosciences, 17, 5669–5691,Short summary
Wetlands contribute the largest uncertainty to the atmospheric methane budget. WetCHARTs is a simple, data-driven model that estimates wetland emissions using observations of precipitation and temperature. We perform the first detailed evaluation of WetCHARTs against satellite data and find it performs well in reproducing the observed wetland methane seasonal cycle for the majority of wetland regions. In regions where it performs poorly, we highlight incorrect wetland extent as a key reason.
Jurek Müller and Fortunat Joos
Biogeosciences, 17, 5285–5308,Short summary
We present an in-depth model analysis of transient peatland area and carbon dynamics over the last 22 000 years. Our novel results show that the consideration of both gross positive and negative area changes are necessary to understand the transient evolution of peatlands and their net effect on atmospheric carbon. The study includes the attributions to drivers through factorial simulations, assessments of uncertainty from climate forcing, and determination of the global net carbon balance.
Lilli Zeh, Marie Theresa Igel, Judith Schellekens, Juul Limpens, Luca Bragazza, and Karsten Kalbitz
Biogeosciences, 17, 4797–4813,
Jérémy Guilhen, Ahmad Al Bitar, Sabine Sauvage, Marie Parrens, Jean-Michel Martinez, Gwenael Abril, Patricia Moreira-Turcq, and José-Miguel Sánchez-Pérez
Biogeosciences, 17, 4297–4311,Short summary
The quantity of greenhouse gases (GHGs) released to the atmosphere by human industries and agriculture, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), has been constantly increasing for the last few decades. This work develops a methodology which makes consistent both satellite observations and modelling of the Amazon basin to identify and quantify the role of wetlands in GHG emissions. We showed that these areas produce non-negligible emissions and are linked to land use.
Thomas Rosset, Stéphane Binet, Jean-Marc Antoine, Emilie Lerigoleur, François Rigal, and Laure Gandois
Biogeosciences, 17, 3705–3722,Short summary
Peatlands export a large amount of DOC through inland waters. This study aims at identifying the mechanisms controlling the DOC concentration at the outlet of two mountainous peatlands in the French Pyrenees. Peat water temperature and water table dynamics are shown to drive seasonal- and event-scale DOC concentration variation. According to water recession times, peatlands appear as complexes of different hydrological and biogeochemical units supplying inland waters at different rates.
David Holl, Eva-Maria Pfeiffer, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 17, 2853–2874,Short summary
We measured greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at a bog site in northwestern Germany that has been heavily degraded by peat mining. During the 2-year investigation period, half of the area was still being mined, whereas the remaining half had been rewetted shortly before. We could therefore estimate the impact of rewetting on GHG flux dynamics. Rewetting had a considerable effect on the annual GHG balance and led to increased (up to 84 %) methane and decreased (up to 40 %) carbon dioxide release.
Jacob S. Diamond, Daniel L. McLaughlin, Robert A. Slesak, and Atticus Stovall
Biogeosciences, 17, 901–915,Short summary
Many wetland systems exhibit lumpy, or uneven, soil surfaces where higher points are called hummocks and lower points are called hollows. We found that, while hummocks extended only ~ 20 cm above hollow surfaces, they exhibited distinct plant communities, plant growth, and soil properties. Differences between hummocks and hollows were the greatest in wetter sites, supporting the hypothesis that plants create and maintain their own hummocks in response to saturated soil conditions.
Terhi Riutta, Aino Korrensalo, Anna M. Laine, Jukka Laine, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 17, 727–740,Short summary
We studied the role of plant species groups in peatland methane fluxes under natural conditions and lowered water level. At a natural water level, sedges and mosses increased the fluxes. At a lower water level, the impact of plant groups on the fluxes was small. Only at a high water level did vegetation regulate the fluxes. The results are relevant for assessing peatland methane fluxes in a changing climate, as peatland water level and vegetation are predicted to change.
M. Graham Clark, Elyn R. Humphreys, and Sean K. Carey
Biogeosciences, 17, 667–682,Short summary
Natural and restored wetlands typically emit methane to the atmosphere. However, we found that a wetland constructed after oil sand mining in boreal Canada using organic soils from local peatlands had negligible emissions of methane in its first 3 years. Methane production was likely suppressed due to an abundance of alternate inorganic electron acceptors. Methane emissions may increase in the future if the alternate electron acceptors continue to decrease.
Hendrik Reuter, Julia Gensel, Marcus Elvert, and Dominik Zak
Biogeosciences, 17, 499–514,Short summary
Using infrared spectroscopy, we developed a routine to disentangle microbial nitrogen (N) and plant N in decomposed litter. In a decomposition experiment in three wetland soils, this routine revealed preferential protein depolymerization as a decomposition-site-dependent parameter, unaffected by variations in initial litter N content. In Sphagnum peat, preferential protein depolymerization led to a N depletion of still-unprocessed litter tissue, i.e., a gradual loss of litter quality.
Kevan J. Minick, Bhaskar Mitra, Asko Noormets, and John S. King
Biogeosciences, 16, 4671–4686,Short summary
Sea level rise alters hydrology and vegetation in coastal wetlands. We studied effects of freshwater, saltwater, and wood on soil microbial activity in a freshwater forested wetland. Saltwater reduced CO2/CH4 production compared to freshwater, suggesting large changes in greenhouse gas production and microbial activity are possible due to saltwater intrusion into freshwater wetlands but that the availability of C in the form of dead wood (as forests transition to marsh) may alter the magnitude.
Jyrki Jauhiainen, Jukka Alm, Brynhildur Bjarnadottir, Ingeborg Callesen, Jesper R. Christiansen, Nicholas Clarke, Lise Dalsgaard, Hongxing He, Sabine Jordan, Vaiva Kazanavičiūtė, Leif Klemedtsson, Ari Lauren, Andis Lazdins, Aleksi Lehtonen, Annalea Lohila, Ainars Lupikis, Ülo Mander, Kari Minkkinen, Åsa Kasimir, Mats Olsson, Paavo Ojanen, Hlynur Óskarsson, Bjarni D. Sigurdsson, Gunnhild Søgaard, Kaido Soosaar, Lars Vesterdal, and Raija Laiho
Biogeosciences, 16, 4687–4703,Short summary
We collated peer-reviewed publications presenting GHG flux data for drained organic forest soils in boreal and temperate climate zones, focusing on data that have been used, or have the potential to be used, for estimating net annual soil GHG emission/removals. We evaluated the methods in data collection and identified major gaps in background/environmental data. Based on these, we developed suggestions for future GHG data collection to increase data applicability in syntheses and inventories.
Steffen Buessecker, Kaitlyn Tylor, Joshua Nye, Keith E. Holbert, Jose D. Urquiza Muñoz, Jennifer B. Glass, Hilairy E. Hartnett, and Hinsby Cadillo-Quiroz
Biogeosciences, 16, 4601–4612,Short summary
We investigated the potential for chemical reduction of nitrite into nitrous oxide (N2O) in soils from tropical peat. Among treatments, irradiation resulted in the lowest biological interference and least change of native soil chemistry (iron and organic matter). Nitrite depletion was as high in live or irradiated soils, and N2O production was significant in all tests. Thus, nonbiological production of N2O may be widely underestimated in wetlands and tropical peatlands.
Ward Swinnen, Nils Broothaerts, and Gert Verstraeten
Biogeosciences, 16, 3977–3996,Short summary
In this study, a new model is presented, which was specifically designed to study the development and carbon storage of blanket peatlands since the last ice age. In the past, two main processes (declining forest cover and rising temperatures) have been proposed as drivers of blanket peatland development on the British Isles. The simulations performed in this study support the temperature hypothesis for the blanket peatlands in the Cairngorms Mountains of central Scotland.
David Holl, Verónica Pancotto, Adrian Heger, Sergio Jose Camargo, and Lars Kutzbach
Biogeosciences, 16, 3397–3423,Short summary
We present 2 years of eddy covariance carbon dioxide flux data from two Southern Hemisphere peatlands on Tierra del Fuego. One of the investigated sites is a type of bog exclusive to the Southern Hemisphere, which is dominated by vascular, cushion-forming plants and is particularly understudied. One result of this study is that these cushion bogs apparently are highly productive in comparison to Northern and Southern Hemisphere moss-dominated bogs.
Liudmila S. Shirokova, Artem V. Chupakov, Svetlana A. Zabelina, Natalia V. Neverova, Dahedrey Payandi-Rolland, Carole Causserand, Jan Karlsson, and Oleg S. Pokrovsky
Biogeosciences, 16, 2511–2526,Short summary
Regardless of the size and landscape context of surface water in frozen peatland in NE Europe, the bio- and photo-degradability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) over a 1-month incubation across a range of temperatures was below 10 %. We challenge the paradigm of dominance of photolysis and biodegradation in DOM processing in surface waters from frozen peatland, and we hypothesize peat pore-water DOM degradation and respiration of sediments to be the main drivers of CO2 emission in this region.
Elisa Männistö, Aino Korrensalo, Pavel Alekseychik, Ivan Mammarella, Olli Peltola, Timo Vesala, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 16, 2409–2421,Short summary
We studied methane emitted as episodic bubble release (ebullition) from water and bare peat surfaces of a boreal bog over three years. There was more ebullition from water than from bare peat surfaces, and it was controlled by peat temperature, water level, atmospheric pressure and the weekly temperature sum. However, the contribution of methane bubbles to the total ecosystem methane emission was small. This new information can be used to improve process models of peatland methane dynamics.
Franziska Koebsch, Matthias Winkel, Susanne Liebner, Bo Liu, Julia Westphal, Iris Schmiedinger, Alejandro Spitzy, Matthias Gehre, Gerald Jurasinski, Stefan Köhler, Viktoria Unger, Marian Koch, Torsten Sachs, and Michael E. Böttcher
Biogeosciences, 16, 1937–1953,Short summary
In natural coastal wetlands, high supplies of marine sulfate suppress methane production. We found these natural methane suppression mechanisms to be suspended by humane interference in a brackish wetland. Here, diking and freshwater rewetting had caused an efficient depletion of the sulfate reservoir and opened up favorable conditions for an intensive methane production. Our results demonstrate how human disturbance can turn coastal wetlands into distinct sources of the greenhouse gas methane.
Luke C. Jeffrey, Damien T. Maher, Scott G. Johnston, Kylie Maguire, Andrew D. L. Steven, and Douglas R. Tait
Biogeosciences, 16, 1799–1815,Short summary
Wetlands represent the largest natural source of methane (CH4), so understanding CH4 drivers is important for management and climate models. We compared several CH4 pathways of a remediated subtropical Australian wetland. We found permanently inundated sites emitted more CH4 than seasonally inundated sites and that the soil properties of each site corresponded to CH4 emissions. This suggests that selective wetland remediation of favourable soil types may help to mitigate unwanted CH4 emissions.
Ryo Shingubara, Atsuko Sugimoto, Jun Murase, Go Iwahana, Shunsuke Tei, Maochang Liang, Shinya Takano, Tomoki Morozumi, and Trofim C. Maximov
Biogeosciences, 16, 755–768,Short summary
(1) Wetting event with extreme precipitation increased methane emission from wetland, especially two summers later, despite the decline in water level after the wetting. (2) Isotopic compositions of methane in soil pore water suggested enhancement of production and less significance of oxidation in the following two summers after the wetting event. (3) Duration of water saturation in the active layer may be important for predicting methane emission after a wetting event in permafrost ecosystems.
Wiebke Münchberger, Klaus-Holger Knorr, Christian Blodau, Verónica A. Pancotto, and Till Kleinebecker
Biogeosciences, 16, 541–559,Short summary
Processes governing CH4 dynamics have been scarcely studied in southern hemispheric bogs. These can be dominated by cushion-forming plants with deep and dense roots suppressing emissions. Here we demonstrate how the spatial distribution of root activity drives a pronounced pattern of CH4 emissions, likewise also possible in densely rooted northern bogs. We conclude that presence of cushion vegetation as a proxy for negligible CH4 emissions from cushion bogs needs to be interpreted with caution.
Sarah Cook, Mick J. Whelan, Chris D. Evans, Vincent Gauci, Mike Peacock, Mark H. Garnett, Lip Khoon Kho, Yit Arn Teh, and Susan E. Page
Biogeosciences, 15, 7435–7450,Short summary
This paper presents the first comprehensive assessment of fluvial organic carbon loss from oil palm plantations on tropical peat: a carbon loss pathway previously unaccounted for from carbon budgets. Carbon in the water draining four plantations in Sarawak was monitored across a 1-year period. Greater fluvial carbon losses were linked to sites with lower water tables. These data will be used to complete the carbon budget from these ecosystems and assess the full impact of this land conversion.
Danielle D. Radu and Tim P. Duval
Biogeosciences, 15, 3937–3951,Short summary
Climate change can shift rainfall into fewer, more intense events with longer dry periods, leading to changes in peatland hydrology and carbon cycling. We manipulated rain events over three peatland plant types (moss, sedge, and shrub). We found increasing regime intensity led to drier surface soils and deeper water tables, reducing plant carbon uptake. Mosses became sources of CO2 after >3 consecutive dry days. This study shows peatlands may become smaller sinks for carbon due to rain changes.
Peter Mueller, Lisa M. Schile-Beers, Thomas J. Mozdzer, Gail L. Chmura, Thomas Dinter, Yakov Kuzyakov, Alma V. de Groot, Peter Esselink, Christian Smit, Andrea D'Alpaos, Carles Ibáñez, Magdalena Lazarus, Urs Neumeier, Beverly J. Johnson, Andrew H. Baldwin, Stephanie A. Yarwood, Diana I. Montemayor, Zaichao Yang, Jihua Wu, Kai Jensen, and Stefanie Nolte
Biogeosciences, 15, 3189–3202,
Karel Castro-Morales, Thomas Kleinen, Sonja Kaiser, Sönke Zaehle, Fanny Kittler, Min Jung Kwon, Christian Beer, and Mathias Göckede
Biogeosciences, 15, 2691–2722,Short summary
We present year-round methane emissions from wetlands in Northeast Siberia that were simulated with a land surface model. Ground-based flux measurements from the same area were used for evaluation of the model results, finding a best agreement with the observations in the summertime emissions that take place in this region predominantly through plants. During winter, methane emissions through the snow contribute 4 % of the total annual methane budget, but these are still underestimated.
Aino Korrensalo, Elisa Männistö, Pavel Alekseychik, Ivan Mammarella, Janne Rinne, Timo Vesala, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 15, 1749–1761,Short summary
We measured methane fluxes of a boreal bog from six different plant community types in 2012–2014. We found only little variation in methane fluxes among plant community types. Peat temperature as well as both leaf area of plant species with air channels and of all vegetation are important factors controlling the fluxes. We also detected negative net fluxes indicating methane consumption each year. Our results can be used to improve the models of peatland methane dynamics under climate change.
Magnus Gålfalk, Martin Karlson, Patrick Crill, Philippe Bousquet, and David Bastviken
Biogeosciences, 15, 1549–1557,Short summary
We describe a quick in situ method for mapping ground surface cover, calculating areas of each surface type in a 10 x 10 m plot for each measurement. The method is robust, weather-independent, easily carried out, and uses wide-field imaging with a standard remote-controlled camera mounted on a very long extendible monopod from a height of 3–4.5 m. The method enables collection of detailed field reference data, critical in many remote sensing applications, such as wetland mapping.
Olli Peltola, Maarit Raivonen, Xuefei Li, and Timo Vesala
Biogeosciences, 15, 937–951,Short summary
Emission via bubbling, i.e. ebullition, is one of the main CH4 emission pathways from wetlands to the atmosphere, yet it is still coarsely represented in wetland CH4 models. In this study three ebullition modelling approaches are evaluated. Modeled annual CH4 emissions were similar, whereas temporal variability in CH4 emissions varied an order of magnitude between the approaches. Hence realistic description of ebullition is needed when models are compared to and calibrated against measurements.
Tracy Elsey-Quirk and Viktoria Unger
Biogeosciences, 15, 379–397,Short summary
Salt marshes have high rates of plant productivity and carbon accumulation. For this study, we found that differences in environmental conditions between estuary types were important in determining the source and stability of soil organic carbon. Specifically, sediment availability was extremely important in promoting high plant productivity and carbon accumulation in an estuary which was sediment-limited. In a sediment-rich estuary vegetation–soil-carbon relationships were weaker.
Jordan P. Goodrich, David I. Campbell, and Louis A. Schipper
Biogeosciences, 14, 4563–4576,
Jonathan P. Ritson, Richard E. Brazier, Nigel J. D. Graham, Chris Freeman, Michael R. Templeton, and Joanna M. Clark
Biogeosciences, 14, 2891–2902,Short summary
Peatlands are a globally important store of carbon; however increased droughts in the future may affect their ability to sequester carbon. Using laboratory simulations we show that droughts, through exposure to oxygen, greatly increase the quantity and alter the quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from peat. Catchment management which keeps water tables high to limit oxygen exposure is therefore likely to deliver positive water quality outcomes.
Aalto, R. and Nittrouer, C.: 210Pb geochronology of flood events in large tropical river systems, Philos. T. R. Soc. A, 370, 2040–2074, https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2011.0607, 2012.
Abril, J. M.: A new theoretical treatment of compaction and the advective-diffusive processes in sediments: a reviewed basis for radiometric dating models, J. Paleolimnol., 30, 363–370, 2003.
Abril, J. M.: A 210Pb-based chronological model for recent sediments with random entries of mass and activities: Model development, J. Environ. Radioact., 151, 64–74, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2015.09.018, 2016.
Abril, J. M. and Gharbi, F.: Radiometric dating of recent sediments: Beyond the boundary conditions, J. Paleolimnol., 48, 449–460, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10933-012-9622-5, 2012.
Abril, J. M., García-León, M., García-Tenorio, R., Sánchez, C. I., and El-Daoushy, F.: Dating of marine sediments by an incomplete mixing model, J. Environ. Radioactiv., 15, 135–151, https://doi.org/10.1016/0265-931X(91)90048-K, 1992.
Almahasheer, H., Serrano, O., Duarte, C. M., Arias-Ortiz, A., Masque, P., and Irigoien, X.: Low Carbon sink capacity of Red Sea mangroves, Sci. Rep.-UK, 7, 9700, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10424-9, 2017.
Alongi, D. M., Wattayakorn, G., Pfitzner, J., Tirendi, F., Zagorskis, I., Brunskill, G., Davidson, A., and Clough, B.: Organic carbon accumulation and metabolic pathways in sediments of mangrove forests in southern Thailand, Mar. Geol., 179, 85–103, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(01)00195-5, 2001.
Alongi, D. M., Sasekumar, A., Chong, V. C., Pfitzner, J., Trott, L. A., Tirendi, F., Dixon, P., and Brunskill, G. J.: Sediment accumulation and organic material flux in a managed mangrove ecosystem: Estimates of land-ocean-atmosphere exchange in peninsular Malaysia, Mar. Geol., 208, 383–402, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.margeo.2004.04.016, 2004.
Alongi, D. M., Pfitzner, J., Trott, L. A., Tirendi, F., Dixon, P., and Klumpp, D. W.: Rapid sediment accumulation and microbial mineralization in forests of the mangrove Kandelia candel in the Jiulongjiang Estuary, China, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 63, 605–618, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2005.01.004, 2005.
Alongi, D. M., Trott, L. A., Rachmansyah, Tirendi, F., McKinnon, A. D., and Undu, M. C.: Growth and development of mangrove forests overlying smothered coral reefs, Sulawesi and Sumatra, Indonesia, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 370, 97–109, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07661, 2008.
Álvarez-Iglesias, P., Quintana, B., Rubio, B., and Pérez-Arlucea, M.: Sedimentation rates and trace metal input history in intertidal sediments from San Simón Bay (Ría de Vigo, NW Spain) derived from 210Pb and 137Cs chronology, J. Environ. Radioactiv., 98, 229–250, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2007.05.001, 2007.
Andersen, T. J.: Some Practical Considerations Regarding the Application of 210Pb and 137Cs Dating to Estuarine Sediments, in: Applications of Paleoenvironmental Techniques in Estuarine Studies, edited by: Weckström, K., Saunders, K., Gell, P., and Skilbeck, C., 121–140, Springer, Dordrecht, 2017.
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Appleby, P. G.: Chronostratigraphic Techniques in Recent Sediments, in: Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments, 1, 171–203, Springer, the Netherlands, 2001.
Appleby, P. G.: Three decades of dating recent sediments by fallout radionuclides: a review, Holocene, 18, 83–93, https://doi.org/10.1177/0959683607085598, 2008.
Appleby, P. G. and Oldfield, F.: The calculation of lead-210 dates assuming a constant rate of supply of unsupported 210Pb to the sediment, CATENA, 5, 1–8, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(78)80002-2, 1978.
Appleby, P. G. and Oldfield, F.: Applications of lead-210 to sedimentation studies, in: Uranium-series disequilibrium: applications to earth, marine, and environmental sciences, edited by: Ivanovich, M. and Harman, R., Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1992.
Appleby, P. G., Oldfield, F., and Physics, T.: The assessment of 210Pb data from sites with varying sediment accumulation rates, Hydrobiologia, 103, 29–35, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00028424, 1983.
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Armentano, T. V. and Woodwell, G. M.: Sedimentation rates in a Long Island marsh determined by 210Pb dating, Limnol. Oceanogr., 20, 452–456, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1975.20.3.0452, 1975.
Baskaran, M., Nix, J., Kuyper, C., and Karunakara, N.: Problems with the dating of sediment core using excess 210Pb in a freshwater system impacted by large scale watershed changes, J. Environ. Radioactiv., 138, 355–363, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2014.07.006, 2014.
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Efforts to include tidal marsh, mangrove and seagrass ecosystems in existing carbon mitigation strategies are limited by a lack of estimates of carbon accumulation rates (CARs). We discuss the use of 210Pb dating to determine CARs in these habitats, which are often composed of heterogeneous sediments and affected by sedimentary processes. Results show that obtaining reliable geochronologies in these systems is ambitious, but estimates of mean 100-year CARs are mostly secure within 20 % error.
Efforts to include tidal marsh, mangrove and seagrass ecosystems in existing carbon mitigation...