Articles | Volume 10, issue 6
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Macrofaunal community inside and outside of the Darwin Mounds Special Area of Conservation, NE Atlantic
Oceanlab, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB41 6AA, UK
Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll, PA37 1QA, UK
Oceanlab, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB41 6AA, UK
B. E. Narayanaswamy
Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, Argyll, PA37 1QA, UK
Oceanlab, Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB41 6AA, UK
No articles found.
Charitha Pattiaratchi, Mirjam van der Mheen, Cathleen Schlundt, Bhavani E. Narayanaswamy, Appalanaidu Sura, Sara Hajbane, Rachel White, Nimit Kumar, Michelle Fernandes, and Sarath Wijeratne
Ocean Sci., 18, 1–28,Short summary
The Indian Ocean receives a large proportion of plastics, but very few studies have addressed the sources, transport pathways, and sinks. There is a scarcity of observational data for the Indian Ocean. Most plastic sources are derived from rivers, although the amount derived from fishing activity (ghost nets, discarded ropes) is unknown. The unique topographic features of the Indian Ocean that create the monsoons and reversing currents have a large influence on the transport and sinks.
Matthew C. Pace, David M. Bailey, David W. Donnan, Bhavani E. Narayanaswamy, Hazel J. Smith, Douglas C. Speirs, William R. Turrell, and Michael R. Heath
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5847–5866,Short summary
We present synthetic maps of continuous properties of seabed sediments in the Firth of Clyde, SW Scotland. The data include proportions of mud, sand, and gravel fractions; whole-sediment median grain size; permeability; porosity; organic carbon and nitrogen content; and rates of natural disturbance by tidal currents. We show that the firth stores 3.42 and 0.33 million tonnes of organic carbon and nitrogen, respectively, in the upper 10 cm of sediment.
Clare Woulds, Steven Bouillon, Gregory L. Cowie, Emily Drake, Jack J. Middelburg, and Ursula Witte
Biogeosciences, 13, 4343–4357,Short summary
Estuarine sediments are important locations for carbon cycling and burial. We used tracer experiments to investigate how site conditions affect the way in which seafloor biological communities cycle carbon. We showed that while total respiration rates are primarily determined by temperature, total carbon processing by the biological community is strongly related to its biomass. Further, we saw a distinct pattern of carbon cycling in sandy sediment, in which uptake by bacteria dominates.
A. R. Thurber, A. K. Sweetman, B. E. Narayanaswamy, D. O. B. Jones, J. Ingels, and R. L. Hansman
Biogeosciences, 11, 3941–3963,
A. J. Enge, U. Witte, M. Kucera, and P. Heinz
Biogeosciences, 11, 2017–2026,
L. A. Levin, A. L. McGregor, G. F. Mendoza, C. Woulds, P. Cross, U. Witte, A. J. Gooday, G. Cowie, and H. Kitazato
Biogeosciences, 10, 7161–7177,
A. J. Chivers, B. E. Narayanaswamy, P. A. Lamont, A. Dale, and R. Turnewitsch
Biogeosciences, 10, 3535–3546,
T. Morato, K. Ø. Kvile, G. H. Taranto, F. Tempera, B. E. Narayanaswamy, D. Hebbeln, G. M. Menezes, C. Wienberg, R. S. Santos, and T. J. Pitcher
Biogeosciences, 10, 3039–3054,
W. R. Hunter, A. Jamieson, V. A. I. Huvenne, and U. Witte
Biogeosciences, 10, 67–80,
Related subject area
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function: MarineEcological divergence of a mesocosm in an eastern boundary upwelling system assessed with multi-marker environmental DNA metabarcodingUnique benthic foraminiferal communities (stained) in diverse environments of sub-Antarctic fjords, South GeorgiaUpwelled plankton community modulates surface bloom succession and nutrient availability in a natural plankton assemblageFirst phytoplankton community assessment of the Kong Håkon VII Hav, Southern Ocean, during austral autumnEarly life stages of a Mediterranean coral are vulnerable to ocean warming and acidificationMediterranean seagrasses as carbon sinks: methodological and regional differencesContrasting vertical distributions of recent planktic foraminifera off Indonesia during the southeast monsoon: implications for paleoceanographic reconstructionsThe onset of the spring phytoplankton bloom in the coastal North Sea supports the Disturbance Recovery HypothesisSpecies richness and functional attributes of fish assemblages across a large-scale salinity gradient in shallow coastal areasModeling the growth and sporulation dynamics of the macroalga Ulva in mixed-age populations in cultivation and the formation of green tidesSpatial changes in community composition and food web structure of mesozooplankton across the Adriatic basin (Mediterranean Sea)Predicting mangrove forest dynamics across a soil salinity gradient using an individual-based vegetation model linked with plant hydraulicsWill daytime community calcification reflect reef accretion on future, degraded coral reefs?Modeling polar marine ecosystem functions guided by bacterial physiological and taxonomic traitsQuantifying functional consequences of habitat degradation on a Caribbean coral reefEnhanced chlorophyll-a concentration in the wake of Sable Island, eastern Canada, revealed by two decades of satellite observations: a response to grey seal population dynamics?Population dynamics and reproduction strategies of planktonic foraminifera in the open oceanThe Bouraké semi-enclosed lagoon (New Caledonia) – a natural laboratory to study the lifelong adaptation of a coral reef ecosystem to extreme environmental conditionsAtypical, high-diversity assemblages of foraminifera in a mangrove estuary in northern BrazilPermanent ectoplasmic structures in deep-sea Cibicides and Cibicidoides taxa – long-term observations at in situ pressureIdeas and perspectives: Ushering the Indian Ocean into the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (UNDOSSD) through marine ecosystem research and operational services – an early career's takePersistent effects of sand extraction on habitats and associated benthic communities in the German BightSpatial patterns of ectoenzymatic kinetics in relation to biogeochemical properties in the Mediterranean Sea and the concentration of the fluorogenic substrate usedA 2-decade (1988–2009) record of diatom fluxes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling: impact of low-frequency forcing and a two-step shift in the species compositionReview and syntheses: Impacts of turbidity flows on deep-sea benthic communitiesIdeas and perspectives: When ocean acidification experiments are not the same, repeatability is not testedThe effect of the salinity, light regime and food source on carbon and nitrogen uptake in a benthic foraminiferChanges in population depth distribution and oxygen stratification are involved in the current low condition of the eastern Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua)Effects of spatial variability on the exposure of fish to hypoxia: a modeling analysis for the Gulf of MexicoPlant genotype determines biomass response to flooding frequency in tidal wetlandsFactors controlling the competition between Phaeocystis and diatoms in the Southern Ocean and implications for carbon export fluxesCharacterization of particle-associated and free-living bacterial and archaeal communities along the water columns of the South China SeaAdult life strategy affects distribution patterns in abyssal isopods – implications for conservation in Pacific nodule areasDiversity and distribution of nitrogen fixation genes in the oxygen minimum zones of the world oceansStructure and function of epipelagic mesozooplankton and their response to dust deposition events during the spring PEACETIME cruise in the Mediterranean SeaDistribution of planktonic foraminifera in the subtropical South Atlantic: depth hierarchy of controlling factorsTechnical note: Estimating light-use efficiency of benthic habitats using underwater O2 eddy covarianceOcean acidification reduces growth and grazing impact of Antarctic heterotrophic nanoflagellatesDynamics of environmental conditions during the decline of a Cymodocea nodosa meadowMegafauna community assessment of polymetallic-nodule fields with cameras: platform and methodology comparisonA meta-analysis on environmental drivers of marine phytoplankton C : N : PSpatial and temporal variability in the response of phytoplankton and prokaryotes to B-vitamin amendments in an upwelling systemBiogeography and community structure of abyssal scavenging Amphipoda (Crustacea) in the Pacific OceanAre seamounts refuge areas for fauna from polymetallic nodule fields?Ocean deoxygenation and copepods: coping with oxygen minimum zone variabilityUnexpected high abyssal ophiuroid diversity in polymetallic nodule fields of the northeast Pacific Ocean and implications for conservationPopulation dynamics of modern planktonic foraminifera in the western Barents SeaForaminiferal community response to seasonal anoxia in Lake Grevelingen (the Netherlands)Light availability modulates the effects of warming in a marine N2 fixerSiR-actin-labelled granules in foraminifera: patterns, dynamics, and hypotheses
Markus A. Min, David M. Needham, Sebastian Sudek, Nathan Kobun Truelove, Kathleen J. Pitz, Gabriela M. Chavez, Camille Poirier, Bente Gardeler, Elisabeth von der Esch, Andrea Ludwig, Ulf Riebesell, Alexandra Z. Worden, and Francisco P. Chavez
Biogeosciences, 20, 1277–1298,Short summary
Emerging molecular methods provide new ways of understanding how marine communities respond to changes in ocean conditions. Here, environmental DNA was used to track the temporal evolution of biological communities in the Peruvian coastal upwelling system and in an adjacent enclosure where upwelling was simulated. We found that the two communities quickly diverged, with the open ocean being one found during upwelling and the enclosure evolving to one found under stratified conditions.
Wojciech Majewski, Witold Szczuciński, and Andrew J. Gooday
Biogeosciences, 20, 523–544,Short summary
We studied foraminifera living in the fjords of South Georgia, a sub-Antarctic island sensitive to climate change. As conditions in water and on the seafloor vary, different associations of these microorganisms dominate far inside, in the middle, and near fjord openings. Assemblages in inner and middle parts of fjords are specific to South Georgia, but they may become widespread with anticipated warming. These results are important for interpretating fossil records and monitoring future change.
Allanah Joy Paul, Lennart Thomas Bach, Javier Arístegui, Elisabeth von der Esch, Nauzet Hernández-Hernández, Jonna Piiparinen, Laura Ramajo, Kristian Spilling, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 19, 5911–5926,Short summary
We investigated how different deep water chemistry and biology modulate the response of surface phytoplankton communities to upwelling in the Peruvian coastal zone. Our results show that the most influential drivers were the ratio of inorganic nutrients (N : P) and the microbial community present in upwelling source water. These led to unexpected and variable development in the phytoplankton assemblage that could not be predicted by the amount of inorganic nutrients alone.
Hanna M. Kauko, Philipp Assmy, Ilka Peeken, Magdalena Różańska-Pluta, Józef M. Wiktor, Gunnar Bratbak, Asmita Singh, Thomas J. Ryan-Keogh, and Sebastien Moreau
Biogeosciences, 19, 5449–5482,Short summary
This article studies phytoplankton (microscopic
plantsin the ocean capable of photosynthesis) in Kong Håkon VII Hav in the Southern Ocean. Different species play different roles in the ecosystem, and it is therefore important to assess the species composition. We observed that phytoplankton blooms in this area are formed by large diatoms with strong silica armors, which can lead to high silica (and sometimes carbon) export to depth and be important prey for krill.
Chloe Carbonne, Steeve Comeau, Phoebe T. W. Chan, Keyla Plichon, Jean-Pierre Gattuso, and Núria Teixidó
Biogeosciences, 19, 4767–4777,Short summary
For the first time, our study highlights the synergistic effects of a 9-month warming and acidification combined stress on the early life stages of a Mediterranean azooxanthellate coral, Astroides calycularis. Our results predict a decrease in dispersion, settlement, post-settlement linear extention, budding and survival under future global change and that larvae and recruits of A. calycularis are stages of interest for this Mediterranean coral resistance, resilience and conservation.
Iris E. Hendriks, Anna Escolano-Moltó, Susana Flecha, Raquel Vaquer-Sunyer, Marlene Wesselmann, and Núria Marbà
Biogeosciences, 19, 4619–4637,Short summary
Seagrasses are marine plants with the capacity to act as carbon sinks due to their high primary productivity, using carbon for growth. This capacity can play a key role in climate change mitigation. We compiled and published data showing that two Mediterranean seagrass species have different metabolic rates, while the study method influences the rates of the measurements. Most communities act as carbon sinks, while the western basin might be more productive than the eastern Mediterranean.
Raúl Tapia, Sze Ling Ho, Hui-Yu Wang, Jeroen Groeneveld, and Mahyar Mohtadi
Biogeosciences, 19, 3185–3208,Short summary
We report census counts of planktic foraminifera in depth-stratified plankton net samples off Indonesia. Our results show that the vertical distribution of foraminifera species routinely used in paleoceanographic reconstructions varies in hydrographically distinct regions, likely in response to food availability. Consequently, the thermal gradient based on mixed layer and thermocline dwellers also differs for these regions, suggesting potential implications for paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Ricardo González-Gil, Neil S. Banas, Eileen Bresnan, and Michael R. Heath
Biogeosciences, 19, 2417–2426,Short summary
In oceanic waters, the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in winter, when light still limits growth, is attributed to a decrease in grazing as the mixed layer deepens. However, in coastal areas, it is not clear whether winter biomass can accumulate without this deepening. Using 21 years of weekly data, we found that in the Scottish coastal North Sea, the seasonal increase in light availability triggers the accumulation of phytoplankton biomass in winter, when light limitation is strongest.
Birgit Koehler, Mårten Erlandsson, Martin Karlsson, and Lena Bergström
Biogeosciences, 19, 2295–2312,Short summary
Understanding species richness patterns remains a challenge for biodiversity management. We estimated fish species richness over a coastal salinity gradient (3–32) with a method that allowed comparing data from various sources. Species richness was 3-fold higher at high vs. low salinity, and salinity influenced species’ habitat preference, mobility and feeding type. If climate change causes upper-layer freshening of the Baltic Sea, further shifts along the identified patterns may be expected.
Uri Obolski, Thomas Wichard, Alvaro Israel, Alexander Golberg, and Alexander Liberzon
Biogeosciences, 19, 2263–2271,Short summary
The algal genus Ulva plays a major role in coastal ecosystems worldwide and is a promising prospect as an seagriculture crop. A substantial hindrance to cultivating Ulva arises from sudden sporulation, leading to biomass loss. This process is not yet well understood. Here, we characterize the dynamics of Ulva growth, considering the potential impact of sporulation inhibitors, using a mathematical model. Our findings are an essential step towards understanding the dynamics of Ulva growth.
Emanuela Fanelli, Samuele Menicucci, Sara Malavolti, Andrea De Felice, and Iole Leonori
Biogeosciences, 19, 1833–1851,Short summary
Zooplankton play a key role in marine ecosystems, forming the base of the marine food web and a link between primary producers and higher-order consumers, such as fish. This aspect is crucial in the Adriatic basin, one of the most productive and overexploited areas of the Mediterranean Sea. A better understanding of community and food web structure and their response to water mass changes is essential under a global warming scenario, as zooplankton are sensitive to climate change.
Masaya Yoshikai, Takashi Nakamura, Rempei Suwa, Sahadev Sharma, Rene Rollon, Jun Yasuoka, Ryohei Egawa, and Kazuo Nadaoka
Biogeosciences, 19, 1813–1832,Short summary
This study presents a new individual-based vegetation model to investigate salinity control on mangrove productivity. The model incorporates plant hydraulics and tree competition and predicts unique and complex patterns of mangrove forest structures that vary across soil salinity gradients. The presented model does not hold an empirical expression of salinity influence on productivity and thus may provide a better understanding of mangrove forest dynamics in future climate change.
Coulson A. Lantz, William Leggat, Jessica L. Bergman, Alexander Fordyce, Charlotte Page, Thomas Mesaglio, and Tracy D. Ainsworth
Biogeosciences, 19, 891–906,Short summary
Coral bleaching events continue to drive the degradation of coral reefs worldwide. In this study we measured rates of daytime coral reef community calcification and photosynthesis during a reef-wide bleaching event. Despite a measured decline in coral health across several taxa, there was no change in overall daytime community calcification and photosynthesis. These findings highlight potential limitations of these community-level metrics to reflect actual changes in coral health.
Hyewon Heather Kim, Jeff S. Bowman, Ya-Wei Luo, Hugh W. Ducklow, Oscar M. Schofield, Deborah K. Steinberg, and Scott C. Doney
Biogeosciences, 19, 117–136,Short summary
Heterotrophic marine bacteria are tiny organisms responsible for taking up organic matter in the ocean. Using a modeling approach, this study shows that characteristics (taxonomy and physiology) of bacteria are associated with a subset of ecological processes in the coastal West Antarctic Peninsula region, a system susceptible to global climate change. This study also suggests that bacteria will become more active, in particular large-sized cells, in response to changing climates in the region.
Alice E. Webb, Didier M. de Bakker, Karline Soetaert, Tamara da Costa, Steven M. A. C. van Heuven, Fleur C. van Duyl, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Lennart J. de Nooijer
Biogeosciences, 18, 6501–6516,Short summary
The biogeochemical behaviour of shallow reef communities is quantified to better understand the impact of habitat degradation and species composition shifts on reef functioning. The reef communities investigated barely support reef functions that are usually ascribed to conventional coral reefs, and the overall biogeochemical behaviour is found to be similar regardless of substrate type. This suggests a decrease in functional diversity which may therefore limit services provided by this reef.
Emmanuel Devred, Andrea Hilborn, and Cornelia Elizabeth den Heyer
Biogeosciences, 18, 6115–6132,Short summary
A theoretical model of grey seal seasonal abundance on Sable Island (SI) coupled with chlorophyll-a concentration [chl-a] measured by satellite revealed the impact of seal nitrogen fertilization on the surrounding waters of SI, Canada. The increase in seals from about 100 000 in 2003 to about 360 000 in 2018 during the breeding season is consistent with an increase in [chl-a] leeward of SI. The increase in seal abundance explains 8 % of the [chl-a] increase.
Julie Meilland, Michael Siccha, Maike Kaffenberger, Jelle Bijma, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 18, 5789–5809,Short summary
Planktonic foraminifera population dynamics has long been assumed to be controlled by synchronous reproduction and ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM). Due to contradictory observations, this concept became controversial. We here test it in the Atlantic ocean for four species of foraminifera representing the main clades. Our observations support the existence of synchronised reproduction and OVM but show that more than half of the population does not follow the canonical trajectory.
Federica Maggioni, Mireille Pujo-Pay, Jérome Aucan, Carlo Cerrano, Barbara Calcinai, Claude Payri, Francesca Benzoni, Yves Letourneur, and Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa
Biogeosciences, 18, 5117–5140,Short summary
Based on current experimental evidence, climate change will affect up to 90 % of coral reefs worldwide. The originality of this study arises from our recent discovery of an exceptional study site where environmental conditions (temperature, pH, and oxygen) are even worse than those forecasted for the future. While these conditions are generally recognized as unfavorable for marine life, we found a rich and abundant coral reef thriving under such extreme environmental conditions.
Nisan Sariaslan and Martin R. Langer
Biogeosciences, 18, 4073–4090,Short summary
Analyses of foraminiferal assemblages from the Mamanguape mangrove estuary (northern Brazil) revealed highly diverse, species-rich, and structurally complex biotas. The atypical fauna resembles shallow-water offshore assemblages and are interpreted to be the result of highly saline ocean waters penetrating deep into the estuary. The findings contrast with previous studies, have implications for the fossil record, and provide novel perspectives for reconstructing mangrove environments.
Jutta E. Wollenburg, Jelle Bijma, Charlotte Cremer, Ulf Bickmeyer, and Zora Mila Colomba Zittier
Biogeosciences, 18, 3903–3915,Short summary
Cultured at in situ high-pressure conditions Cibicides and Cibicidoides taxa develop lasting ectoplasmic structures that cannot be retracted or resorbed. An ectoplasmic envelope surrounds their test and may protect the shell, e.g. versus carbonate aggressive bottom water conditions. Ectoplasmic roots likely anchor the specimens in areas of strong bottom water currents, trees enable them to elevate themselves above ground, and twigs stabilize and guide the retractable pseudopodial network.
Biogeosciences, 18, 3631–3635,Short summary
The Indian Ocean Rim hosts many of the underdeveloped and emerging economies that depend on ocean resources for the livelihood of millions. Operational ocean information services cater to the requirements of resource managers and end-users to efficiently harness resources, mitigate threats and ensure safety. This paper outlines existing tools and explores the ongoing research that has the potential to convert the findings into operational services in the near- to midterm.
Finn Mielck, Rune Michaelis, H. Christian Hass, Sarah Hertel, Caroline Ganal, and Werner Armonies
Biogeosciences, 18, 3565–3577,Short summary
Marine sand mining is becoming more and more important to nourish fragile coastlines that face global change. We investigated the largest sand extraction site in the German Bight. The study reveals that after more than 35 years of mining, the excavation pits are still detectable on the seafloor while the sediment composition has largely changed. The organic communities living in and on the seafloor were strongly decimated, and no recovery is observable towards previous conditions.
France Van Wambeke, Elvira Pulido, Philippe Catala, Julie Dinasquet, Kahina Djaoudi, Anja Engel, Marc Garel, Sophie Guasco, Barbara Marie, Sandra Nunige, Vincent Taillandier, Birthe Zäncker, and Christian Tamburini
Biogeosciences, 18, 2301–2323,Short summary
Michaelis–Menten kinetics were determined for alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase in the Mediterranean Sea. Although the ectoenzymatic-hydrolysis contribution to heterotrophic prokaryotic needs was high in terms of N, it was low in terms of C. This study points out the biases in interpretation of the relative differences in activities among the three tested enzymes in regard to the choice of added concentrations of fluorogenic substrates.
Oscar E. Romero, Simon Ramondenc, and Gerhard Fischer
Biogeosciences, 18, 1873–1891,Short summary
Upwelling intensity along NW Africa varies on the interannual to decadal timescale. Understanding its changes is key for the prediction of future changes of CO2 sequestration in the northeastern Atlantic. Based on a multiyear (1988–2009) sediment trap experiment at the site CBmeso, fluxes and the species composition of the diatom assemblage are presented. Our data help in establishing the scientific basis for forecasting and modeling future states of this ecosystem and its decadal changes.
Katharine T. Bigham, Ashley A. Rowden, Daniel Leduc, and David A. Bowden
Biogeosciences, 18, 1893–1908,Short summary
Turbidity flows – underwater avalanches – are large-scale physical disturbances believed to have profound impacts on productivity and diversity of benthic communities in the deep sea. We reviewed published studies and found that current evidence for changes in productivity is ambiguous at best, but the influence on regional and local diversity is clearer. We suggest study design criteria that may lead to a better understanding of large-scale disturbance effects on deep-sea benthos.
Phillip Williamson, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Steve Widdicombe, and Jean-Pierre Gattuso
Biogeosciences, 18, 1787–1792,Short summary
The reliability of ocean acidification research was challenged in early 2020 when a high-profile paper failed to corroborate previously observed impacts of high CO2 on the behaviour of coral reef fish. We now know the reason why: the
replicatedstudies differed in many ways. Open-minded and collaborative assessment of all research results, both negative and positive, remains the best way to develop process-based understanding of the impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms.
Michael Lintner, Bianca Lintner, Wolfgang Wanek, Nina Keul, and Petra Heinz
Biogeosciences, 18, 1395–1406,Short summary
Foraminifera are unicellular marine organisms that play an important role in the marine element cycle. Changes of environmental parameters such as salinity or temperature have a significant impact on the faunal assemblages. Our experiments show that changes in salinity immediately influence the foraminiferal activity. Also the light regime has a significant impact on carbon or nitrogen processing in foraminifera which contain no kleptoplasts.
Michele Casini, Martin Hansson, Alessandro Orio, and Karin Limburg
Biogeosciences, 18, 1321–1331,Short summary
In the past 20 years the condition of the eastern Baltic cod has dropped, with large implications for the fishery. Our results show that simultaneously the cod population has moved deeper while low-oxygenated waters detrimental for cod growth have become shallower. Cod have thus dwelled more in detrimental waters, explaining the drop in its condition. This study, using long-term fish and hydrological monitoring data, evidences the impact of deoxygenation on fish biology and fishing.
Elizabeth D. LaBone, Kenneth A. Rose, Dubravko Justic, Haosheng Huang, and Lixia Wang
Biogeosciences, 18, 487–507,Short summary
The hypoxic zone is an area of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Gulf of Mexico. Fish can be killed by exposure to hypoxia and can be negatively impacted by exposure to low, nonlethal DO concentrations (sublethal DO). We found that high sublethal area resulted in higher exposure and DO variability had a small effect on exposure. There was a large variation in exposure among individuals, which when combined with spatial variability of DO, can result in an underestimation of exposure when averaged.
Svenja Reents, Peter Mueller, Hao Tang, Kai Jensen, and Stefanie Nolte
Biogeosciences, 18, 403–411,Short summary
By conducting a flooding experiment with two genotypes of the salt-marsh grass Elymus athericus, we show considerable differences in biomass response to flooding within the same species. As biomass production plays a major role in sedimentation processes and thereby salt-marsh accretion, we emphasise the importance of taking intraspecific differences into account when evaluating ecosystem resilience to accelerated sea level rise.
Cara Nissen and Meike Vogt
Biogeosciences, 18, 251–283,Short summary
Using a regional Southern Ocean ecosystem model, we find that the relative importance of Phaeocystis and diatoms at high latitudes is controlled by iron and temperature variability, with light levels controlling the seasonal succession in coastal areas. Yet, biomass losses via aggregation and grazing matter as well. We show that the seasonal succession of Phaeocystis and diatoms impacts the seasonality of carbon export fluxes with ramifications for nutrient cycling and food web dynamics.
Jiangtao Li, Lingyuan Gu, Shijie Bai, Jie Wang, Lei Su, Bingbing Wei, Li Zhang, and Jiasong Fang
Biogeosciences, 18, 113–133,Short summary
Few studies have focused on the particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) microbes of the deep ocean. Here we determined PA and FL microbial communities along depth profiles of the SCS. PA and FL fractions accommodated divergent microbial compositions, and most of them are potentially generalists with PA and FL dual lifestyles. A potential vertical connectivity between surface-specific microbes and those in the deep ocean was indicated, likely through microbial attachment to sinking particles.
Saskia Brix, Karen J. Osborn, Stefanie Kaiser, Sarit B. Truskey, Sarah M. Schnurr, Nils Brenke, Marina Malyutina, and Pedro Martinez Arbizu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6163–6184,Short summary
The Clarion–Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ) located in the Pacific is commercially the most important area of proposed manganese nodule mining. Extraction of this will influence the life and distribution of small deep-sea invertebrates like peracarid crustaceans, of which >90 % are undescribed species new to science. We are doing a species delimitation approach as baseline for an ecological interpretation of species distribution and discuss the results in light of future deep-sea conservation.
Amal Jayakumar and Bess B. Ward
Biogeosciences, 17, 5953–5966,Short summary
Diversity and community composition of nitrogen-fixing microbes in the three main oxygen minimum zones of the world ocean were investigated using nifH clone libraries. Representatives of three main clusters of nifH genes were detected. Sequences were most diverse in the surface waters. The most abundant OTUs were affiliated with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. The sequences were biogeographically distinct and the dominance of a few OTUs was commonly observed in OMZs in this (and other) studies.
Guillermo Feliú, Marc Pagano, Pamela Hidalgo, and François Carlotti
Biogeosciences, 17, 5417–5441,Short summary
The impact of Saharan dust deposition events on the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem was studied during a basin-scale survey (PEACETIME cruise, May–June 2017). Short-term responses of the zooplankton community were observed after episodic dust deposition events, highlighting the impact of these events on productivity up to the zooplankton level in the poorly fertilized pelagic ecosystems of the southern Mediterranean Sea.
Douglas Lessa, Raphaël Morard, Lukas Jonkers, Igor M. Venancio, Runa Reuter, Adrian Baumeister, Ana Luiza Albuquerque, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 17, 4313–4342,Short summary
We observed that living planktonic foraminifera had distinct vertically distributed communities across the Subtropical South Atlantic. In addition, a hierarchic alternation of environmental parameters was measured to control the distribution of planktonic foraminifer's species depending on the water depth. This implies that not only temperature but also productivity and subsurface processes are signed in fossil assemblages, which could be used to perform paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Karl M. Attard and Ronnie N. Glud
Biogeosciences, 17, 4343–4353,Short summary
Light-use efficiency defines the ability of primary producers to convert sunlight energy to primary production. This report provides a framework to compute hourly and daily light-use efficiency using underwater eddy covariance, a recent technological development that produces habitat-scale rates of primary production for many different habitat types. The approach, tested on measured flux data, provides a useful means to compare habitat productivity across time and space.
Stacy Deppeler, Kai G. Schulz, Alyce Hancock, Penelope Pascoe, John McKinlay, and Andrew Davidson
Biogeosciences, 17, 4153–4171,Short summary
Our study showed how ocean acidification can exert both direct and indirect influences on the interactions among trophic levels within the microbial loop. Microbial grazer abundance was reduced at CO2 concentrations at and above 634 µatm, while microbial communities increased in abundance, likely due to a reduction in being grazed. Such changes in predator–prey interactions with ocean acidification could have significant effects on the food web and biogeochemistry in the Southern Ocean.
Mirjana Najdek, Marino Korlević, Paolo Paliaga, Marsej Markovski, Ingrid Ivančić, Ljiljana Iveša, Igor Felja, and Gerhard J. Herndl
Biogeosciences, 17, 3299–3315,Short summary
The response of Cymodocea nodosa to environmental changes was reported during a 15-month period. The meadow decline was triggered in spring by the simultaneous reduction of available light in the water column and the creation of anoxic conditions in the rooted area. This disturbance was critical for the plant since it took place during its recruitment phase when metabolic needs are maximal and stored reserves minimal. The loss of such habitat-forming seagrass is a major environmental concern.
Timm Schoening, Autun Purser, Daniel Langenkämper, Inken Suck, James Taylor, Daphne Cuvelier, Lidia Lins, Erik Simon-Lledó, Yann Marcon, Daniel O. B. Jones, Tim Nattkemper, Kevin Köser, Martin Zurowietz, Jens Greinert, and Jose Gomes-Pereira
Biogeosciences, 17, 3115–3133,Short summary
Seafloor imaging is widely used in marine science and industry to explore and monitor areas of interest. The selection of the most appropriate imaging gear and deployment strategy depends on the target application. This paper compares imaging platforms like autonomous vehicles or towed camera frames and different deployment strategies of those in assessing the megafauna abundance of polymetallic-nodule fields. The deep-sea mining industry needs that information for robust impact monitoring.
Tatsuro Tanioka and Katsumi Matsumoto
Biogeosciences, 17, 2939–2954,Short summary
We conducted an extensive literature survey (meta-analysis) on how the C : N : P ratio varies with change in key environmental drivers. We found that the expected reduction in nutrients and warming under the future climate change scenario is likely to result in increased C : P and C : N of marine phytoplankton. Further, our findings highlight the greater stoichiometric plasticity of eukaryotes over prokaryotes, which provide us insights on how to understand and model plankton.
Vanessa Joglar, Antero Prieto, Esther Barber-Lluch, Marta Hernández-Ruiz, Emilio Fernández, and Eva Teira
Biogeosciences, 17, 2807–2823,Short summary
Coastal marine ecosystems are among the most ecologically and economically productive areas providing a large fraction of ecosystem goods and services to human populations, and B vitamins have long been considered important growth factors for phytoplankton. Our findings indicate that the responses of microbial plankton to B-vitamin supply are mainly driven by the bacterial community composition and that microbial plankton in this area seems to be well adapted to cope with B-vitamin shortage.
Tasnim Patel, Henri Robert, Cedric D'Udekem D'Acoz, Koen Martens, Ilse De Mesel, Steven Degraer, and Isa Schön
Biogeosciences, 17, 2731–2744,Short summary
Exploitation of deep-sea resources in one of the largest ecosystems on the planet has rendered research of its biodiversity more urgent than ever before. We investigated the known habitats and connectivity of deep-sea scavenging amphipods and obtained important knowledge about several species. We also demonstrated that a long-term disturbance experiment has possibly reduced amphipod biodiversity. These data and further sampling expeditions are instrumental for formulating sustainable policies.
Daphne Cuvelier, Pedro A. Ribeiro, Sofia P. Ramalho, Daniel Kersken, Pedro Martinez Arbizu, and Ana Colaço
Biogeosciences, 17, 2657–2680,Short summary
Polymetallic nodule mining will remove hard substrata from the abyssal deep-sea floor. The only neighbouring ecosystems featuring hard substratum are seamounts, and their inhabiting fauna could aid in recovery post-mining. Nevertheless, first observations of seamount megafauna were very different from nodule-associated megafauna and showed little overlap. The possible uniqueness of these ecosystems implies that they should be included in management plans for the conservation of biodiversity.
Karen F. Wishner, Brad Seibel, and Dawn Outram
Biogeosciences, 17, 2315–2339,Short summary
Increasing deoxygenation and oxygen minimum zone expansion are consequences of global warming. Copepod species had different vertical distribution strategies and physiologies associated with oxygen profile variability (0–1000 m). Species (1) changed vertical distributions and maximum abundance depth, (2) shifted diapause depth, (3) changed diel vertical migration depths, or (4) changed epipelagic depth range in the aerobic mixed layer. Present-day variability helps predict future scenarios.
Magdalini Christodoulou, Timothy O'Hara, Andrew F. Hugall, Sahar Khodami, Clara F. Rodrigues, Ana Hilario, Annemiek Vink, and Pedro Martinez Arbizu
Biogeosciences, 17, 1845–1876,Short summary
Unexpectedly high diversity was revealed in areas licenced for polymetallic nodule mining exploration in the Pacific Ocean. For the first time, a comprehensive reference library including 287 novel ophiuroid sequences allocated to 43 species was produced. Differences in food availability along the nodule province of CCZ were reflected in the biodiversity patterns observed. The APEI3's dissimilarity with the exploration contract areas questions its ability to serve as a biodiversity reservoir.
Julie Meilland, Hélène Howa, Vivien Hulot, Isaline Demangel, Joëlle Salaün, and Thierry Garlan
Biogeosciences, 17, 1437–1450,Short summary
This study reports on planktonic foraminifera (PF) diversity and distribution in the Barents Sea. The species Globigerinita uvula and Turborotalita quinqueloba dominate the water column while surface sediments are dominated by Neogloboquadrina pachyderma. We hypothesize the unusual dominance of G. uvula in the water to be a seasonal signal or a result of climate forcing. Size-normalized-protein concentrations of PF show a northward decrease, suggesting biomass to vary with the environment.
Julien Richirt, Bettina Riedel, Aurélia Mouret, Magali Schweizer, Dewi Langlet, Dorina Seitaj, Filip J. R. Meysman, Caroline P. Slomp, and Frans J. Jorissen
Biogeosciences, 17, 1415–1435,Short summary
The paper presents the response of benthic foraminiferal communities to seasonal absence of oxygen coupled with the presence of hydrogen sulfide, considered very harmful for several living organisms. Our results suggest that the foraminiferal community mainly responds as a function of the duration of the adverse conditions. This knowledge is especially useful to better understand the ecology of benthic foraminifera but also in the context of palaeoceanographic interpretations.
Xiangqi Yi, Fei-Xue Fu, David A. Hutchins, and Kunshan Gao
Biogeosciences, 17, 1169–1180,Short summary
Combined effects of warming and light intensity were estimated in N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Its physiological responses to warming were significantly modulated by light, with growth peaking at 27 °C under the light-saturating condition but being non-responsive across the range of 23–31 °C under the light-limiting condition. Light shortage also weakened the acclimation ability of Trichodesmium to warming, making light-limited Trichodesmium more sensitive to acute temperature change.
Jan Goleń, Jarosław Tyszka, Ulf Bickmeyer, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 17, 995–1011,Short summary
We studied the organisation and dynamics of actin in foraminifera. Actin is one of the key structural proteins in most lifeforms. Our investigations show that in foraminifera it forms small granules, around 1 µm in diameter, that display rapid movement. This granularity is unusual in comparison to other organisms. We suppose that these granules are most likely involved in the formation of all types of pseudopods responsible for movement, food capturing, biomineralisation, and other functions.
AFEN: Environmental Surveys of the Seafloor of the UK Atlantic Margin. Atlantic Frontier Environmental Network [CD-ROM], ISBN 09538399-0-7, 2000.
Balata D., Piazzi L., and Benedetti-Cecchi L: Sediment disturbance and loss of beta diversity on sub tidal rocky reefs, Ecology, 88, 2455–2461, 2007.
Basford, D., Eleftheriou, A., and Raffaelli, D.: The infauna and epifauna of the Northern North Sea, Neth. J. Sea Res., 25, 165–173, 1990.
Bett, B. J.: Benthic ecology of Faeroe-Shetland Channel, Section 4.3.1 in Environmental Survey of the Seafloor of the UK Atlantic Margin. Atlantic Frontier Environmental Network [CD-ROM], ISBN 09538399-0-7, 2000.
Bett, B. J.: UK Atlantic Margin Environmental Survey: introduction and overview of bathyal benthic ecology, Cont. Shelf Res., 21, 917–956, 2001.
Bett, B. J., Malzone, M. G., Narayanaswamy, B. E., and Wigham, B. D.: Temporal variability in phytodetritus and megabenthic activity at the seabed in the deep Northeast Atlantic, Prog. Oceanogr., 50, 349–368, 2001.
Bremner, J., Rogers, S. I., and Frid, C. L. J.: Assessing functional diversity in marine benthic ecosystems: a comparison of approaches, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 254, 11–25, 2003.
Budaeva, N. E., Mokievsky, V. O., Soltwedel, T., and Gebruk, A. V.: Horizontal distribution patterns in Arctic deep-sea macrobenthic communities, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 55, 1167–1178, 2008.
Clarke, K. R. and Gorley, R. N.: PRIMER v6: User manual/Tutorial, PRIMER-E: Plymouth, 2006.
Clark, M. R. and Rowden, A. A.: Effect of deepwater trawling on the macro invertebrate assemblages of seamounts on the Chatham Rise, New Zealand, Deep Sea Res. Pt. I, 56, 1540–1554, 2009.
Clarke, K. R. and Warwick, R. M.: Change in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation, 2nd Edn., PRIMER-E, Plymouth, 2001.
Connell, J. H.: Diversity in tropical rain forest and coral reefs, Science, 199, 1302–1310, 1978.
Cosson, N., Sibuet, M., and Galeron, J.: Community structure and spatial heterogeneity of the deep-sea macrofauna at three contrasting stations in the tropical northeast Atlantic, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 44, 347–269, 1997.
Danovaro, R., Dell'Anno, A., Corinaldesi, C., Magagnini, M., Noble, R., Tamburini, C., and Weinbauer, M.: Major viral impact on the functioning of benthic deep-sea ecosystems, Nature, 454, 1084–1087, 2008.
Davies, A. J., Roberts, J. M., and Hall-Spencer, J.: Preserving deep-sea natural heritage: Emerging issues in offshore conservation and management, Biol. Conserv., 138, 299–312, 2007.
de Juan, S., Demestre, M., and Sanchez, P.: Exploring the degree of trawling disturbance by the analysis of benthic communities ranging from a heavily exploited fishing ground to an undisturbed area in the NW Mediterranean, Scienza Marina, 73, 507–516, 2011.
de Juan, S., Thrush, S. F., and Demestre, M.: Functional changes as indicators of trawling disturbance on a benthic community located in a fishing ground (NW Mediterranean Sea), Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 334, 117–129, 2007.
Demestre, M., de Juan S., Sartor, P., and Ligas, A.: Seasonal closures as a measure of trawling effort control in two Mediterranean trawling grounds: Effects on epibenthic communities, Mar. Pollut. Bull., 56, 1765–1773, 2008.
Duineveld, G. C. A., Bergman, M. J. N., and Lavaleye, M. S. S.: Effects of an area closed to fisheries on the composition of the benthic fauna in the southern North Sea, ICES J. Mar. Sci., 64, 899–908, 2007.
Ellingsen K. E.: Soft-sediment benthic biodiversity on the continental shelf in relation to environmental variability, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 232, 15–27, 2002.
European Council, The President J. Walsh: Council Regulation (EEC) No. 602/2004 of 22 March 2004. The effects of trawling in an area north west of Scotland, Official Journal L97, 30–31, 2004.
Gage, J. D.: Structure of the abyssal macrobenthic community in the Rockall Trough, in: Biology of Benthic Organisms, edited by: Keegan, B. F., Ceidigh, P. O., Boaden, P. J. S., Pergamon, Oxford, 247–260, 1975.
Gage J. D.: Why are there so many species in the deep-sea sediments?, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 200, 257–286, 1996.
Gage J. D., Lamont P. A., and Tyler P. A.: Deep-sea macrobenthic community structure at contrasting sites off Portugal, preliminary results: 1 Introduction and diversity comparisons, Int. Rev. Gesamt. Hydrobiol., 80, 235–250, 1995.
Gage, J. D., Hughes, D. J., and Gonzales Vecino, J. L.: Sieve size influence in estimating biomass, abundance and diversity in samples of the deep-sea macrobenthos, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 225, 97–107, 2002.
Grassle, F. J. and Maciolek, N. J.: Deep-sea species richness: regional and local diversity estimates from quantitative bottom samples, Am. Nat., 139, 313–341, 1992.
Gubbay, S., Backer, C. M., and Bett, B. J.: The Darwin Mounds and the Dogger Bank. Case of study of management of two potential "Special Areas of Conservation" in the offshore environment, Report to the World Wide Fund for Nature, Southampton Oceanography Centre, 16 pp., 2002.
Hunter, W. R., Jamieson, A., Huvenne, V. A. I., and Witte, U.: Sediment community responses to marine vs. terrigenous organic matter in a submarine canyon, Biogeosciences, 10, 67–80, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-67-2013, 2013.
Huston, M.: A general hypothesis of species diversity, Am. Nat., 113, 81–101, 1979.
Huvenne, V. A. I.: Benthic habitats and the impact of human activities in Rockall Trough, on Rockall Bank and in Hatton Basin. National Oceanography Centre, Cruise Report No. 04, RRS James Cook Cruise 60, 133 pp., 2011.
Huvenne, V. A. I., Masson, D. G., and Wheeler, A. J.: Sediment dynamics of a sandy contourite: the sedimentary context of the Darwin cold-water coral mounds, Northern Rockall Trough, Int. J. Earth Sci., 98, 865–884, 2009.
Jennings, S., Nicholson, M. D., Dinmore, T. A., and Lancaster, J. E.: Effects of chronic trawling disturbance on the production of infaunal communities, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 243, 251–260, 2002.
JNCC website (Joint Nature Conservation Committee): EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-5193, last access: 25 October 2012.
Kaariainen, J. I. and Bett, B. J.: Evidence for the benthic body size miniaturization in the deep sea, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK, 86, 1339–1345, 2006.
Kaiser, M. J. and Spencer, B. E.: The effects of beam-trawl disturbance on infaunal communities in different habitats, J. Anim. Ecol., 65, 348–358, 1996.
Kaiser, M. J., Spence. F. E., and Hart, P. J. B.: Fishing-gear restrictions and conservation of benthic habitat complexity, Conserv. Biol., 14, 1512–1525, 2000.
Kendall, M. A. and Widdicombe, S.: Small scale patterns in the structure of macrofaunal assemblages of shallow soft sediments, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 237, 127–140, 1999.
Levin, L. A.: Ecology of cold seep sediments: interactions of fauna with flow, chemistry, and microbes, Oceanogr. Mar. Biol., 43, 1–46, 2005.
Levin, L. A. and Dayton, P. K.: Ecological theory and continental margins: Where shallow meets deep, Trends Ecol. Evol., 24, 606–617, 2009.
Levin, L. A., Blair, N. E., Martin, C. M., DeMaster, D. J., Plaia, G., and Thomas, C. J.: Macrofaunal processing of phytodetritus at two sites on the Carolina margin: in situ experiments using 13C-labeled diatoms, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 182, 37–54, 1999.
Levin, L. A., Sibuet, M., Gooday, A. J., Smith, C. R., and Vanreusel, A.: The roles of habitat heterogeneity in generating and maintaining biodiversity on continental margins: an introduction, Mar. Ecol., 31, 1–5, 2010.
Martín, J., Puig, P., Palanques, A., Masqué, P., and García-Orellana, J.: Effect of commercial trawling on the deep sedimentation in a Mediterranean submarine canyon. Mar. Geol., 252, 150–155, 2008.
Masson, D. G., Bett, B. J., Billett, D. S. M., Jacobs, C. L., Wheeler, A. J., and Wynn, R. B.: The origin of deep-water, coral-topped mounds in the northern Rockall Trough, Northeast Atlantic, Mar. Geol., 194, 159–180, 2003.
Middelburg, J. J., Soetaert, K., and Herman, P. M. J.: Empirical relationships for use in global diagenetic models, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 44, 327–344, 1997.
Narayanaswamy, B. E.: Macrobenthic Ecology of the West Shetland Slope, PhD University of Southampton, p. 214, 2000.
Narayanaswamy, B. E., Bett, B. J., and Gage, J. D.: Ecology of bathyal polychaete fauna at an Arctic-Atlantic boundary (Faroe-Shetland Channel, North-east Atlantic), Mar. Biol. Res., 1, 20–32, 2005.
Narayanaswamy, B. E., Bett, B. J., and Hughes, D. J.: Deep-water macrofauna diversity in the Faroe-Shetland region (NE Atlantic): a margin subject to an unusual thermal regime, Mar. Ecol., 31, 237–246, 2010.
Piepenburg, D. and von Juterzenka, K.: Abundance, biomass and spatial distribution pattern of brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroldea) on the Kolbeinsey Ridge north of Iceland, Polar. Biol., 14, 185–194, 1994.
Puig, P., Canals, M., Company, J. B., Martín, J., Amblas, D., Lastras, G., and Palanques, A.: Ploughing the deep sea floor, Nature, 489, 286–289, 2012.
Queirós, A. M., Hiddink, J. G., Kaiser, M. J., and Hinz, H.: Effects of chronic bottom trawling disturbance on benthic biomass, production and size spectra in different habitats, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 335, 91–103, 2006.
Ramirez-Llodra, E., Brandt, A., Danovaro, R., De Mol, B., Escobar, E., German, C. R., Levin, L. A., Martinez Arbizu, P., Menot, L., Buhl-Mortensen, P., Narayanaswamy, B. E., Smith, C. R., Tittensor, D. P., Tyler, P. A., Vanreusel, A., and Vecchione, M.: Deep, diverse and definitely different: unique attributes of the world's largest ecosystem, Biogeosciences, 7, 2851–2899, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-2851-2010, 2010.
Rex, M. A., Etter, R. J., Morris, J. S., Crouse, J., McClain, C. R., Johnson, N. A., Stuart, C. T., Deming, J. W., Thies, R., and Avery R.: Global bathymetric patterns of standing stock and body size in the deep-sea bentho, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 317, 1–8, 2006.
Shields, M. A. and Hughes, D. J.: Large-scale variation in macrofaunal communities along the eastern Nordic Seas continental margin: A comparison of four stations with contrasting food supply, Prog. Oceanogr., 82, 125–136, 2009.
Stuart, C. T., Rex, M. A., and Etter, R. J.: Large-scale spatial and temporal patterns of deep-sea benthic species diversity, in: Ecosystems of the World 28, Ecosystems of the Deep Oceans, edited by: Tyler, P. A., Elsevier, Amsterdam, Boston, London, New York, Oxford, Paris, San Diego, San Francisco, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo, 295–311, 2003.
Thiel, H.: Anthropogenic impacts on the deep sea, in: Ecosystems of the World: The Deep Sea, edited by: Tyler, P. A., Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Elsevier, 427–471, 2003.
Van Gaever, S., Vanreusel, A., Hughes, J. A., Bett, B., and Kiriakoulakis, K.: The macro- and micro-scale patchiness of meiobenthos associated with the Darwin Mounds (north-east Atlantic), J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK, 84, 547–556, 2004.
Wheeler, A. J., Bett, B. J., Billett, D. S. M., Masson, D. G., and Mayor, D.: The impact of demersal trawling on Northeast Atlantic deepwater coral habitats: The case of the Darwin Mounds, United Kingdom. In: Benthic Habitats and the Effects of Fishing, edited by: Barnes, P. W., Thomas, J. P., Am. Fish. S., Bethesda, M. D., 807–817, 2005.
Whittaker, R. H.: Vegetation of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon and California, Ecol. Monogr., 30, 279–338, 1960.
Witte, U., Aberle, N., Sand, M., and Wenzhöfer, F.: Rapid response of a deep-sea benthic community to POM enrichment: an in situ experimental study, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 25, 1, 27–36, 2003.
Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, M., Kendall, M. A., Weslawski, J. M., Klages, M., and Soltwedel, T.: Depth gradients of benthic standing stock and diversity on the continental margin at a high latitude ice-free site (off West Spitsbergen, 791N), Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 51, 1903–1914, 2004.