Articles | Volume 15, issue 2
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Interactive network configuration maintains bacterioplankton community structure under elevated CO2 in a eutrophic coastal mesocosm experiment
State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of Ocean & Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China
State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of Ocean & Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China
State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of Ocean & Earth Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, China
College of Oceanography, Hohai University, No. 1 Xikang Road, Nanjing 210000, China
David A. Hutchins
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, 3616 Trousdale Parkway, AHF 301, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0371, USA
Y. Li, S. Zhuang, Y. Wu, H. Ren, F. Cheng, X. Lin, K. Wang, J. Beardall, and K. Gao
Revised manuscript not accepted
David A. Hutchins, Fei-Xue Fu, Shun-Chung Yang, Seth G. John, Stephen J. Romaniello, M. Grace Andrews, and Nathan G. Walworth
Biogeosciences, 20, 4669–4682,Short summary
Applications of the mineral olivine are a promising means to capture carbon dioxide via coastal enhanced weathering, but little is known about the impacts on important marine phytoplankton. We examined the effects of olivine dissolution products on species from three major phytoplankton groups: diatoms, coccolithophores, and cyanobacteria. Growth and productivity were generally either unaffected or stimulated, suggesting the effects of olivine on key phytoplankton are negligible or positive.
Yifan Ma, Kuanbo Zhou, Weifang Chen, Junhui Chen, Jin-Yu Terence Yang, and Minhan Dai
Biogeosciences, 20, 2013–2030,Short summary
We distinguished particulate organic carbon (POC) export fluxes out of the nutrient-depleted layer (NDL) and the euphotic zone. The amount of POC export flux at the NDL base suggests that the NDL could be a hotspot of particle export. The substantial POC export flux at the NDL base challenges traditional concepts that the NDL was limited in terms of POC export. The dominant nutrient source for POC export fluxes should be subsurface nutrients, which was determined by 15N isotopic mass balance.
Zhixuan Wang, Guizhi Wang, Xianghui Guo, Yan Bai, Yi Xu, and Minhan Dai
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 15, 1711–1731,Short summary
We reconstructed monthly sea surface pCO2 data with a high spatial resolution in the South China Sea (SCS) from 2003 to 2020. We validate our reconstruction with three independent testing datasets and present a new method to assess the uncertainty of the data. The results strongly suggest that our reconstruction effectively captures the main features of the spatiotemporal patterns of pCO2 in the SCS. Using this dataset, we found that the SCS is overall a weak source of atmospheric CO2.
Guang Gao, Tifeng Wang, Jiazhen Sun, Xin Zhao, Lifang Wang, Xianghui Guo, and Kunshan Gao
Biogeosciences, 19, 2795–2804,Short summary
After conducting large-scale deck-incubation experiments, we found that seawater acidification (SA) increased primary production (PP) in coastal waters but reduced it in pelagic zones, which is mainly regulated by local pH, light intensity, salinity, and community structure. In future oceans, SA combined with decreased upward transports of nutrients may synergistically reduce PP in pelagic zones.
Yangyang Zhao, Khanittha Uthaipan, Zhongming Lu, Yan Li, Jing Liu, Hongbin Liu, Jianping Gan, Feifei Meng, and Minhan Dai
Biogeosciences, 18, 2755–2775,Short summary
In situ oxygen consumption rates were estimated for the first time during destruction of coastal hypoxia as disturbed by a typhoon and its reinstatement in the South China Sea off the Pearl River estuary. The reinstatement of summer hypoxia was rapid with a comparable timescale with that of its initial disturbance from frequent tropical cyclones, which has important implications for better understanding the intermittent nature of coastal hypoxia and its prediction in a changing climate.
Guizhi Wang, Samuel S. P. Shen, Yao Chen, Yan Bai, Huan Qin, Zhixuan Wang, Baoshan Chen, Xianghui Guo, and Minhan Dai
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1403–1417,Short summary
This study reconstructs a complete field of summer sea surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) over the South China Sea (SCS) with a 0.5° resolution in the period of 2000–2017 using the scattered underway pCO2 observations. The spectral optimal gridding method was used in this reconstruction with empirical orthogonal functions computed from remote sensing data. Our reconstructed data show that the rate of sea surface pCO2 increase in the SCS is 2.4 ± 0.8 µatm yr-1 during 2000–2017.
Yong Zhang, Sinéad Collins, and Kunshan Gao
Biogeosciences, 17, 6357–6375,Short summary
Our results show that ocean acidification, warming, increased light exposure and reduced nutrient availability significantly reduce the growth rate but increase particulate organic and inorganic carbon in cells in the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi, indicating biogeochemical consequences of future ocean changes on the calcifying microalga. Concurrent changes in nutrient concentrations and pCO2 levels predominantly affected E. huxleyi growth, photosynthetic carbon fixation and calcification.
Yanhong Lu, Shunyan Cheung, Ling Chen, Shuh-Ji Kao, Xiaomin Xia, Jianping Gan, Minhan Dai, and Hongbin Liu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6017–6032,Short summary
Through a comprehensive investigation, we observed differential niche partitioning among diverse ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) sublineages in a typical subtropical estuary. Distinct AOA communities observed at DNA and RNA levels suggested that a strong divergence in ammonia-oxidizing activity among different AOA groups occurs. Our result highlights the importance of identifying major ammonia oxidizers at RNA level in future studies.
Noelle A. Held, Eric A. Webb, Matthew M. McIlvin, David A. Hutchins, Natalie R. Cohen, Dawn M. Moran, Korinna Kunde, Maeve C. Lohan, Claire Mahaffey, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, and Mak A. Saito
Biogeosciences, 17, 2537–2551,Short summary
Trichodesmium is a globally important marine nitrogen fixer that stimulates primary production in the surface ocean. We surveyed metaproteomes of Trichodesmium populations across the North Atlantic and other oceans, and we found that they experience simultaneous phosphate and iron stress because of the biophysical limits of nutrient uptake. Importantly, nitrogenase was most abundant during co-stress, indicating the potential importance of this phenotype to global nitrogen and carbon cycling.
Xiangqi Yi, Fei-Xue Fu, David A. Hutchins, and Kunshan Gao
Biogeosciences, 17, 1169–1180,Short summary
Combined effects of warming and light intensity were estimated in N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Its physiological responses to warming were significantly modulated by light, with growth peaking at 27 °C under the light-saturating condition but being non-responsive across the range of 23–31 °C under the light-limiting condition. Light shortage also weakened the acclimation ability of Trichodesmium to warming, making light-limited Trichodesmium more sensitive to acute temperature change.
Li Ma, Hua Lin, Xiabing Xie, Minhan Dai, and Yao Zhang
Biogeosciences, 16, 4765–4781,Short summary
The major microbial process producing N2O in estuarine ecosystems remains controversial. Combining the concentrations and isotopic compositions of N2O, distributions and transcript levels of ammonia-oxidizing bacterial and archaeal amoA and denitrifier nirS genes, and in situ incubation estimates of nitrification rates and N2O production rates, we clarified that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria contributed the major part in N2O production in the upper Pearl River estuary despite their low abundance.
Xinwei Wang, Feixue Fu, Pingping Qu, Joshua D. Kling, Haibo Jiang, Yahui Gao, and David A. Hutchins
Biogeosciences, 16, 4393–4409,Short summary
In this study, we examine the responses of E. huxleyi to a future warmer and more thermally variable ocean. Elevated temperatures and thermal variation have negative effects on growth rate and physiology that are especially pronounced at high temperatures, but high-frequency thermal variation may reduce the risk of extreme high-temperature events. These findings have potentially large implications for ocean productivity and marine biogeochemical cycles under a future changing climate.
Jiekai Xu, John Beardall, and Kunshan Gao
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A lot of papers studying Ocean acidification (OA) have been published while no related reports can be found on the combined effects of OA with decreased salinity on coccolithophores yet.Thus, we investigated the physiological responses of an Emiliania huxleyi strain grown at 2CO2 concentrations and 3 levels of salinity and found cells could tolerate reduced salinity under OA as its increased light capturing capability, which suggests a potential niche extension of coccolithophores in the future.
Shanying Tong, David A. Hutchins, and Kunshan Gao
Biogeosciences, 16, 561–572,Short summary
Most previous studies concerning the effects of environmental changes on marine organisms have been carried out under
photosynthetically active radiation onlyconditions, with solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) not being considered. In this study, we found that UVR can counteract the negative effects of the
greenhousetreatment on the calcification rate to photosynthesis rate ratio, and may be a key stressor when considering the impacts of future greenhouse conditions on E. huxleyi.
Sheng-Hui Zhang, Juan Yu, Qiong-Yao Ding, Gui-Peng Yang, Kun-Shan Gao, Hong-Hai Zhang, and Da-Wei Pan
Biogeosciences, 15, 6649–6658,Short summary
Environmental effects of ocean acidification and trace gases have drawn much attention in recent years and existing studies reveal that the response of communities and trace gases to ocean acidification is still not predictable and requires further study. The present study examined the effect of elevated pCO2 on trace gas production and phytoplankton during an ocean acidification mesocosm experiment.
Chris J. Daniels, Alex J. Poulton, William M. Balch, Emilio Marañón, Tim Adey, Bruce C. Bowler, Pedro Cermeño, Anastasia Charalampopoulou, David W. Crawford, Dave Drapeau, Yuanyuan Feng, Ana Fernández, Emilio Fernández, Glaucia M. Fragoso, Natalia González, Lisa M. Graziano, Rachel Heslop, Patrick M. Holligan, Jason Hopkins, María Huete-Ortega, David A. Hutchins, Phoebe J. Lam, Michael S. Lipsen, Daffne C. López-Sandoval, Socratis Loucaides, Adrian Marchetti, Kyle M. J. Mayers, Andrew P. Rees, Cristina Sobrino, Eithne Tynan, and Toby Tyrrell
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1859–1876,Short summary
Calcifying marine algae (coccolithophores) are key to oceanic biogeochemical processes, such as calcium carbonate production and export. We compile a global database of calcium carbonate production from field samples (n = 2756), alongside primary production rates and coccolithophore abundance. Basic statistical analysis highlights global distribution, average surface and integrated rates, patterns with depth and the importance of considering cell-normalised rates as a simple physiological index.
Guizhi Wang, Shuling Wang, Zhangyong Wang, Wenping Jing, Yi Xu, Zhouling Zhang, Ehui Tan, and Minhan Dai
Biogeosciences, 15, 997–1009,Short summary
Time-series observations of nutrients and 228Ra, a groundwater discharge tracer, were carried out from spring to neap tide in the Luhuitou fringing reef at Sanya Bay in the South China Sea. Nitrate, phosphate, and silicate in the water column showed greater diurnal variation during the spring tide. Biological processes predominantly controlled the composition of nutrients, but there was less of an impact in the spring tide due to groundwater discharge in this reef system.
Yong Zhang, Feixue Fu, David A. Hutchins, and Kunshan Gao
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
To investigate responses of the calcifying E. huxleyi to multiple environmental factors, we investigated its growth, POC and PIC quotas and photosynthesis parameter at different levels of CO2, light, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphate concentrations. High CO2 (HC) and low nitrogen (LN) synergistically decreased growth rates, high light compensated for inhibition of low phosphate (LP) on growth rates at LC, but exacerbated inhibition of LP at HC. LN or LP increased PIC quotas and ETRmax.
Zhi Zhu, Pingping Qu, Jasmine Gale, Feixue Fu, and David A. Hutchins
Biogeosciences, 14, 5281–5295,Short summary
This study focused on the individual and interactive effects of warming and CO2 variations on the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia subcurvata and the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis antarctica. The results showed that both optimum and maximum growth temperatures of P. subcurvata were significantly higher than those of P. antarctica. CO2 functional response curves at two temperatures showed a significant interactive effect between warming and CO2. This study can help us to predict what will happen in future.
Yaping Wu, Furong Yue, Juntian Xu, and John Beardall
Biogeosciences, 14, 5029–5037,Short summary
Diatoms were less inhibited by UV radiation under moderately increased temperature. Benthic diatoms were more resistant to UV radiation than planktonic species under extremely high temperature as found in the intertidal zone. These differential responses were linked to repair and damage processes of photosystem II.
Xiaoni Cai, David A. Hutchins, Feixue Fu, and Kunshan Gao
Biogeosciences, 14, 4455–4466,Short summary
Trichodesmium is significant marine N2 fixer. We conducted short- and long-term UV exposure experiment to investigate how UV affects this organism. Our results showed N2 fixation and carbon fixation rates were significantly reduced under UV radiation. As a defense strategy, Trichodesmium is able to synthesize UV-absorbing compounds to protect from UV damage. Our results suggest that shipboard experiments in UV-opaque containers may have substantially overestimated in situ N2 fixation rate.
Jianzhong Su, Minhan Dai, Biyan He, Lifang Wang, Jianping Gan, Xianghui Guo, Huade Zhao, and Fengling Yu
Biogeosciences, 14, 4085–4099,Short summary
We provide direct and quantitative assessments showing the marine organic matter from eutrophication-induced primary production dominated oxygen consumption in the hypoxic zone, while the terrestrially sourced organic matter also significantly contributed to the formation and maintenance of hypoxia in the lower Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the adjacent coastal water.
Futian Li, Yaping Wu, David A. Hutchins, Feixue Fu, and Kunshan Gao
Biogeosciences, 13, 6247–6259,Short summary
Ongoing ocean acidification is being superimposed on the natural carbonate buffer system to influence the physiology of phytoplankton. Here, we show that coastal and oceanic diatoms respond differentially to diurnal fluctuating carbonate chemistry in current and ocean acidification scenarios. We propose that the ability to acclimate to dynamic carbonate chemistry may act as one determinant of the spatial distribution of diatom species.
Guang Gao, Peng Jin, Nana Liu, Futian Li, Shanying Tong, David A. Hutchins, and Kunshan Gao
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Our shipboard experiments showed high temperature and CO2 (HTHC) did not affect phytoplankton biomass at nearshore station but decreased it at offshore station. HT did not change dark respiration at nearshore station but enhanced it at offshore station. Our findings indicate that responses of coastal and offshore phytoplankton assemblages to ocean warming and acidification may be contrasting, with the pelagic phytoplankton communities being more sensitive to these two global change factors.
Xiaobo Jin, Chuanlian Liu, Alex J. Poulton, Minhan Dai, and Xianghui Guo
Biogeosciences, 13, 4843–4861,Short summary
The vertical structure of the coccolithophore community in the water column was controlled by trophic conditions, which were regulated by mesoscale eddies across the South China Sea basin. Three key species (Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Florisphaera profunda) contributed roughly half of the surface ocean coccolith-calcite concentrations. E. huxleyi coccolith length is influenced by light and nutrients through the regulation of growth rates.
Juntian Xu, Lennart T. Bach, Kai G. Schulz, Wenyan Zhao, Kunshan Gao, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 4637–4643,
Khan M. G. Mostofa, Cong-Qiang Liu, WeiDong Zhai, Marco Minella, Davide Vione, Kunshan Gao, Daisuke Minakata, Takemitsu Arakaki, Takahito Yoshioka, Kazuhide Hayakawa, Eiichi Konohira, Eiichiro Tanoue, Anirban Akhand, Abhra Chanda, Baoli Wang, and Hiroshi Sakugawa
Biogeosciences, 13, 1767–1786,
Shuh-Ji Kao, Tzu-Ling Chiang, Da-Wei Li, Yi-Chia Hsin, Li-Wei Zheng, Jin-Yu Terence Yang, Shih-Chieh Hsu, Chau-Ron Wu, and Minhan Dai
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
A 3-D model was run for the South China Sea to explore the effects of sea level drop and monsoon wind intensity on glacial patterns of circulation and ventilation. Winter northeasterly monsoon wind intensity governs the volume transport of Kuroshio intrusion through the Luzon Strait, subsequently, the water exchange rate and the mean residence time of water body of the SCS.
X.-H. Guo, W.-D. Zhai, M.-H. Dai, C. Zhang, Y. Bai, Y. Xu, Q. Li, and G.-Z. Wang
Biogeosciences, 12, 5495–5514,Short summary
We report the most comprehensive data set of surface seawater pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the East China Sea (ECS) based on 24 surveys conducted in 2006-2011. We categorized the ECS into five different domains characterized by different physics and biogeochemistry to better characterize the seasonality of the pCO2 dynamics and to better constrain the CO2 flux. The annual average CO2 influx into the entire ECS shelf was 6.9+/-4.0 mmol m-2 d-1, about twice the global average in an ocean margin.
Y. Li, S. Zhuang, Y. Wu, H. Ren, F. Cheng, X. Lin, K. Wang, J. Beardall, and K. Gao
Revised manuscript not accepted
W. Li, K. Gao, and J. Beardall
Biogeosciences, 12, 2383–2393,
Z. Cao, M. Dai, W. Evans, J. Gan, and R. Feely
Biogeosciences, 11, 6341–6354,
S. Chen, J. Beardall, and K. Gao
Biogeosciences, 11, 4829–4837,
N. Jiao, Y. Zhang, K. Zhou, Q. Li, M. Dai, J. Liu, J. Guo, and B. Huang
Biogeosciences, 11, 2465–2475,
S. S.-Y. Hsiao, T.-C. Hsu, J.-w. Liu, X. Xie, Y. Zhang, J. Lin, H. Wang, J.-Y. T. Yang, S.-C. Hsu, M. Dai, and S.-J. Kao
Biogeosciences, 11, 2083–2098,
J.-Y. T. Yang, S.-C. Hsu, M. H. Dai, S. S.-Y. Hsiao, and S.-J. Kao
Biogeosciences, 11, 1833–1846,
S.-J. Kao, R. G. Hilton, K. Selvaraj, M. Dai, F. Zehetner, J.-C. Huang, S.-C. Hsu, R. Sparkes, J. T. Liu, T.-Y. Lee, J.-Y. T. Yang, A. Galy, X. Xu, and N. Hovius
Earth Surf. Dynam., 2, 127–139,
Y.-F. Tseng, J. Lin, M. Dai, and S.-J. Kao
Biogeosciences, 11, 409–423,
A. Q. Han, M. H. Dai, J. P. Gan, S.-J. Kao, X. Z. Zhao, S. Jan, Q. Li, H. Lin, C.-T. A. Chen, L. Wang, J. Y. Hu, L. F. Wang, and F. Gong
Biogeosciences, 10, 8159–8170,
W.-D. Zhai, M.-H. Dai, B.-S. Chen, X.-H. Guo, Q. Li, S.-L. Shang, C.-Y. Zhang, W.-J. Cai, and D.-X. Wang
Biogeosciences, 10, 7775–7791,
K.-K. Liu, L.-W. Wang, M. Dai, C.-M. Tseng, Y. Yang, C.-H. Sui, L. Oey, K.-Y. Tseng, and S.-M. Huang
Biogeosciences, 10, 7449–7462,
C. Du, Z. Liu, M. Dai, S.-J. Kao, Z. Cao, Y. Zhang, T. Huang, L. Wang, and Y. Li
Biogeosciences, 10, 6419–6432,
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Biogeosciences, 20, 3683–3716,Short summary
There is an increasing number of fish in poor state, and many do not recover, even when fishing pressure is ceased. An Allee effect can hinder population recovery because it suppresses the fish's productivity at low abundance. With a model fitted to 17 Atlantic cod stocks, we find that ocean warming and fishing can cause an Allee effect. If present, the Allee effect hinders fish recovery. This shows that Allee effects are dynamic, not uncommon, and calls for precautionary management measures.
Afrah Alothman, Daffne López-Sandoval, Carlos M. Duarte, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 20, 3613–3624,Short summary
This study investigates bacterial dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fixation in the Red Sea, an oligotrophic ecosystem, using stable-isotope labeling and spectroscopy. The research reveals that bacterial DIC fixation significantly contributes to total DIC fixation, in the surface and deep water. The study demonstrates that as primary production decreases, the role of bacterial DIC fixation increases, emphasizing its importance with photosynthesis in estimating oceanic carbon dioxide production.
Arianna Zampollo, Thomas Cornulier, Rory O'Hara Murray, Jacqueline Fiona Tweddle, James Dunning, and Beth E. Scott
Biogeosciences, 20, 3593–3611,Short summary
This paper highlights the use of the bottom mixed layer depth (BMLD: depth between the end of the pycnocline and the mixed layer below) to investigate subsurface Chlorophyll a (a proxy of primary production) in temperate stratified shelf waters. The strict correlation between subsurface Chl a and BMLD becomes relevant in shelf-productive waters where multiple stressors (e.g. offshore infrastructure) will change the stratification--mixing balance and related carbon fluxes.
Marco Fusi, Sylvain Rigaud, Giovanna Guadagnin, Alberto Barausse, Ramona Marasco, Daniele Daffonchio, Julie Régis, Louison Huchet, Capucine Camin, Laura Pettit, Cristina Vina-Herbon, and Folco Giomi
Biogeosciences, 20, 3509–3521,Short summary
Oxygen availability in marine water and freshwater is very variable at daily and seasonal scales. The dynamic nature of oxygen fluctuations has important consequences for animal and microbe physiology and ecology, yet it is not fully understood. In this paper, we showed the heterogeneous nature of the aquatic oxygen landscape, which we defined here as the
oxyscape, and we addressed the importance of considering the oxyscape in the modelling and managing of aquatic ecosystems.
Xiaoke Xin, Giulia Faucher, and Ulf Riebesell
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Ocean alkalinity enhancement (OAE) is a promising approach to remove CO2 by accelerating natural rock weathering. However, some of the alkaline substances contain trace metals, which could be toxic to marine life. By exposing three representative phytoplankton species to Ni released from alkaline materials, we observed varying responses of phytoplankton to nickel concentrations, suggesting caution should be taken and toxic thresholds should be avoided in OAE with Ni-rich materials.
Vincent Mouchi, Christophe Pecheyran, Fanny Claverie, Cécile Cathalot, Marjolaine Matabos, Yoan Germain, Olivier Rouxel, Didier Jollivet, Thomas Broquet, and Thierry Comtet
The impact of deep-sea mining will depend critically on the ability of larval dispersal of hydrothermal molluscs to connect and replenish natural populations. However, assessing connectivity is extremely challenging, especially in the deep sea. Here, we investigate the potential of chemical composition of larval shells to discriminate larval origins between multiple hydrothermal sites in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. Our results confirm that this method can be applied with high accuracy.
Anne L. Morée, Tayler M. Clarke, William W. L. Cheung, and Thomas L. Frölicher
Biogeosciences, 20, 2425–2454,Short summary
Ocean temperature and oxygen shape marine habitats together with species’ characteristics. We calculated the impacts of projected 21st-century warming and oxygen loss on the contemporary habitat volume of 47 marine species and described the drivers of these impacts. Most species lose less than 5 % of their habitat at 2 °C of global warming, but some species incur losses 2–3 times greater than that. We also calculate which species may be most vulnerable to climate change and why this is the case.
Olmo Miguez-Salas, Angelika Brandt, Henry Knauber, and Torben Riehl
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
In the deep-sea, the interaction between benthic fauna (tracemaker) and substrate can be preserved as traces (i.e., lebensspuren) which are common features of deep seafloor landscapes, rendering them promising proxies to infer biodiversity. No general correlation could be observed between traces and benthic fauna. However, local correlation was observed between specific stations. Density was either positively or negatively correlated with tracemaker densities, depending on the traces.
Cale A. Miller, Pierre Urrutti, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, Steeve Comeau, Anaïs Lebrun, Samir Alliouane, Robert W. Schlegel, and Frédéric Gazeau
This work describes an experimental system used to replicate environmental conditions in marine or aquatic systems for the purposes of examining the effects of potentially harmful conditions on organisms and communities. The system is capable of manipulating temperature and salinity in real-time (or other conditions such as CO2) using an automated programming interface that controls the regulation of manipulated water. Here we show the accurate performance of the system.
Markus A. Min, David M. Needham, Sebastian Sudek, Nathan Kobun Truelove, Kathleen J. Pitz, Gabriela M. Chavez, Camille Poirier, Bente Gardeler, Elisabeth von der Esch, Andrea Ludwig, Ulf Riebesell, Alexandra Z. Worden, and Francisco P. Chavez
Biogeosciences, 20, 1277–1298,Short summary
Emerging molecular methods provide new ways of understanding how marine communities respond to changes in ocean conditions. Here, environmental DNA was used to track the temporal evolution of biological communities in the Peruvian coastal upwelling system and in an adjacent enclosure where upwelling was simulated. We found that the two communities quickly diverged, with the open ocean being one found during upwelling and the enclosure evolving to one found under stratified conditions.
Rachel A. Kruft Welton, George Hoppit, Daniela N. Schmidt, James D. Witts, and Benjamin C. Moon
We conducted a meta-analysis of known experimental literature examining how marine bivalve growth rates respond to climate change. Bivalve growth is usually negatively impacted by climate change. Eggs/larval of bivalves are more vulnerable overall than either juveniles or adults. Available data on bivalve response to climate stressors are bias towards early growth stages, commercially important in the global north, and many families have only single experiments examining climate change impacts.
Wojciech Majewski, Witold Szczuciński, and Andrew J. Gooday
Biogeosciences, 20, 523–544,Short summary
We studied foraminifera living in the fjords of South Georgia, a sub-Antarctic island sensitive to climate change. As conditions in water and on the seafloor vary, different associations of these microorganisms dominate far inside, in the middle, and near fjord openings. Assemblages in inner and middle parts of fjords are specific to South Georgia, but they may become widespread with anticipated warming. These results are important for interpretating fossil records and monitoring future change.
Allanah Joy Paul, Lennart Thomas Bach, Javier Arístegui, Elisabeth von der Esch, Nauzet Hernández-Hernández, Jonna Piiparinen, Laura Ramajo, Kristian Spilling, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 19, 5911–5926,Short summary
We investigated how different deep water chemistry and biology modulate the response of surface phytoplankton communities to upwelling in the Peruvian coastal zone. Our results show that the most influential drivers were the ratio of inorganic nutrients (N : P) and the microbial community present in upwelling source water. These led to unexpected and variable development in the phytoplankton assemblage that could not be predicted by the amount of inorganic nutrients alone.
Hanna M. Kauko, Philipp Assmy, Ilka Peeken, Magdalena Różańska-Pluta, Józef M. Wiktor, Gunnar Bratbak, Asmita Singh, Thomas J. Ryan-Keogh, and Sebastien Moreau
Biogeosciences, 19, 5449–5482,Short summary
This article studies phytoplankton (microscopic
plantsin the ocean capable of photosynthesis) in Kong Håkon VII Hav in the Southern Ocean. Different species play different roles in the ecosystem, and it is therefore important to assess the species composition. We observed that phytoplankton blooms in this area are formed by large diatoms with strong silica armors, which can lead to high silica (and sometimes carbon) export to depth and be important prey for krill.
Chloe Carbonne, Steeve Comeau, Phoebe T. W. Chan, Keyla Plichon, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, and Núria Teixidó
Biogeosciences, 19, 4767–4777,Short summary
For the first time, our study highlights the synergistic effects of a 9-month warming and acidification combined stress on the early life stages of a Mediterranean azooxanthellate coral, Astroides calycularis. Our results predict a decrease in dispersion, settlement, post-settlement linear extention, budding and survival under future global change and that larvae and recruits of A. calycularis are stages of interest for this Mediterranean coral resistance, resilience and conservation.
Iris E. Hendriks, Anna Escolano-Moltó, Susana Flecha, Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer, Marlene Wesselmann, and Núria Marbà
Biogeosciences, 19, 4619–4637,Short summary
Seagrasses are marine plants with the capacity to act as carbon sinks due to their high primary productivity, using carbon for growth. This capacity can play a key role in climate change mitigation. We compiled and published data showing that two Mediterranean seagrass species have different metabolic rates, while the study method influences the rates of the measurements. Most communities act as carbon sinks, while the western basin might be more productive than the eastern Mediterranean.
Raúl Tapia, Sze Ling Ho, Hui-Yu Wang, Jeroen Groeneveld, and Mahyar Mohtadi
Biogeosciences, 19, 3185–3208,Short summary
We report census counts of planktic foraminifera in depth-stratified plankton net samples off Indonesia. Our results show that the vertical distribution of foraminifera species routinely used in paleoceanographic reconstructions varies in hydrographically distinct regions, likely in response to food availability. Consequently, the thermal gradient based on mixed layer and thermocline dwellers also differs for these regions, suggesting potential implications for paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Ricardo González-Gil, Neil S. Banas, Eileen Bresnan, and Michael R. Heath
Biogeosciences, 19, 2417–2426,Short summary
In oceanic waters, the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in winter, when light still limits growth, is attributed to a decrease in grazing as the mixed layer deepens. However, in coastal areas, it is not clear whether winter biomass can accumulate without this deepening. Using 21 years of weekly data, we found that in the Scottish coastal North Sea, the seasonal increase in light availability triggers the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in winter, when light limitation is strongest.
Birgit Koehler, Mårten Erlandsson, Martin Karlsson, and Lena Bergström
Biogeosciences, 19, 2295–2312,Short summary
Understanding species richness patterns remains a challenge for biodiversity management. We estimated fish species richness over a coastal salinity gradient (3–32) with a method that allowed comparing data from various sources. Species richness was 3-fold higher at high vs. low salinity, and salinity influenced species’ habitat preference, mobility and feeding type. If climate change causes upper-layer freshening of the Baltic Sea, further shifts along the identified patterns may be expected.
Uri Obolski, Thomas Wichard, Alvaro Israel, Alexander Golberg, and Alexander Liberzon
Biogeosciences, 19, 2263–2271,Short summary
The algal genus Ulva plays a major role in coastal ecosystems worldwide and is a promising prospect as an seagriculture crop. A substantial hindrance to cultivating Ulva arises from sudden sporulation, leading to biomass loss. This process is not yet well understood. Here, we characterize the dynamics of Ulva growth, considering the potential impact of sporulation inhibitors, using a mathematical model. Our findings are an essential step towards understanding the dynamics of Ulva growth.
Emanuela Fanelli, Samuele Menicucci, Sara Malavolti, Andrea De Felice, and Iole Leonori
Biogeosciences, 19, 1833–1851,Short summary
Zooplankton play a key role in marine ecosystems, forming the base of the marine food web and a link between primary producers and higher-order consumers, such as fish. This aspect is crucial in the Adriatic basin, one of the most productive and overexploited areas of the Mediterranean Sea. A better understanding of community and food web structure and their response to water mass changes is essential under a global warming scenario, as zooplankton are sensitive to climate change.
Masaya Yoshikai, Takashi Nakamura, Rempei Suwa, Sahadev Sharma, Rene Rollon, Jun Yasuoka, Ryohei Egawa, and Kazuo Nadaoka
Biogeosciences, 19, 1813–1832,Short summary
This study presents a new individual-based vegetation model to investigate salinity control on mangrove productivity. The model incorporates plant hydraulics and tree competition and predicts unique and complex patterns of mangrove forest structures that vary across soil salinity gradients. The presented model does not hold an empirical expression of salinity influence on productivity and thus may provide a better understanding of mangrove forest dynamics in future climate change.
Coulson A. Lantz, William Leggat, Jessica L. Bergman, Alexander Fordyce, Charlotte Page, Thomas Mesaglio, and Tracy D. Ainsworth
Biogeosciences, 19, 891–906,Short summary
Coral bleaching events continue to drive the degradation of coral reefs worldwide. In this study we measured rates of daytime coral reef community calcification and photosynthesis during a reef-wide bleaching event. Despite a measured decline in coral health across several taxa, there was no change in overall daytime community calcification and photosynthesis. These findings highlight potential limitations of these community-level metrics to reflect actual changes in coral health.
Hyewon Heather Kim, Jeff S. Bowman, Ya-Wei Luo, Hugh W. Ducklow, Oscar M. Schofield, Deborah K. Steinberg, and Scott C. Doney
Biogeosciences, 19, 117–136,Short summary
Heterotrophic marine bacteria are tiny organisms responsible for taking up organic matter in the ocean. Using a modeling approach, this study shows that characteristics (taxonomy and physiology) of bacteria are associated with a subset of ecological processes in the coastal West Antarctic Peninsula region, a system susceptible to global climate change. This study also suggests that bacteria will become more active, in particular large-sized cells, in response to changing climates in the region.
Alice E. Webb, Didier M. de Bakker, Karline Soetaert, Tamara da Costa, Steven M. A. C. van Heuven, Fleur C. van Duyl, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Lennart J. de Nooijer
Biogeosciences, 18, 6501–6516,Short summary
The biogeochemical behaviour of shallow reef communities is quantified to better understand the impact of habitat degradation and species composition shifts on reef functioning. The reef communities investigated barely support reef functions that are usually ascribed to conventional coral reefs, and the overall biogeochemical behaviour is found to be similar regardless of substrate type. This suggests a decrease in functional diversity which may therefore limit services provided by this reef.
Emmanuel Devred, Andrea Hilborn, and Cornelia Elizabeth den Heyer
Biogeosciences, 18, 6115–6132,Short summary
A theoretical model of grey seal seasonal abundance on Sable Island (SI) coupled with chlorophyll-a concentration [chl-a] measured by satellite revealed the impact of seal nitrogen fertilization on the surrounding waters of SI, Canada. The increase in seals from about 100 000 in 2003 to about 360 000 in 2018 during the breeding season is consistent with an increase in [chl-a] leeward of SI. The increase in seal abundance explains 8 % of the [chl-a] increase.
Julie Meilland, Michael Siccha, Maike Kaffenberger, Jelle Bijma, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 18, 5789–5809,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera population dynamics has long been assumed to be controlled by synchronous reproduction and ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM). Due to contradictory observations, this concept became controversial. We here test it in the Atlantic ocean for four species of foraminifera representing the main clades. Our observations support the existence of synchronised reproduction and OVM but show that more than half of the population does not follow the canonical trajectory.
Federica Maggioni, Mireille Pujo-Pay, Jérome Aucan, Carlo Cerrano, Barbara Calcinai, Claude Payri, Francesca Benzoni, Yves Letourneur, and Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa
Biogeosciences, 18, 5117–5140,Short summary
Based on current experimental evidence, climate change will affect up to 90 % of coral reefs worldwide. The originality of this study arises from our recent discovery of an exceptional study site where environmental conditions (temperature, pH, and oxygen) are even worse than those forecasted for the future. While these conditions are generally recognized as unfavorable for marine life, we found a rich and abundant coral reef thriving under such extreme environmental conditions.
Nisan Sariaslan and Martin R. Langer
Biogeosciences, 18, 4073–4090,Short summary
Analyses of foraminiferal assemblages from the Mamanguape mangrove estuary (northern Brazil) revealed highly diverse, species-rich, and structurally complex biotas. The atypical fauna resembles shallow-water offshore assemblages and are interpreted to be the result of highly saline ocean waters penetrating deep into the estuary. The findings contrast with previous studies, have implications for the fossil record, and provide novel perspectives for reconstructing mangrove environments.
Jutta E. Wollenburg, Jelle Bijma, Charlotte Cremer, Ulf Bickmeyer, and Zora Mila Colomba Zittier
Biogeosciences, 18, 3903–3915,Short summary
Cultured at in situ high-pressure conditions Cibicides and Cibicidoides taxa develop lasting ectoplasmic structures that cannot be retracted or resorbed. An ectoplasmic envelope surrounds their test and may protect the shell, e.g. versus carbonate aggressive bottom water conditions. Ectoplasmic roots likely anchor the specimens in areas of strong bottom water currents, trees enable them to elevate themselves above ground, and twigs stabilize and guide the retractable pseudopodial network.
Biogeosciences, 18, 3631–3635,Short summary
The Indian Ocean Rim hosts many of the underdeveloped and emerging economies that depend on ocean resources for the livelihood of millions. Operational ocean information services cater to the requirements of resource managers and end-users to efficiently harness resources, mitigate threats and ensure safety. This paper outlines existing tools and explores the ongoing research that has the potential to convert the findings into operational services in the near- to midterm.
Finn Mielck, Rune Michaelis, H. Christian Hass, Sarah Hertel, Caroline Ganal, and Werner Armonies
Biogeosciences, 18, 3565–3577,Short summary
Marine sand mining is becoming more and more important to nourish fragile coastlines that face global change. We investigated the largest sand extraction site in the German Bight. The study reveals that after more than 35 years of mining, the excavation pits are still detectable on the seafloor while the sediment composition has largely changed. The organic communities living in and on the seafloor were strongly decimated, and no recovery is observable towards previous conditions.
France Van Wambeke, Elvira Pulido, Philippe Catala, Julie Dinasquet, Kahina Djaoudi, Anja Engel, Marc Garel, Sophie Guasco, Barbara Marie, Sandra Nunige, Vincent Taillandier, Birthe Zäncker, and Christian Tamburini
Biogeosciences, 18, 2301–2323,Short summary
Michaelis–Menten kinetics were determined for alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase in the Mediterranean Sea. Although the ectoenzymatic-hydrolysis contribution to heterotrophic prokaryotic needs was high in terms of N, it was low in terms of C. This study points out the biases in interpretation of the relative differences in activities among the three tested enzymes in regard to the choice of added concentrations of fluorogenic substrates.
Oscar E. Romero, Simon Ramondenc, and Gerhard Fischer
Biogeosciences, 18, 1873–1891,Short summary
Upwelling intensity along NW Africa varies on the interannual to decadal timescale. Understanding its changes is key for the prediction of future changes of CO2 sequestration in the northeastern Atlantic. Based on a multiyear (1988–2009) sediment trap experiment at the site CBmeso, fluxes and the species composition of the diatom assemblage are presented. Our data help in establishing the scientific basis for forecasting and modeling future states of this ecosystem and its decadal changes.
Katharine T. Bigham, Ashley A. Rowden, Daniel Leduc, and David A. Bowden
Biogeosciences, 18, 1893–1908,Short summary
Turbidity flows – underwater avalanches – are large-scale physical disturbances believed to have profound impacts on productivity and diversity of benthic communities in the deep sea. We reviewed published studies and found that current evidence for changes in productivity is ambiguous at best, but the influence on regional and local diversity is clearer. We suggest study design criteria that may lead to a better understanding of large-scale disturbance effects on deep-sea benthos.
Phillip Williamson, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Steve Widdicombe, and Jean-Pierre Gattuso
Biogeosciences, 18, 1787–1792,Short summary
The reliability of ocean acidification research was challenged in early 2020 when a high-profile paper failed to corroborate previously observed impacts of high CO2 on the behaviour of coral reef fish. We now know the reason why: the
replicatedstudies differed in many ways. Open-minded and collaborative assessment of all research results, both negative and positive, remains the best way to develop process-based understanding of the impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms.
Michael Lintner, Bianca Lintner, Wolfgang Wanek, Nina Keul, and Petra Heinz
Biogeosciences, 18, 1395–1406,Short summary
Foraminifera are unicellular marine organisms that play an important role in the marine element cycle. Changes of environmental parameters such as salinity or temperature have a significant impact on the faunal assemblages. Our experiments show that changes in salinity immediately influence the foraminiferal activity. Also the light regime has a significant impact on carbon or nitrogen processing in foraminifera which contain no kleptoplasts.
Michele Casini, Martin Hansson, Alessandro Orio, and Karin Limburg
Biogeosciences, 18, 1321–1331,Short summary
In the past 20 years the condition of the eastern Baltic cod has dropped, with large implications for the fishery. Our results show that simultaneously the cod population has moved deeper while low-oxygenated waters detrimental for cod growth have become shallower. Cod have thus dwelled more in detrimental waters, explaining the drop in its condition. This study, using long-term fish and hydrological monitoring data, evidences the impact of deoxygenation on fish biology and fishing.
Elizabeth D. LaBone, Kenneth A. Rose, Dubravko Justic, Haosheng Huang, and Lixia Wang
Biogeosciences, 18, 487–507,Short summary
The hypoxic zone is an area of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Gulf of Mexico. Fish can be killed by exposure to hypoxia and can be negatively impacted by exposure to low, nonlethal DO concentrations (sublethal DO). We found that high sublethal area resulted in higher exposure and DO variability had a small effect on exposure. There was a large variation in exposure among individuals, which when combined with spatial variability of DO, can result in an underestimation of exposure when averaged.
Svenja Reents, Peter Mueller, Hao Tang, Kai Jensen, and Stefanie Nolte
Biogeosciences, 18, 403–411,Short summary
By conducting a flooding experiment with two genotypes of the salt-marsh grass Elymus athericus, we show considerable differences in biomass response to flooding within the same species. As biomass production plays a major role in sedimentation processes and thereby salt-marsh accretion, we emphasise the importance of taking intraspecific differences into account when evaluating ecosystem resilience to accelerated sea level rise.
Cara Nissen and Meike Vogt
Biogeosciences, 18, 251–283,Short summary
Using a regional Southern Ocean ecosystem model, we find that the relative importance of Phaeocystis and diatoms at high latitudes is controlled by iron and temperature variability, with light levels controlling the seasonal succession in coastal areas. Yet, biomass losses via aggregation and grazing matter as well. We show that the seasonal succession of Phaeocystis and diatoms impacts the seasonality of carbon export fluxes with ramifications for nutrient cycling and food web dynamics.
Jiangtao Li, Lingyuan Gu, Shijie Bai, Jie Wang, Lei Su, Bingbing Wei, Li Zhang, and Jiasong Fang
Biogeosciences, 18, 113–133,Short summary
Few studies have focused on the particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) microbes of the deep ocean. Here we determined PA and FL microbial communities along depth profiles of the SCS. PA and FL fractions accommodated divergent microbial compositions, and most of them are potentially generalists with PA and FL dual lifestyles. A potential vertical connectivity between surface-specific microbes and those in the deep ocean was indicated, likely through microbial attachment to sinking particles.
Saskia Brix, Karen J. Osborn, Stefanie Kaiser, Sarit B. Truskey, Sarah M. Schnurr, Nils Brenke, Marina Malyutina, and Pedro Martinez Arbizu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6163–6184,Short summary
The Clarion–Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ) located in the Pacific is commercially the most important area of proposed manganese nodule mining. Extraction of this will influence the life and distribution of small deep-sea invertebrates like peracarid crustaceans, of which >90 % are undescribed species new to science. We are doing a species delimitation approach as baseline for an ecological interpretation of species distribution and discuss the results in light of future deep-sea conservation.
Amal Jayakumar and Bess B. Ward
Biogeosciences, 17, 5953–5966,Short summary
Diversity and community composition of nitrogen-fixing microbes in the three main oxygen minimum zones of the world ocean were investigated using nifH clone libraries. Representatives of three main clusters of nifH genes were detected. Sequences were most diverse in the surface waters. The most abundant OTUs were affiliated with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. The sequences were biogeographically distinct and the dominance of a few OTUs was commonly observed in OMZs in this (and other) studies.
Guillermo Feliú, Marc Pagano, Pamela Hidalgo, and François Carlotti
Biogeosciences, 17, 5417–5441,Short summary
The impact of Saharan dust deposition events on the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem was studied during a basin-scale survey (PEACETIME cruise, May–June 2017). Short-term responses of the zooplankton community were observed after episodic dust deposition events, highlighting the impact of these events on productivity up to the zooplankton level in the poorly fertilized pelagic ecosystems of the southern Mediterranean Sea.
Douglas Lessa, Raphaël Morard, Lukas Jonkers, Igor M. Venancio, Runa Reuter, Adrian Baumeister, Ana Luiza Albuquerque, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 17, 4313–4342,Short summary
We observed that living planktonic foraminifera had distinct vertically distributed communities across the Subtropical South Atlantic. In addition, a hierarchic alternation of environmental parameters was measured to control the distribution of planktonic foraminifer's species depending on the water depth. This implies that not only temperature but also productivity and subsurface processes are signed in fossil assemblages, which could be used to perform paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Karl M. Attard and Ronnie N. Glud
Biogeosciences, 17, 4343–4353,Short summary
Light-use efficiency defines the ability of primary producers to convert sunlight energy to primary production. This report provides a framework to compute hourly and daily light-use efficiency using underwater eddy covariance, a recent technological development that produces habitat-scale rates of primary production for many different habitat types. The approach, tested on measured flux data, provides a useful means to compare habitat productivity across time and space.
Stacy Deppeler, Kai G. Schulz, Alyce Hancock, Penelope Pascoe, John McKinlay, and Andrew Davidson
Biogeosciences, 17, 4153–4171,Short summary
Our study showed how ocean acidification can exert both direct and indirect influences on the interactions among trophic levels within the microbial loop. Microbial grazer abundance was reduced at CO2 concentrations at and above 634 µatm, while microbial communities increased in abundance, likely due to a reduction in being grazed. Such changes in predator–prey interactions with ocean acidification could have significant effects on the food web and biogeochemistry in the Southern Ocean.
Mirjana Najdek, Marino Korlević, Paolo Paliaga, Marsej Markovski, Ingrid Ivančić, Ljiljana Iveša, Igor Felja, and Gerhard J. Herndl
Biogeosciences, 17, 3299–3315,Short summary
The response of Cymodocea nodosa to environmental changes was reported during a 15-month period. The meadow decline was triggered in spring by the simultaneous reduction of available light in the water column and the creation of anoxic conditions in the rooted area. This disturbance was critical for the plant since it took place during its recruitment phase when metabolic needs are maximal and stored reserves minimal. The loss of such habitat-forming seagrass is a major environmental concern.
Timm Schoening, Autun Purser, Daniel Langenkämper, Inken Suck, James Taylor, Daphne Cuvelier, Lidia Lins, Erik Simon-Lledó, Yann Marcon, Daniel O. B. Jones, Tim Nattkemper, Kevin Köser, Martin Zurowietz, Jens Greinert, and Jose Gomes-Pereira
Biogeosciences, 17, 3115–3133,Short summary
Seafloor imaging is widely used in marine science and industry to explore and monitor areas of interest. The selection of the most appropriate imaging gear and deployment strategy depends on the target application. This paper compares imaging platforms like autonomous vehicles or towed camera frames and different deployment strategies of those in assessing the megafauna abundance of polymetallic-nodule fields. The deep-sea mining industry needs that information for robust impact monitoring.
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We examine the effects of elevated CO2 on bacterioplankton community during a mesocosm experiment in subtropical, eutrophic coastal waters in southern China. We found that the elevated CO2 hardly altered the network structure of the bacterioplankton taxa present with high abundance but appeared to reassemble the community network of taxa with low abundance. Results suggest that the bacterioplankton community in this subtropical, high-nutrient coastal environment is insensitive to elevated CO2.
We examine the effects of elevated CO2 on bacterioplankton community during a mesocosm...