Articles | Volume 8, issue 5
Research article 13 May 2011
Research article | 13 May 2011
Drought-associated changes in climate and their relevance for ecosystem experiments and models
H. J. De Boeck and H. Verbeeck
Related subject area
Earth System Science/Response to Global Change: Climate ChangeTiming of drought in the growing season and strong legacy effects determine the annual productivity of temperate grasses in a changing climateContrasting responses of woody and herbaceous vegetation to altered rainfall characteristics in the SahelReduced growth with increased quotas of particulate organic and inorganic carbon in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi under future ocean climate change conditionsOcean-related global change alters lipid biomarker production in common marine phytoplanktonMulti-decadal changes in structural complexity following mass coral mortality on a Caribbean reefStable isotopes track the ecological and biogeochemical legacy of mass mangrove forest dieback in the Gulf of Carpentaria, AustraliaGlobal climate response to idealized deforestation in CMIP6 modelsTechnical note: Interpreting pH changesPhysiological responses of Skeletonema costatum to the interactions of seawater acidification and combination of photoperiod and temperatureCarbon–concentration and carbon–climate feedbacks in CMIP6 models and their comparison to CMIP5 modelsEcosystem physio-phenology revealed using circular statisticsUnderstanding the uncertainty in global forest carbon turnoverCharacterizing deepwater oxygen variability and seafloor community responses using a novel autonomous landerPhysical and biogeochemical impacts of RCP8.5 scenario in the Peru upwelling systemIs there warming in the pipeline? A multi-model analysis of the Zero Emissions Commitment from CO2Foraminiferal holobiont thermal tolerance under future warming – roommate problems or successful collaboration?Impacts of enhanced weathering on biomass production for negative emission technologies and soil hydrologyPotential predictability of marine ecosystem driversIs deoxygenation detectable before warming in the thermocline?Spatio-temporal variations and uncertainty in land surface modelling for high latitudes: univariate response analysisMicrostructure and composition of marine aggregates as co-determinants for vertical particulate organic carbon transfer in the global oceanQuantifying impacts of the 2018 drought on European ecosystems in comparison to 2003Reviews and syntheses: How do abiotic and biotic processes respond to climatic variations in the Nam Co catchment (Tibetan Plateau)?Simulation of factors affecting Emiliania huxleyi blooms in Arctic and sub-Arctic seas by CMIP5 climate models: model validation and selectionParticulate trace metal dynamics in response to increased CO2 and iron availability in a coastal mesocosm experimentZooplankton diel vertical migration and downward C flux into the oxygen minimum zone in the highly productive upwelling region off northern ChileA meta-analysis of microcosm experiments shows that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in polar waters is insensitive to ocean acidificationForest aboveground biomass stock and resilience in a tropical landscape of ThailandEnhanced Weathering and related element fluxes – a cropland mesocosm approachTrees do not always act their age: size-deterministic tree ring standardization for long-term trend estimation in shade-tolerant treesRapid environmental responses to climate-induced hydrographic changes in the Baltic Sea entranceTrend analysis of the airborne fraction and sink rate of anthropogenically released CO2Dissolved organic nutrients dominate melting surface ice of the Dark Zone (Greenland Ice Sheet)Ideas and perspectives: Synergies from co-deployment of negative emission technologiesAssessment of time of emergence of anthropogenic deoxygenation and warming: insights from a CESM simulation from 850 to 2100 CEDispersal distances and migration rates at the arctic treeline in Siberia – a genetic and simulation-based studySimulating growth-based harvest adaptive to future climate changeMonitoring changes in forestry and seasonal snow using surface albedo during 1982–2016 as an indicatorOcean acidification reduces hardness and stiffness of the Portuguese oyster shell with impaired microstructure: a hierarchical analysisLegacies of past land use have a stronger effect on forest carbon exchange than future climate change in a temperate forest landscapeReviews and syntheses: Changing ecosystem influences on soil thermal regimes in northern high-latitude permafrost regionsVariable metabolic responses of Skagerrak invertebrates to low O2 and high CO2 scenariosOcean acidification increases the sensitivity of and variability in physiological responses of an intertidal limpet to thermal stressComparing soil carbon loss through respiration and leaching under extreme precipitation events in arid and semiarid grasslandsIncreasing coastal slump activity impacts the release of sediment and organic carbon into the Arctic OceanThe pyrogeography of eastern boreal Canada from 1901 to 2012 simulated with the LPJ-LMfire modelSimultaneous shifts in elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids of Emiliania huxleyi in response to environmental changesImpacts of the seasonal distribution of rainfall on vegetation productivity across the SahelImpact of diurnal temperature fluctuations on larval settlement and growth of the reef coral Pocillopora damicornisClimate engineering and the ocean: effects on biogeochemistry and primary production
Claudia Hahn, Andreas Lüscher, Sara Ernst-Hasler, Matthias Suter, and Ansgar Kahmen
Biogeosciences, 18, 585–604,Short summary
While existing studies focus on the immediate effects of drought events on grassland productivity, long-term effects are mostly neglected. But, to conclude universal outcomes, studies must consider comprehensive ecosystem mechanisms. In our study, we found that the resistance of growth rates to drought in grasses varies across seasons, and positive legacy effects of drought indicate a high resilience. The high resilience compensates for immediate drought effects on grasses to a large extent.
Wim Verbruggen, Guy Schurgers, Stéphanie Horion, Jonas Ardö, Paulo N. Bernardino, Bernard Cappelaere, Jérôme Demarty, Rasmus Fensholt, Laurent Kergoat, Thomas Sibret, Torbern Tagesson, and Hans Verbeeck
Biogeosciences, 18, 77–93,Short summary
A large part of Earth's land surface is covered by dryland ecosystems, which are subject to climate extremes that are projected to increase under future climate scenarios. By using a mathematical vegetation model, we studied the impact of single years of extreme rainfall on the vegetation in the Sahel. We found a contrasting response of grasses and trees to these extremes, strongly dependent on the way precipitation is spread over the rainy season, as well as a long-term impact on CO2 uptake.
Yong Zhang, Sinéad Collins, and Kunshan Gao
Biogeosciences, 17, 6357–6375,Short summary
Our results show that ocean acidification, warming, increased light exposure and reduced nutrient availability significantly reduce the growth rate but increase particulate organic and inorganic carbon in cells in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, indicating biogeochemical consequences of future ocean changes on the calcifying microalga. Concurrent changes in nutrient concentrations and pCO2 levels predominantly affected E. huxleyi growth, photosynthetic carbon fixation and calcification.
Rong Bi, Stefanie M. H. Ismar-Rebitz, Ulrich Sommer, Hailong Zhang, and Meixun Zhao
Biogeosciences, 17, 6287–6307,Short summary
Lipids provide crucial insight into the trajectory of ecological functioning in changing environments. We experimentally explore responses of lipid biomarker production in phytoplankton to projected changes in temperature, nutrients and pCO2. Differential responses of lipid biomarkers indicate rearrangements of cellular carbon pools under future ocean scenarios. Such variations in lipid biomarker production would have important impacts on marine ecological functions and biogeochemical cycles.
George Roff, Jennifer Joseph, and Peter J. Mumby
Biogeosciences, 17, 5909–5918,Short summary
In recent decades, extensive mortality of reef-building corals throughout the Caribbean region has led to the erosion of reef frameworks and declines in biodiversity. Using field observations, models, and high-precision U–Th dating, we quantified changes in the structural complexity of coral reef frameworks over the past 2 decades. Structural complexity was stable at reef scales, yet bioerosion led to declines in small-scale microhabitat complexity with cascading effects on cryptic fauna.
Yota Harada, Rod M. Connolly, Brian Fry, Damien T. Maher, James Z. Sippo, Luke C. Jeffrey, Adam J. Bourke, and Shing Yip Lee
Biogeosciences, 17, 5599–5613,Short summary
In 2015–2016, an extensive area of mangroves along ~ 1000 km of coastline in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, experienced dieback as a result of a climatic extreme event that included drought conditions and low sea levels. Multiannual field campaigns conducted from 2016 to 2018 show substantial recovery of the mangrove vegetation. However, stable isotopes suggest long-lasting changes in carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling following the dieback.
Lena R. Boysen, Victor Brovkin, Julia Pongratz, David M. Lawrence, Peter Lawrence, Nicolas Vuichard, Philippe Peylin, Spencer Liddicoat, Tomohiro Hajima, Yanwu Zhang, Matthias Rocher, Christine Delire, Roland Séférian, Vivek K. Arora, Lars Nieradzik, Peter Anthoni, Wim Thiery, Marysa M. Laguë, Deborah Lawrence, and Min-Hui Lo
Biogeosciences, 17, 5615–5638,Short summary
We find a biogeophysically induced global cooling with strong carbon losses in a 20 million square kilometre idealized deforestation experiment performed by nine CMIP6 Earth system models. It takes many decades for the temperature signal to emerge, with non-local effects playing an important role. Despite a consistent experimental setup, models diverge substantially in their climate responses. This study offers unprecedented insights for understanding land use change effects in CMIP6 models.
Andrea J. Fassbender, James C. Orr, and Andrew G. Dickson
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
A decline in upper ocean pH with time is typically ascribed to ocean acidification. A more quantitative interpretation is often confused by failing to recognize the implications of pH being a logarithmic transform of hydrogen ion concentration, rather than an absolute measure. This can lead to an unwitting misinterpretation of pH data. We provide three real-world examples illustrating this and recommend the reporting of both hydrogen ion concentration and pH in studies of ocean chemical change.
Hangxiao Li, Tianpeng Xu, Jing Ma, Futian Li, and Juntian Xu
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Few studies investigated interactions of ocean acidification and seasonal changes in temperature and daylength on marine diatoms. We cultured a marine diatom under two CO2 levels and three combinations of temperature and daylength, simulating different seasons, to investigate combined effects of these factors. Results showed acidification had contrasting effects under different combinations, indicating that future ocean may show differential effects on diatoms in different cluster of factors.
Vivek K. Arora, Anna Katavouta, Richard G. Williams, Chris D. Jones, Victor Brovkin, Pierre Friedlingstein, Jörg Schwinger, Laurent Bopp, Olivier Boucher, Patricia Cadule, Matthew A. Chamberlain, James R. Christian, Christine Delire, Rosie A. Fisher, Tomohiro Hajima, Tatiana Ilyina, Emilie Joetzjer, Michio Kawamiya, Charles D. Koven, John P. Krasting, Rachel M. Law, David M. Lawrence, Andrew Lenton, Keith Lindsay, Julia Pongratz, Thomas Raddatz, Roland Séférian, Kaoru Tachiiri, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Andy Wiltshire, Tongwen Wu, and Tilo Ziehn
Biogeosciences, 17, 4173–4222,Short summary
Since the preindustrial period, land and ocean have taken up about half of the carbon emitted into the atmosphere by humans. Comparison of different earth system models with the carbon cycle allows us to assess how carbon uptake by land and ocean differs among models. This yields an estimate of uncertainty in our understanding of how land and ocean respond to increasing atmospheric CO2. This paper summarizes results from two such model intercomparison projects that use an idealized scenario.
Daniel E. Pabon-Moreno, Talie Musavi, Mirco Migliavacca, Markus Reichstein, Christine Römermann, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 17, 3991–4006,Short summary
Ecosystem CO2 uptake changes in time depending on climate conditions. In this study, we analyze how different climate variables affect the timing when CO2 uptake is at a maximum (DOYGPPmax). We found that the joint effects of radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit are the most relevant controlling factors of DOYGPPmax and that if they increase, DOYGPPmax will happen earlier. These results help us to better understand how CO2 uptake could be affected by climate change.
Thomas A. M. Pugh, Tim Rademacher, Sarah L. Shafer, Jörg Steinkamp, Jonathan Barichivich, Brian Beckage, Vanessa Haverd, Anna Harper, Jens Heinke, Kazuya Nishina, Anja Rammig, Hisashi Sato, Almut Arneth, Stijn Hantson, Thomas Hickler, Markus Kautz, Benjamin Quesada, Benjamin Smith, and Kirsten Thonicke
Biogeosciences, 17, 3961–3989,Short summary
The length of time that carbon remains in forest biomass is one of the largest uncertainties in the global carbon cycle. Estimates from six contemporary models found this time to range from 12.2 to 23.5 years for the global mean for 1985–2014. Future projections do not give consistent results, but 13 model-based hypotheses are identified, along with recommendations for pragmatic steps to test them using existing and novel observations, which would help to reduce large current uncertainty.
Natalya D. Gallo, Kevin Hardy, Nicholas C. Wegner, Ashley Nicoll, Haleigh Yang, and Lisa A. Levin
Biogeosciences, 17, 3943–3960,Short summary
Environmental exposure histories can affect organismal sensitivity to climate change and ocean deoxygenation. The natural variability of environmental conditions for nearshore deep-sea habitats is poorly known due to technological challenges. We develop and test a novel, autonomous, hand-deployable lander outfitted with environmental sensors and a camera system and use it to characterize high-frequency oxygen, temperature, and pH variability at 100–400 m as well as seafloor community responses.
Vincent Echevin, Manon Gévaudan, Dante Espinoza-Morriberón, Jorge Tam, Olivier Aumont, Dimitri Gutierrez, and François Colas
Biogeosciences, 17, 3317–3341,Short summary
The coasts of Peru encompass the richest fisheries in the entire ocean. It is therefore very important for this country to understand how the nearshore marine ecosystem may evolve under climate change. Fine-scale numerical models are very useful because they can represent precisely the evolution of key parameters such as temperature, water oxygenation, and plankton biomass. Here we study the evolution of the Peruvian marine ecosystem in the 21st century under the worst-case climate scenario.
Andrew H. MacDougall, Thomas L. Frölicher, Chris D. Jones, Joeri Rogelj, H. Damon Matthews, Kirsten Zickfeld, Vivek K. Arora, Noah J. Barrett, Victor Brovkin, Friedrich A. Burger, Micheal Eby, Alexey V. Eliseev, Tomohiro Hajima, Philip B. Holden, Aurich Jeltsch-Thömmes, Charles Koven, Nadine Mengis, Laurie Menviel, Martine Michou, Igor I. Mokhov, Akira Oka, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Gary Shaffer, Andrei Sokolov, Kaoru Tachiiri, Jerry Tjiputra, Andrew Wiltshire, and Tilo Ziehn
Biogeosciences, 17, 2987–3016,Short summary
The Zero Emissions Commitment (ZEC) is the change in global temperature expected to occur following the complete cessation of CO2 emissions. Here we use 18 climate models to assess the value of ZEC. For our experiment we find that ZEC 50 years after emissions cease is between −0.36 to +0.29 °C. The most likely value of ZEC is assessed to be close to zero. However, substantial continued warming for decades or centuries following cessation of CO2 emission cannot be ruled out.
Doron Pinko, Sigal Abramovich, and Danna Titelboim
Biogeosciences, 17, 2341–2348,Short summary
Future warming threatens many marine organisms; among these are large benthic foraminifera. These symbiont-bearing protists are major carbonate producers and ecosystem engineers. To assess the relative contribution of host and symbiont algae to the holobiont thermal tolerance, we evaluated the calcification rate and photosynthetic activity under future warming scenarios.
Wagner de Oliveira Garcia, Thorben Amann, Jens Hartmann, Kristine Karstens, Alexander Popp, Lena R. Boysen, Pete Smith, and Daniel Goll
Biogeosciences, 17, 2107–2133,Short summary
Biomass-based terrestrial negative emission technologies (tNETS) have high potential to sequester CO2. Many CO2 uptake estimates do not include the effect of nutrient deficiencies in soils on biomass production. We show that nutrients can be partly resupplied by enhanced weathering (EW) rock powder application, increasing the effectiveness of tNETs. Depending on the deployed amounts of rock powder, EW could also improve soil hydrology, adding a new dimension to the coupling of tNETs with EW.
Thomas L. Frölicher, Luca Ramseyer, Christoph C. Raible, Keith B. Rodgers, and John Dunne
Biogeosciences, 17, 2061–2083,Short summary
Climate variations can have profound impacts on marine ecosystems. Here we show that on global scales marine ecosystem drivers such as temperature, pH, O2 and NPP are potentially predictable 3 (at the surface) and more than 10 years (subsurface) in advance. However, there are distinct regional differences in the potential predictability of these drivers. Our study suggests that physical–biogeochemical forecast systems have considerable potential for use in marine resource management.
Angélique Hameau, Thomas L. Frölicher, Juliette Mignot, and Fortunat Joos
Biogeosciences, 17, 1877–1895,Short summary
Ocean deoxygenation and warming are observed and projected to intensify under continued greenhouse gas emissions. Whereas temperature is considered the main climate change indicator, we show that in certain regions, thermocline doxygenation may be detectable before warming.
Didier G. Leibovici, Shaun Quegan, Edward Comyn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Maria Val Martin, Mathieu Guimberteau, Arsène Druel, Dan Zhu, and Philippe Ciais
Biogeosciences, 17, 1821–1844,Short summary
Analysing the impact of environmental changes due to climate change, e.g. geographical spread of climate-sensitive infections (CSIs) and agriculture crop modelling, may require land surface modelling (LSM) to predict future land surface conditions. There are multiple LSMs to choose from. The paper proposes a multivariate spatio-temporal data science method to understand the inherent uncertainties in four LSMs and the variations between them in Nordic areas for the net primary production.
Joeran Maerz, Katharina D. Six, Irene Stemmler, Soeren Ahmerkamp, and Tatiana Ilyina
Biogeosciences, 17, 1765–1803,Short summary
Marine micro-algae bind carbon dioxide, CO2. During their decay, snowflake-like aggregates form that sink, remineralize and transport organically bound CO2 to depth; this is referred to as the biological carbon pump. In our model study, we elucidate how variable aggregate composition impacts the global pattern of vertical carbon fluxes. Our mechanistic model approach advances the representation of the global biological carbon pump and promotes a more realistic projection under climate change.
Allan Buras, Anja Rammig, and Christian S. Zang
Biogeosciences, 17, 1655–1672,Short summary
This study compares the climatic conditions and ecosystem response of the extreme European drought of 2018 with the previous extreme drought of 2003. Using gridded climate data and satellite-based remote sensing information, our analyses qualify 2018 as the new European record drought with wide-ranging negative impacts on European ecosystems. Given the observation of forest-legacy effects in 2019 we call for Europe-wide forest monitoring to assess forest vulnerability to climate change.
Sten Anslan, Mina Azizi Rad, Johannes Buckel, Paula Echeverria Galindo, Jinlei Kai, Wengang Kang, Laura Keys, Philipp Maurischat, Felix Nieberding, Eike Reinosch, Handuo Tang, Tuong Vi Tran, Yuyang Wang, and Antje Schwalb
Biogeosciences, 17, 1261–1279,Short summary
Due to the high elevation, the Tibetan Plateau (TP) is affected more strongly than the global average by climate warming. As a result of increasing air temperature, several environmental processes have accelerated, such as melting glaciers, thawing permafrost and grassland degradation. We review several modern and paleoenvironmental changes forced by climate warming in the lake system of Nam Co to shape our understanding of global warming effects on current and future geobiodiversity.
Natalia Gnatiuk, Iuliia Radchenko, Richard Davy, Evgeny Morozov, and Leonid Bobylev
Biogeosciences, 17, 1199–1212,Short summary
We analysed the ability of 34 climate models to reproduce main factors affecting the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi blooms in six Arctic and sub-Arctic seas. Furthermore, we proposed a procedure of ranking and selecting these models based on the model’s skill in reproducing 10 important oceanographic, meteorological, and biochemical variables in comparison with observation data and demonstrated that the proposed methodology shows a better result than commonly used all-model averaging.
M. Rosario Lorenzo, María Segovia, Jay T. Cullen, and María T. Maldonado
Biogeosciences, 17, 757–770,Short summary
Pritha Tutasi and Ruben Escribano
Biogeosciences, 17, 455–473,Short summary
Vertical migration of zooplankton has rarely been studied under the effect of a variable community structure, which depending on the behavior and size of its groups can strongly alter the magnitude of C being actively taken to depth by migrants. Here, we address this issue in a highly productive upwelling system, where a high amount of zooplankton can daily move below the mixed layer despite presence of an extremely low–oxygen water and so contribute to a significant export of C to depth.
Frances E. Hopkins, Philip D. Nightingale, John A. Stephens, C. Mark Moore, Sophie Richier, Gemma L. Cripps, and Stephen D. Archer
Biogeosciences, 17, 163–186,Short summary
We investigated the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on the production of climate active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS) in polar waters. We found that polar DMS production was unaffected by OA – in contrast to temperate waters, where large increases in DMS occurred. The regional differences in DMS response may reflect natural variability in community adaptation to ambient carbonate chemistry and should be taken into account in predicting the influence of future DMS emissions on Earth's climate.
Nidhi Jha, Nitin Kumar Tripathi, Wirong Chanthorn, Warren Brockelman, Anuttara Nathalang, Raphaël Pélissier, Siriruk Pimmasarn, Pierre Ploton, Nophea Sasaki, Salvatore G. P. Virdis, and Maxime Réjou-Méchain
Biogeosciences, 17, 121–134,Short summary
Carbon stocks and dynamics are both uncertain in tropical forests, especially in Asia. We here quantify the carbon stock and recovery rate of a Thai landscape using airborne lidar and four decades of Landsat data. We show that the landscape has a high carbon stock despite its disturbance history and that secondary forests are accumulating carbon at high rate. Our study shows the potential synergy of remote sensing and field data to characterize the carbon dynamics of tropical forests.
Thorben Amann, Jens Hartmann, Eric Struyf, Wagner de Oliveira Garcia, Elke K. Fischer, Ivan Janssens, Patrick Meire, and Jonas Schoelynck
Biogeosciences, 17, 103–119,Short summary
Weathering is a major control on atmospheric CO2 at geologic timescales. Enhancement of this process can be used to actively remove CO2 from the atmosphere. Field results are still scarce and with this experiment we try to add some near-natural insights into dissolution processes. Results show CO2 sequestration potentials but also highlight the strong variability of outcomes that can be expected in natural environments. Such experiments are of the utmost importance to identify key processes.
Rachel Dietrich and Madhur Anand
Biogeosciences, 16, 4815–4827,Short summary
In shade-tolerant tree species, growth is not strictly related to tree age. In this study we show that novel tree ring standardization models that incorporate tree size in the year of ring formation produce more accurate chronologies than those produced by contemporary, age-based standardization models. These findings are important for accurate and reliable long-term trend reconstruction in tree ring studies in all species but are especially so for shade-tolerant species.
Laurie M. Charrieau, Karl Ljung, Frederik Schenk, Ute Daewel, Emma Kritzberg, and Helena L. Filipsson
Biogeosciences, 16, 3835–3852,Short summary
We reconstructed environmental changes in the Öresund during the last 200 years, using foraminifera (microfossils), sediment, and climate data. Five zones were identified, reflecting oxygen, salinity, food content, and pollution levels for each period. The largest changes occurred ~ 1950, towards stronger currents. The foraminifera responded quickly (< 10 years) to the changes. Moreover, they did not rebound when the system returned to the previous pattern, but displayed a new equilibrium state.
Mikkel Bennedsen, Eric Hillebrand, and Siem Jan Koopman
Biogeosciences, 16, 3651–3663,Short summary
Is the fraction of anthropogenically released CO2 that remains in the atmosphere increasing? Is the rate at which the ocean and land sinks take up CO2 from the atmosphere decreasing? We analyse these questions by means of a statistical dynamic multivariate model from which we estimate the unobserved trend processes together with the parameters that govern them. We find no statistical evidence of an increasing airborne fraction, but we do find statistical evidence of a decreasing sink rate.
Alexandra T. Holland, Christopher J. Williamson, Fotis Sgouridis, Andrew J. Tedstone, Jenine McCutcheon, Joseph M. Cook, Ewa Poniecka, Marian L. Yallop, Martyn Tranter, Alexandre M. Anesio, and The Black & Bloom Group
Biogeosciences, 16, 3283–3296,Short summary
This paper provides a preliminary data set for dissolved nutrient abundance in the Dark Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet. This 15-year marked darkening has since been attributed to glacier algae blooms, yet has not been accounted for in current melt rate models. We conclude that the dissolved organic phase dominates surface ice environments and that factors other than macronutrient limitation control the extent and magnitude of the glacier algae blooms.
Thorben Amann and Jens Hartmann
Biogeosciences, 16, 2949–2960,Short summary
With the recent publication of the IPCC special report on the 1.5 °C target and increased attention on carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies, we think it is time to advance from the current way of looking at specific strategies to a more holistic CDR perspective, since multiple "side effects" may lead to additional CO2 uptake into different carbon pools. This paper explores potential co-benefits between terrestrial CDR strategies to facilitate a maximum CO2 sequestration effect.
Angélique Hameau, Juliette Mignot, and Fortunat Joos
Biogeosciences, 16, 1755–1780,Short summary
The observed decrease of oxygen and warming in the ocean may adversely affect marine ecosystems and their services. We analyse results from an Earth system model for the last millennium and the 21st century. We find changes in temperature and oxygen due to fossil fuel burning and other human activities to exceed natural variations in many ocean regions already today. Natural variability is biased low in earlier studies neglecting forcing from past volcanic eruptions and solar change.
Stefan Kruse, Alexander Gerdes, Nadja J. Kath, Laura S. Epp, Kathleen R. Stoof-Leichsenring, Luidmila A. Pestryakova, and Ulrike Herzschuh
Biogeosciences, 16, 1211–1224,Short summary
How fast might the arctic treeline in northern central Siberia migrate northwards under current global warming? To answer this, we newly parameterized dispersal processes in the individual-based and spatially explicit model LAVESI-WIND based on parentage analysis. Simulation results show that northernmost open forest stands are migrating at an unexpectedly slow rate into tundra. We conclude that the treeline currently lags behind the strong warming and will remain slow in the upcoming decades.
Rasoul Yousefpour, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, and Julia Pongratz
Biogeosciences, 16, 241–254,Short summary
Global forest resources are accounted for to establish their potential to sink carbon in woody biomass. Climate prediction models realize the effects of future global forest utilization rates, defined by population demand and its evolution over time. However, forest management approaches consider the supply side to realize a sustainable forest carbon stock and adapt the harvest rates to novel climate conditions. This study simulates such an adaptive sustained yield approach.
Terhikki Manninen, Tuula Aalto, Tiina Markkanen, Mikko Peltoniemi, Kristin Böttcher, Sari Metsämäki, Kati Anttila, Pentti Pirinen, Antti Leppänen, and Ali Nadir Arslan
Biogeosciences, 16, 223–240,Short summary
The surface albedo time series CLARA-A2 SAL was used to study trends in the timing of the melting season of snow and preceding albedo value in Finland during 1982–2016 to assess climate change. The results were in line with operational snow depth data, JSBACH land ecosystem model, SYKE fractional snow cover and greening-up data. In the north a clear trend to earlier snowmelt onset, increasing melting season length, and decrease in pre-melt albedo (related to increased stem volume) was observed.
Yuan Meng, Zhenbin Guo, Susan C. Fitzer, Abhishek Upadhyay, Vera B. S. Chan, Chaoyi Li, Maggie Cusack, Haimin Yao, Kelvin W. K. Yeung, and Vengatesen Thiyagarajan
Biogeosciences, 15, 6833–6846,Short summary
The paper revealed a potential structural deterioration induced by ocean acidification on the shells of an ecologically and economically important oyster, which is critical to forecasting the survival and production of edible oysters in the future ocean. Importantly, this is a multidisciplinary collaboration including aquaculture, crystallography, medical and materials science, which could be applied to other biomineral systems to hierarchically analyse the impact of ocean acidification.
Dominik Thom, Werner Rammer, Rita Garstenauer, and Rupert Seidl
Biogeosciences, 15, 5699–5713,Short summary
Over the past decades temperate forests were a carbon (C) sink to the atmosphere. Yet the drivers of C uptake and how these affect the future carbon cycle remain uncertain. Our simulation and study revealed that the future C sink of central European forest landscapes is strongly driven by historic land use, while climate change reduces forest C uptake. Compared to land-use change, past natural disturbances (wind and bark beetles) have only marginal effects on the future carbon cycle.
Michael M. Loranty, Benjamin W. Abbott, Daan Blok, Thomas A. Douglas, Howard E. Epstein, Bruce C. Forbes, Benjamin M. Jones, Alexander L. Kholodov, Heather Kropp, Avni Malhotra, Steven D. Mamet, Isla H. Myers-Smith, Susan M. Natali, Jonathan A. O'Donnell, Gareth K. Phoenix, Adrian V. Rocha, Oliver Sonnentag, Ken D. Tape, and Donald A. Walker
Biogeosciences, 15, 5287–5313,Short summary
Vegetation and soils strongly influence ground temperature in permafrost ecosystems across the Arctic and sub-Arctic. These effects will cause differences rates of permafrost thaw related to the distribution of tundra and boreal forests. As the distribution of forests and tundra change, the effects of climate change on permafrost will also change. We review the ecosystem processes that will influence permafrost thaw and outline how they will feed back to climate warming.
Aisling Fontanini, Alexandra Steckbauer, Sam Dupont, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 15, 3717–3729,Short summary
Invertebrate species of the Gullmar Fjord (Sweden) were exposed to four different treatments (high/low oxygen and low/high CO2) and respiration measured. Respiration responses of species of contrasting habitats and life-history strategies to single and multiple stressors was evaluated. Results show that the responses of the respiration were highly species specific as we observed both synergetic as well as antagonistic responses, and neither phylum nor habitat explained trends in respiration.
Jie Wang, Bayden D. Russell, Meng-Wen Ding, and Yun-Wei Dong
Biogeosciences, 15, 2803–2817,Short summary
To understand ecological impacts of CO2-induced ocean acidification and temperature rise, a key question is if organisms become more vulnerable under multiple stressors. Here we tested heart rate and gene expression levels of a limpet under varying pCO2 and temperature. Results showed that while many individuals are more vulnerable to heat stress under high CO2 and increased temperature, some animals have the ability to alter their physiology to help them survive under future conditions.
Ting Liu, Liang Wang, Xiaojuan Feng, Jinbo Zhang, Tian Ma, Xin Wang, and Zongguang Liu
Biogeosciences, 15, 1627–1641,Short summary
Compared to the respiration process, few studies have examined soil carbon leaching possibly enhanced by extreme precipitation events (EPEs). We show that soil carbon leaching was much higher than CO2 loss through respiration under EPEs in grassland soils through incubation experiments. The soil carbon leaching process should be incorporated into soil carbon models when estimating carbon balance in grassland ecosystems, especially considering the projected increase in EPEs with climate change.
Justine L. Ramage, Anna M. Irrgang, Anne Morgenstern, and Hugues Lantuit
Biogeosciences, 15, 1483–1495,Short summary
We describe the evolution of thaw slumps between 1952 and 2011 along the Yukon Coast, Canada, and calculate the contribution of the slumps to the carbon budget in this area. The number of slumps has increased by 73 % over the period. These slumps displaced more than 16 billion m3 of material and mobilized 146 t of carbon. This represents 0.6 % of the annual carbon flux released from shoreline retreat, which shows that the contribution of slumps to the nearshore carbon budget is non-negligible.
Emeline Chaste, Martin P. Girardin, Jed O. Kaplan, Jeanne Portier, Yves Bergeron, and Christelle Hély
Biogeosciences, 15, 1273–1292,Short summary
A vegetation model was used to reconstruct fire activity from 1901 to 2012 in relation to changes in lightning ignition, climate, and vegetation in eastern Canada's boreal forest. The model correctly simulated the history of fire activity. The results showed that fire activity is ignition limited but is also greatly affected by both climate and vegetation. This research aims to develop a vegetation model that could be used to predict the future impacts of climate changes on fire activity.
Rong Bi, Stefanie M. H. Ismar, Ulrich Sommer, and Meixun Zhao
Biogeosciences, 15, 1029–1045,Short summary
We observed that N : P supply ratios had the strongest effect on C : N : P stoichiometry, while temperature and pCO2 played more influential roles on PIC : POC and polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions in Emiliania huxleyi. Synergistic interactions indicated the enhanced effect of warming under nutrient deficiency and high pCO2. Simultaneous changes of elements and fatty acids should be considered when predicting future roles of E. huxleyi in biogeochemical cycles and ecological functions.
Wenmin Zhang, Martin Brandt, Xiaoye Tong, Qingjiu Tian, and Rasmus Fensholt
Biogeosciences, 15, 319–330,
Lei Jiang, You-Fang Sun, Yu-Yang Zhang, Guo-Wei Zhou, Xiu-Bao Li, Laurence J. McCook, Jian-Sheng Lian, Xin-Ming Lei, Sheng Liu, Lin Cai, Pei-Yuan Qian, and Hui Huang
Biogeosciences, 14, 5741–5752,Short summary
The negative effects of elevated temperature (31 °C) on larval settlement of P. damicornis was greatly tempered by diurnal temperature fluctuations, whilst diel oscillations in temperature reduced the heat stress on photo-physiology of coral recruits. Although elevated temperature greatly stimulated the growth of recruits, the daytime encounters with the maximum temperature of 33 °C in the fluctuating treatment elicited a notable reduction in calcification.
Siv K. Lauvset, Jerry Tjiputra, and Helene Muri
Biogeosciences, 14, 5675–5691,Short summary
Solar radiation management (SRM) is suggested as a method to offset global warming and to buy time to reduce emissions. Here we use an Earth system model to project the impact of SRM on future ocean biogeochemistry. This work underscores the complexity of climate impacts on ocean primary production and highlights the fact that changes are driven by an integrated effect of many environmental drivers, which all change in different ways.
Apipattanavis, S., Bert, F., Podesta, G., and Rajagopalan, B.: Linking weather generators and crop models for assessment of climate forecast outcomes, Agr. Forest. Meteorol., 150, 166–174, 2010.
Baldocchi, D., Falge, E., Gu, L., Olson, R., Hollinger, D., Running, S., Anthoni, P., Bernhofer, Ch., Davis, K., Evans, R., Fuentes, J., Goldstein, A., Katul, G., Law, B., Lee, X., Mahli, Y., Meyers, T., Munger, W., Oechel, W., Paw U, K. T., Pilegaard, K., Schmid, H. P., Valentini, R., Verma, S., Vesala, T., Wilson, K., and Wofsy, S.: FLUXNET: a new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scal carbon dioxide, water vapour, and energy flux densities, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 82, 2415–2434, 2001.
Ball, J. T., Woodrow, I. E., and Berry J. A.: A model predicting stomatal conductance and its contribution to the control of photosynthesis under different environmental conditions, edited by: Biggens, J., Progress in Photosynthesis Research, vol. IV, IV.5.221., 1987.
Beer, C., Reichstein, M., Ciais, P., Farquhar, G. D., and Papale, D.: Mean annual GPP of Europe derived from its water balance, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L05401, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL029006, 2007.
Beier, C., Emmett, B., Gundersen, P., Tietema, A., Penuelas, J., Estiarte, M., Gordon, C., Gorissen, A., Llorens, L., Roda, F., and Williams, D.: Novel Approaches to Study Climate Change Effects on Terrestrial Ecosystems in the Field: Drought and Passive Nighttime Warming, Ecosystems, 7, 583–597, 2004.
Botta, A., Viovy, N., Ciais, P., and Friedlingstein, P.: A global prognostic scheme of leaf onset using satellite data, Global Change Biol., 6, 709–726, 2000.
Briffa, K. R., van der Schrier, G., and Jones, P. D.: Wet and dry summers in Europe since 1750: evidence of increasing drought, Int. J. Climatol., 29, 1894–1905, 2009.
Caldwell, M. M., Dawson, T. E., and Richards, J. H.: Hydraulic lift: consequences of water efflux from the roots of plants, Oecologia, 113, 151–161, 1998.
Charles, H. and Dukes, J. S.: Effects of warming and altered precipitation on plant and nutrient dynamics of a New England salt marsh, Ecol. Appl., 19, 1758–1773, 2009.
Chaves, M. M., Maroco, J. P., and Pereira, J. S.: Understanding plant responses to drought – from genes to the whole plant, Funct. Plant Biol., 30, 239–264, 2003.
Ciais, P., Reichstein, M., Viovy, N., Granier, A., Ogee, J., Allard, V., Aubinet, M., Buchmann, N., Bernhofer, C., Carrara, A., Chevallier, F., De Noblet, N., Friend, A. D., Friedlingstein, P., Grunwald, T., Heinesch, B., Keronen, P., Knohl, A., Krinner, G., Loustau, D., Manca, G., Matteucci, G., Miglietta, F., Ourcival, J. M., Papale, D., Pilegaard, K., Rambal, S., Seufert, G., Soussana, J. F., Sanz, M. J., Schulze, E. D., Vesala, T., and Valentini, R.: Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by the heat and drought in 2003, Nature, 437, 529–533, 2005.
Conil, S., Douville, H., and Tyteca, S.: Contribution of realistic soil moisture initial conditions to boreal summer climate predictability, Clim. Dynam., 32, 75–93, 2009.
Da Costa, A. C. L., Galbraith, D., Almeida, S., Portela, B. T. T., Da Costa, M., De Athaydes Silva Junior, J., Braga, A. P., De Gonçalves, P. H. L., De Oliveira, A. A., Fisher, R., Phillips, O. L., Metcalfe, D. B., Levy, P., and Meir, P.: Effect of 7 yr of experimental drought on vegetation dynamics and biomass storage of an eastern Amazonian rainforest, New Phytol., 187, 579–591, 2010.
De Boeck, H. J., Dreesen, F. E., Janssens, I. A., and Nijs, I.: Climatic characteristics of heat waves and their simulation in plant experiments, Global Change Biol., 16, 1992–2000, 2010.
De Boeck, H. J., Dreesen, F. E., Janssens, I. A., and Nijs, I.: Whole-system responses of experimental plant communities to climate extremes imposed in different seasons, New Phytol., 189, 806–817, 2011.
Deckmyn, G., Martens, C., and Impens, I.: The importance of the ratio UV-B/PAR during leaf development as determining factor of plant sensitivity to increased UV-B irradiance: effects on growth, gas-exchange and pigmentation of bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L). Plant Cell Environ., 17, 295–301, 1994.
Delpierre, N., Soudani, K., Francois, C., Kostner, B., Pontailler, J. Y., Nikinmaa, E., Misson, L., Aubinet, M., Bernhofer, C., Granier, A., Grunwald, T., Heinesch, B., Longdoz, B., Ourcival, J.-M., Rambal, S., Vesala, T., and Dufrene, E.: Exceptional carbon uptake in European forests during the warm spring of 2007: a data–model analysis, Global Change Biol., 15, 1455–1474, 2009.
Ducoudré, N. I.: SECHIBA, a new set of parameterizations of the hydraulic exchanges at the land-atmosphere interface within the LMD atmospheric general circulation model, J. Clim., 6, 248–273, 1993.
Farquhar, G. D., von Caemmerer, S., and Berry J. A.: A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 species, Planta, 149, 78–90, 1980.
Fischer, E. M., Seneviratne, S. I., Lüthi, D., and Schär, C.: Contribution of land-atmosphere coupling to recent European summer heat waves, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L06707, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL029068, 2007b.
Fischer, E. M. and and Schär, C.: Future changes in daily summer temperature variability: driving processes and role for temperature extremes, Clim. Dynam., 33, 917–935, 2009.
Friedlingstein, P., Joel, G., Field, C. B., and Fung I. Y.: Toward an allocation scheme for global terrestrial carbon models, Global Change Biol., 5, 755–770, 1999.
Gerten, D., Luo, Y., Le Maire, G., Parton, W. J., Keough, C., Weng, E., Beier, C., Ciais, P., Cramer, W., Dukes, J. S., Hanson, P. J., Knapp, A. A. K., Linder, S., Nepstad, D. A. N., Rustad, L., and Sowerby, A.: Modelled effects of precipitation on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones, Global Change Biol., 14, 2365–2379, 2008.
Gielen, B., Verbeeck, H., Neirynck, J., Sampson, D. A., Vermeiren, F., and Janssens, I. A.: Decadal water balance of a temperate Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris L.) based on measurements and modelling, Biogeosciences, 7, 1247–1261, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-1247-2010, 2010.
Gilgen, A. K., Signarbieux, C., Feller, U., and Buchmann, N.: Competitive advantage of Rumex obtusifolius L might increase in intensively managed temperate grasslands under drier climate, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 135, 15–23, 2010.
Granier, A., Reichstein, M., Bréda, N., Janssens, I. A., Falge, E., Ciais, P., Grünwald, T., Aubinet, M., Berbigier, P., Bernhofer, C., Buchmann, N., Facini, O., Grassi, G., Heinesch, B., Ilvesniemi, H., Keronen, P., Knohl, A., Köstner, B., Lagergren, F., Lindroth, A., Longdoz, B., Loustau, D., Mateus, J., Montagnani, L., Nys, C., Moors, E. J., Papale, D., Peiffer, M., Pilegaard, K., Pita, G., Pumpanen, J., Rambal, S., Rebmann, C., Rodrigues, A., Seufert, G., Tenhunen, J., Vesala, T., and Wang, Q.: Evidence for soil water control on carbon and water dynamics in European forests during the extremely dry year: 2003, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 143, 123–145, 2007.
Hirschi, M., Seneviratne, S. I., Alexandrov, V., Boberg, F., Boroneant, C., Christensen, O. B., Formayer, H., Orlowsky, B., and Stepanek, P.: Observational evidence for soil-moisture impact on hot extremes in southeastern Europe, Nat. Geosci., 4, 17–21, 2011.
IPCC: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K. B., Tignor, M., and Miller, H. L., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007.
Jaeger, E. B. and Seneviratne, S. I.: The role of land-atmosphere coupling for European temperature and precipitation extremes and trends, Clim. Dynam. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0780-8, 2010.
Jentsch, A., Kreyling, J., and Beierkuhnlein, C.: A new generation of climate change experiments: events, not trends, Front. Ecol. Environ., 5, 315–324, 2007.
Jones, H. G.: Plants and Microclimate: A Quantitative Approach to Environmental Plant Physiology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, UK, 2007.
Jung, M., Le Maire, G., Zaehle, S., Luyssaert, S., Vetter, M., Churkina, G., Ciais, P., Viovy, N., and Reichstein, M.: Assessing the ability of three land ecosystem models to simulate gross carbon uptake of forests from boreal to Mediterranean climate in Europe, Biogeosciences, 4, 647–656, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-4-647-2007, 2007.
Kljun, N., Black, T. A., Griffis, T. J., Barr, A. G., Gaumont-Guay, D., Morgenstern, K., McCaughey, J. H., and Nesic, Z.: Response of net ecosystem productivity of three boreal forest stands to drought, Ecosystems, 9, 1128–1144, 2006.
Kimball, B. A.: Theory and performance of an infrared heater for ecosystem warming.,Global Change Biol., 11, 2041–2056, 2005.
Klok, E. J. and Klein Tank, A. M. G.: Updated and extended European dataset of daily climate observations, Int. J. Climatol., 29, 1182–1191, 2009.
Krinner, G., Viovy, N., de Noblet, N., Ogée, J., Friedlingstein, P., Ciais, P., Sitch, S., Polcher, J., and Prentice, I. C.: A dynamic global vegetation model for studies of the coupled atmosphere-biosphere system, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 19, 1–33, 2005.
Larcher, W.: Physiological plant ecology, 4th edition, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2003.
Lucas, R. W., Forseth, I. N., and Casper, B. B.: Using rainout shelters to evaluate climate change effects on the demography of Cryptantha flava, J. Ecol., 96, 514–522, 2008.
Luo, Y., Gerten, D., Maire, G. L., Parton, W. J., Weng, E., Zhou, X., Keough, C., Beier, C., Ciais, P., Cramer, W., Dukes, J. S., Emmett, B., Hanson, P. J., Knapp, A., Linder, S., Nepstad, D., and Rustad, L.: Modeled interactive effects of precipitation, temperature, and CO2 on ecosystem carbon and water dynamics in different climatic zones, Global Change Biol., 14, 1986–1999, 2008.
Meehl, G. A. and Tebaldi, C.: More Intense, More Frequent, and Longer Lasting Heat Waves in the 21st Century, Science, 305, 994–997, 2004.
Padilla, F. M. and Pugnaire, F. I.: Rooting depth and soil moisture control Mediterranean woody seedling survival during drought, Funct. Ecol., 21, 489–495, 2007.
Pfisterer, A. B., and Schmid, B.: Diversity-dependent production can decrease the stability of ecosystem functioning, Nature, 416, 84–86, 2002.
Piao, S., Ciais, P., Friedlingstein, P., Peylin, P., Reichstein, M., Luyssaert, S., Margolis, H., Fang, J., Barr, A., Chen, A., Grelle, A., Hollinger, D. Y., Laurila, T., Lindroth, A., Richardson, A. D., and Vesala, T.: Net carbon dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming, Nature, 451, 49–53, 2008.
Reichstein, M., Ciais, P., Papale, D., Valentini, R., Running, S., Viovy, N., Cramer, W., Granier, A., Ogée, J., Allard, V., Aubinet, M., Bernhofer, C., Buchmann, N., Carrara, A., Grünwald, T., Heimann, M., Heinesch, B., Knohl, A., Kutsch, W., Loustau, D., Manca, G., Matteucci, G., Miglietta, F., Ourcival, J. M., Pilegaard, K., Pumpanen, J., Rambal, S., Schaphoff, S., Seufert, G., Soussana, J. F., Sanz, M. J., Vesala, T., and Zhao, M.: Reduction of ecosystem productivity and respiration during the European summer 2003 climate anomaly: a joint flux tower, remote sensing and modelling analysis, Global Change Biol., 13, 634–651, 2007.
Santaren, D., Peylin, P., Viovy, N., and Ciais, P.: Optimizing a process-based ecosystem model with eddy-covariance flux measurements: A pine forest in southern France, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 21, GB2013, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GB002834, 2007.
Schär, C., and Jendritzky, G.: Hot news from summer 2003, Nature, 432, 559–560, 2004.
Schär, C., Vidale, P. L., Lüthi, D., Frei, C., Häberli, C., Liniger, M., and Appenzeller, C.: The role of increasing temperature variability in European summer heatwaves, Nature, 427, 332–336, 2004.
Schwalm, C. R., Williams, C. A., Schaefer, K., Anderson, R., Arain, M. A., Baker, I., Barr, A., Black, T. A., Chen, G., Chen, J. M., Ciais, P., Davis, K. J., Desai, A., Dietze, M., Dragoni, D., Fischer, M. L., Flanagan, L. B., Grant, R., Gu, L., Hollinger, D., Izaurralde, R. C., Kucharik, C., Lafleur, P., Law, B. E., Li, L., Li, Z., Liu, S., Lokupitiya, E., Luo, Y., Ma, S., Margolis, H., Matamala, R., McCaughey, H., Monson, R. K., Oechel, W. C., Peng, C., Poulter, B., Price, D. T., Riciutto, D. M., Riley, W., Sahoo; A. K., Sprintsin, M., Sun, J., Tian, H., Tonitto, C., Verbeeck, H., and Verma, S. B.: A model-data intercomparison of CO2 exchange across North America: Results from the North American Carbon Program site synthesis, J. Geophys. Res., 115, G00H05, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JG001229, 2010.
Serinaldi, F., Bonaccorso, B., Cancelliere, A., and Grimaldi, S.: Probabilistic characterization of drought properties through copulas, Phys. Chem. Earth, 34, 596–605, 2009.
Svejcar, T., Angell, R., and Miller, R.: Fixed location rain shelters for studying precipitation effects on rangelands, J. Arid Environ., 42, 187–193, 1999.
Teuling, A. J., Seneviratne, S. I., Stöckli, R., Reichstein, M., Moors, E., Ciais, P., Luyssaert, S., van den Hurk, B., Ammann, C., Bernhofer, C., Dellwik, E., Gianelle, D., Gielen, B., Grünwald, T., Klumpp, K., Montagnani, L., Moureaux, C., Sottocornola, M., and Wohlfahrt, G.: Contrasting response of European forest and grassland energy exchange to heatwaves, Nat. Geosci., 3, 722–727, 2010.
Trenberth, K. E. and Shea, D. J.: Relationships between precipitation and surface temperature, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14703, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL022760, 2005.
Vandentorren, S., Suzan, F., Medina, S., Pascal, M., Maulpoix, A., Cohen, J. C., Ledrans, M.: Mortality in 13 French cities during the August 2003 heat wave, Am. J. Public Health, 94, 1518–1520, 2004.
Vautard, R., Yiou, P., D'Andrea, F., de Noblet, N., Viovy, N., Cassou, C., Polcher, J., Ciais, P., Kageyama, M., and Fan, Y.: Summertime European heat and drought waves induced by wintertime Mediterranean rainfall deficit, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L07711, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028001, 2007.
Verbeeck, H., Steppe, K., Nadezhdina, N., Op De Beeck, M., Deckmyn, G., Meiresonne, L., Lemeur, R., Čermák, J., Ceulemans, R., and Janssens, I. A.: Model analysis of the effects of atmospheric drivers on storage water use in Scots pine, Biogeosciences, 4, 657–671, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-4-657-2007, 2007.
Verbeeck, H., Peylin, P., Bacour, C., Bonal, D., Steppe, K., and Ciais P.: Seasonal patterns of CO2 fluxes in Amazon forests: fusion of eddy covariance data and the ORCHIDEE model, J. Geophys. Res., https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JG001544, 2011.
Vetter, M., Churkina, G., Jung, M., Reichstein, M., Zaehle, S., Bondeau, A., Chen, Y., Ciais, P., Feser, F., Freibauer, A., Geyer, R., Jones, C., Papale, D., Tenhunen, J., Tomelleri, E., Trusilova, K., Viovy, N., and Heimann, M.: Analyzing the causes and spatial pattern of the European 2003 carbon flux anomaly using seven models, Biogeosciences, 5, 561–583, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-5-561-2008, 2008.
Yang, J., Zhang, J., Huang, Z., Zhu, Q., and Wang, L.: Remobilization of Carbon Reserves Is Improved by Controlled Soil-Drying during Grain Filling of Wheat, Crop Sci., 40, 1645–1655, 2000.
Zeng, X.: Global vegetation root distribution for land modeling, J. Hydrometeorol., 2, 525–530, 2001.