Articles | Volume 16, issue 14
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Reviews and syntheses: Insights into deep-sea food webs and global environmental gradients revealed by stable isotope (δ15N, δ13C) and fatty acid trophic biomarkers
Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University, St. John's, NL, Canada
Christopher C. Parrish
Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University, St. John's, NL, Canada
Society for Exploration and Valuing of the Environment (SEVE), St. Philips, NL, Canada
Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University, St. John's, NL, Canada
Related subject area
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function: MarineUnique benthic foraminiferal communities (stained) in diverse environments of sub-Antarctic fjords, South GeorgiaUpwelled plankton community modulates surface bloom succession and nutrient availability in a natural plankton assemblageFirst phytoplankton community assessment of the Kong Håkon VII Hav, Southern Ocean, during austral autumnEarly life stages of a Mediterranean coral are vulnerable to ocean warming and acidificationMediterranean seagrasses as carbon sinks: methodological and regional differencesContrasting vertical distributions of recent planktic foraminifera off Indonesia during the southeast monsoon: implications for paleoceanographic reconstructionsThe onset of the spring phytoplankton bloom in the coastal North Sea supports the Disturbance Recovery HypothesisSpecies richness and functional attributes of fish assemblages across a large-scale salinity gradient in shallow coastal areasModeling the growth and sporulation dynamics of the macroalga Ulva in mixed-age populations in cultivation and the formation of green tidesSpatial changes in community composition and food web structure of mesozooplankton across the Adriatic basin (Mediterranean Sea)Predicting mangrove forest dynamics across a soil salinity gradient using an individual-based vegetation model linked with plant hydraulicsWill daytime community calcification reflect reef accretion on future, degraded coral reefs?Modeling polar marine ecosystem functions guided by bacterial physiological and taxonomic traitsQuantifying functional consequences of habitat degradation on a Caribbean coral reefEnhanced chlorophyll-a concentration in the wake of Sable Island, eastern Canada, revealed by two decades of satellite observations: a response to grey seal population dynamics?Population dynamics and reproduction strategies of planktonic foraminifera in the open oceanThe Bouraké semi-enclosed lagoon (New Caledonia) – a natural laboratory to study the lifelong adaptation of a coral reef ecosystem to extreme environmental conditionsAtypical, high-diversity assemblages of foraminifera in a mangrove estuary in northern BrazilPermanent ectoplasmic structures in deep-sea Cibicides and Cibicidoides taxa – long-term observations at in situ pressureIdeas and perspectives: Ushering the Indian Ocean into the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (UNDOSSD) through marine ecosystem research and operational services – an early career's takePersistent effects of sand extraction on habitats and associated benthic communities in the German BightSpatial patterns of ectoenzymatic kinetics in relation to biogeochemical properties in the Mediterranean Sea and the concentration of the fluorogenic substrate usedA 2-decade (1988–2009) record of diatom fluxes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling: impact of low-frequency forcing and a two-step shift in the species compositionReview and syntheses: Impacts of turbidity flows on deep-sea benthic communitiesIdeas and perspectives: When ocean acidification experiments are not the same, repeatability is not testedThe effect of the salinity, light regime and food source on carbon and nitrogen uptake in a benthic foraminiferChanges in population depth distribution and oxygen stratification are involved in the current low condition of the eastern Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua)Effects of spatial variability on the exposure of fish to hypoxia: a modeling analysis for the Gulf of MexicoPlant genotype determines biomass response to flooding frequency in tidal wetlandsFactors controlling the competition between Phaeocystis and diatoms in the Southern Ocean and implications for carbon export fluxesCharacterization of particle-associated and free-living bacterial and archaeal communities along the water columns of the South China SeaAdult life strategy affects distribution patterns in abyssal isopods – implications for conservation in Pacific nodule areasDiversity and distribution of nitrogen fixation genes in the oxygen minimum zones of the world oceansStructure and function of epipelagic mesozooplankton and their response to dust deposition events during the spring PEACETIME cruise in the Mediterranean SeaDistribution of planktonic foraminifera in the subtropical South Atlantic: depth hierarchy of controlling factorsTechnical note: Estimating light-use efficiency of benthic habitats using underwater O2 eddy covarianceOcean acidification reduces growth and grazing impact of Antarctic heterotrophic nanoflagellatesDynamics of environmental conditions during the decline of a Cymodocea nodosa meadowMegafauna community assessment of polymetallic-nodule fields with cameras: platform and methodology comparisonA meta-analysis on environmental drivers of marine phytoplankton C : N : PSpatial and temporal variability in the response of phytoplankton and prokaryotes to B-vitamin amendments in an upwelling systemBiogeography and community structure of abyssal scavenging Amphipoda (Crustacea) in the Pacific OceanAre seamounts refuge areas for fauna from polymetallic nodule fields?Ocean deoxygenation and copepods: coping with oxygen minimum zone variabilityUnexpected high abyssal ophiuroid diversity in polymetallic nodule fields of the northeast Pacific Ocean and implications for conservationPopulation dynamics of modern planktonic foraminifera in the western Barents SeaForaminiferal community response to seasonal anoxia in Lake Grevelingen (the Netherlands)Light availability modulates the effects of warming in a marine N2 fixerSiR-actin-labelled granules in foraminifera: patterns, dynamics, and hypothesesAlpha and beta diversity patterns of polychaete assemblages across the nodule province of the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (equatorial Pacific)
Wojciech Majewski, Witold Szczuciński, and Andrew J. Gooday
Biogeosciences, 20, 523–544,Short summary
We studied foraminifera living in the fjords of South Georgia, a sub-Antarctic island sensitive to climate change. As conditions in water and on the seafloor vary, different associations of these microorganisms dominate far inside, in the middle, and near fjord openings. Assemblages in inner and middle parts of fjords are specific to South Georgia, but they may become widespread with anticipated warming. These results are important for interpretating fossil records and monitoring future change.
Allanah Joy Paul, Lennart Thomas Bach, Javier Arístegui, Elisabeth von der Esch, Nauzet Hernández-Hernández, Jonna Piiparinen, Laura Ramajo, Kristian Spilling, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 19, 5911–5926,Short summary
We investigated how different deep water chemistry and biology modulate the response of surface phytoplankton communities to upwelling in the Peruvian coastal zone. Our results show that the most influential drivers were the ratio of inorganic nutrients (N : P) and the microbial community present in upwelling source water. These led to unexpected and variable development in the phytoplankton assemblage that could not be predicted by the amount of inorganic nutrients alone.
Hanna M. Kauko, Philipp Assmy, Ilka Peeken, Magdalena Różańska-Pluta, Józef M. Wiktor, Gunnar Bratbak, Asmita Singh, Thomas J. Ryan-Keogh, and Sebastien Moreau
Biogeosciences, 19, 5449–5482,Short summary
This article studies phytoplankton (microscopic
plantsin the ocean capable of photosynthesis) in Kong Håkon VII Hav in the Southern Ocean. Different species play different roles in the ecosystem, and it is therefore important to assess the species composition. We observed that phytoplankton blooms in this area are formed by large diatoms with strong silica armors, which can lead to high silica (and sometimes carbon) export to depth and be important prey for krill.
Chloe Carbonne, Steeve Comeau, Phoebe T. W. Chan, Keyla Plichon, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, and Núria Teixidó
Biogeosciences, 19, 4767–4777,Short summary
For the first time, our study highlights the synergistic effects of a 9-month warming and acidification combined stress on the early life stages of a Mediterranean azooxanthellate coral, Astroides calycularis. Our results predict a decrease in dispersion, settlement, post-settlement linear extention, budding and survival under future global change and that larvae and recruits of A. calycularis are stages of interest for this Mediterranean coral resistance, resilience and conservation.
Iris E. Hendriks, Anna Escolano-Moltó, Susana Flecha, Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer, Marlene Wesselmann, and Núria Marbà
Biogeosciences, 19, 4619–4637,Short summary
Seagrasses are marine plants with the capacity to act as carbon sinks due to their high primary productivity, using carbon for growth. This capacity can play a key role in climate change mitigation. We compiled and published data showing that two Mediterranean seagrass species have different metabolic rates, while the study method influences the rates of the measurements. Most communities act as carbon sinks, while the western basin might be more productive than the eastern Mediterranean.
Raúl Tapia, Sze Ling Ho, Hui-Yu Wang, Jeroen Groeneveld, and Mahyar Mohtadi
Biogeosciences, 19, 3185–3208,Short summary
We report census counts of planktic foraminifera in depth-stratified plankton net samples off Indonesia. Our results show that the vertical distribution of foraminifera species routinely used in paleoceanographic reconstructions varies in hydrographically distinct regions, likely in response to food availability. Consequently, the thermal gradient based on mixed layer and thermocline dwellers also differs for these regions, suggesting potential implications for paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Ricardo González-Gil, Neil S. Banas, Eileen Bresnan, and Michael R. Heath
Biogeosciences, 19, 2417–2426,Short summary
In oceanic waters, the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in winter, when light still limits growth, is attributed to a decrease in grazing as the mixed layer deepens. However, in coastal areas, it is not clear whether winter biomass can accumulate without this deepening. Using 21 years of weekly data, we found that in the Scottish coastal North Sea, the seasonal increase in light availability triggers the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in winter, when light limitation is strongest.
Birgit Koehler, Mårten Erlandsson, Martin Karlsson, and Lena Bergström
Biogeosciences, 19, 2295–2312,Short summary
Understanding species richness patterns remains a challenge for biodiversity management. We estimated fish species richness over a coastal salinity gradient (3–32) with a method that allowed comparing data from various sources. Species richness was 3-fold higher at high vs. low salinity, and salinity influenced species’ habitat preference, mobility and feeding type. If climate change causes upper-layer freshening of the Baltic Sea, further shifts along the identified patterns may be expected.
Uri Obolski, Thomas Wichard, Alvaro Israel, Alexander Golberg, and Alexander Liberzon
Biogeosciences, 19, 2263–2271,Short summary
The algal genus Ulva plays a major role in coastal ecosystems worldwide and is a promising prospect as an seagriculture crop. A substantial hindrance to cultivating Ulva arises from sudden sporulation, leading to biomass loss. This process is not yet well understood. Here, we characterize the dynamics of Ulva growth, considering the potential impact of sporulation inhibitors, using a mathematical model. Our findings are an essential step towards understanding the dynamics of Ulva growth.
Emanuela Fanelli, Samuele Menicucci, Sara Malavolti, Andrea De Felice, and Iole Leonori
Biogeosciences, 19, 1833–1851,Short summary
Zooplankton play a key role in marine ecosystems, forming the base of the marine food web and a link between primary producers and higher-order consumers, such as fish. This aspect is crucial in the Adriatic basin, one of the most productive and overexploited areas of the Mediterranean Sea. A better understanding of community and food web structure and their response to water mass changes is essential under a global warming scenario, as zooplankton are sensitive to climate change.
Masaya Yoshikai, Takashi Nakamura, Rempei Suwa, Sahadev Sharma, Rene Rollon, Jun Yasuoka, Ryohei Egawa, and Kazuo Nadaoka
Biogeosciences, 19, 1813–1832,Short summary
This study presents a new individual-based vegetation model to investigate salinity control on mangrove productivity. The model incorporates plant hydraulics and tree competition and predicts unique and complex patterns of mangrove forest structures that vary across soil salinity gradients. The presented model does not hold an empirical expression of salinity influence on productivity and thus may provide a better understanding of mangrove forest dynamics in future climate change.
Coulson A. Lantz, William Leggat, Jessica L. Bergman, Alexander Fordyce, Charlotte Page, Thomas Mesaglio, and Tracy D. Ainsworth
Biogeosciences, 19, 891–906,Short summary
Coral bleaching events continue to drive the degradation of coral reefs worldwide. In this study we measured rates of daytime coral reef community calcification and photosynthesis during a reef-wide bleaching event. Despite a measured decline in coral health across several taxa, there was no change in overall daytime community calcification and photosynthesis. These findings highlight potential limitations of these community-level metrics to reflect actual changes in coral health.
Hyewon Heather Kim, Jeff S. Bowman, Ya-Wei Luo, Hugh W. Ducklow, Oscar M. Schofield, Deborah K. Steinberg, and Scott C. Doney
Biogeosciences, 19, 117–136,Short summary
Heterotrophic marine bacteria are tiny organisms responsible for taking up organic matter in the ocean. Using a modeling approach, this study shows that characteristics (taxonomy and physiology) of bacteria are associated with a subset of ecological processes in the coastal West Antarctic Peninsula region, a system susceptible to global climate change. This study also suggests that bacteria will become more active, in particular large-sized cells, in response to changing climates in the region.
Alice E. Webb, Didier M. de Bakker, Karline Soetaert, Tamara da Costa, Steven M. A. C. van Heuven, Fleur C. van Duyl, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Lennart J. de Nooijer
Biogeosciences, 18, 6501–6516,Short summary
The biogeochemical behaviour of shallow reef communities is quantified to better understand the impact of habitat degradation and species composition shifts on reef functioning. The reef communities investigated barely support reef functions that are usually ascribed to conventional coral reefs, and the overall biogeochemical behaviour is found to be similar regardless of substrate type. This suggests a decrease in functional diversity which may therefore limit services provided by this reef.
Emmanuel Devred, Andrea Hilborn, and Cornelia Elizabeth den Heyer
Biogeosciences, 18, 6115–6132,Short summary
A theoretical model of grey seal seasonal abundance on Sable Island (SI) coupled with chlorophyll-a concentration [chl-a] measured by satellite revealed the impact of seal nitrogen fertilization on the surrounding waters of SI, Canada. The increase in seals from about 100 000 in 2003 to about 360 000 in 2018 during the breeding season is consistent with an increase in [chl-a] leeward of SI. The increase in seal abundance explains 8 % of the [chl-a] increase.
Julie Meilland, Michael Siccha, Maike Kaffenberger, Jelle Bijma, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 18, 5789–5809,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera population dynamics has long been assumed to be controlled by synchronous reproduction and ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM). Due to contradictory observations, this concept became controversial. We here test it in the Atlantic ocean for four species of foraminifera representing the main clades. Our observations support the existence of synchronised reproduction and OVM but show that more than half of the population does not follow the canonical trajectory.
Federica Maggioni, Mireille Pujo-Pay, Jérome Aucan, Carlo Cerrano, Barbara Calcinai, Claude Payri, Francesca Benzoni, Yves Letourneur, and Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa
Biogeosciences, 18, 5117–5140,Short summary
Based on current experimental evidence, climate change will affect up to 90 % of coral reefs worldwide. The originality of this study arises from our recent discovery of an exceptional study site where environmental conditions (temperature, pH, and oxygen) are even worse than those forecasted for the future. While these conditions are generally recognized as unfavorable for marine life, we found a rich and abundant coral reef thriving under such extreme environmental conditions.
Nisan Sariaslan and Martin R. Langer
Biogeosciences, 18, 4073–4090,Short summary
Analyses of foraminiferal assemblages from the Mamanguape mangrove estuary (northern Brazil) revealed highly diverse, species-rich, and structurally complex biotas. The atypical fauna resembles shallow-water offshore assemblages and are interpreted to be the result of highly saline ocean waters penetrating deep into the estuary. The findings contrast with previous studies, have implications for the fossil record, and provide novel perspectives for reconstructing mangrove environments.
Jutta E. Wollenburg, Jelle Bijma, Charlotte Cremer, Ulf Bickmeyer, and Zora Mila Colomba Zittier
Biogeosciences, 18, 3903–3915,Short summary
Cultured at in situ high-pressure conditions Cibicides and Cibicidoides taxa develop lasting ectoplasmic structures that cannot be retracted or resorbed. An ectoplasmic envelope surrounds their test and may protect the shell, e.g. versus carbonate aggressive bottom water conditions. Ectoplasmic roots likely anchor the specimens in areas of strong bottom water currents, trees enable them to elevate themselves above ground, and twigs stabilize and guide the retractable pseudopodial network.
Biogeosciences, 18, 3631–3635,Short summary
The Indian Ocean Rim hosts many of the underdeveloped and emerging economies that depend on ocean resources for the livelihood of millions. Operational ocean information services cater to the requirements of resource managers and end-users to efficiently harness resources, mitigate threats and ensure safety. This paper outlines existing tools and explores the ongoing research that has the potential to convert the findings into operational services in the near- to midterm.
Finn Mielck, Rune Michaelis, H. Christian Hass, Sarah Hertel, Caroline Ganal, and Werner Armonies
Biogeosciences, 18, 3565–3577,Short summary
Marine sand mining is becoming more and more important to nourish fragile coastlines that face global change. We investigated the largest sand extraction site in the German Bight. The study reveals that after more than 35 years of mining, the excavation pits are still detectable on the seafloor while the sediment composition has largely changed. The organic communities living in and on the seafloor were strongly decimated, and no recovery is observable towards previous conditions.
France Van Wambeke, Elvira Pulido, Philippe Catala, Julie Dinasquet, Kahina Djaoudi, Anja Engel, Marc Garel, Sophie Guasco, Barbara Marie, Sandra Nunige, Vincent Taillandier, Birthe Zäncker, and Christian Tamburini
Biogeosciences, 18, 2301–2323,Short summary
Michaelis–Menten kinetics were determined for alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase in the Mediterranean Sea. Although the ectoenzymatic-hydrolysis contribution to heterotrophic prokaryotic needs was high in terms of N, it was low in terms of C. This study points out the biases in interpretation of the relative differences in activities among the three tested enzymes in regard to the choice of added concentrations of fluorogenic substrates.
Oscar E. Romero, Simon Ramondenc, and Gerhard Fischer
Biogeosciences, 18, 1873–1891,Short summary
Upwelling intensity along NW Africa varies on the interannual to decadal timescale. Understanding its changes is key for the prediction of future changes of CO2 sequestration in the northeastern Atlantic. Based on a multiyear (1988–2009) sediment trap experiment at the site CBmeso, fluxes and the species composition of the diatom assemblage are presented. Our data help in establishing the scientific basis for forecasting and modeling future states of this ecosystem and its decadal changes.
Katharine T. Bigham, Ashley A. Rowden, Daniel Leduc, and David A. Bowden
Biogeosciences, 18, 1893–1908,Short summary
Turbidity flows – underwater avalanches – are large-scale physical disturbances believed to have profound impacts on productivity and diversity of benthic communities in the deep sea. We reviewed published studies and found that current evidence for changes in productivity is ambiguous at best, but the influence on regional and local diversity is clearer. We suggest study design criteria that may lead to a better understanding of large-scale disturbance effects on deep-sea benthos.
Phillip Williamson, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Steve Widdicombe, and Jean-Pierre Gattuso
Biogeosciences, 18, 1787–1792,Short summary
The reliability of ocean acidification research was challenged in early 2020 when a high-profile paper failed to corroborate previously observed impacts of high CO2 on the behaviour of coral reef fish. We now know the reason why: the
replicatedstudies differed in many ways. Open-minded and collaborative assessment of all research results, both negative and positive, remains the best way to develop process-based understanding of the impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms.
Michael Lintner, Bianca Lintner, Wolfgang Wanek, Nina Keul, and Petra Heinz
Biogeosciences, 18, 1395–1406,Short summary
Foraminifera are unicellular marine organisms that play an important role in the marine element cycle. Changes of environmental parameters such as salinity or temperature have a significant impact on the faunal assemblages. Our experiments show that changes in salinity immediately influence the foraminiferal activity. Also the light regime has a significant impact on carbon or nitrogen processing in foraminifera which contain no kleptoplasts.
Michele Casini, Martin Hansson, Alessandro Orio, and Karin Limburg
Biogeosciences, 18, 1321–1331,Short summary
In the past 20 years the condition of the eastern Baltic cod has dropped, with large implications for the fishery. Our results show that simultaneously the cod population has moved deeper while low-oxygenated waters detrimental for cod growth have become shallower. Cod have thus dwelled more in detrimental waters, explaining the drop in its condition. This study, using long-term fish and hydrological monitoring data, evidences the impact of deoxygenation on fish biology and fishing.
Elizabeth D. LaBone, Kenneth A. Rose, Dubravko Justic, Haosheng Huang, and Lixia Wang
Biogeosciences, 18, 487–507,Short summary
The hypoxic zone is an area of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Gulf of Mexico. Fish can be killed by exposure to hypoxia and can be negatively impacted by exposure to low, nonlethal DO concentrations (sublethal DO). We found that high sublethal area resulted in higher exposure and DO variability had a small effect on exposure. There was a large variation in exposure among individuals, which when combined with spatial variability of DO, can result in an underestimation of exposure when averaged.
Svenja Reents, Peter Mueller, Hao Tang, Kai Jensen, and Stefanie Nolte
Biogeosciences, 18, 403–411,Short summary
By conducting a flooding experiment with two genotypes of the salt-marsh grass Elymus athericus, we show considerable differences in biomass response to flooding within the same species. As biomass production plays a major role in sedimentation processes and thereby salt-marsh accretion, we emphasise the importance of taking intraspecific differences into account when evaluating ecosystem resilience to accelerated sea level rise.
Cara Nissen and Meike Vogt
Biogeosciences, 18, 251–283,Short summary
Using a regional Southern Ocean ecosystem model, we find that the relative importance of Phaeocystis and diatoms at high latitudes is controlled by iron and temperature variability, with light levels controlling the seasonal succession in coastal areas. Yet, biomass losses via aggregation and grazing matter as well. We show that the seasonal succession of Phaeocystis and diatoms impacts the seasonality of carbon export fluxes with ramifications for nutrient cycling and food web dynamics.
Jiangtao Li, Lingyuan Gu, Shijie Bai, Jie Wang, Lei Su, Bingbing Wei, Li Zhang, and Jiasong Fang
Biogeosciences, 18, 113–133,Short summary
Few studies have focused on the particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) microbes of the deep ocean. Here we determined PA and FL microbial communities along depth profiles of the SCS. PA and FL fractions accommodated divergent microbial compositions, and most of them are potentially generalists with PA and FL dual lifestyles. A potential vertical connectivity between surface-specific microbes and those in the deep ocean was indicated, likely through microbial attachment to sinking particles.
Saskia Brix, Karen J. Osborn, Stefanie Kaiser, Sarit B. Truskey, Sarah M. Schnurr, Nils Brenke, Marina Malyutina, and Pedro Martinez Arbizu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6163–6184,Short summary
The Clarion–Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ) located in the Pacific is commercially the most important area of proposed manganese nodule mining. Extraction of this will influence the life and distribution of small deep-sea invertebrates like peracarid crustaceans, of which >90 % are undescribed species new to science. We are doing a species delimitation approach as baseline for an ecological interpretation of species distribution and discuss the results in light of future deep-sea conservation.
Amal Jayakumar and Bess B. Ward
Biogeosciences, 17, 5953–5966,Short summary
Diversity and community composition of nitrogen-fixing microbes in the three main oxygen minimum zones of the world ocean were investigated using nifH clone libraries. Representatives of three main clusters of nifH genes were detected. Sequences were most diverse in the surface waters. The most abundant OTUs were affiliated with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. The sequences were biogeographically distinct and the dominance of a few OTUs was commonly observed in OMZs in this (and other) studies.
Guillermo Feliú, Marc Pagano, Pamela Hidalgo, and François Carlotti
Biogeosciences, 17, 5417–5441,Short summary
The impact of Saharan dust deposition events on the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem was studied during a basin-scale survey (PEACETIME cruise, May–June 2017). Short-term responses of the zooplankton community were observed after episodic dust deposition events, highlighting the impact of these events on productivity up to the zooplankton level in the poorly fertilized pelagic ecosystems of the southern Mediterranean Sea.
Douglas Lessa, Raphaël Morard, Lukas Jonkers, Igor M. Venancio, Runa Reuter, Adrian Baumeister, Ana Luiza Albuquerque, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 17, 4313–4342,Short summary
We observed that living planktonic foraminifera had distinct vertically distributed communities across the Subtropical South Atlantic. In addition, a hierarchic alternation of environmental parameters was measured to control the distribution of planktonic foraminifer's species depending on the water depth. This implies that not only temperature but also productivity and subsurface processes are signed in fossil assemblages, which could be used to perform paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Karl M. Attard and Ronnie N. Glud
Biogeosciences, 17, 4343–4353,Short summary
Light-use efficiency defines the ability of primary producers to convert sunlight energy to primary production. This report provides a framework to compute hourly and daily light-use efficiency using underwater eddy covariance, a recent technological development that produces habitat-scale rates of primary production for many different habitat types. The approach, tested on measured flux data, provides a useful means to compare habitat productivity across time and space.
Stacy Deppeler, Kai G. Schulz, Alyce Hancock, Penelope Pascoe, John McKinlay, and Andrew Davidson
Biogeosciences, 17, 4153–4171,Short summary
Our study showed how ocean acidification can exert both direct and indirect influences on the interactions among trophic levels within the microbial loop. Microbial grazer abundance was reduced at CO2 concentrations at and above 634 µatm, while microbial communities increased in abundance, likely due to a reduction in being grazed. Such changes in predator–prey interactions with ocean acidification could have significant effects on the food web and biogeochemistry in the Southern Ocean.
Mirjana Najdek, Marino Korlević, Paolo Paliaga, Marsej Markovski, Ingrid Ivančić, Ljiljana Iveša, Igor Felja, and Gerhard J. Herndl
Biogeosciences, 17, 3299–3315,Short summary
The response of Cymodocea nodosa to environmental changes was reported during a 15-month period. The meadow decline was triggered in spring by the simultaneous reduction of available light in the water column and the creation of anoxic conditions in the rooted area. This disturbance was critical for the plant since it took place during its recruitment phase when metabolic needs are maximal and stored reserves minimal. The loss of such habitat-forming seagrass is a major environmental concern.
Timm Schoening, Autun Purser, Daniel Langenkämper, Inken Suck, James Taylor, Daphne Cuvelier, Lidia Lins, Erik Simon-Lledó, Yann Marcon, Daniel O. B. Jones, Tim Nattkemper, Kevin Köser, Martin Zurowietz, Jens Greinert, and Jose Gomes-Pereira
Biogeosciences, 17, 3115–3133,Short summary
Seafloor imaging is widely used in marine science and industry to explore and monitor areas of interest. The selection of the most appropriate imaging gear and deployment strategy depends on the target application. This paper compares imaging platforms like autonomous vehicles or towed camera frames and different deployment strategies of those in assessing the megafauna abundance of polymetallic-nodule fields. The deep-sea mining industry needs that information for robust impact monitoring.
Tatsuro Tanioka and Katsumi Matsumoto
Biogeosciences, 17, 2939–2954,Short summary
We conducted an extensive literature survey (meta-analysis) on how the C : N : P ratio varies with change in key environmental drivers. We found that the expected reduction in nutrients and warming under the future climate change scenario is likely to result in increased C : P and C : N of marine phytoplankton. Further, our findings highlight the greater stoichiometric plasticity of eukaryotes over prokaryotes, which provide us insights on how to understand and model plankton.
Vanessa Joglar, Antero Prieto, Esther Barber-Lluch, Marta Hernández-Ruiz, Emilio Fernández, and Eva Teira
Biogeosciences, 17, 2807–2823,Short summary
Coastal marine ecosystems are among the most ecologically and economically productive areas providing a large fraction of ecosystem goods and services to human populations, and B vitamins have long been considered important growth factors for phytoplankton. Our findings indicate that the responses of microbial plankton to B-vitamin supply are mainly driven by the bacterial community composition and that microbial plankton in this area seems to be well adapted to cope with B-vitamin shortage.
Tasnim Patel, Henri Robert, Cedric D'Udekem D'Acoz, Koen Martens, Ilse De Mesel, Steven Degraer, and Isa Schön
Biogeosciences, 17, 2731–2744,Short summary
Exploitation of deep-sea resources in one of the largest ecosystems on the planet has rendered research of its biodiversity more urgent than ever before. We investigated the known habitats and connectivity of deep-sea scavenging amphipods and obtained important knowledge about several species. We also demonstrated that a long-term disturbance experiment has possibly reduced amphipod biodiversity. These data and further sampling expeditions are instrumental for formulating sustainable policies.
Daphne Cuvelier, Pedro A. Ribeiro, Sofia P. Ramalho, Daniel Kersken, Pedro Martinez Arbizu, and Ana Colaço
Biogeosciences, 17, 2657–2680,Short summary
Polymetallic nodule mining will remove hard substrata from the abyssal deep-sea floor. The only neighbouring ecosystems featuring hard substratum are seamounts, and their inhabiting fauna could aid in recovery post-mining. Nevertheless, first observations of seamount megafauna were very different from nodule-associated megafauna and showed little overlap. The possible uniqueness of these ecosystems implies that they should be included in management plans for the conservation of biodiversity.
Karen F. Wishner, Brad Seibel, and Dawn Outram
Biogeosciences, 17, 2315–2339,Short summary
Increasing deoxygenation and oxygen minimum zone expansion are consequences of global warming. Copepod species had different vertical distribution strategies and physiologies associated with oxygen profile variability (0–1000 m). Species (1) changed vertical distributions and maximum abundance depth, (2) shifted diapause depth, (3) changed diel vertical migration depths, or (4) changed epipelagic depth range in the aerobic mixed layer. Present-day variability helps predict future scenarios.
Magdalini Christodoulou, Timothy O'Hara, Andrew F. Hugall, Sahar Khodami, Clara F. Rodrigues, Ana Hilario, Annemiek Vink, and Pedro Martinez Arbizu
Biogeosciences, 17, 1845–1876,Short summary
Unexpectedly high diversity was revealed in areas licenced for polymetallic nodule mining exploration in the Pacific Ocean. For the first time, a comprehensive reference library including 287 novel ophiuroid sequences allocated to 43 species was produced. Differences in food availability along the nodule province of CCZ were reflected in the biodiversity patterns observed. The APEI3's dissimilarity with the exploration contract areas questions its ability to serve as a biodiversity reservoir.
Julie Meilland, Hélène Howa, Vivien Hulot, Isaline Demangel, Joëlle Salaün, and Thierry Garlan
Biogeosciences, 17, 1437–1450,Short summary
This study reports on planktonic foraminifera (PF) diversity and distribution in the Barents Sea. The species Globigerinita uvula and Turborotalita quinqueloba dominate the water column while surface sediments are dominated by Neogloboquadrina pachyderma. We hypothesize the unusual dominance of G. uvula in the water to be a seasonal signal or a result of climate forcing. Size-normalized-protein concentrations of PF show a northward decrease, suggesting biomass to vary with the environment.
Julien Richirt, Bettina Riedel, Aurélia Mouret, Magali Schweizer, Dewi Langlet, Dorina Seitaj, Filip J. R. Meysman, Caroline P. Slomp, and Frans J. Jorissen
Biogeosciences, 17, 1415–1435,Short summary
The paper presents the response of benthic foraminiferal communities to seasonal absence of oxygen coupled with the presence of hydrogen sulfide, considered very harmful for several living organisms. Our results suggest that the foraminiferal community mainly responds as a function of the duration of the adverse conditions. This knowledge is especially useful to better understand the ecology of benthic foraminifera but also in the context of palaeoceanographic interpretations.
Xiangqi Yi, Fei-Xue Fu, David A. Hutchins, and Kunshan Gao
Biogeosciences, 17, 1169–1180,Short summary
Combined effects of warming and light intensity were estimated in N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Its physiological responses to warming were significantly modulated by light, with growth peaking at 27 °C under the light-saturating condition but being non-responsive across the range of 23–31 °C under the light-limiting condition. Light shortage also weakened the acclimation ability of Trichodesmium to warming, making light-limited Trichodesmium more sensitive to acute temperature change.
Jan Goleń, Jarosław Tyszka, Ulf Bickmeyer, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 17, 995–1011,Short summary
We studied the organisation and dynamics of actin in foraminifera. Actin is one of the key structural proteins in most lifeforms. Our investigations show that in foraminifera it forms small granules, around 1 µm in diameter, that display rapid movement. This granularity is unusual in comparison to other organisms. We suppose that these granules are most likely involved in the formation of all types of pseudopods responsible for movement, food capturing, biomineralisation, and other functions.
Paulo Bonifácio, Pedro Martínez Arbizu, and Lénaïck Menot
Biogeosciences, 17, 865–886,Short summary
The patterns observed in the composition of polychaete assemblages were attributed to variations in food supply at the regional scale and nodule density at the local scale. The high levels of species replacement were mainly driven by rare species, leading to regional species pool estimates between 498 and 240 000 species. The high proportion of singletons seems reflect an under-sampling bias that is currently preventing the assessment of potential biodiversity loss due to nodule mining.
Altabet, M. A., Pilskaln, C., Thunell, R., Pride, C., Sigman, D., Chavez, F., and Francois, R.: The nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry of sinking particles from the margin of the Eastern North Pacific, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 46, 655–679, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0637(98)00084-3, 1999.
Arrington, D. A. and Winemiller, K. O.: Preservation effects on stable isotope analysis of fish muscle, Trans. Am. Fish Soc., 131, 337–342, https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(2002)131<0337:PEOSIA>2.0.CO;2, 2002.
Badalamenti, F., D'Anna, G., Pinnegar, J., and Polunin, N.: Size-related trophodynamic changes in three target fish species recovering from intensive trawling, Mar. Biol., 141, 561–570, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-002-0844-3, 2002.
Bergmann, M., Dannheim, J., Bauerfeind, E., and Klages, M.: Trophic relationships along a bathymetric gradient at the deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I., 56, 408–424, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2008.10.004, 2009.
Boyle, M., Ebert, D., and Cailliet, G.: Stable-isotope analysis of a deep-sea benthic-fish assemblage: evidence of an enriched benthic food web, J. Fish Biol., 80, 1485–1507, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03243.x, 2012.
Bradley, C. J., Wallsgrove, N. J., Choy, C. A., Drazen, J. C., Hetherington, E. D., Hoen, D. K., and Popp, B. N.: Trophic position estimates of marine teleosts using amino acid compound specific isotopic analysis, Limnol. Oceanogr-Meth., 13, 476–493, https://doi.org/10.1002/lom3.10041, 2015.
Bunn, S., Loneragan, N., and Kempster, M.: Effects of acid washing on stable isotope ratios of C and N in penaeid shrimp and seagrass: implications for food-web studies using multiple stable isotopes, Limnol. Oceanogr., 40, 622–625, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1995.40.3.0622, 1995.
Carlier, A., Le Guilloux, E., Olu, K., Sarrazin, J., Mastrototaro, F., Taviani, M., and Clavier, J.: Trophic relationships in a deep Mediterranean cold-water coral bank (Santa Maria di Leuca, Ionian Sea), Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 397, 125–137, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08361, 2009.
Cherel, Y., Fontaine, C., Jackson, G. D., Jackson, C. H., and Richard, P.: Tissue, ontogenic and sex-related differences in δ13C and δ15N values of the oceanic squid Todarodes filippovae (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae), Mar. Biol., 156, 699–708, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-008-1121-x, 2009.
Choy, C. A., Popp, B. N., Hannides, C. C., and Drazen, J. C.: Trophic structure and food resources of epipelagic and mesopelagic fishes in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre ecosystem inferred from nitrogen isotopic compositions, Limnol. Oceanogr., 60, 1156–1171, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10085, 2015.
Churchill, D. A., Heithaus, M. R., Vaudo, J. J., Grubbs, R. D., Gastrich, K., and Castro, J. I.: Trophic interactions of common elasmobranchs in deep-sea communities of the Gulf of Mexico revealed through stable isotope and stomach content analysis, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II., 115, 92–102, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2014.10.011,2015.
Clarke, K. and Gorley, R.: PRIMER Plymouth, UK, PRIMERE Ltd, 2006.
Collins, M., Bailey, D., Ruxton, G., and Priede, I.: Trends in body size across an environmental gradient: a differential response in scavenging and non-scavenging demersal deep-sea fish, P. Roy. Soc. B-Biol. Sci., 272, 2051–2057, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2005.3189, 2005.
Colombo, S. M., Wacker, A., Parrish, C. C., Kainz, M. J., and Arts, M. T.: A fundamental dichotomy in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid abundance between and within marine and terrestrial ecosystems, Environm. Rev., 25, 163–174, https://doi.org/10.1139/er-2016-0062, 2016.
Cossins, A. and Lee, J.: The adaptation of membrane structure and lipid composition to cold, in: Circulation, respiration, and metabolism, edited by: Gylles, R., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, 543–552, 1985.
DeLong, E. G. and Yayanos, A. A.: Adaptation of the membrane lipids of a deep-sea bacterium to changes in hydrostatic pressure, Science, 228, 1101–1104, 1985.
DeNiro, M. J. and Epstein, S.: Mechanism of carbon isotope fractionation associated with lipid synthesis, Science, 197, 261–263, 1977.
Drazen, J. C., Phleger, C. F., Guest, M. A., and Nichols, P. D.: Lipid, sterols and fatty acid composition of abyssal holoturians and ophiuroids from the North-East Pacific Ocean: food web implications, Comp. Biochem. Phys. B., 151, 79–87, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2008.05.013, 2008a.
Drazen, J. C., Phleger, C. F., Guest, M. A., and Nichols, P. D.: Lipid, sterols and fatty acids of abyssal polychaetes, crustaceans, and a cnidarian from the northeast Pacific Ocean: food web implications, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 372, 157–167, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps07707, 2008b.
Drazen, J. C., Popp, B. N., Choy, C. A., Clemente, T., Forest, L. D., and Smith, K. L.: Bypassing the abyssal benthic food web: Macrourid diet in the eastern North Pacific inferred from stomach content and stable isotopes analyses, Limnol. Oceanogr., 53, 2644–2654, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2008.53.6.2644, 2008c.
Drazen, J. C., Phleger, C. F., Guest, M. A., and Nichols, P. D.: Lipid composition and diet inferences in abyssal macrourids of the eastern North Pacific, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 387, 1–14, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08106, 2009.
Eliassen, J. E. and Jobling, M.: Food of the roughhead grenadier, Macrourus berglax, Lacepede in North Norwegian waters, J. Fish Biol., 26, 367–376, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1985.tb04276.x, 1985.
Fanelli, E., Cartes, J. E., Rumolo, P., and Sprovieri, M.: Food-web structure and trophodynamics of mesopelagic–suprabenthic bathyal macrofauna of the Algerian Basin based on stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I., 56, 1504–1520, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2009.04.004, 2009.
Fanelli, E., Cartes, J. E., and Papiol, V.: Food web structure of deep-sea macrozooplankton and micronekton off the Catalan slope: insight from stable isotopes, J. Marine Syst., 87, 79–89, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2011.03.003, 2011a.
Fanelli, E., Papiol, V., Cartes, J. E., Rumolo, P., Brunet, C., and Sprovieri, M.: Food web structure of the epibenthic and infaunal invertebrates on the Catalan slope (NW Mediterranean): evidence from δ13C and δ15N analysis, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 58, 98–109, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2010.12.005, 2011b.
Fanelli, E., Papiol, V., Cartes, J. E., Rumolo, P., and López-Pérez, C.: Trophic webs of deep-sea megafauna on mainland and insular slopes of the NW Mediterranean: a comparison by stable isotope analysis, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 490, 199–221, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10430, 2013.
FishBase: http://www.fishbase.org, last access: February 2019.
Francois, R., Altabet, M. A., Goericke, R., McCorkle, D. C., Brunet, C., and Poisson, A.: Changes in the δ13C of surface water particulate organic matter across the subtropical convergence in the SW Indian Ocean, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 7, 627–644, https://doi.org/10.1029/93GB01277, 1993.
Gage, J. D.: Food inputs, utilization, carbon flow and energetics, in: Ecosystems of the deep oceans, edited by: Tyler, P. A., Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, tThe Netherlands, 313–382, 2003.
Gale, K. S., Hamel, J.-F., and Mercier, A.: Trophic ecology of deep-sea Asteroidea (Echinodermata) from eastern Canada, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 80, 25–36, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2013.05.016, 2013.
Galván, D., Sweeting, C., and Reid, W.: Power of stable isotope techniques to detect size-based feeding in marine fishes, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 407, 271–278, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps08528, 2010.
Gartner, J. V., Crabtree, R. E., and Sulak, K. J.: Feeding at depth, Fish physiology, 16, 115–193, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1546-5098(08)60229-0, 1997.
Hamoutene, D., Puestow, T., Miller-Banoub, J., and Wareham, V.: Main lipid classes in some species of deep-sea corals in the Newfoundland and Labrador region (Northwest Atlantic Ocean), Coral Reefs, 27, 237–246, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-007-0318-7, 2008.
Hetherington, E. D., Olson, R. J., Drazen, J. C., Lennert-Cody, C. E., Balance, L. T., Kaufmann, R. S., and Popp, B. N.: Spatial food-web structure in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean based on compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis of amino acids, Limnol. Oceanogr., 62, 541–560, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10443, 2017.
Hixson, S. M. and Arts, M. T.: Climate warming is predicted to reduce omega-3, long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid production in phytoplankton, Global Change Biol., 22, 2744–2755, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13295, 2016.
Hoffman, J. C. and Sutton, T. T.: Lipid correction for carbon stable isotope analysis of deep-sea fishes, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 57, 956–964, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2010.05.003, 2010.
Howell, K. L., Pond, D. W., Billett, D. S., and Tyler, P. A.: Feeding ecology of deep-sea seastars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea): a fatty-acid biomarker approach, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 255, 193–206, 2003.
Hudson, I. R., Pond, D. W., Billett, D. S., Tyler, P. A., Lampitt, R. S., and Wolff, G. A.: Temporal variations in fatty acid composition of deep-sea holothurians: evidence of bentho-pelagic coupling, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 281, 109–120, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps281109, 2004.
Hussey, N., MacNeil, M., Olin, J., McMeans, B., Kinney, M., Chapman, D., and Fisk, A.: Stable isotopes and elasmobranchs: tissue types, methods, applications and assumptions, J. Fish Biol., 80, 1449–1484, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2012.03251.x, 2012.
Iken, K., Brey, T., Wand, U., Voigt, J., and Junghans, P.: Food web structure of the benthic community at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (NE Atlantic): a stable isotope analysis, Prog. Oceanogr., 50, 383–405, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(01)00062-3, 2001.
Iken, K., Bluhm, B., and Gradinger, R.: Food web structure in the high Arctic Canada Basin: evidence from δ13C and δ15N analysis, Polar Biol., 28, 238–249, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-004-0669-2, 2005.
IPCC: Fifth assessment report, available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/SYR_AR5_FINAL_full.pdf (last access: February 2019), 2014.
Iverson, S. J.: Tracing aquatic food webs using fatty acids: from qualitative indicators to quantitative determination, in: Lipids in aquatic ecosystems, edited by: Arts, M. T., Brett, M. T., and Kainz, M. J., Springer, New York, NY, 281–308, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-89366-2_12, 2009.
Jeffreys, R. M., Wolff, G. A., and Murty, S. J.: The trophic ecology of key megafaunal species at the Pakistan Margin: evidence from stable isotopes and lipid biomarkers, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 56, 1816–1833, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2009.05.001, 2009.
Jones, D. O., Yool, A., Wei, C. L., Henson, S. A., Ruhl, H. A., Watson, R. A., and Gehlen, M.: Global reductions in seafloor biomass in response to climate change, Global Change Biol., 20, 1861–1872, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12480, 2014.
Kharlamenko, V. I., Brandt, A., Kiyashko, S. I., and Würzberg, L.: Trophic relationship of benthic invertebrate fauna from the continental slope of the Sea of Japan, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 86, 34–42, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2012.08.007, 2013.
Kharlamenko, V. I., Maiorova, A. S., and Ermolenko, E. V.: Fatty acid composition as an indicator of the trophic position of abyssal megabenthic deposit feeders in the Kuril Basin of the Sea of Okhotsk, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 154, 374–382, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2018.03.005, 2018.
Kim, S. L. and Koch, P. L.: Methods to collect, preserve, and prepare elasmobranch tissues for stable isotope analysis, Environ. Biol. Fish, 95, 53–63, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10641-011-9860-9, 2012.
Kiyashko, S. I., Kharlamenko, V. I., Sanamyan, K., Alalykina, I. L., and Würzberg, L.: Trophic structure of the abyssal benthic community in the Sea of Japan inferred from stable isotope and fatty acid analyses, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 500, 121–137, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10663, 2014.
Kopp, D., Robert, M., and Pawlowski, L.: Characterization of food web structure of the upper continental slope of the Celtic Sea highlighting the trophic ecology of five deep-sea fishes, J. Appl. Ichthyol., 34, 73–80, https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.13544, 2018.
Lampitt, R.: Evidence for the seasonal deposition of detritus to the deep-sea floor and its subsequent resuspension. Deep-Sea Res., 32, 885–897, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(85)90034-2, 1985.
Larsen, T., Taylor, D. L., Leigh, M. B., and O'Brien, D. M.: Stable isotope fingerprinting: a novel method for identifying plant, fungal, or bacterial origins of amino acids, Ecology, 90, 3526–3535, https://doi.org/10.1890/08-1695.1, 2009.
Lee, R., Nevenzel, J., and Paffenhöfer, G.-A.: Importance of wax esters and other lipids in the marine food chain: phytoplankton and copepods, Mar. Biol., 9, 99–108, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00348249, 1971.
Lewis, R. W.: Fatty acid composition of some marine animals from various depths, J. Fish Res. Board. Can., 24, 1101–1115, 1967.
Madurell, T., Fanelli, E., and Cartes, J. E.: Isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen of suprabenthic fauna in the NW Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean), J. Marine Syst., 71, 336–345, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.03.006, 2008.
Martin-Creuzburg, D. and Von Elert, E.: Ecological significance of sterols in aquatic food webs, in: Lipids in aquatic ecosystems, edited by: Kainz, M., Brett, M. T., and Arts, M. T., Springer, New York, NY, 43–64, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-89366-2_3, 2009.
Mauchline, J. and Gordon, J.: Diets and bathymetric distributions of the macrourid fish of the Rockall Trough, northeastern Atlantic Ocean, Mar. Biol., 81, 107–121, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00393109, 1984.
McClelland, J. W. and Montoya, J. P.: Trophic relationships and the nitrogen isotopic composition of amino acids in plankton, Ecology, 83, 2173–2180, 2002.
McConnaughey, T. and McRoy, C.: Food-web structure and the fractionation of carbon isotopes in the Bering Sea, Mar. Biol., 53, 257–262, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00952434, 1979.
Michener, R. H., and Kaufman, L.: Stable isotope ratios as tracers in marine food webs: an update, in: Stable isotopes in ecology and environmental science, edited by: Michener, R. and Lajtha, K., Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 238–282, 2007.
Minagawa, M. and Wada, E. Stepwise enrichment of 15N along food chains: further evidence and the relation between δ15N and animal age, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 48, 1135–1140, https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7037(84)90204-7, 1984.
Mincks, S. L., Smith, C. R., Jeffreys, R. M., and Sumida, P. Y.: Trophic structure on the West Antarctic Peninsula shelf: detritivory and benthic inertia revealed by δ13C and δ15N analysis, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 55, 2502–2514, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2008.06.009, 2008.
Mindel, B. L., Neat, F. C., Trueman, C. N., Webb, T. J., and Blanchard, J. L.: Functional, size and taxonomic diversity of fish along a depth gradient in the deep sea, PeerJ, 4, e2387, https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2387, 2016a.
Mindel, B. L., Webb, T. J., Neat, F. C., and Blanchard, J. L.: A trait-based metric sheds new light on the nature of the body size–depth relationship in the deep sea, J. Anim. Ecol., 85, 427–436, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12471, 2016b.
Mintenbeck, K., Jacob, U., Knust, R., Arntz, W., and Brey, T.: Depth-dependence in stable isotope ratio δ15N of benthic POM consumers: the role of particle dynamics and organism trophic guild, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 54, 1015–1023, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2007.03.005, 2007.
Mordukhovich, V. V., Kiyashko, S. I., Kharlamenko, V. I., and Fadeeva, N. P.: Determination of food sources for nematodes in the Kuril Basin and eastern slope of the Kuril Islands by stable isotope and fatty acid analyses, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 154, 365–373, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2018.01.003, 2018.
Økland, H. M., Stoknes, I. S., Remme, J. F., Kjerstad, M., and Synnes, M.: Proximate composition, fatty acid and lipid class composition of the muscle from deep-sea teleosts and elasmobranchs, Comp. Biochem. Phys. B, 140, 437–443, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2004.11.008, 2005.
Papiol, V., Cartes, J. E., Fanelli, E., and Rumolo, P.: Food web structure and seasonality of slope megafauna in the NW Mediterranean elucidated by stable isotopes: relationship with available food sources, J. Sea Res., 77, 53–69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2012.10.002, 2013.
Parrish, C. C.: Essential fatty acids in aquatic food webs, in: Lipids in aquatic ecosystems, edited by: Arts, M. T., Brett, M. T., and Kainz, M. J., Springer New York, New York, NY, 309–326, 2009.
Parrish, C. C.: Lipids in marine ecosystems, ISRN Oceanography, 2013, 604045, https://doi.org/10.5402/2013/604045, 2013.
Parrish, C. C., Abrajano, T., Budge, S., Helleur, R., Hudson, E., Pulchan, K., and Ramos, C.: Lipid and phenolic biomarkers in marine ecosystems: analysis and applications, in: Marine chemistry, edited by: Wangersky, P., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 193–223, 2000.
Parzanini, C., Parrish, C. C., Hamel, J.-F., and Mercier, A.: Trophic ecology of a deep-sea fish assemblage in the Northwest Atlantic, Mar. Biol., 164, 206, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-017-3236-4, 2017.
Parzanini, C., Parrish, C. C., Hamel, J.-F., and Mercier, A.: Trophic relationships of deep-sea benthic invertebrates on a continental margin in the NW Atlantic inferred by stable isotope, elemental, and fatty acid composition, Prog. Oceanogr., 168, 279–295, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pocean.2018.10.007, 2018a.
Parzanini, C., Parrish, C. C., Hamel, J.-F., and Mercier, A.: Functional diversity and nutritional content in a deep-sea faunal assemblage through total lipid, lipid class, and fatty acid analyses, PLoS One, 13, e0207395, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207395, 2018b.
Pétursdóttir, H., Gislason, A., and Falk-Petersen, S.: Lipid classes and fatty acid compositions of muscle, liver and skull oil in deep-sea redfish Sebastes mentella over the Reykjanes Ridge, J. Fish Biol., 73, 2485–2496, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2008.02100.x, 2008a.
Pétursdóttir, H., Gislason, A., Falk-Petersen, S., Hop, H., and Svavarsson, J.: Trophic interactions of the pelagic ecosystem over the Reykjanes Ridge as evaluated by fatty acid and stable isotope analyses, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 55, 83–93, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2007.09.003, 2008b.
Pfannkuche, O.: Allochthonous deep-sea benthic communities: functioning and forcing, in: Interactions between macro-and microorganisms in marine sediments, edited by: Kristensen, E., Ralf, R., and Kostka, E. J., American Geophysical Union, Washington DC, 251–266, 2005.
Pinnegar, J. and Polunin, N. Differential fractionation of δ13C and δ15N among fish tissues: implications for the study of trophic interactions, Funct. Ecol., 13, 225–231, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2435.1999.00301.x, 1999.
Polunin, N., Morales-Nin, B., Pawsey, W., Cartes, J., Pinnegar, J., and Moranta, J.: Feeding relationships in Mediterranean bathyal assemblages elucidated by stable nitrogen and carbon isotope data, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 220, 13–23, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps220013, 2001.
Post, D. M., Layman, C. A., Arrington, D. A., Takimoto, G., Quattrochi, J., and Montana, C. G.: Getting to the fat of the matter: models, methods and assumptions for dealing with lipids in stable isotope analyses, Oecologia, 152, 179–189, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-006-0630-x, 2007.
Preciado, I., Cartes, J. E., Punzón, A., Frutos, I., López-López, L., and Serrano, A.: Food web functioning of the benthopelagic community in a deep-sea seamount based on diet and stable isotope analyses, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 137, 56–68, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2016.07.013, 2017.
Quiroga, E., Gerdes, D., Montiel, A., Knust, R., and Jacob, U.: Normalized biomass size spectra in high Antarctic macrobenthic communities: linking trophic position and body size, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 506, 99–113, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10807, 2014.
Ramirez-Llodra, E., Brandt, A., Danovaro, R., De Mol, B., Escobar, E., German, C. R., Levin, L. A., Martinez Arbizu, P., Menot, L., Buhl-Mortensen, P., Narayanaswamy, B. E., Smith, C. R., Tittensor, D. P., Tyler, P. A., Vanreusel, A., and Vecchione, M.: Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem, Biogeosciences, 7, 2851–2899, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-2851-2010, 2010.
Rau, G. H. and Hedges, J. I.: Carbon-13 depletion in a hydrothermal vent mussel: suggestion of a chemosynthetic food source, Science, 203, 648–649, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.203.4381.648, 1979.
Rau, G. H., Sweeney, R., and Kaplan, I.: Plankton 13C : 12C ratio changes with latitude: differences between northern and southern oceans, Deep-Sea Res., 29, 1035–1039, https://doi.org/10.1016/0198-0149(82)90026-7, 1982.
Reid, W. D., Wigham, B. D., McGill, R. A., and Polunin, N. V.: Elucidating trophic pathways in benthic deep-sea assemblages of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge north and south of the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 463, 89–103, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps09863, 2012.
Reid, W. D., Sweeting, C. J., Wigham, B. D., McGill, R. A., and Polunin, N. V.: High variability in spatial and temporal size-based trophodynamics of deep-sea fishes from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge elucidated by stable isotopes, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 98, 412–420, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.01.020, 2013.
Rex, M. A., Stuart, C. T., Hessler, R. R., Allen, J. A., Sanders, H. L., and Wilson, G. D.: Global-scale latitudinal patterns of species diversity in the deep-sea benthos, Nature, 365, 636–639, https://doi.org/10.1038/365636a0, 1993.
Richards, T. M., Gipson, E. E., Cook, A., Sutton, T. T., and Wells, R. D.: Trophic ecology of meso-and bathypelagic predatory fishes in the Gulf of Mexico, ICES J. Mar. Sci, 76, 662–672, https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsy074, 2019.
Rieger, R. M.: The biphasic life cycle – a central theme of metazoan evolution, Am. Zool., 34, 484–491, https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/34.4.484, 1994.
Rossoll, D., Bermúdez, R., Hauss, H., Schulz, K. G., Riebesell, U., Sommer, U., and Winder, M.: Ocean acidification-induced food quality deterioration constrains trophic transfer, PLoS One, 7, e34737, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034737, 2012.
Sackett, W. M., Eckelmann, W. R., Bender, M. L., and Bé, A. W.: Temperature dependence of carbon isotope composition in marine plankton and sediments, Science, 148, 235–237, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.148.3667.235, 1965.
Saito, H. and Osako, K.: Confirmation of a new food chain utilizing geothermal energy: unusual fatty acids of a deep-sea bivalve, Calyptogena phaseoliformis, Limnol. Oceanogr., 52, 1910–1918, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2007.52.5.1910, 2007.
Salvo, F., Hamoutene, D., Hayes, V. E. W., Edinger, E. N., and Parrish, C. C.: Investigation of trophic ecology in Newfoundland cold-water deep-sea corals using lipid class and fatty acid analyses, Coral Reefs, 37, 157–171, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-017-1644-z, 2018.
Sherwood, O. A., Jamieson, R. E., Edinger, E. N., and Wareham, V. E.: Stable C and N isotopic composition of cold-water corals from the Newfoundland and Labrador continental slope: examination of trophic, depth and spatial effects, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 55, 1392–1402, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2008.05.013, 2008.
Shi, L., Xiao, W., Liu, Z., Pan, B., and Xu, Y.: Diet change of hadal amphipods revealed by fatty acid profile: a close relationship with surface ocean, Mar. Environ. Res., 142, 250-256, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2018.10.012, 2018.
Shine, R.: Ecological causes for the evolution of sexual dimorphism: a review of the evidence, Q. Rev. Biol., 64, 419–461, 1989.
Shipley, O. N., Brooks, E. J., Madigan, D. J., Sweeting, C. J., and Grubbs, R. D.: Stable isotope analysis in deep-sea chondrichthyans: recent challenges, ecological insights, and future directions, Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher., 27, 481–497, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11160-017-9466-1, 2017.
Smith, C. R. and Baco, A. R.: Ecology of whale falls at the deep-sea floor, Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev., 41, 311–354, 2003.
Smith, K. L., Ruhl, H. A., Bett, B. J., Billett, D. S., Lampitt, R. S., and Kaufmann, R. S.: Climate, carbon cycling, and deep-ocean ecosystems, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 19211–19218, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0908322106, 2009.
Stowasser, G., McAllen, R., Pierce, G., Collins, M., Moffat, C., Priede, I., and Pond, D. W.: Trophic position of deep-sea fish – assessment through fatty acid and stable isotope analyses, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 56, 812–826, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2008.12.016, 2009.
Strebe: The world on Winkel tripel projection, 15∘ graticule, Imagery is a derivative of NASA's Blue Marble summer month composite with oceans lightened to enhance legibility and contrast, Image created with the Geocart map projection software, Wikimedia Commons (CC-BY-SA 3.0), available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Winkel_triple_projection_SW.jpg (last access: 5 July 2019), 2011.
Stuart, C. T., Rex, M., and Etter, R. J.: Large-scale spatial and temporal patterns of deep-sea benthic species diversity, in: Ecosystems of the deep oceans, edited by: Tyler, P. A., Elsevier, the Netherlands, 295–312, 2003.
Sulzman, E. W.: Stable isotope chemistry and measurement: a primer, in: Stable isotopes in ecology and environmental science, edited by: Michener, R., and Lajtha, K., Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK, 1–21, 2007.
Sweetman, A. K., Thurber, A. R., Smith, C. R., Levin, L. A., Mora, C., Wei, C. L., Gooday, A. J., Jones, D. O., Rex, M., Yasuhara, M., and Ingels, J.: Major impacts of climate change on deep-sea benthic ecosystem, Elementa-Sci. Anthrop., 5, 4, https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.203, 2017.
Syväranta, J., Martino, A., Kopp, D., Céréghino, R., and Santoul, F.: Freezing and chemical preservatives alter the stable isotope values of carbon and nitrogen of the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea), Hydrobiologia, 658, 383–388, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-010-0512-4, 2011.
Tecchio, S., van Oevelen, D., Soetaert, K., Navarro, J., and Ramírez-Llodra, E.: Trophic dynamics of deep-sea megabenthos are mediated by surface productivity, PloS One, 8, e63796, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0063796, 2013.
Trueman, C., Johnston, G., O'Hea, B., and MacKenzie, K.: Trophic interactions of fish communities at midwater depths enhance long-term carbon storage and benthic production on continental slopes, Proc. R. Soc. B, 281, 20140669, https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2014.0669, 2014.
Valls, M., Olivar, M. P., de Puelles, M. F., Molí, B., Bernal, A., and Sweeting, C. J.: Trophic structure of mesopelagic fishes in the western Mediterranean based on stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, J. Marine Syst., 138, 160–170, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.04.007, 2014a.
Valls, M., Sweeting, C., Olivar, M., de Puelles, M. F., Pasqual, C., Polunin, N., and Quetglas, A.: Structure and dynamics of food webs in the water column on shelf and slope grounds of the western Mediterranean, J. Marine Syst., 138, 171–181, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.04.002, 2014b.
van Oevelen, D., Duineveld, G. C., Lavaleye, M. S., Kutti, T., and Soetaert, K.: Trophic structure of cold-water coral communities revealed from the analysis of tissue isotopes and fatty acid composition, Mar. Biol. Res., 14, 287–306, https://doi.org/10.1080/17451000.2017.1398404, 2018.
WoRMS Editorial Board: World Register of Marine Species, available at: http://www.marinespecies.org/, last access: February 2019.
Würzberg, L., Peters, J., and Brandt, A.: Fatty acid patterns of Southern Ocean shelf and deep sea peracarid crustaceans and a possible food source, foraminiferans, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 58, 2027–2035, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2011.05.013, 2011a.
Würzberg, L., Peters, J., Flores, H., and Brandt, A.: Demersal fishes from the Antarctic shelf and deep sea: A diet study based on fatty acid patterns and gut content analyses, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 58, 2036–2042, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2011.05.012, 2011b.
Würzberg, L., Peters, J., Schüller, M., and Brandt, A.: Diet insights of deep-sea polychaetes derived from fatty acid analyses, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 58, 153–162, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.10.014, 2011c.
Xu, J., Yang, Q., Zhang, M., Zhang, M., Xie, P., and Hansson, L-A.: Preservation effects on stable isotope ratios and consequences for the reconstruction of energetic pathways, Aquat. Ecol., 45, 483–492, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10452-011-9369-5, 2011.
This review synthesized current knowledge of deep-sea food webs and provided a preliminary analysis of global geographic patterns in the biochemical composition of deep-water organisms. Our results revealed both latitudinal and depth wise trends in the biochemical composition of deep-sea animals. In addition, the link across latitudes between surface primary production and deep-water communities was highlighted, which has important implications in the face of global climate change.
This review synthesized current knowledge of deep-sea food webs and provided a preliminary...