Articles | Volume 18, issue 3
Biogeosciences, 18, 831–847, 2021
© Author(s) 2021. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article 05 Feb 2021
Research article | 05 Feb 2021
Patterns of plant rehydration and growth following pulses of soil moisture availability
Andrew F. Feldman et al.
No articles found.
Ana Bastos, René Orth, Markus Reichstein, Philippe Ciais, Nicolas Viovy, Sönke Zaehle, Peter Anthoni, Almut Arneth, Pierre Gentine, Emilie Joetzjer, Sebastian Lienert, Tammas Loughran, Patrick C. McGuire, Sungmin O, Julia Pongratz, and Stephen Sitch
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 1015–1035,Short summary
Temperate biomes in Europe are not prone to recurrent dry and hot conditions in summer. However, these conditions may become more frequent in the coming decades. Because stress conditions can leave legacies for many years, this may result in reduced ecosystem resilience under recurrent stress. We assess vegetation vulnerability to the hot and dry summers in 2018 and 2019 in Europe and find the important role of inter-annual legacy effects from 2018 in modulating the impacts of the 2019 event.
Ren Wang, Pierre Gentine, Jiabo Yin, Lijuan Chen, Jianyao Chen, and Longhui Li
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 3805–3818,Short summary
Assessment of changes in the global water cycle has been a challenge. This study estimated long-term global latent heat and sensible heat fluxes for recent decades using machine learning and ground observations. The results found that the decline in evaporative fraction was typically accompanied by an increase in long-term runoff in over 27.06 % of the global land areas. The observation-driven findings emphasized that surface vegetation has great impacts in regulating water and energy cycles.
Yanlan Liu, Nataniel M. Holtzman, and Alexandra G. Konings
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 2399–2417,Short summary
The flow of water through plants varies with species-specific traits. To determine how they vary across the world, we mapped the traits that best allowed a model to match microwave satellite data. We also defined average values across a few clusters of trait behavior. These form a tractable solution for use in large-scale models. Transpiration estimates using these clusters were more accurate than if using plant functional types. We expect our maps to improve transpiration forecasts.
Caroline A. Famiglietti, T. Luke Smallman, Paul A. Levine, Sophie Flack-Prain, Gregory R. Quetin, Victoria Meyer, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Stephanie G. Stettz, Yan Yang, Damien Bonal, A. Anthony Bloom, Mathew Williams, and Alexandra G. Konings
Biogeosciences, 18, 2727–2754,Short summary
Model uncertainty dominates the spread in terrestrial carbon cycle predictions. Efforts to reduce it typically involve adding processes, thereby increasing model complexity. However, if and how model performance scales with complexity is unclear. Using a suite of 16 structurally distinct carbon cycle models, we find that increased complexity only improves skill if parameters are adequately informed. Otherwise, it can degrade skill, and an intermediate-complexity model is optimal.
Nataniel M. Holtzman, Leander D. L. Anderegg, Simon Kraatz, Alex Mavrovic, Oliver Sonnentag, Christoforos Pappas, Michael H. Cosh, Alexandre Langlois, Tarendra Lakhankar, Derek Tesser, Nicholas Steiner, Andreas Colliander, Alexandre Roy, and Alexandra G. Konings
Biogeosciences, 18, 739–753,Short summary
Microwave radiation coming from Earth's land surface is affected by both soil moisture and the water in plants that cover the soil. We measured such radiation with a sensor elevated above a forest canopy while repeatedly measuring the amount of water stored in trees at the same location. Changes in the microwave signal over time were closely related to tree water storage changes. Satellites with similar sensors could thus be used to monitor how trees in an entire region respond to drought.
Manuel Schlund, Axel Lauer, Pierre Gentine, Steven C. Sherwood, and Veronika Eyring
Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 1233–1258,Short summary
As an important measure of climate change, the Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity (ECS) describes the change in surface temperature after a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) show a wide range in ECS. Emergent constraints are a technique to reduce uncertainties in ECS with observational data. Emergent constraints developed with data from CMIP phase 5 show reduced skill and higher ECS ranges when applied to CMIP6 data.
A. Anthony Bloom, Kevin W. Bowman, Junjie Liu, Alexandra G. Konings, John R. Worden, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Victoria Meyer, John T. Reager, Helen M. Worden, Zhe Jiang, Gregory R. Quetin, T. Luke Smallman, Jean-François Exbrayat, Yi Yin, Sassan S. Saatchi, Mathew Williams, and David S. Schimel
Biogeosciences, 17, 6393–6422,Short summary
We use a model of the 2001–2015 tropical land carbon cycle, with satellite measurements of land and atmospheric carbon, to disentangle lagged and concurrent effects (due to past and concurrent meteorological events, respectively) on annual land–atmosphere carbon exchanges. The variability of lagged effects explains most 2001–2015 inter-annual carbon flux variations. We conclude that concurrent and lagged effects need to be accurately resolved to better predict the world's land carbon sink.
Karina von Schuckmann, Lijing Cheng, Matthew D. Palmer, James Hansen, Caterina Tassone, Valentin Aich, Susheel Adusumilli, Hugo Beltrami, Tim Boyer, Francisco José Cuesta-Valero, Damien Desbruyères, Catia Domingues, Almudena García-García, Pierre Gentine, John Gilson, Maximilian Gorfer, Leopold Haimberger, Masayoshi Ishii, Gregory C. Johnson, Rachel Killick, Brian A. King, Gottfried Kirchengast, Nicolas Kolodziejczyk, John Lyman, Ben Marzeion, Michael Mayer, Maeva Monier, Didier Paolo Monselesan, Sarah Purkey, Dean Roemmich, Axel Schweiger, Sonia I. Seneviratne, Andrew Shepherd, Donald A. Slater, Andrea K. Steiner, Fiammetta Straneo, Mary-Louise Timmermans, and Susan E. Wijffels
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2013–2041,Short summary
Understanding how much and where the heat is distributed in the Earth system is fundamental to understanding how this affects warming oceans, atmosphere and land, rising temperatures and sea level, and loss of grounded and floating ice, which are fundamental concerns for society. This study is a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) concerted international effort to obtain the Earth heat inventory over the period 1960–2018.
Michael W. Burnett, Gregory R. Quetin, and Alexandra G. Konings
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 4189–4211,Short summary
Water that evaporates from Africa's tropical forests provides rainfall throughout the continent. However, there are few sources of meteorological data in central Africa, so we use observations from satellites to estimate evaporation from the Congo Basin at different times of the year. We find that existing evaporation estimates in tropical Africa do not accurately capture seasonal variations in evaporation and that fluctuations in soil moisture and solar radiation drive evaporation rates.
Pierre Gentine, Adam Massmann, Benjamin R. Lintner, Sayed Hamed Alemohammad, Rong Fu, Julia K. Green, Daniel Kennedy, and Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4171–4197,Short summary
Land–atmosphere interactions are key for the exchange of water, energy, and carbon dioxide, especially in the tropics. We here review some of the recent findings on land–atmosphere interactions in the tropics and where we see potential challenges and paths forward.
Paul C. Stoy, Tarek S. El-Madany, Joshua B. Fisher, Pierre Gentine, Tobias Gerken, Stephen P. Good, Anne Klosterhalfen, Shuguang Liu, Diego G. Miralles, Oscar Perez-Priego, Angela J. Rigden, Todd H. Skaggs, Georg Wohlfahrt, Ray G. Anderson, A. Miriam J. Coenders-Gerrits, Martin Jung, Wouter H. Maes, Ivan Mammarella, Matthias Mauder, Mirco Migliavacca, Jacob A. Nelson, Rafael Poyatos, Markus Reichstein, Russell L. Scott, and Sebastian Wolf
Biogeosciences, 16, 3747–3775,Short summary
Key findings are the nearly optimal response of T to atmospheric water vapor pressure deficits across methods and scales. Additionally, the notion that T / ET intermittently approaches 1, which is a basis for many partitioning methods, does not hold for certain methods and ecosystems. To better constrain estimates of E and T from combined ET measurements, we propose a combination of independent measurement techniques to better constrain E and T at the ecosystem scale.
Alexandra G. Konings, A. Anthony Bloom, Junjie Liu, Nicholas C. Parazoo, David S. Schimel, and Kevin W. Bowman
Biogeosciences, 16, 2269–2284,Short summary
We estimate heterotrophic respiration (Rh) – the respiration from microbes in the soil – using satellite estimates of the net carbon flux and other quantities. Rh is an important carbon flux but is rarely studied by itself. Our method is the first to estimate how Rh varies in both space and time. The resulting new estimate of Rh is compared to the best currently available alternative, which is based on interpolating field measurements globally. The two estimates disagree and are both uncertain.
Wen Li Zhao, Yu Jiu Xiong, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Pierre Gentine, Baoyu Chen, and Guo Yu Qiu
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Accurate evapotranspiration (ET) estimation requires an in-depth identification of uncertainty sources. Using high density eddy covariance observations, we evaluated the effects of resistances on ET estimation and discussed possible solutions. The results show that more complex resistance parameterizations leads to more uncertainty, although prior calibration can improve the ET estimates and that a new model without resistance parameterization introduces less uncertainty into the ET estimation.
Wouter H. Maes, Pierre Gentine, Niko E. C. Verhoest, and Diego G. Miralles
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 925–948,Short summary
Potential evaporation (Ep) is the amount of water an ecosystem would consume if it were not limited by water availability or other stress factors. In this study, we compared several methods to estimate Ep using a global dataset of 107 FLUXNET sites. A simple radiation-driven method calibrated per biome consistently outperformed more complex approaches and makes a suitable tool to investigate the impact of water use and demand, drought severity and biome productivity.
Adam Massmann, Pierre Gentine, and Changjie Lin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Plants can sense increasing dryness in the air and close up the pores on their leaves, preventing water loss. However, drier air also naturally demands more water from the land surface. Here we develop a simplified theory for when land surface water loss increases (atmospheric demand dominates) or decreases (plant response dominates) in response to increased dryness in the air. This theory provides intuition for how ecosystems regulate water in response to changes in atmospheric dryness.
Tim van Emmerik, Susan Steele-Dunne, Pierre Gentine, Rafael S. Oliveira, Paulo Bittencourt, Fernanda Barros, and Nick van de Giesen
Biogeosciences, 15, 6439–6449,Short summary
Trees are very important for the water and carbon cycles. Climate and weather models often assume constant vegetation parameters because good measurements are missing. We used affordable accelerometers to measure tree sway of 19 trees in the Amazon rainforest. We show that trees respond very differently to the same weather conditions, which means that vegetation parameters are dynamic. With our measurements trees can be accounted for more realistically, improving climate and weather models.
Seyed Hamed Alemohammad, Jana Kolassa, Catherine Prigent, Filipe Aires, and Pierre Gentine
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 5341–5356,Short summary
A new machine learning algorithm is developed to downscale satellite-based soil moisture estimates from their native spatial scale of 9 km to 2.25 km.
Yao Zhang, Joanna Joiner, Seyed Hamed Alemohammad, Sha Zhou, and Pierre Gentine
Biogeosciences, 15, 5779–5800,Short summary
Using satellite reflectance measurements and a machine learning algorithm, we generated a new solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) dataset that is closely linked to plant photosynthesis. This new dataset has higher spatial and temporal resolutions, and lower uncertainty compared to the existing satellite retrievals. We also demonstrated its application in monitoring drought and improving the understanding of the SIF–photosynthesis relationship.
Wouter H. Maes, Pierre Gentine, Niko E. C. Verhoest, and Diego G. Miralles
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Potential evaporation is a key parameter in numerous models used for assessing water use and drought severity. Yet, multiple incompatible methods have been proposed, thus estimates of potential evaporation remain uncertain. Based on the largest available dataset of FLUXNET data, we identify the best method to calculate potential evaporation globally. A simple radiation-driven method calibrated per biome consistently performed best; more complex models did not perform as good.
Seyed Hamed Alemohammad, Bin Fang, Alexandra G. Konings, Filipe Aires, Julia K. Green, Jana Kolassa, Diego Miralles, Catherine Prigent, and Pierre Gentine
Biogeosciences, 14, 4101–4124,Short summary
Water, Energy, and Carbon with Artificial Neural Networks (WECANN) is a statistically based estimate of global surface latent and sensible heat fluxes and gross primary productivity. The retrieval uses six remotely sensed observations as input, including the solar-induced fluorescence. WECANN provides estimates on a 1° × 1° geographic grid and on a monthly time scale and outperforms other global products in capturing the seasonality of the fluxes when compared to eddy covariance tower data.
Carolin Klinger, Bernhard Mayer, Fabian Jakub, Tobias Zinner, Seung-Bu Park, and Pierre Gentine
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5477–5500,Short summary
Radiation is driving weather and climate. Yet, the effect of radiation on clouds is not fully understood and often only poorly represented in models. Better understanding and better parameterizations of the radiation–cloud interaction are therefore essential. Using our newly developed fast
neighboring column approximationfor 3-D thermal heating and cooling rates, we show that thermal radiation changes cloud circulation and causes organization and a deepening of the clouds.
Nir Y. Krakauer, Michael J. Puma, Benjamin I. Cook, Pierre Gentine, and Larissa Nazarenko
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 863–876,Short summary
We simulated effects of irrigation on climate with the NASA GISS global climate model. Present-day irrigation levels affected air pressures and temperatures even in non-irrigated land and ocean areas. The simulated effect was bigger and more widespread when ocean temperatures in the climate model could change, rather than being fixed. We suggest that expanding irrigation may affect global climate more than previously believed.
S. H. Alemohammad, K. A. McColl, A. G. Konings, D. Entekhabi, and A. Stoffelen
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3489–3503,Short summary
This paper introduces a new variant of the triple collocation technique with multiplicative error model. The method is applied, for the first time, to precipitation products across the central part of continental USA. Results show distinctive patterns of error variance in each product that are estimated without a priori assumption of any of the error distributions. The correlation coefficients between each product and the truth are also estimated, which provides another performance perspective.
B. R. Lintner, P. Gentine, K. L. Findell, and G. D. Salvucci
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 2119–2131,
A. Castillo, F. Castelli, and D. Entekhabi
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 1857–1869,Short summary
Using two sites with different climates, we show that a 1-pixel version of a distributed hydrologic model that uses a single soil layer with a novel dual-pore structure and employs linear parameterization for infiltration and other fluxes and has comparable performance to a benchmark detailed soil water physics solver in capturing the essential local-scale soil moisture dynamics.
B. P. Guillod, B. Orlowsky, D. Miralles, A. J. Teuling, P. D. Blanken, N. Buchmann, P. Ciais, M. Ek, K. L. Findell, P. Gentine, B. R. Lintner, R. L. Scott, B. Van den Hurk, and S. I. Seneviratne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8343–8367,
Related subject area
Biogeophysics: EcohydrologySpatially varying relevance of hydrometeorological hazards for vegetation productivity extremesTemporal dynamics of tree xylem water isotopes: in situ monitoring and modelingReviews and syntheses: Gaining insights into evapotranspiration partitioning with novel isotopic monitoring methodsWhat determines the sign of the evapotranspiration response to afforestation in European summer?Predicting evapotranspiration from drone-based thermography – a method comparison in a tropical oil palm plantationClimatic traits on daily clearness and cloudiness indicesEstimates of tree root water uptake from soil moisture profile dynamicsCauses and consequences of pronounced variation in the isotope composition of plant xylem waterRisk of crop failure due to compound dry and hot extremes estimated with nested copulasCanal blocking optimization in restoration of drained peatlandsLarge-scale biospheric drought response intensifies linearly with drought duration in arid regionsGlobal biosphere–climate interaction: a causal appraisal of observations and models over multiple temporal scalesExamining the evidence for decoupling between photosynthesis and transpiration during heat extremesIdeas and perspectives: Tracing terrestrial ecosystem water fluxes using hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes – challenges and opportunities from an interdisciplinary perspectiveDoes predictability of fluxes vary between FLUXNET sites?Community-specific hydraulic conductance potential of soil water decomposed for two Alpine grasslands by small-scale lysimetryIdeas and perspectives: how coupled is the vegetation to the boundary layer?Crop water stress maps for an entire growing season from visible and thermal UAV imageryMODIS vegetation products as proxies of photosynthetic potential along a gradient of meteorologically and biologically driven ecosystem productivityProximate and ultimate controls on carbon and nutrient dynamics of small agricultural catchmentsTranspiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm ageDoes EO NDVI seasonal metrics capture variations in species composition and biomass due to grazing in semi-arid grassland savannas?Assessing vegetation structure and ANPP dynamics in a grassland–shrubland Chihuahuan ecotone using NDVI–rainfall relationshipsOn the use of the post-closure methods uncertainty band to evaluate the performance of land surface models against eddy covariance flux dataDistribution and biophysical processes of beaded streams in Arctic permafrost landscapesContinental-scale impacts of intra-seasonal rainfall variability on simulated ecosystem responses in AfricaDew formation on the surface of biological soil crusts in central European sand ecosystemsNonlinear controls on evapotranspiration in arctic coastal wetlandsOrganic carbon efflux from a deciduous forest catchment in KoreaA simple ecohydrological model captures essentials of seasonal leaf dynamics in semi-arid tropical grasslands
Josephin Kroll, Jasper M. C. Denissen, Mirco Migliavacca, Wantong Li, Anke Hildebrandt, and Rene Orth
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Plant growth relies on having access to energy (solar radiation) and water (soil moisture). This
energy and water availability is impacted by weather extremes, like heat waves and droughts,
which will occur more frequently in response to climate change. In this context, we analyzed
global satellite data to detect in which regions extreme plant growth is controlled by energy
or water. We find that extreme plant growth is associated with temperature- or soil moisturerelated
energy and water availability is impacted by weather extremes, like heat waves and droughts,
which will occur more frequently in response to climate change. In this context, we analyzed
global satellite data to detect in which regions extreme plant growth is controlled by energy
or water. We find that extreme plant growth is associated with temperature- or soil moisturerelated
Stefan Seeger and Markus Weiler
Biogeosciences, 18, 4603–4627,Short summary
We developed a setup for fully automated in situ measurements of stable water isotopes in soil and the stems of fully grown trees. We used this setup in a 12-week field campaign to monitor the propagation of a labelling pulse from the soil up to a stem height of 8 m. We could observe trees shifting their main water uptake depths multiple times, depending on water availability. The gained knowledge about the temporal dynamics can help to improve water uptake models and future study designs.
Youri Rothfuss, Maria Quade, Nicolas Brüggemann, Alexander Graf, Harry Vereecken, and Maren Dubbert
Biogeosciences, 18, 3701–3732,Short summary
The partitioning of evapotranspiration into evaporation from soil and transpiration from plants is crucial for a wide range of parties, from farmers to policymakers. In this work, we focus on a particular partitioning method, based on the stable isotopic analysis of water. In particular, we aim at highlighting the challenges that this method is currently facing and, in light of recent methodological developments, propose ways forward for the isotopic-partitioning community.
Marcus Breil, Edouard L. Davin, and Diana Rechid
Biogeosciences, 18, 1499–1510,Short summary
The physical processes behind varying evapotranspiration rates in forests and grasslands in Europe are investigated in a regional model study with idealized afforestation scenarios. The results show that the evapotranspiration response to afforestation depends on the interplay of two counteracting factors: the transpiration facilitating characteristics of a forest and the reduced saturation deficits of forests caused by an increased surface roughness and associated lower surface temperatures.
Florian Ellsäßer, Christian Stiegler, Alexander Röll, Tania June, Hendrayanto, Alexander Knohl, and Dirk Hölscher
Biogeosciences, 18, 861–872,Short summary
Recording land surface temperatures using drones offers new options to predict evapotranspiration based on energy balance models. This study compares predictions from three energy balance models with the eddy covariance method. A model II Deming regression indicates interchangeability for latent heat flux estimates from certain modeling methods and eddy covariance measurements. This complements the available methods for evapotranspiration studies by fine grain and spatially explicit assessments.
Estefanía Muñoz and Andrés Ochoa
Biogeosciences, 18, 573–584,Short summary
We inspect for climatic traits in the shape of the PDF of the clear-day (c) and the clearness (k) indices at 37 FLUXNET sites for the SW and the PAR spectral bands. We identified three types of PDF, unimodal with low dispersion, unimodal with high dispersion and bimodal, with no difference in the PDF type between c and k at each site. We found that latitude, global climate zone and Köppen climate type have a weak relation and the Holdridge life zone a stronger relation with c and k PDF types.
Conrad Jackisch, Samuel Knoblauch, Theresa Blume, Erwin Zehe, and Sibylle K. Hassler
Biogeosciences, 17, 5787–5808,Short summary
We developed software to calculate the root water uptake (RWU) of beech tree roots from soil moisture dynamics. We present our approach and compare RWU to measured sap flow in the tree stem. The study relates to two sites that are similar in topography and weather but with contrasting soils. While sap flow is very similar between the two sites, the RWU is different. This suggests that soil characteristics have substantial influence. Our easy-to-implement RWU estimate may help further studies.
Hannes P. T. De Deurwaerder, Marco D. Visser, Matteo Detto, Pascal Boeckx, Félicien Meunier, Kathrin Kuehnhammer, Ruth-Kristina Magh, John D. Marshall, Lixin Wang, Liangju Zhao, and Hans Verbeeck
Biogeosciences, 17, 4853–4870,Short summary
The depths at which plants take up water is challenging to observe directly. To do so, scientists have relied on measuring the isotopic composition of xylem water as this provides information on the water’s source. Our work shows that this isotopic composition changes throughout the day, which complicates the interpretation of the water’s source and has been currently overlooked. We build a model to help understand the origin of these composition changes and their consequences for science.
Andreia Filipa Silva Ribeiro, Ana Russo, Célia Marina Gouveia, Patrícia Páscoa, and Jakob Zscheischler
Biogeosciences, 17, 4815–4830,Short summary
This study investigates the impacts of compound dry and hot extremes on crop yields, namely wheat and barley, over two regions in Spain dominated by rainfed agriculture. We provide estimates of the conditional probability of crop loss under compound dry and hot conditions, which could be an important tool for responsible authorities to mitigate the impacts magnified by the interactions between the different hazards.
Iñaki Urzainki, Ari Laurén, Marjo Palviainen, Kersti Haahti, Arif Budiman, Imam Basuki, Michael Netzer, and Hannu Hökkä
Biogeosciences, 17, 4769–4784,Short summary
Drained peatlands (peat areas where ditches have been excavated to enhance plant production) are one of the main sources of carbon dioxide emissions globally. Blocking these ditches by building dams is a common strategy to restore the self-sustaining peat ecosystem and mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. Where should these dams be located in order to maximize the benefits? Our work tackles this question by making use of the available data, hydrological modeling and numerical optimization methods.
René Orth, Georgia Destouni, Martin Jung, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 17, 2647–2656,Short summary
Drought duration is a key control of the large-scale biospheric drought response. Thereby, the vegetation responds linearly to drought duration at large spatial scales. The slope of the linear relationship between the vegetation drought response and drought duration is steeper in drier climates.
Jeroen Claessen, Annalisa Molini, Brecht Martens, Matteo Detto, Matthias Demuzere, and Diego G. Miralles
Biogeosciences, 16, 4851–4874,Short summary
Bidirectional interactions between vegetation and climate are unraveled over short (monthly) and long (inter-annual) temporal scales. Analyses use a novel causal inference method based on wavelet theory. The performance of climate models at representing these interactions is benchmarked against satellite data. Climate models can reproduce the overall climate controls on vegetation at all temporal scales, while their performance at representing biophysical feedbacks on climate is less adequate.
Martin G. De Kauwe, Belinda E. Medlyn, Andrew J. Pitman, John E. Drake, Anna Ukkola, Anne Griebel, Elise Pendall, Suzanne Prober, and Michael Roderick
Biogeosciences, 16, 903–916,Short summary
Recent experimental evidence suggests that during heat extremes, trees may reduce photosynthesis to near zero but increase transpiration. Using eddy covariance data and examining the 3 days leading up to a temperature extreme, we found evidence of reduced photosynthesis and sustained or increased latent heat fluxes at Australian wooded flux sites. However, when focusing on heatwaves, we were unable to disentangle photosynthetic decoupling from the effect of increasing vapour pressure deficit.
Daniele Penna, Luisa Hopp, Francesca Scandellari, Scott T. Allen, Paolo Benettin, Matthias Beyer, Josie Geris, Julian Klaus, John D. Marshall, Luitgard Schwendenmann, Till H. M. Volkmann, Jana von Freyberg, Anam Amin, Natalie Ceperley, Michael Engel, Jay Frentress, Yamuna Giambastiani, Jeff J. McDonnell, Giulia Zuecco, Pilar Llorens, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Todd E. Dawson, and James W. Kirchner
Biogeosciences, 15, 6399–6415,Short summary
Understanding how water flows through ecosystems is needed to provide society and policymakers with the scientific background to manage water resources sustainably. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water are a powerful tool for tracking water fluxes, although the heterogeneity of natural systems and practical methodological issues still limit their full application. Here, we examine the challenges in this research field and highlight new perspectives based on interdisciplinary research.
Ned Haughton, Gab Abramowitz, Martin G. De Kauwe, and Andy J. Pitman
Biogeosciences, 15, 4495–4513,Short summary
This project explores predictability in energy, water, and carbon fluxes in the free-use Tier 1 of the FLUXNET 2015 dataset using a uniqueness metric based on comparison of locally and globally trained models. While there is broad spread in predictability between sites, we found strikingly few strong patterns. Nevertheless, these results can contribute to the standardisation of site selection for land surface model evaluation and help pinpoint regions that are ripe for further FLUXNET research.
Georg Frenck, Georg Leitinger, Nikolaus Obojes, Magdalena Hofmann, Christian Newesely, Mario Deutschmann, Ulrike Tappeiner, and Erich Tasser
Biogeosciences, 15, 1065–1078,Short summary
For central Europe in addition to rising temperatures, an increasing variability in precipitation is predicted. In a replicated mesocosm experiment we compared evapotranspiration and the biomass productivity of two differently drought-adapted vegetation communities during two irrigation regimes (with and without drought periods). Significant differences between the different communities were found in the response to variations in the water supply and biomass production.
Martin G. De Kauwe, Belinda E. Medlyn, Jürgen Knauer, and Christopher A. Williams
Biogeosciences, 14, 4435–4453,Short summary
Understanding the sensitivity of transpiration to stomatal conductance is critical to simulating the water cycle. This sensitivity is a function of the degree of coupling between the vegetation and the atmosphere. We combined an extensive literature summary with estimates of coupling derived from FLUXNET data. We found notable departures from the values previously reported. These data form a model benchmarking metric to test existing coupling assumptions.
Helene Hoffmann, Rasmus Jensen, Anton Thomsen, Hector Nieto, Jesper Rasmussen, and Thomas Friborg
Biogeosciences, 13, 6545–6563,Short summary
This study investigates whether the UAV (drone) based WDI can determine crop water stress from fields with open canopies (land surface consisting of both soil and canopy) and from fields where canopies are starting to senesce. This utility could solve issues that arise when applying the commonly used CWSI stress index. The WDI succeeded in providing accurate, high-resolution estimates of crop water stress at different growth stages of barley.
Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Alfredo Huete, Kevin Davies, James Cleverly, Jason Beringer, Derek Eamus, Eva van Gorsel, Lindsay B. Hutley, and Wayne S. Meyer
Biogeosciences, 13, 5587–5608,Short summary
We re-evaluated the connection between satellite greenness products and C-flux tower data in four Australian ecosystems. We identify key mechanisms driving the carbon cycle, and provide an ecological basis for the interpretation of vegetation indices. We found relationships between productivity and greenness to be non-significant in meteorologically driven evergreen forests and sites where climate and vegetation phenology were asynchronous, and highly correlated in phenology-driven ecosystems.
Zahra Thomas, Benjamin W. Abbott, Olivier Troccaz, Jacques Baudry, and Gilles Pinay
Biogeosciences, 13, 1863–1875,Short summary
Direct human impact on a catchment (fertilizer input, soil disturbance, urbanization) is asymmetrically linked with inherent catchment properties (geology, soil, topography), which together determine catchment vulnerability to human activity. To quantify the influence of physical, hydrologic, and anthropogenic controls on surface water quality, we used a 5-year high-frequency water chemistry data set from three contrasting headwater catchments in western France.
A. Röll, F. Niu, A. Meijide, A. Hardanto, Hendrayanto, A. Knohl, and D. Hölscher
Biogeosciences, 12, 5619–5633,Short summary
The study provides first insight into eco-hydrological consequences of the continuing oil palm expansion in the tropics. Stand transpiration rates of some studied oil palm stands compared to or even exceeded values reported for tropical forests, indicating high water use of oil palms under certain conditions. Oil palm landscapes show some spatial variations in (evapo)transpiration rates, e.g. due to varying plantation age, but the day-to-day variability of oil palm transpiration is rather low.
J. L. Olsen, S. Miehe, P. Ceccato, and R. Fensholt
Biogeosciences, 12, 4407–4419,Short summary
Limitations of satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for monitoring vegetation trends are investigated using observations from the Widou Thiengoly test site in northern Senegal. NDVI do not reflect the large differences found in biomass production and species composition between grazed and ungrazed plots. This is problematic for vegetation trend analysis in the context of drastically increasing numbers of Sahelian livestock in recent decades.
M. Moreno-de las Heras, R. Díaz-Sierra, L. Turnbull, and J. Wainwright
Biogeosciences, 12, 2907–2925,Short summary
Exploration of NDVI-rainfall relationships provided ready biophysically based criteria to study the spatial distribution and dynamics of ANPP for herbaceous and shrub vegetation across a grassland-shrubland Chihuahuan ecotone (Sevilleta NWR, New Mexico). Overall our results suggest that shrub encroachment has not been particularly active for 2000-2013 in the area, although future reductions in summer precipitation and/or increases in winter rainfall may intensify the shrub-encroachment process.
J. Ingwersen, K. Imukova, P. Högy, and T. Streck
Biogeosciences, 12, 2311–2326,Short summary
The energy balance of eddy covariance (EC) flux data is normally not closed. Therefore, EC flux data are usually post-closed, i.e. the measured turbulent fluxes are adjusted so as to close the energy balance. We propose to use in model evaluation the post-closure method uncertainty band (PUB) to account for the uncertainty in EC data originating from lacking energy balance closure. Working with only a single post-closing method might result in severe misinterpretations in model-data comparison.
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Biogeosciences, 12, 29–47,Short summary
Beaded streams have deep elliptical pools connected by narrow runs that we show are common landforms in the continuous permafrost zone. These fluvial systems often initiate from lakes and occur predictably in headwater portions of moderately sloping watersheds. Snow capture along stream courses reduces ice thickness allowing thawed sediment to persist under most pools. Interpool thermal variability and hydrologic regimes provide important aquatic habitat and connectivity in Arctic landscapes.
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Biogeosciences, 11, 6939–6954,Short summary
Climate change is expected to modify the way that rainfall arrives, namely the frequency and intensity of rainfall events and rainy season length. Yet, the quantification of the impact of these possible rainfall changes across large biomes is lacking. Our study fills this gap by developing a new modeling framework, applying it to continental Africa. We show that African ecosystems are highly sensitive to these rainfall variabilities, with esp. large sensitivity to changes in rainy season length.
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We quantify global plant water uptake durations after rainfall using satellite-based plant water content measurements. In wetter regions, plant water uptake occurs within a day due to rapid coupling between soil and plant water content. Drylands show multi-day plant water uptake after rain pulses, providing widespread evidence for slow rehydration responses and pulse-driven growth responses. Our results suggest that drylands are sensitive to projected shifts in rainfall intensity and frequency.
We quantify global plant water uptake durations after rainfall using satellite-based plant water...