Articles | Volume 17, issue 4
Biogeosciences, 17, 995–1011, 2020
Biogeosciences, 17, 995–1011, 2020

Research article 25 Feb 2020

Research article | 25 Feb 2020

SiR-actin-labelled granules in foraminifera: patterns, dynamics, and hypotheses

Jan Goleń et al.

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Cited articles

Anderson, O. R.: Ultrastructure of a colonial radiolarian Collozoum inerme and a cytochemical determination of the role of its zooxanthellae, Tissue Cell, 8, 195–208,, 1976. 
Anderson, O. R.: Radiolaria, Springer Science & Business Media, New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, Tokyo, 2012. 
Anderson, O. R. and Bé, A. W.: The ultrastructure of a planktonic foraminifer, Globigerinoides sacculifer (Brady), and its symbiotic dinoflagellates, J. Foramin. Res., 6, 1–21,, 1976. 
Anderson, O. R. and Lee, J. J. (Eds.): Cytology and fine structure, in: Biology of Foraminifera, edited by: Lee, J. J. and Andreson, R., Academic Press (Harcourt Brace Jovanvich), London, San Diego, New York, Boston, Sydney, Tokyo, 7–40, 1991. 
Angell, R. W.: The test structure and composition of the foraminifer Rosalina floridana, J. Protozool., 14, 299–307,, 1967. 
Short summary
We studied the organisation and dynamics of actin in foraminifera. Actin is one of the key structural proteins in most lifeforms. Our investigations show that in foraminifera it forms small granules, around 1 µm in diameter, that display rapid movement. This granularity is unusual in comparison to other organisms. We suppose that these granules are most likely involved in the formation of all types of pseudopods responsible for movement, food capturing, biomineralisation, and other functions.
Final-revised paper