Articles | Volume 15, issue 1
Research article 02 Jan 2018
Research article | 02 Jan 2018
Effect of light on N2 fixation and net nitrogen release of Trichodesmium in a field study
Yangyang Lu et al.
Li Luo, Shuh-Ji Kao, Hongyan Bao, Huayun Xiao, Hongwei Xiao, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, Jiawei Li, and Yangyang Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6207–6222,
Siqi Wu, Moge Du, Xianhui Sean Wan, Corday Selden, Mar Benavides, Sophie Bonnet, Robert Hamersley, Carolin R. Löscher, Margaret R. Mulholland, Xiuli Yan, and Shuh-Ji Kao
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Nitrogen (N2) fixation is one of the most important nutrient sources to the ocean. Here, we report N2 fixation in the deep, dark ocean in the South China Sea via a highly sensitive new method and elaborate controls, showing the overlooked importance of N2 fixation in the deep ocean. By global data compilation, we also provide an easy measured basic parameter to estimate deep N2 fixation. Our study may help to expand the area limit of N2 fixation studies and better constrain global N2 fixation.
Yanhong Lu, Shunyan Cheung, Ling Chen, Shuh-Ji Kao, Xiaomin Xia, Jianping Gan, Minhan Dai, and Hongbin Liu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6017–6032,Short summary
Through a comprehensive investigation, we observed differential niche partitioning among diverse ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) sublineages in a typical subtropical estuary. Distinct AOA communities observed at DNA and RNA levels suggested that a strong divergence in ammonia-oxidizing activity among different AOA groups occurs. Our result highlights the importance of identifying major ammonia oxidizers at RNA level in future studies.
Li Ma, Hua Lin, Xiabing Xie, Minhan Dai, and Yao Zhang
Biogeosciences, 16, 4765–4781,Short summary
The major microbial process producing N2O in estuarine ecosystems remains controversial. Combining the concentrations and isotopic compositions of N2O, distributions and transcript levels of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial and archaeal amoA and denitrifier nirS genes, and in situ incubation estimates of nitrification rates and N2O production rates, we clarified that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria contributed the major part in N2O production in the upper Pearl River estuary despite their low abundance.
Xiaolong Zhao, Chun Zhou, Xiaobiao Xu, Ruijie Ye, Jiwei Tian, and Wei Zhao
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
This study presents a detailed spatial structure and temporal variability of the deep circulation under enhanced mixing in the South China Sea (SCS) based on eddy-resolving model simulations verified by continuous current-meter observations and enables us to investigate sensitivity to distribution of mixing. Comparing the northern shelf of the SCS with the Luzon Strait, deep circulation in the SCS is more sensitive to the large vertical mixing parameters in the Zhongsha Island Chain area.
Lei Hou, Xiabing Xie, Xianhui Wan, Shuh-Ji Kao, Nianzhi Jiao, and Yao Zhang
Biogeosciences, 15, 5169–5187,Short summary
The niche differentiation of ammonia and nitrite oxidizers is controversial because they display disparate patterns in different environments. Combining molecular and nitrification rate analyses, our study clarified that water mass mixing and the substrate availability primarily regulated the niche differentiation of nitrifier populations along a salinity gradient. The nitrifier populations may have specific adaptations to different substrate conditions through their ecological strategies.
Sophie Bonnet, Mathieu Caffin, Hugo Berthelot, Olivier Grosso, Mar Benavides, Sandra Helias-Nunige, Cécile Guieu, Marcus Stenegren, and Rachel Ann Foster
Biogeosciences, 15, 4215–4232,
Dina Spungin, Natalia Belkin, Rachel A. Foster, Marcus Stenegren, Andrea Caputo, Mireille Pujo-Pay, Nathalie Leblond, Cécile Dupouy, Sophie Bonnet, and Ilana Berman-Frank
Biogeosciences, 15, 3893–3908,Short summary
The way marine organisms die can determine the fate of organic matter (OM) in the ocean. We investigated whether a form of auto-induced programmed cell death (PCD) influenced phytoplankton mortality and fate of OM. Our results from high biomass blooms of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium show evidence for PCD and high production of sticky carbon material termed transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) that facilitates cellular aggregation and enhances the vertical flux of OM to depth.
Mathieu Caffin, Hugo Berthelot, Véronique Cornet-Barthaux, Aude Barani, and Sophie Bonnet
Biogeosciences, 15, 3795–3810,
Mar Benavides, Katyanne M. Shoemaker, Pia H. Moisander, Jutta Niggemann, Thorsten Dittmar, Solange Duhamel, Olivier Grosso, Mireille Pujo-Pay, Sandra Hélias-Nunige, Alain Fumenia, and Sophie Bonnet
Biogeosciences, 15, 3107–3119,Short summary
We measured N2 fixation rates and identified diazotrophic phylotypes in the mesopelagic layer along a transect spanning from New Caledonia to French Polynesia. N2 fixation rates were low but consistently detected across all depths and stations. A distinct diazotrophic phylotype dominated at 650 dbar, coinciding with the oxygenated Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) and suggesting that the distribution of aphotic diazotroph communities is to some extent controlled by water mass structure.
Shengmu Yang, Jiuxing Xing, Shengli Chen, Jiwei Tian, and Daoyi Chen
Ocean Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Motivated by the recent field observations of the eddy tilting structure in the South China Sea, a simple theoretical analysis and a numerical model (MITgcm) are used to investigate the mechanism of the vertical structure tilt of a mesoscale eddy on the β-plane. The model results correspond well with the theoretical analysis and the results indicate that the β-effect, nonlinear advection, and ocean stratification are important factors in controlling the vertical structure of a mesoscale eddy.
Angela N. Knapp, Kelly M. McCabe, Olivier Grosso, Nathalie Leblond, Thierry Moutin, and Sophie Bonnet
Biogeosciences, 15, 2619–2628,Short summary
The spatial distribution of biological N2 fixation fluxes to the ocean remains poorly constrained. Here we use nitrogen isotope budgets to identify significant N2 fixation inputs to the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP), where N2 fixation supports > 50 % of export production at stations proximal to iron sources. The significant N2 fixation inputs in the WTSP may offset nitrogen loss in the oxygen-deficient zones of the eastern tropical South Pacific.
Li Luo, Shuh-Ji Kao, Hongyan Bao, Huayun Xiao, Hongwei Xiao, Xiaohong Yao, Huiwang Gao, Jiawei Li, and Yangyang Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6207–6222,
Mathieu Caffin, Thierry Moutin, Rachel Ann Foster, Pascale Bouruet-Aubertot, Andrea Michelangelo Doglioli, Hugo Berthelot, Cécile Guieu, Olivier Grosso, Sandra Helias-Nunige, Nathalie Leblond, Audrey Gimenez, Anne Alexandra Petrenko, Alain de Verneil, and Sophie Bonnet
Biogeosciences, 15, 2565–2585,Short summary
We performed N budgets to assess the role of N2 fixation on production and export in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean. We deployed a combination of techniques including high-sensitivity measurements of N input and sediment traps deployment. We demonstrated that N2 fixation was the major source of new N before atmospheric deposition and upward nitrate fluxes. It contributed significantly to organic matter export, indicating a high efficiency of this region to export carbon.
Marcus Stenegren, Andrea Caputo, Carlo Berg, Sophie Bonnet, and Rachel A. Foster
Biogeosciences, 15, 1559–1578,Short summary
We successfully performed quantitative PCR at sea. The qPCR data were procured within 3 h and used in decisions on further sampling on site. We designed and applied a new primer and probe set for quantifying the UCYN-A1 host and observed discrepancies between host and symbiont, which contradict previous studies. Lastly, we observed a clear vertical separation between a subsurface group (UCYN-A with hosts) and a surface group (remaining diazotrophs), mainly separated by temperature.
Thierry Moutin, Andrea Michelangelo Doglioli, Alain de Verneil, and Sophie Bonnet
Biogeosciences, 14, 3207–3220,Short summary
The overall goal of OUTPACE was to obtain a successful representation of the interactions between planktonic organisms and the cycle of biogenic elements in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean across trophic and N2 fixation gradients. The international OUTPACE cruise took place between 18 February and 3 April 2015 aboard the RV L’Atalante and involved 60 scientists. The transect covered ~4 000 km from the western part of the Melanesian archipelago to the western boundary of the gyre.
Xiang Gong, Wensheng Jiang, Linhui Wang, Huiwang Gao, Emmanuel Boss, Xiaohong Yao, Shuh-Ji Kao, and Jie Shi
Biogeosciences, 14, 2371–2386,Short summary
The subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer (SCML) forms near the nitracline. By incorporating a piecewise function for the approximate Gaussian vertical profile of chlorophyll, we derive analytical solutions of a specified nutrient–phytoplankton model. Nitracline depth is deeper than SCML depth, and a thinner SCML corresponds to a steeper nitracline. A higher light attenuation coefficient leads to a shallower but steeper nitracline. Nitracline steepness is independent of surface light intensity.
Tsung-Yu Lee, Li-Chin Lee, Jr-Chuan Huang, Shih-Hao Jien, Thomas Hein, Franz Zehetner, Shuh-Ji Kao, and Fuh-Kwo Shiah
Revised manuscript not accepted
Min Nina Xu, Yanhua Wu, Li Wei Zheng, Zhenzhen Zheng, Huade Zhao, Edward A. Laws, and Shuh-Ji Kao
Biogeosciences, 14, 1021–1038,Short summary
To resolve multiple N transformation rates, we proposed an innovative “isotope matrix method” to simultaneously derive rates for multiple transformations. This method was designed specifically for incubations in the euphotic zone under simulated in situ light conditions and minimized potential biases caused by non-targeted processes. The method facilitates simple post hoc analysis of data and can be used to probe specific effects of environmental factors on the rates of interactive N processes.
Audrey Gimenez, Melika Baklouti, Sophie Bonnet, and Thierry Moutin
Biogeosciences, 13, 5103–5120,Short summary
In the context of the VAHINE mesocosm experiment in the Nouméa lagoon (New Caledonia), a 1-D vertical biogeochemical mechanistic model was used together with the in situ experiment to complement our comprehension of the planktonic ecosystem dynamics and the main biogeochemical carbon, nitrogen and phosphate fluxes. The model also showed the fate of fixed N2 by providing, over time, the proportion of diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) in each compartment (mineral and organic) of the model.
Angela N. Knapp, Sarah E. Fawcett, Alfredo Martínez-Garcia, Nathalie Leblond, Thierry Moutin, and Sophie Bonnet
Biogeosciences, 13, 4645–4657,Short summary
The goal of this manuscript was to track the fate of newly fixed nitrogen (N) in large volume mesocosms in the coastal waters of New Caledonia. We used a N isotope ("δ15N") budget and found a shift in the δ15N of sinking particulate N over the 23-day experiment, indicating that nitrate supported export production at the beginning of the experiment, but that nitrogen fixation supported export at the end. We infer that nitrogen fixation supported export production by a release of dissolved N.
Sophie Bonnet, Melika Baklouti, Audrey Gimenez, Hugo Berthelot, and Ilana Berman-Frank
Biogeosciences, 13, 4461–4479,
Dina Spungin, Ulrike Pfreundt, Hugo Berthelot, Sophie Bonnet, Dina AlRoumi, Frank Natale, Wolfgang R. Hess, Kay D. Bidle, and Ilana Berman-Frank
Biogeosciences, 13, 4187–4203,Short summary
The marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium spp. forms massive blooms important to carbon and nitrogen cycling in the oceans that often collapse abruptly. We investigated a Trichodesmium bloom in the lagoon waters of New Caledonia to specifically elucidate the cellular processes mediating the bloom decline. We demonstrate physiological, biochemical, and genetic evidence for nutrient and oxidative stress that induced a genetically controlled programmed cell death (PCD) pathway leading to bloom demise.
Ulrike Pfreundt, Dina Spungin, Sophie Bonnet, Ilana Berman-Frank, and Wolfgang R. Hess
Biogeosciences, 13, 4135–4149,Short summary
The VAHINE experiment in the New Caledonia lagoon (SW Pacific) targeted the dynamics of nutrient pools and fluxes, N2 fixation, and the composition and productivity of the microbial communities. To connect this information to the actual activities of diverse microbial taxa, we present the analysis of the community-wide gene expression for 23 days. The results from this experiment provide insight into the microbial activities in a low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll ecosystem and within a mesocosm.
Hugo Berthelot, Sophie Bonnet, Olivier Grosso, Véronique Cornet, and Aude Barani
Biogeosciences, 13, 4005–4021,
France Van Wambeke, Ulrike Pfreundt, Aude Barani, Hugo Berthelot, Thierry Moutin, Martine Rodier, Wolfgang R. Hess, and Sophie Bonnet
Biogeosciences, 13, 3187–3202,Short summary
The phytoplankton is at the base of the plankton food web in large parts of oceanic "deserts" such as the South Pacific Ocean, where nitrogen sources limit activity. Mesocosms were fertilized with phosphorus to stimulate diazotrophy (atmospheric N2 fixation). Mostly diazotroph-derived nitrogen fuelled the heterotrophic bacterial community through indirect processes generating dissolved organic matter and detritus, such as mortality, lysis and grazing of both diazotrophs and non-diazotrophs.
Brian P. V. Hunt, Sophie Bonnet, Hugo Berthelot, Brandon J. Conroy, Rachel A. Foster, and Marc Pagano
Biogeosciences, 13, 3131–3145,Short summary
Biological nitrogen (N) fixation is an important source of N for food webs in tropical and subtropical oceans. However, uptake pathways remain poorly understood. This study found that fixed N contributed a third of total zooplankton N in the New Caledonia lagoon. Fixed N reached the zooplankton through 1) direct grazing on N fixers and 2) grazing on phytoplankton that had taken up N released by fixers. We report the first record of direct zooplankton grazing on the unicellular N fixer UCYN-C.
Sophie Bonnet, Thierry Moutin, Martine Rodier, Jean-Michel Grisoni, Francis Louis, Eric Folcher, Bertrand Bourgeois, Jean-Michel Boré, and Armelle Renaud
Biogeosciences, 13, 2803–2814,Short summary
e main goal of the VAHINE project was to study the fate of N2 fixation in the ocean. Three large-volume (~ 50 m3) mesocosms were deployed in a tropical oligotrophic ecosystem (the New Caledonia lagoon, south-eastern Pacific). This introductory paper describes the scientific objectives of the project in detail as well as the implementation plan: the mesocosm description and deployment, the selection of the study site, and the logistical and sampling strategy.
Sophie Bonnet, Hugo Berthelot, Kendra Turk-Kubo, Sarah Fawcett, Eyal Rahav, Stéphane L'Helguen, and Ilana Berman-Frank
Biogeosciences, 13, 2653–2673,Short summary
N2 fixation rates were measured daily in ~ 50 m3 mesocosms deployed in New Caledonia to investigate the high-frequency dynamics of diazotrophy and the fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen (DDN) oligotrophic ecosystems. ~ 10 % of UCYN-C from the water column were exported daily to the traps, representing as much as 22.4 ± 5.5 % of the total POC exported at the height of the UCYN-C bloom. 16 ± 6 % of the DDN was released to the dissolved pool and 21 ± 4 % was transferred to non-diazotrophic plankton.
Ulrike Pfreundt, France Van Wambeke, Mathieu Caffin, Sophie Bonnet, and Wolfgang R. Hess
Biogeosciences, 13, 2319–2337,Short summary
The Southwest Pacific has one of the highest N2 fixation rates in the global ocean, yet information is scarce on the bacterioplankton interrelationships. We detected high microbial diversity in the New Caledonia lagoon and inside a 50 000 L experimental enclosure of the same water mass over 3 weeks and give evidence for previously unknown niche partitioning. Phosphate fertilization promoted the growth of efficient N2 fixing cyanobacteria triggering the growth of most heterotrophic bacteria.
Jr-Chuan Huang, Tsung-Yu Lee, Teng-Chiu Lin, Thomas Hein, Li-Chin Lee, Yu-Ting Shih, Shuh-Ji Kao, Fuh-Kwo Shiah, and Neng-Huei Lin
Biogeosciences, 13, 1787–1800,Short summary
The mean riverine DIN export of 49 watersheds in Taiwan is ∼ 3800 kg N km−2 yr−1, 18 times the global average. The mean riverine DIN export ratio is 0.30–0.51, which is much higher than the average of 0.20–0.25 of large rivers around the world, indicating excessive N input relative to ecosystem retention capacity. The DIN export ratio is positively related to agriculture input, and levels of human disturbance and watersheds with high DIN export ratios are likely at advanced stages of N excess.
Shuh-Ji Kao, Tzu-Ling Chiang, Da-Wei Li, Yi-Chia Hsin, Li-Wei Zheng, Jin-Yu Terence Yang, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Chau-Ron Wu, and Minhan Dai
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
A 3-D model was run for the South China Sea to explore the effects of sea level drop and monsoon wind intensity on glacial patterns of circulation and ventilation. Winter northeasterly monsoon wind intensity governs the volume transport of Kuroshio intrusion through the Luzon Strait, subsequently, the water exchange rate and the mean residence time of water body of the SCS.
L. Luo, X. H. Yao, H. W. Gao, S. C. Hsu, J. W. Li, and S. J. Kao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 325–341,Short summary
Concentrations and depositions of various nitrogen species of water-soluble fraction in aerosols were observed during spring over the eastern China seas and northwestern Pacific Ocean. Results revealed nitrogen deposition associated with the sea fog weather was 6 times higher than that of spring supply from the Yangtze River to the ECS shelf. The DON emission had occurred most likely during sea spray. Weather conditions modulate the nitrogen exchange at the ocean-atmosphere boundary.
K. A. Turk-Kubo, I. E. Frank, M. E. Hogan, A. Desnues, S. Bonnet, and J. P. Zehr
Biogeosciences, 12, 7435–7452,Short summary
-A shift from diatom-associated diazotrophs (DDAs) to unicellular cyanobacterial group C (UCYN-C) in response to DIP fertilization was captured in a large-scale mesocosm experiment in the Noumea lagoon (NL), a low-nutrient low-chlorophyll coastal environment. -First report of in situ net growth and mortality rates for unicellular diazotrophs UCYN-A2, and UCYN-C. -First quantitative abundance data for diazotrophs in NL indicate that DDAs and UCYN-A1/A2 may be important N2 fixers in this region.
H. Berthelot, T. Moutin, S. L'Helguen, K. Leblanc, S. Hélias, O. Grosso, N. Leblond, B. Charrière, and S. Bonnet
Biogeosciences, 12, 4099–4112,
Y.-T. Shih, T.-Y. Lee, J.-C. Huang, S.-J. Kao, K.-K. Liu, and F.-J. Chang
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
This study combines the observed riverine DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen) export and the controlling factors (land-use, population and discharge) to inversely estimate the effective DIN yield factors for individual land-use and per capita loading. Those estimated DIN yield factors can extrapolate all possible combinations of land-use, discharge, and population density, demonstrating the capability for scenario assessment.
T.-Y. Lee, Y.-T. Shih, J.-C. Huang, S.-J. Kao, F.-K. Shiah, and K.-K. Liu
Biogeosciences, 11, 5307–5321,
C. Ridame, J. Dekaezemacker, C. Guieu, S. Bonnet, S. L'Helguen, and F. Malien
Biogeosciences, 11, 4783–4800,
S.-C. Hsu, G.-C. Gong, F.-K. Shiah, C.-C. Hung, S.-J. Kao, R. Zhang, W.-N. Chen, C.-C. Chen, C. C.-K. Chou, Y.-C. Lin, F.-J. Lin, and S.-H. Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
N. Jiao, Y. Zhang, K. Zhou, Q. Li, M. Dai, J. Liu, J. Guo, and B. Huang
Biogeosciences, 11, 2465–2475,
Y. Zhang, X. Xie, N. Jiao, S. S.-Y. Hsiao, and S.-J. Kao
Biogeosciences, 11, 2131–2145,
S. S.-Y. Hsiao, T.-C. Hsu, J.-w. Liu, X. Xie, Y. Zhang, J. Lin, H. Wang, J.-Y. T. Yang, S.-C. Hsu, M. Dai, and S.-J. Kao
Biogeosciences, 11, 2083–2098,
J.-Y. T. Yang, S.-C. Hsu, M. H. Dai, S. S.-Y. Hsiao, and S.-J. Kao
Biogeosciences, 11, 1833–1846,
S.-J. Kao, R. G. Hilton, K. Selvaraj, M. Dai, F. Zehetner, J.-C. Huang, S.-C. Hsu, R. Sparkes, J. T. Liu, T.-Y. Lee, J.-Y. T. Yang, A. Galy, X. Xu, and N. Hovius
Earth Surf. Dynam., 2, 127–139,
Y.-F. Tseng, J. Lin, M. Dai, and S.-J. Kao
Biogeosciences, 11, 409–423,
T.-C. Hsu and S.-J. Kao
Biogeosciences, 10, 7847–7862,
N. N. Chang, J. C. Shiao, G. C. Gong, S. J. Kao, and C. H. Hsieh
Revised manuscript not accepted
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Neil J. Wyatt, Angela Milne, Eric P. Achterberg, Thomas J. Browning, Heather A. Bouman, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, and Maeve C. Lohan
Biogeosciences, 18, 4265–4280,Short summary
Using data collected during two expeditions to the South Atlantic Ocean, we investigated how the interaction between external sources and biological activity influenced the availability of the trace metals zinc and cobalt. This is important as both metals play essential roles in the metabolism and growth of phytoplankton and thus influence primary productivity of the oceans. We found seasonal changes in both processes that helped explain upper-ocean trace metal cycling.
Hannah L. Bourne, James K. B. Bishop, Elizabeth J. Connors, and Todd J. Wood
Biogeosciences, 18, 3053–3086,Short summary
To learn how the biological carbon pump works in productive coastal upwelling systems, four autonomous carbon flux explorers measured carbon flux through the twilight zone beneath an offshore-flowing filament of biologically productive water. Strikingly different particle classes dominated the carbon fluxes during successive stages of the filament evolution over 30 d. Both flux and transfer efficiency were far greater than expected, suggesting an outsized filament impact in California waters.
Matthieu Roy-Barman, Lorna Foliot, Eric Douville, Nathalie Leblond, Fréderic Gazeau, Matthieu Bressac, Thibaut Wagener, Céline Ridame, Karine Desboeufs, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 18, 2663–2678,Short summary
The release of insoluble elements such as aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th) and protactinium (Pa) when Saharan dust falls over the Mediterranean Sea was studied during tank experiments under present and future climate conditions. Each element exhibited different dissolution kinetics and dissolution fractions (always lower than a few percent). Changes in temperature and/or pH under greenhouse conditions lead to a lower Th release and a higher light REE release.
Stéphanie H. M. Jacquet, Dominique Lefèvre, Christian Tamburini, Marc Garel, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Nagib Bhairy, and Sophie Guasco
Biogeosciences, 18, 2205–2212,Short summary
We present new data concerning the relation between biogenic barium (Baxs, a tracer of carbon remineralization at mesopelagic depths), O2 consumption and prokaryotic heterotrophic production (PHP) in the Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of this paper is to improve our understanding of the relation between Baxs, PHP and O2 and to test the validity of the Dehairs transfer function in the Mediterranean Sea. This relation has never been tested in the Mediterranean Sea.
Natacha Le Grix, Jakob Zscheischler, Charlotte Laufkötter, Cecile S. Rousseaux, and Thomas L. Frölicher
Biogeosciences, 18, 2119–2137,Short summary
Marine ecosystems could suffer severe damage from the co-occurrence of a marine heat wave with extremely low chlorophyll concentration. Here, we provide a first assessment of compound marine heat wave and low-chlorophyll events in the global ocean from 1998 to 2018. We reveal hotspots of these compound events in the equatorial Pacific and in the Arabian Sea and show that they mostly occur in summer at high latitudes and their frequency is modulated by large-scale modes of climate variability.
Christopher Holder and Anand Gnanadesikan
Biogeosciences, 18, 1941–1970,Short summary
A challenge for marine ecologists in studying phytoplankton is linking small-scale relationships found in a lab to broader relationships observed on large scales in the environment. We investigated whether machine learning (ML) could help connect these small- and large-scale relationships. ML was able to provide qualitative information about the small-scale processes from large-scale information. This method could help identify important relationships from observations in future research.
Paul J. Tréguer, Jill N. Sutton, Mark Brzezinski, Matthew A. Charette, Timothy Devries, Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Claudia Ehlert, Jon Hawkings, Aude Leynaert, Su Mei Liu, Natalia Llopis Monferrer, María López-Acosta, Manuel Maldonado, Shaily Rahman, Lihua Ran, and Olivier Rouxel
Biogeosciences, 18, 1269–1289,Short summary
Silicon is the second most abundant element of the Earth's crust. In this review, we show that silicon inputs and outputs, to and from the world ocean, are 57 % and 37 % higher, respectively, than previous estimates. These changes are significant, modifying factors such as the geochemical residence time of silicon, which is now about 8000 years and 2 times faster than previously assumed. We also update the total biogenic silica pelagic production and provide an estimate for sponge production.
Bo Liu, Katharina D. Six, and Tatiana Ilyina
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We incorporate a new representation of the stable carbon isotope 13C in a global ocean biogeochemistry model. The model well reproduces the present-day 13C observations. We find a recent observation-based estimate of the oceanic 13C Suess effect (the decrease of 13C / 12C ratio due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2; 13CSE) possibly underestimates 13CSE by 0.1–0.26 ‰. The new model will aid better understanding the past ocean state via comparison to 13C / 12C measurements from sediment cores.
Caroline Ulses, Claude Estournel, Marine Fourrier, Laurent Coppola, Fayçal Kessouri, Dominique Lefèvre, and Patrick Marsaleix
Biogeosciences, 18, 937–960,Short summary
We analyse the seasonal cycle of O2 and estimate an annual O2 budget in the north-western Mediterranean deep-convection region, using a numerical model. We show that this region acts as a large sink of atmospheric O2 and as a major source of O2 for the western Mediterranean Sea. The decrease in the deep convection intensity predicted in recent projections may have important consequences on the overall uptake of O2 in the Mediterranean Sea and on the O2 exchanges with the Atlantic Ocean.
Fuminori Hashihama, Hiroaki Saito, Taketoshi Kodama, Saori Yasui-Tamura, Jota Kanda, Iwao Tanita, Hiroshi Ogawa, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, Philip W. Boyd, and Ken Furuya
Biogeosciences, 18, 897–915,Short summary
We investigated the nutrient assimilation characteristics of deep-water-induced phytoplankton blooms across the subtropical North and South Pacific Ocean. Nutrient drawdown ratios of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to phosphate were anomalously low in the western North Pacific, likely due to the high phosphate uptake capability of low-phosphate-adapted phytoplankton. The anomalous phosphate uptake might influence the maintenance of chronic phosphate depletion in the western North Pacific.
Florian Ricour, Arthur Capet, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Bruno Delille, and Marilaure Grégoire
Biogeosciences, 18, 755–774,Short summary
This paper addresses the phenology of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) in the Black Sea (BS). We show that the DCM forms in March at a density level set by the winter mixed layer. It maintains this location until June, suggesting an influence of the DCM on light and nutrient profiles rather than mere adaptation to external factors. In summer, the DCM concentrates ~55 % of the chlorophyll in a 10 m layer at ~35 m depth and should be considered a major feature of the BS phytoplankton dynamics.
Robyn E. Tuerena, Joanne Hopkins, Raja S. Ganeshram, Louisa Norman, Camille de la Vega, Rachel Jeffreys, and Claire Mahaffey
Biogeosciences, 18, 637–653,Short summary
The Barents Sea is a rapidly changing shallow sea within the Arctic. Here, nitrate, an essential nutrient, is fully consumed by algae in surface waters during summer months. Nitrate is efficiently regenerated in the Barents Sea, and there is no evidence for nitrogen loss from the sediments by denitrification, which is prevalent on other Arctic shelves. This suggests that nitrogen availability in the Barents Sea is largely determined by the supply of nutrients in water masses from the Atlantic.
Carolin R. Löscher
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
The Bay of Bengal (BoB) is classically seen as an ocean region with low primary production, which has been predicted to even decrease further. Here, the importance of such a trend is used to explore what could happen to the BoB's low oxygen core waters if primary production decreases. Lower biological production leads to less oxygen loss in deeper waters by respiration, thus it could be that oxygen will not further decrease and the BoB will not become anoxic, different to other low oxygen areas.
Biogeosciences, 18, 509–534,Short summary
Biogeochemical-Argo floats are starting to routinely measure ocean chlorophyll, nutrients, oxygen, and pH. This study generated synthetic observations representing two potential Biogeochemical-Argo observing system designs and created a data assimilation scheme to combine them with an ocean model. The proposed system of 1000 floats brought clear benefits to model results, with additional floats giving further benefit. Existing satellite ocean colour observations gave complementary information.
Mark Hague and Marcello Vichi
Biogeosciences, 18, 25–38,Short summary
This paper examines the question of what causes the rapid spring growth of microscopic marine algae (phytoplankton) in the ice-covered ocean surrounding Antarctica. One prominent hypothesis proposes that the melting of sea ice is the primary cause, while our results suggest that this is only part of the explanation. In particular, we show that phytoplankton are able to start growing before the sea ice melts appreciably, much earlier than previously thought.
Arthur Capet, Luc Vandenbulcke, and Marilaure Grégoire
Biogeosciences, 17, 6507–6525,Short summary
The Black Sea is 2000 m deep, but, due to limited ventilation, only about the upper 100 m contains enough oxygen to support marine life such as fish. This oxygenation depth has been shown to be decreasing (1955–2019). Here, we evidence that atmospheric warming induced a clear shift in an important ventilation mechanism. We highlight the impact of this shift on oxygenation. There are important implications for marine life and carbon and nutrient cycling if this new ventilation regime persists.
Tim Rixen, Greg Cowie, Birgit Gaye, Joaquim Goes, Helga do Rosário Gomes, Raleigh R. Hood, Zouhair Lachkar, Henrike Schmidt, Joachim Segschneider, and Arvind Singh
Biogeosciences, 17, 6051–6080,Short summary
The northern Indian Ocean hosts an extensive oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which intensified due to human-induced global changes. This includes the occurrence of anoxic events on the Indian shelf and affects benthic ecosystems and the pelagic ecosystem structure in the Arabian Sea. Consequences for biogeochemical cycles are unknown, which, in addition to the poor representation of mesoscale features, reduces the reliability of predictions of the future OMZ development in the northern Indian Ocean.
France Van Wambeke, Vincent Taillandier, Karine Deboeufs, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Julie Dinasquet, Anja Engel, Emilio Marañón, Céline Ridame, and Cécile Guieu
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
Simultaneous in situ measurements of (dry and wet) atmospheric deposition, and biogeochemical stocks and fluxes in the sunlight waters of the open Mediterranean Sea revealed complex physical and biological processes. Dry N deposition contributed moderately to the N biological demand in the mixed layer (11 % for primary producers, 27 % for heterotrophic bacteria). The transitory effect observed after a wet dust deposition impacted the microbial food web down to the DCM.
Marion Lagarde, Nolwenn Lemaitre, Hélène Planquette, Mélanie Grenier, Moustafa Belhadj, Pascale Lherminier, and Catherine Jeandel
Biogeosciences, 17, 5539–5561,
Randelle M. Bundy, Alessandro Tagliabue, Nicholas J. Hawco, Peter L. Morton, Benjamin S. Twining, Mariko Hatta, Abigail E. Noble, Mattias R. Cape, Seth G. John, Jay T. Cullen, and Mak A. Saito
Biogeosciences, 17, 4745–4767,Short summary
Cobalt (Co) is an essential nutrient for ocean microbes and is scarce in most areas of the ocean. This study measured Co concentrations in the Arctic Ocean for the first time and found that Co levels are extremely high in the surface waters of the Canadian Arctic. Although the Co primarily originates from the shelf, the high concentrations persist throughout the central Arctic. Co in the Arctic appears to be increasing over time and might be a source of Co to the North Atlantic.
Friedrich A. Burger, Jasmin G. John, and Thomas L. Frölicher
Biogeosciences, 17, 4633–4662,Short summary
Ensemble simulations of an Earth system model reveal that ocean acidity extremes have increased in the past few decades and are projected to increase further in terms of frequency, intensity, duration, and volume extent. The increase is not only caused by the long-term ocean acidification due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2, but also due to changes in short-term variability. The increase in ocean acidity extremes may enhance the risk of detrimental impacts on marine organisms.
Frédéric Gazeau, Céline Ridame, France Van Wambeke, Samir Alliouane, Christian Stolpe, Jean-Olivier Irisson, Sophie Marro, Jean-Michel Grisoni, Guillaume De Liège, Sandra Nunige, Kahina Djaoudi, Elvira Pulido-Villena, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, Philippe Catala, and Cécile Guieu
Revised manuscript accepted for BG
Christopher Gordon, Katja Fennel, Clark Richards, Lynn K. Shay, and Jodi K. Brewster
Biogeosciences, 17, 4119–4134,Short summary
We describe a method for correcting errors in oxygen optode measurements on autonomous platforms in the ocean. The errors result from the relatively slow response time of the sensor. The correction method includes an in situ determination of the effective response time and requires the time stamps of the individual measurements. It is highly relevant for the BGC-Argo program and also applicable to gliders. We also explore if diurnal changes in oxygen can be obtained from profiling floats.
Bin Wang, Katja Fennel, Liuqian Yu, and Christopher Gordon
Biogeosciences, 17, 4059–4074,Short summary
We assess trade-offs between different types of biological observations, specifically satellite ocean color and BGC-Argo profiles and the benefits of combining both for optimizing a biogeochemical model of the Gulf of Mexico. Using all available observations leads to significant improvements in observed and unobserved variables (including primary production and C export). Our results highlight the significant benefits of BGC-Argo measurements for biogeochemical model optimization and validation.
Bruce L. Greaves, Andrew T. Davidson, Alexander D. Fraser, John P. McKinlay, Andrew Martin, Andrew McMinn, and Simon W. Wright
Biogeosciences, 17, 3815–3835,Short summary
We observed that variation in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) over 11 years showed a relationship with the species composition of hard-shelled phytoplankton in the seasonal ice zone (SIZ) of the Southern Ocean. Phytoplankton in the SIZ are productive during the southern spring and summer when the area is ice-free, with production feeding most Antarctic life. The SAM is known to be increasing with climate change, and changes in phytoplankton in the SIZ may have implications for higher life forms.
Vincent Taillandier, Louis Prieur, Fabrizio D'Ortenzio, Maurizio Ribera d'Alcalà, and Elvira Pulido-Villena
Biogeosciences, 17, 3343–3366,Short summary
This study addresses the role played by vertical diffusion in the nutrient enrichment of the Levantine intermediate waters, a process particularly relevant inside thermohaline staircases. Thanks to a high profiling frequency over a 4-year period, BGC-Argo float observations reveal the temporal continuity of the layering patterns encountered during the cruise PEACETIME and their impact on vertical and lateral transfers of nitrate between the deep reservoir and the surface productive zone.
Coraline Leseurre, Claire Lo Monaco, Gilles Reverdin, Nicolas Metzl, Jonathan Fin, Solveig Olafsdottir, and Virginie Racapé
Biogeosciences, 17, 2553–2577,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the evolution of CO2 uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Subpolar surface water. Our results show an important reduction in the capacity of the ocean to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere (1993–2007), due to a rapid increase in the fCO2 and associated with a rapid decrease in pH. Conversely, data obtained during the last decade (2008–2017) show a stagnation of fCO2 (increasing the ocean sink for CO2) and pH.
Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Araceli Rodríguez-Romero, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Franck Fu, Emilio Marañón, María Pérez-Lorenzo, Matthieu Bressac, Thibaut Wagener, Sylvain Triquet, Guillaume Siour, Karine Desboeufs, and Cécile Guieu
Biogeosciences, 17, 2349–2364,Short summary
Residence times of particulate metals derived from aerosol deposition in the Sea Surface Microlayer of the Mediterranean Sea ranged from a couple of minutes (e.g., for Fe) to a few hours (e.g., for Cu). Microbial activity seems to play an important role in in this process and in the concentration and distribution of metals between diferent water layers.
Pieter Demuynck, Toby Tyrrell, Alberto Naveira Garabato, Mark Christopher Moore, and Adrian Peter Martin
Biogeosciences, 17, 2289–2314,Short summary
The availability of macronutrients N and Si is of key importance to sustain life in the Southern Ocean. N and Si are available in abundance at the southern boundary of the Southern Ocean due to constant supply from the deep ocean. In the more northern regions of the Southern Ocean, a decline in macronutrient concentration is noticed, especially strong for Si rather than N. This paper uses a simplified biogeochemical model to investigate processes responsible for this decline in concentration.
Martine Lizotte, Maurice Levasseur, Virginie Galindo, Margaux Gourdal, Michel Gosselin, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Marjolaine Blais, Joannie Charette, and Rachel Hussherr
Biogeosciences, 17, 1557–1581,Short summary
This study brings further support to the premise that the prevalence of younger and thinner icescapes over older and thicker ones in the Canadian High Arctic favors the early development of under-ice microorganisms as well as their production of the climate-relevant gas dimethylsulfide (DMS). Given the rapid rate of climate-driven changes in Arctic sea ice, our results suggest implications for the timing and magnitude of DMS pulses in the Arctic, with ramifications for climate forecasting.
Mark J. Hopwood, Nicolas Sanchez, Despo Polyviou, Øystein Leiknes, Julián Alberto Gallego-Urrea, Eric P. Achterberg, Murat V. Ardelan, Javier Aristegui, Lennart Bach, Sengul Besiktepe, Yohann Heriot, Ioanna Kalantzi, Tuba Terbıyık Kurt, Ioulia Santi, Tatiana M. Tsagaraki, and David Turner
Biogeosciences, 17, 1309–1326,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is formed naturally in sunlight-exposed water by photochemistry. At high concentrations it is undesirable to biological cells because it is a stressor. Here, across a range of incubation experiments in diverse marine environments (Gran Canaria, the Mediterranean, Patagonia and Svalbard), we determine that two factors consistently affect the H2O2 concentrations irrespective of geographical location: bacteria abundance and experiment design.
Manon Tonnard, Hélène Planquette, Andrew R. Bowie, Pier van der Merwe, Morgane Gallinari, Floriane Desprez de Gésincourt, Yoan Germain, Arthur Gourain, Marion Benetti, Gilles Reverdin, Paul Tréguer, Julia Boutorh, Marie Cheize, François Lacan, Jan-Lukas Menzel Barraqueta, Leonardo Pereira-Contreira, Rachel Shelley, Pascale Lherminier, and Géraldine Sarthou
Biogeosciences, 17, 917–943,Short summary
We investigated the spatial distribution of dissolved Fe during spring 2014, in order to understand the processes influencing the biogeochemical cycle in the North Atlantic. Our results highlighted elevated Fe close to riverine inputs at the Iberian Margin and glacial inputs at the Newfoundland and Greenland margins. Atmospheric deposition appeared to be a minor source of Fe. Convection was an important source of Fe in the Irminger Sea, which was depleted in Fe relative to nitrate.
Carolin R. Löscher, Wiebke Mohr, Hermann W. Bange, and Donald E. Canfield
Biogeosciences, 17, 851–864,Short summary
Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are ocean areas severely depleted in oxygen as a result of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Biologically, organic material is produced in the sea surface and exported to deeper waters, where it respires. In the Bay of Bengal (BoB), an OMZ is present, but there are traces of oxygen left. Our study now suggests that this is because one key process, nitrogen fixation, is absent in the BoB, thus preventing primary production and consecutive respiration.
Lothar Stramma, Sunke Schmidtko, Steven J. Bograd, Tsuneo Ono, Tetjana Ross, Daisuke Sasano, and Frank A. Whitney
Biogeosciences, 17, 813–831,Short summary
The influence of climate signals in the Pacific, especially the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, as well as El Niño–La Niña and an 18.6-year nodal tidal cycle on oxygen and nutrient trends is investigated. At different locations in the Pacific Ocean different climate signals dominate. Hence, not only trends related to warming but also the influence of climate signals need to be investigated to understand oxygen and nutrient changes in the ocean.
Marie-Hélène Radenac, Julien Jouanno, Christine Carine Tchamabi, Mesmin Awo, Bernard Bourlès, Sabine Arnault, and Olivier Aumont
Biogeosciences, 17, 529–545,Short summary
Satellite data and a remarkable set of in situ measurements show a main bloom of microscopic seaweed, the phytoplankton, in summer and a secondary bloom in December in the central equatorial Atlantic. They are driven by a strong vertical supply of nitrate in May–July and a shorter and moderate supply in November. In between, transport of low-nitrate water from the west explains most nitrate losses in the sunlit layer. Horizontal eddy-induced processes also contribute to seasonal nitrate removal.
Andrés S. Rigual Hernández, Thomas W. Trull, Scott D. Nodder, José A. Flores, Helen Bostock, Fátima Abrantes, Ruth S. Eriksen, Francisco J. Sierro, Diana M. Davies, Anne-Marie Ballegeer, Miguel A. Fuertes, and Lisa C. Northcote
Biogeosciences, 17, 245–263,Short summary
Coccolithophores account for a major fraction of the carbonate produced in the world's oceans. However, their contribution in the subantarctic Southern Ocean remains undocumented. We quantitatively partition calcium carbonate fluxes amongst coccolithophore species in the Australian–New Zealand sector of the Southern Ocean. We provide new insights into the importance of species other than Emiliania huxleyi in the carbon cycle and assess their possible response to projected environmental change.
Susana Agustí, Jeffrey W. Krause, Israel A. Marquez, Paul Wassmann, Svein Kristiansen, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 35–45,Short summary
We found that 24 % of the total diatoms community in the Arctic water column (450 m depth) was located below the photic layer. Healthy diatom communities in active spring–bloom stages remained in the photic layer. Dying diatom communities exported a large fraction of the biomass to the aphotic zone, fuelling carbon sequestration and benthic ecosystems in the Arctic. The results of the study conform to a conceptual model where diatoms grow during the bloom until silicic acid stocks are depleted.
Xinwei Wang, Feixue Fu, Pingping Qu, Joshua D. Kling, Haibo Jiang, Yahui Gao, and David A. Hutchins
Biogeosciences, 16, 4393–4409,Short summary
In this study, we examine the responses of E. huxleyi to a future warmer and more thermally variable ocean. Elevated temperatures and thermal variation have negative effects on growth rate and physiology that are especially pronounced at high temperatures, but high-frequency thermal variation may reduce the risk of extreme high-temperature events. These findings have potentially large implications for ocean productivity and marine biogeochemical cycles under a future changing climate.
Federico Baltar and Gerhard J. Herndl
Biogeosciences, 16, 3793–3799,Short summary
Around half of the global primary production (PP) is produced in the ocean. Here we quantified how much oceanic PP estimates would increase if we included the dark DIC fixation rates (which are usually excluded in the carbon-14 method) into the PP estimation. We found that the inclusion of dark DIC fixation would increase PP estimates by 5–22 %. This represents ca. 1.2 to 11 Pg C yr−1 of newly synthesized organic carbon available for the marine food web.
Renaud Person, Olivier Aumont, Gurvan Madec, Martin Vancoppenolle, Laurent Bopp, and Nacho Merino
Biogeosciences, 16, 3583–3603,Short summary
The Antarctic Ice Sheet is considered a possibly important but largely overlooked source of iron (Fe). Here we explore its fertilization capacity by evaluating the response of marine biogeochemistry to Fe release from icebergs and ice shelves in a global ocean model. Large regional impacts are simulated, leading to only modest primary production and carbon export increases at the scale of the Southern Ocean. Large uncertainties are due to low observational constraints on modeling choices.
Robyn E. Tuerena, Raja S. Ganeshram, Matthew P. Humphreys, Thomas J. Browning, Heather Bouman, and Alexander P. Piotrowski
Biogeosciences, 16, 3621–3635,Short summary
The carbon isotopes in algae can be used to predict food sources and environmental change. We explore how dissolved carbon is taken up by algae in the South Atlantic Ocean and how this affects their carbon isotope signature. We find that cell size controls isotope fractionation. We use our results to investigate how climate change may impact the carbon isotopes in algae. We suggest a shift to smaller algae in this region would decrease the carbon isotope ratio at the base of the food web.
Daniela Niemeyer, Iris Kriest, and Andreas Oschlies
Biogeosciences, 16, 3095–3111,Short summary
Recent studies suggest spatial variations of the marine particle flux length scale. Using a global biogeochemical ocean model, we investigate whether changes in particle size and size-dependent sinking can explain this variation. We address uncertainties by varying aggregate properties and circulation. Both aspects have an impact on the representation of nutrients, oxygen and oxygen minimum zones. The formation and sinking of large aggregates in productive areas lead to deeper flux penetration.
Jamie D. Wilson, Stephen Barker, Neil R. Edwards, Philip B. Holden, and Andy Ridgwell
Biogeosciences, 16, 2923–2936,Short summary
The remains of plankton rain down from the surface ocean to the deep ocean, acting to store CO2 in the deep ocean. We used a model of biology and ocean circulation to explore the importance of this process in different regions of the ocean. The amount of CO2 stored in the deep ocean is most sensitive to changes in the Southern Ocean. As plankton in the Southern Ocean are likely those most impacted by future climate change, the amount of CO2 they store in the deep ocean could also be affected.
Natalie C. Harms, Niko Lahajnar, Birgit Gaye, Tim Rixen, Kirstin Dähnke, Markus Ankele, Ulrich Schwarz-Schampera, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Biogeosciences, 16, 2715–2732,Short summary
The Indian Ocean subtropical gyre is a large oligotrophic area that is likely to adjust to continued warming by increasing stratification, reduced nutrient supply and decreasing biological production. In this study, we investigated concentrations of nutrients and stable isotopes of nitrate. We determine the lateral influence of water masses entering the gyre from the northern Indian Ocean and from the Southern Ocean and quantify the input of nitrogen by N2 fixation into the surface layer.
Yingxu Wu, Mathis P. Hain, Matthew P. Humphreys, Sue Hartman, and Toby Tyrrell
Biogeosciences, 16, 2661–2681,Short summary
This study takes advantage of the GLODAPv2 database to investigate the processes driving the surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon distribution, with the focus on its latitudinal gradient between the polar oceans and the low-latitude oceans. Based on our quantitative study, we find that temperature-driven CO2 gas exchange and high-latitude upwelling of DIC- and TA-rich deep waters are the two major drivers, with the importance of the latter not having been previously realized.
Qixing Ji, Mark A. Altabet, Hermann W. Bange, Michelle I. Graco, Xiao Ma, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, and Damian S. Grundle
Biogeosciences, 16, 2079–2093,Short summary
A strong El Niño event occurred in the Peruvian coastal region in 2015–2016, during which higher sea surface temperatures co-occurred with significantly lower sea-to-air fluxes of nitrous oxide, an important greenhouse gas and ozone depletion agent. Stratified water column during El Niño retained a larger amount of nitrous oxide that was produced via multiple microbial pathways; and intense nitrous oxide effluxes could occur when normal upwelling is resumed after El Niño.
Ulrike Löptien and Heiner Dietze
Biogeosciences, 16, 1865–1881,Short summary
Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions trigger complex climate feedbacks. Output form Earth system models provides a basis for related political decision-making. One challenge is to arrive at reliable model parameter estimates for the ocean biogeochemistry module. We illustrate pitfalls through which flaws in the ocean module are masked by wrongly tuning the biogeochemistry and discuss ensuing uncertainties in climate projections.
Arthur Gourain, Hélène Planquette, Marie Cheize, Nolwenn Lemaitre, Jan-Lukas Menzel Barraqueta, Rachel Shelley, Pascale Lherminier, and Géraldine Sarthou
Biogeosciences, 16, 1563–1582,Short summary
The GEOVIDE cruise (May–June 2014, R/V Pourquoi Pas?) aimed to provide a better understanding of trace metal biogeochemical cycles in the North Atlantic. As particles play a key role in the global biogeochemical cycle of trace elements in the ocean, we discuss the distribution of particulate iron (PFe). Lithogenic sources appear to dominate the PFe cycle through margin and benthic inputs.
Jan-Lukas Menzel Barraqueta, Jessica K. Klar, Martha Gledhill, Christian Schlosser, Rachel Shelley, Hélène F. Planquette, Bernhard Wenzel, Geraldine Sarthou, and Eric P. Achterberg
Biogeosciences, 16, 1525–1542,Short summary
We used surface water dissolved aluminium concentrations collected in four different GEOTRACES cruises to determine atmospheric deposition fluxes to the ocean. We calculate atmospheric deposition fluxes for largely under-sampled regions of the Atlantic Ocean and thus provide new constraints for models of atmospheric deposition. The use of the MADCOW model is of major importance as dissolved aluminium is analysed within the GEOTRACES project at high spatial resolution.
Karin F. Kvale, Katherine E. Turner, Angela Landolfi, and Katrin J. Meissner
Biogeosciences, 16, 1019–1034,Short summary
Drivers motivating the evolution of calcifying phytoplankton are poorly understood. We explore differences in global ocean chemistry with and without calcifiers during rapid climate changes. We find the presence of phytoplankton calcifiers stabilizes the volume of low oxygen regions and consequently stabilizes the concentration of nitrate, which is an important nutrient required for photosynthesis. By stabilizing nitrate concentrations, calcifiers improve their growth conditions.
Adam, B., Klawonn, I., Svedén, J. B., Bergkvist, J., Nahar, N., Walve, J., Littmann, S., Whitehouse, M. J., Lavik, G., and Kuypers, M. M.: N2-fixation, ammonium release and N-transfer to the microbial and classical food web within a plankton community, ISME J., 10, 450–459, https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2015.126, 2015.
Bell, P. R. and Fu, F.-X.: Effect of light on growth, pigmentation and N2 fixation of cultured Trichodesmium sp. from the Great Barrier Reef lagoon, Hydrobiologia, 543, 25–35, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-004-5713-2, 2005.
Benavides, M., Bronk, D. A., Agawin, N. S., Pérez-Hernández, M. D., Hernández-Guerra, A., and Arístegui, J.: Longitudinal variability of size-fractionated N2 fixation and DON release rates along 24.5∘ N in the subtropical North Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 3406–3415, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrc.20253, 2013.
Berthelot, H., Bonnet, S., Camps, M., Grosso, O., and Moutin, T.: Assessment of the dinitrogen released as ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen by unicellular and filamentous marine diazotrophic cyanobacteria grown in culture, Front. Mar. Sci., 2, 80, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2015.00080, 2015.
Berthelot, H., Bonnet, S., Grosso, O., Cornet, V., and Barani, A.: Transfer of diazotroph-derived nitrogen towards non-diazotrophic planktonic communities: a comparative study between Trichodesmium erythraeum, Crocosphaera watsonii and Cyanothece sp., Biogeosciences, 13, 4005–4021, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-4005-2016, 2016.
Bonnet, S., Berthelot, H., Turk-Kubo, K., Cornet-Barthaux, V., Fawcett, S., Berman-Frank, I., Barani, A., Grégori, G., Dekaezemacker, J., and Benavides, M.: Diazotroph derived nitrogen supports diatom growth in the South West Pacific: a quantitative study using nanoSIMS, Limnol. Oceanogr., 61, 1549–1562, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10300, 2016a.
Bonnet, S., Baklouti, M., Gimenez, A., Berthelot, H., and Berman-Frank, I.: Biogeochemical and biological impacts of diazotroph blooms in a low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll ecosystem: synthesis from the VAHINE mesocosm experiment (New Caledonia), Biogeosciences, 13, 4461–4479, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-4461-2016, 2016b.
Bonnet, S., Berthelot, H., Turk-Kubo, K., Fawcett, S., Rahav, E., L'Helguen, S., and Berman-Frank, I.: Dynamics of N2 fixation and fate of diazotroph-derived nitrogen in a low-nutrient, low-chlorophyll ecosystem: results from the VAHINE mesocosm experiment (New Caledonia), Biogeosciences, 13, 2653–2673, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-2653-2016, 2016c.
Böttjer, D., Dore, J. E., Karl, D. M., Letelier, R. M., Mahaffey, C., Wilson, S. T., Zehr, J., and Church, M. J.: Temporal variability of nitrogen fixation and particulate nitrogen export at Station ALOHA, Limnol. Oceanogr., 62, 200–216, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10386, 2016.
Capone, D. G., Ferrier, M. D., and Carpenter, E. J.: Amino acid cycling in colonies of the planktonic marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium thiebautii, Appl. Environ. Microb., 60, 3989–3995, 1994.
Capone, D. G., Burns, J. A., Montoya, J. P., Subramaniam, A., Mahaffey, C., Gunderson, T., Michaels, A. F., and Carpenter, E. J.: Nitrogen fixation by Trichodesmium spp.: An important source of new nitrogen to the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, Global BIogeochem. Cy., 19, GB2024, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002331, 2005.
Carpenter, E. J. and Price, C. C.: Nitrogen Fixation, Distribution, and Production of Oscillatoria (Trichodesmium) Spp. in the Western Sargasso and Caribbean Seas, Limnol. Oceanogr., 22, 60–72, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1977.22.1.0060, 1977.
Carpenter, E. J. and Roenneberg, T.: The marine planktonic cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp.: photosynthetic rate measurements in the SW Atlantic Ocean, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 118, 267–273, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps118267, 1995.
Carpenter, E. J., ONeil, J. M., Dawson, R., Capone, D. G., Siddiqui, P. J. A., Roenneberg, T., and Bergman, B.: The tropical diazotrophic phytoplankter Trichodesmium: biological characteristics of two common species, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser, 95, 295–304, https://doi.org/10.3354/meps095295, 1993.
Church, M. J., Jenkins, B. D., Karl, D. M., and Zehr, J. P.: Vertical distributions of nitrogen-fixing phylotypes at Stn ALOHA in the oligotrophic North Pacific Ocean, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 38, 3–14, https://doi.org/10.3354/ame038003, 2005a.
Dabundo, R., Lehmann, M. F., Treibergs, L., Tobias, C. R., Altabet, M. A., Moisander, P. H., and Granger, J.: The Contamination of Commercial 15N2 Gas Stocks with 15N–Labeled Nitrate and Ammonium and Consequences for Nitrogen Fixation Measurements, PloS one, 9, e110335, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110335, 2014.
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We investigated the light response of field Trichodesmium N2 fixation and net dissolved nitrogen release behavior. Our results suggest that N2 fixation was a function of light intensity, and the light requirement of Trichodesmium nitrogen fixation was high relative to its photosynthetic light demand. Meanwhile, light is a crucial parameter driving the physiological state of Trichodesmium, which subsequently determined the C / N metabolism and net dissolved nitrogen release.
We investigated the light response of field Trichodesmium N2 fixation and net dissolved nitrogen...