Articles | Volume 20, issue 13
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-20-2805-2023
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-20-2805-2023
Research article
 | 
14 Jul 2023
Research article |  | 14 Jul 2023

Lichen species across Alaska produce highly active and stable ice nucleators

Rosemary J. Eufemio, Ingrid de Almeida Ribeiro, Todd L. Sformo, Gary A. Laursen, Valeria Molinero, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Mischa Bonn, and Konrad Meister

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Cited articles

Budke, C. and Koop, T.: BINARY: an optical freezing array for assessing temperature and time dependence of heterogeneous ice nucleation, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 689–703, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-8-689-2015, 2015. 
Creamean, J. M., Ceniceros, J. E., Newman, L., Pace, A. D., Hill, T. C. J., DeMott, P. J., and Rhodes, M. E.: Evaluating the potential for Haloarchaea to serve as ice nucleating particles, Biogeosciences, 18, 3751–3762, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-3751-2021, 2021. 
de Almeida Ribeiro, I., Meister, K., and Molinero, V.: HUB: A method to model and extract the distribution of ice nucleation temperatures from drop-freezing experiments, ChemRxiv, Cambridge, https://doi.org/10.26434/chemrxiv-2022-ddzv8, 2022. 
Dreischmeier, K., Budke, C., Wiehemeier, L., Kottke, T., and Koop, T.: Boreal pollen contain ice-nucleating as well as ice-binding “antifreeze” polysaccharides, Sci. Rep., 7, 1–13, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep41890, 2017. 
Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., Pickersgill, D. A., Despré, V. R., and Pöschl, U.: High diversity of fungi in air particulate matter, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 12814–12819, 2009. 
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Short summary
Lichens, the dominant vegetation in the Arctic, contain ice nucleators (INs) that enable freezing close to 0°C. Yet the abundance, diversity, and function of lichen INs is unknown. Our screening of lichens across Alaska reveal that most species have potent INs. We find that lichens contain two IN populations which retain activity under environmentally relevant conditions. The ubiquity and stability of lichen INs suggest that they may have considerable impacts on local atmospheric patterns.
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