Articles | Volume 11, issue 22
Research article 27 Nov 2014
Research article | 27 Nov 2014
Biogeographic classification of the Caspian Sea
F. Fendereski et al.
No articles found.
Amanda R. Fay, Luke Gregor, Peter Landschützer, Galen A. McKinley, Nicolas Gruber, Marion Gehlen, Yosuke Iida, Goulven G. Laruelle, Christian Rödenbeck, Alizée Roobaert, and Jiye Zeng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 4693–4710,Short summary
The movement of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the ocean is estimated using surface ocean carbon (pCO2) measurements and an equation including variables such as temperature and wind speed; the choices of these variables lead to uncertainties. We introduce the SeaFlux ensemble which provides carbon flux maps calculated in a consistent manner, thus reducing uncertainty by using common choices for wind speed and a set definition of "global" coverage.
Tessa Sophia van der Voort, Thomas Michael Blattmann, Muhammed Usman, Daniel Montluçon, Thomas Loeffler, Maria Luisa Tavagna, Nicolas Gruber, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2135–2146,Short summary
Ocean sediments form the largest and longest-term storage of organic carbon. Despite their global importance, information on these sediments is often scattered, incomplete or inaccessible. Here we present MOSAIC (Modern Ocean Sediment Archive and Inventory of Carbon, mosaic.ethz.ch), a (radio)carbon-centric database that addresses this information gap. This database provides a platform for assessing the transport, deposition and storage of carbon in ocean surface sediments.
Giulia Bonino, Elisa Lovecchio, Nicolas Gruber, Matthias Münnich, Simona Masina, and Doroteaciro Iovino
Biogeosciences, 18, 2429–2448,Short summary
Seasonal variations of processes such as upwelling and biological production that happen along the northwestern African coast can modulate the temporal variability of the biological activity of the adjacent open North Atlantic hundreds of kilometers away from the coast thanks to the lateral transport of coastal organic carbon. This happens with a temporal delay, which is smaller than a season up to roughly 500 km from the coast due to the intense transport by small-scale filaments.
Luke Gregor and Nicolas Gruber
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 777–808,Short summary
Ocean acidification (OA) has altered the ocean's carbonate chemistry, with consequences for marine life. Yet, no observation-based data set exists that permits us to study changes in OA. We fill this gap with a global data set of relevant surface ocean parameters over the period 1985–2018. This data set, OceanSODA-ETHZ, was created by using satellite and other data to extrapolate ship-based measurements of carbon dioxide and total alkalinity from which parameters for OA were computed.
Anne-Marie Wefing, Núria Casacuberta, Marcus Christl, Nicolas Gruber, and John N. Smith
Ocean Sci., 17, 111–129,Short summary
Atlantic Water that carries heat and anthropogenic carbon into the Arctic Ocean plays an important role in the Arctic sea-ice cover decline, but its pathways and travel times remain unclear. Here we used two radionuclides of anthropogenic origin (129I and 236U) to track Atlantic-derived waters along their way through the Arctic Ocean, estimating their travel times and mixing properties. Results help to understand how future changes in Atlantic Water properties will spread through the Arctic.
Derara Hailegeorgis, Zouhair Lachkar, Christoph Rieper, and Nicolas Gruber
Biogeosciences, 18, 303–325,Short summary
Using a Lagrangian modeling approach, this study provides a quantitative analysis of water and nitrogen offshore transport in the Canary Current System. We investigate the timescales, reach and structure of offshore transport and demonstrate that the Canary upwelling is a key source of nutrients to the open North Atlantic Ocean. Our findings stress the need for improving the representation of the Canary system and other eastern boundary upwelling systems in global coarse-resolution models.
Cara Nissen and Meike Vogt
Biogeosciences, 18, 251–283,Short summary
Using a regional Southern Ocean ecosystem model, we find that the relative importance of Phaeocystis and diatoms at high latitudes is controlled by iron and temperature variability, with light levels controlling the seasonal succession in coastal areas. Yet, biomass losses via aggregation and grazing matter as well. We show that the seasonal succession of Phaeocystis and diatoms impacts the seasonality of carbon export fluxes with ramifications for nutrient cycling and food web dynamics.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone Alin, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Almut Arneth, Vivek Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Selma Bultan, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Wiley Evans, Liesbeth Florentie, Piers M. Forster, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Ian Harris, Kerstin Hartung, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Vassilis Kitidis, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Adam J. P. Smith, Adrienne J. Sutton, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3269–3340,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2020 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Tim Rixen, Greg Cowie, Birgit Gaye, Joaquim Goes, Helga do Rosário Gomes, Raleigh R. Hood, Zouhair Lachkar, Henrike Schmidt, Joachim Segschneider, and Arvind Singh
Biogeosciences, 17, 6051–6080,Short summary
The northern Indian Ocean hosts an extensive oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), which intensified due to human-induced global changes. This includes the occurrence of anoxic events on the Indian shelf and affects benthic ecosystems and the pelagic ecosystem structure in the Arabian Sea. Consequences for biogeochemical cycles are unknown, which, in addition to the poor representation of mesoscale features, reduces the reliability of predictions of the future OMZ development in the northern Indian Ocean.
Zouhair Lachkar, Michael Mehari, Muchamad Al Azhar, Marina Lévy, and Shafer Smith
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
This study documents and quantifies a significant recent oxygen decline in the upper layers of the Arabian Sea and explores its drivers. Using a modeling approach we show that the fast local warming of sea surface is the main factor causing this oxygen drop. Concomitant summer monsoon intensification contributes to this trend, although to a lesser extent. These changes exacerbate oxygen depletion in the subsurface, threatening marine habitats and altering the local biogeochemistry.
Damiano Righetti, Meike Vogt, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Michael D. Guiry, and Nicolas Gruber
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 907–933,Short summary
Phytoplankton sustain marine life, as they are the principal primary producers in the global ocean. Despite their ecological importance, their distribution and diversity patterns are poorly known, mostly due to data limitations. We present a global dataset that synthesizes over 1.3 million occurrences of phytoplankton from public archives. It is easily extendable. This dataset can be used to characterize phytoplankton distribution and diversity in current and future oceans.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Matthew W. Jones, Michael O'Sullivan, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Peter Anthoni, Leticia Barbero, Ana Bastos, Vladislav Bastrikov, Meike Becker, Laurent Bopp, Erik Buitenhuis, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Kim I. Currie, Richard A. Feely, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S. Goll, Nicolas Gruber, Sören Gutekunst, Ian Harris, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Jed O. Kaplan, Etsushi Kato, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Craig Neill, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Anna Peregon, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Roland Séférian, Jörg Schwinger, Naomi Smith, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Andrew J. Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1783–1838,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2019 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Riley X. Brady, Nicole S. Lovenduski, Michael A. Alexander, Michael Jacox, and Nicolas Gruber
Biogeosciences, 16, 329–346,
Cara Nissen, Meike Vogt, Matthias Münnich, Nicolas Gruber, and F. Alexander Haumann
Biogeosciences, 15, 6997–7024,Short summary
Using a regional ocean model, we find that coccolithophore biomass in the Southern Ocean is highest in the subantarctic in late summer when diatom growth becomes limited by silicate. We show that zooplankton grazing is crucial to explain phytoplankton biomass distributions in this area and conclude that assessments of future distributions should not only consider physical and chemical factors (temperature, light, nutrients, pH), but also interactions with other phytoplankton or zooplankton.
Elisa Lovecchio, Nicolas Gruber, and Matthias Münnich
Biogeosciences, 15, 5061–5091,Short summary
We find that the ocean's flow on scales of a few tens to a few hundred km has a central role in the lateral redistribution of the organic carbon from the coast to the open ocean. Narrow coastal filaments drive the offshore flux of organic carbon and strongly enhance its availability up to 1000 km from the coast. Eddies extend the flux up to 2000 km offshore containing 30 % of the organic matter in the open waters. Resolving these scales is essential to capture the coastal/open ocean coupling.
Ivy Frenger, Matthias Münnich, and Nicolas Gruber
Biogeosciences, 15, 4781–4798,Short summary
Although mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous in the Southern Ocean (SO), their regional and seasonal association with phytoplankton has not been quantified. We identify over 100 000 eddies and determine the associated phytoplankton biomass anomalies using satellite-based chlorophyll (Chl) as a proxy. The emerging Chl anomalies can be explained largely by lateral advection of Chl by eddies. This impact of eddies on phytoplankton may implicate downstream effects on SO biogeochemical properties.
Zouhair Lachkar, Marina Lévy, and Shafer Smith
Biogeosciences, 15, 159–186,Short summary
This study provides a new contribution to our understanding of the coupling between the oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) and climate. It explores how idealized changes in summer and winter Indian monsoon winds affect the productivity of the Arabian Sea and the size and intensity of its OMZ. We find that intensification of Indian monsoon winds can amplify climate warming on decadal to centennial timescales.
Yu Liu, Nicolas Gruber, and Dominik Brunner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14145–14169,Short summary
We analyze fossil fuel signals in atmospheric CO2 over Europe using a high-resolution atmospheric transport model and diurnal emission data. We find that fossil fuel CO2 accounts for more than half of the atmospheric CO2 variations, mainly at diurnal timescales. The covariance of diurnal emission and transport also leads to a substantial rectification effect. Thus, the consideration of diurnal emissions and high-resolution transport is paramount for accurately modeling the fossil fuel signal.
Goulven G. Laruelle, Peter Landschützer, Nicolas Gruber, Jean-Louis Tison, Bruno Delille, and Pierre Regnier
Biogeosciences, 14, 4545–4561,
Jakob Zscheischler, Miguel D. Mahecha, Valerio Avitabile, Leonardo Calle, Nuno Carvalhais, Philippe Ciais, Fabian Gans, Nicolas Gruber, Jens Hartmann, Martin Herold, Kazuhito Ichii, Martin Jung, Peter Landschützer, Goulven G. Laruelle, Ronny Lauerwald, Dario Papale, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Poulter, Deepak Ray, Pierre Regnier, Christian Rödenbeck, Rosa M. Roman-Cuesta, Christopher Schwalm, Gianluca Tramontana, Alexandra Tyukavina, Riccardo Valentini, Guido van der Werf, Tristram O. West, Julie E. Wolf, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 14, 3685–3703,Short summary
Here we synthesize a wide range of global spatiotemporal observational data on carbon exchanges between the Earth surface and the atmosphere. A key challenge was to consistently combining observational products of terrestrial and aquatic surfaces. Our primary goal is to identify today’s key uncertainties and observational shortcomings that would need to be addressed in future measurement campaigns or expansions of in situ observatories.
Elisa Lovecchio, Nicolas Gruber, Matthias Münnich, and Zouhair Lachkar
Biogeosciences, 14, 3337–3369,Short summary
We find that a big portion of the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detrital organic matter produced near the northern African coast is laterally transported towards the open North Atlantic. This offshore flux sustains a relevant part of the biological activity in the open sea and reaches as far as the middle of the North Atlantic. Our results, obtained with a state-of-the-art model, highlight the fundamental role of the narrow but productive coastal ocean in sustaining global marine life.
Corinne Le Quéré, Erik T. Buitenhuis, Róisín Moriarty, Séverine Alvain, Olivier Aumont, Laurent Bopp, Sophie Chollet, Clare Enright, Daniel J. Franklin, Richard J. Geider, Sandy P. Harrison, Andrew G. Hirst, Stuart Larsen, Louis Legendre, Trevor Platt, I. Colin Prentice, Richard B. Rivkin, Sévrine Sailley, Shubha Sathyendranath, Nick Stephens, Meike Vogt, and Sergio M. Vallina
Biogeosciences, 13, 4111–4133,Short summary
We present a global biogeochemical model which incorporates ecosystem dynamics based on the representation of ten plankton functional types, and use the model to assess the relative roles of iron vs. grazing in determining phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean. Our results suggest that observed low phytoplankton biomass in the Southern Ocean during summer is primarily explained by the dynamics of the Southern Ocean zooplankton community, despite iron limitation of phytoplankton growth.
Charlotte Laufkötter, Meike Vogt, Nicolas Gruber, Olivier Aumont, Laurent Bopp, Scott C. Doney, John P. Dunne, Judith Hauck, Jasmin G. John, Ivan D. Lima, Roland Seferian, and Christoph Völker
Biogeosciences, 13, 4023–4047,Short summary
We compare future projections in marine export production, generated by four ecosystem models under IPCC's high-emission scenario RCP8.5. While all models project decreases in export, they differ strongly regarding the drivers. The formation of sinking particles of organic matter is the most uncertain process with models not agreeing on either magnitude or the direction of change. Changes in diatom concentration are a strong driver for export in some models but of low significance in others.
C. Rödenbeck, D. C. E. Bakker, N. Gruber, Y. Iida, A. R. Jacobson, S. Jones, P. Landschützer, N. Metzl, S. Nakaoka, A. Olsen, G.-H. Park, P. Peylin, K. B. Rodgers, T. P. Sasse, U. Schuster, J. D. Shutler, V. Valsala, R. Wanninkhof, and J. Zeng
Biogeosciences, 12, 7251–7278,Short summary
This study investigates variations in the CO2 uptake of the ocean from year to year. These variations have been calculated from measurements of the surface-ocean carbon content by various different interpolation methods. The equatorial Pacific is estimated to be the region with the strongest year-to-year variations, tied to the El Nino phase. The global ocean CO2 uptake gradually increased from about the year 2000. The comparison of the interpolation methods identifies these findings as robust.
C. Laufkötter, M. Vogt, N. Gruber, M. Aita-Noguchi, O. Aumont, L. Bopp, E. Buitenhuis, S. C. Doney, J. Dunne, T. Hashioka, J. Hauck, T. Hirata, J. John, C. Le Quéré, I. D. Lima, H. Nakano, R. Seferian, I. Totterdell, M. Vichi, and C. Völker
Biogeosciences, 12, 6955–6984,Short summary
We analyze changes in marine net primary production (NPP) and its drivers for the 21st century in 9 marine ecosystem models under the RCP8.5 scenario. NPP decreases in 5 models and increases in 1 model; 3 models show no significant trend. The main drivers include stronger nutrient limitation, but in many models warming-induced increases in phytoplankton growth outbalance the nutrient effect. Temperature-driven increases in grazing and other loss processes cause a net decrease in biomass and NPP.
R. Arruda, P. H. R. Calil, A. A. Bianchi, S. C. Doney, N. Gruber, I. Lima, and G. Turi
Biogeosciences, 12, 5793–5809,Short summary
We investigate surface ocean pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes climatological variability through biogeochemical modeling in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Surface ocean pCO2 spatio-temporal variability was found to be controlled mainly by temperature and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC). Biological production, physical transport and solubility are the main controlling processes. With different behaviors on subtropical and subantarctic open ocean, and on inner/outer continental shelves.
B. Oney, S. Henne, N. Gruber, M. Leuenberger, I. Bamberger, W. Eugster, and D. Brunner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11147–11164,Short summary
We present a detailed analysis of a new greenhouse gas measurement network in the Swiss Plateau, situated between the Jura mountains and the Alps. We find the network's measurements to be information rich and suitable for studying surface carbon fluxes of the study region. However, we are limited by the high-resolution (2km) atmospheric transport model's ability to simulate meteorology at the individual measurement stations, especially at those situated in rough terrain.
A. Jahn, K. Lindsay, X. Giraud, N. Gruber, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, Z. Liu, and E. C. Brady
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2419–2434,Short summary
Carbon isotopes have been added to the ocean model of the Community Earth System Model version 1 (CESM1). This paper describes the details of how the abiotic 14C tracer and the biotic 13C and 14C tracers were added to the existing ocean model of the CESM. In addition, it shows the first results of the new model features compared to observational data for the 1990s.
J. Martinez-Rey, L. Bopp, M. Gehlen, A. Tagliabue, and N. Gruber
Biogeosciences, 12, 4133–4148,
A. S. A. Ferreira, H. Hátún, F. Counillon, M. R. Payne, and A. W. Visser
Biogeosciences, 12, 3641–3653,Short summary
Our main objective was to assess which bottom-up processes can best predict changes in phytoplankton surface spring blooms in the North Atlantic. We applied new phenology algorithms to satellite-derived data and compared four different metrics based on physical drivers of phytoplankton. We show that there is a dominant physical mechanism - mixed layer shoaling - and that different regions are governed by different physical phenomena.
S. K. Lauvset, N. Gruber, P. Landschützer, A. Olsen, and J. Tjiputra
Biogeosciences, 12, 1285–1298,Short summary
This paper utilizes the SOCATv2 data product to calculate surface ocean pH. The pH data are divided into 17 biomes, and a linear regression is used to derive the long-term trend of pH in each biome. The results are consistent with the trends observed at time series stations. The uncertainties are too large for a mechanistic understanding of the driving forces behind the trend, but there are indications that concurrent changes in chemistry create spatial variability.
S. Sitch, P. Friedlingstein, N. Gruber, S. D. Jones, G. Murray-Tortarolo, A. Ahlström, S. C. Doney, H. Graven, C. Heinze, C. Huntingford, S. Levis, P. E. Levy, M. Lomas, B. Poulter, N. Viovy, S. Zaehle, N. Zeng, A. Arneth, G. Bonan, L. Bopp, J. G. Canadell, F. Chevallier, P. Ciais, R. Ellis, M. Gloor, P. Peylin, S. L. Piao, C. Le Quéré, B. Smith, Z. Zhu, and R. Myneni
Biogeosciences, 12, 653–679,
P. Ciais, A. J. Dolman, A. Bombelli, R. Duren, A. Peregon, P. J. Rayner, C. Miller, N. Gobron, G. Kinderman, G. Marland, N. Gruber, F. Chevallier, R. J. Andres, G. Balsamo, L. Bopp, F.-M. Bréon, G. Broquet, R. Dargaville, T. J. Battin, A. Borges, H. Bovensmann, M. Buchwitz, J. Butler, J. G. Canadell, R. B. Cook, R. DeFries, R. Engelen, K. R. Gurney, C. Heinze, M. Heimann, A. Held, M. Henry, B. Law, S. Luyssaert, J. Miller, T. Moriyama, C. Moulin, R. B. Myneni, C. Nussli, M. Obersteiner, D. Ojima, Y. Pan, J.-D. Paris, S. L. Piao, B. Poulter, S. Plummer, S. Quegan, P. Raymond, M. Reichstein, L. Rivier, C. Sabine, D. Schimel, O. Tarasova, R. Valentini, R. Wang, G. van der Werf, D. Wickland, M. Williams, and C. Zehner
Biogeosciences, 11, 3547–3602,
G. Turi, Z. Lachkar, and N. Gruber
Biogeosciences, 11, 671–690,
P. Landschützer, N. Gruber, D. C. E. Bakker, U. Schuster, S. Nakaoka, M. R. Payne, T. P. Sasse, and J. Zeng
Biogeosciences, 10, 7793–7815,
C. Laufkötter, M. Vogt, and N. Gruber
Biogeosciences, 10, 7373–7393,
M. Vogt, T. Hashioka, M. R. Payne, E. T. Buitenhuis, C. Le Quéré, S. Alvain, M. N. Aita, L. Bopp, S. C. Doney, T. Hirata, I. Lima, S. Sailley, and Y. Yamanaka
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
T. Hashioka, M. Vogt, Y. Yamanaka, C. Le Quéré, E. T. Buitenhuis, M. N. Aita, S. Alvain, L. Bopp, T. Hirata, I. Lima, S. Sailley, and S. C. Doney
Biogeosciences, 10, 6833–6850,
A. Schmittner, N. Gruber, A. C. Mix, R. M. Key, A. Tagliabue, and T. K. Westberry
Biogeosciences, 10, 5793–5816,
E. T. Buitenhuis, M. Vogt, R. Moriarty, N. Bednaršek, S. C. Doney, K. Leblanc, C. Le Quéré, Y.-W. Luo, C. O'Brien, T. O'Brien, J. Peloquin, R. Schiebel, and C. Swan
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 227–239,
C. J. O'Brien, J. A. Peloquin, M. Vogt, M. Heinle, N. Gruber, P. Ajani, H. Andruleit, J. Arístegui, L. Beaufort, M. Estrada, D. Karentz, E. Kopczyńska, R. Lee, A. J. Poulton, T. Pritchard, and C. Widdicombe
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 259–276,
A. Lenton, B. Tilbrook, R. M. Law, D. Bakker, S. C. Doney, N. Gruber, M. Ishii, M. Hoppema, N. S. Lovenduski, R. J. Matear, B. I. McNeil, N. Metzl, S. E. Mikaloff Fletcher, P. M. S. Monteiro, C. Rödenbeck, C. Sweeney, and T. Takahashi
Biogeosciences, 10, 4037–4054,
S. Khatiwala, T. Tanhua, S. Mikaloff Fletcher, M. Gerber, S. C. Doney, H. D. Graven, N. Gruber, G. A. McKinley, A. Murata, A. F. Ríos, and C. L. Sabine
Biogeosciences, 10, 2169–2191,
J. Peloquin, C. Swan, N. Gruber, M. Vogt, H. Claustre, J. Ras, J. Uitz, R. Barlow, M. Behrenfeld, R. Bidigare, H. Dierssen, G. Ditullio, E. Fernandez, C. Gallienne, S. Gibb, R. Goericke, L. Harding, E. Head, P. Holligan, S. Hooker, D. Karl, M. Landry, R. Letelier, C. A. Llewellyn, M. Lomas, M. Lucas, A. Mannino, J.-C. Marty, B. G. Mitchell, F. Muller-Karger, N. Nelson, C. O'Brien, B. Prezelin, D. Repeta, W. O. Jr. Smith, D. Smythe-Wright, R. Stumpf, A. Subramaniam, K. Suzuki, C. Trees, M. Vernet, N. Wasmund, and S. Wright
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 109–123,
R. Wanninkhof, G. -H. Park, T. Takahashi, C. Sweeney, R. Feely, Y. Nojiri, N. Gruber, S. C. Doney, G. A. McKinley, A. Lenton, C. Le Quéré, C. Heinze, J. Schwinger, H. Graven, and S. Khatiwala
Biogeosciences, 10, 1983–2000,
U. Schuster, G. A. McKinley, N. Bates, F. Chevallier, S. C. Doney, A. R. Fay, M. González-Dávila, N. Gruber, S. Jones, J. Krijnen, P. Landschützer, N. Lefèvre, M. Manizza, J. Mathis, N. Metzl, A. Olsen, A. F. Rios, C. Rödenbeck, J. M. Santana-Casiano, T. Takahashi, R. Wanninkhof, and A. J. Watson
Biogeosciences, 10, 607–627,
C. Hauri, N. Gruber, M. Vogt, S. C. Doney, R. A. Feely, Z. Lachkar, A. Leinweber, A. M. P. McDonnell, M. Munnich, and G.-K. Plattner
Biogeosciences, 10, 193–216,
Y. Yara, M. Vogt, M. Fujii, H. Yamano, C. Hauri, M. Steinacher, N. Gruber, and Y. Yamanaka
Biogeosciences, 9, 4955–4968,
Related subject area
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function: MarineThe Bouraké semi-enclosed lagoon (New Caledonia) – a natural laboratory to study the lifelong adaptation of a coral reef ecosystem to extreme environmental conditionsPopulation dynamics and reproduction strategies of planktonic foraminifera in the open oceanAtypical, high-diversity assemblages of foraminifera in a mangrove estuary in northern BrazilPermanent ectoplasmic structures in deep-sea Cibicides and Cibicidoides taxa – long-term observations at in situ pressureIdeas and perspectives: Ushering the Indian Ocean into the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (UNDOSSD) through marine ecosystem research and operational services – an early career's takePersistent effects of sand extraction on habitats and associated benthic communities in the German BightSpatial patterns of ectoenzymatic kinetics in relation to biogeochemical properties in the Mediterranean Sea and the concentration of the fluorogenic substrate usedEnhanced chlorophyll-a concentration in the wake of Sable Island, eastern Canada, revealed by two decades of satellite observations: a response to grey seal population dynamics?A 2-decade (1988–2009) record of diatom fluxes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling: impact of low-frequency forcing and a two-step shift in the species compositionReview and syntheses: Impacts of turbidity flows on deep-sea benthic communitiesIdeas and perspectives: When ocean acidification experiments are not the same, repeatability is not testedThe effect of the salinity, light regime and food source on carbon and nitrogen uptake in a benthic foraminiferChanges in population depth distribution and oxygen stratification are involved in the current low condition of the eastern Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua)Effects of spatial variability on the exposure of fish to hypoxia: a modeling analysis for the Gulf of MexicoPlant genotype determines biomass response to flooding frequency in tidal wetlandsFactors controlling the competition between Phaeocystis and diatoms in the Southern Ocean and implications for carbon export fluxesCharacterization of particle-associated and free-living bacterial and archaeal communities along the water columns of the South China SeaAdult life strategy affects distribution patterns in abyssal isopods – implications for conservation in Pacific nodule areasDiversity and distribution of nitrogen fixation genes in the oxygen minimum zones of the world oceansStructure and function of epipelagic mesozooplankton and their response to dust deposition events during the spring PEACETIME cruise in the Mediterranean SeaDistribution of planktonic foraminifera in the subtropical South Atlantic: depth hierarchy of controlling factorsTechnical note: Estimating light-use efficiency of benthic habitats using underwater O2 eddy covarianceOcean acidification reduces growth and grazing impact of Antarctic heterotrophic nanoflagellatesDynamics of environmental conditions during the decline of a Cymodocea nodosa meadowMegafauna community assessment of polymetallic-nodule fields with cameras: platform and methodology comparisonA meta-analysis on environmental drivers of marine phytoplankton C : N : PSpatial and temporal variability in the response of phytoplankton and prokaryotes to B-vitamin amendments in an upwelling systemBiogeography and community structure of abyssal scavenging Amphipoda (Crustacea) in the Pacific OceanAre seamounts refuge areas for fauna from polymetallic nodule fields?Ocean deoxygenation and copepods: coping with oxygen minimum zone variabilityUnexpected high abyssal ophiuroid diversity in polymetallic nodule fields of the northeast Pacific Ocean and implications for conservationPopulation dynamics of modern planktonic foraminifera in the western Barents SeaForaminiferal community response to seasonal anoxia in Lake Grevelingen (the Netherlands)Light availability modulates the effects of warming in a marine N2 fixerSiR-actin-labelled granules in foraminifera: patterns, dynamics, and hypothesesAlpha and beta diversity patterns of polychaete assemblages across the nodule province of the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (equatorial Pacific)Dimensions of marine phytoplankton diversityThe Arctic picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla benefits from ocean acidification under constant and dynamic lightFlux variability of phyto- and zooplankton communities in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling between 2003 and 2008Environmental factors influencing benthic communities in the oxygen minimum zones on the Angolan and Namibian marginsHypoxia in mangroves: occurrence and impact on valuable tropical fish habitatCalcification and latitudinal distribution of extant coccolithophores across the Drake Passage during late austral summer 2016Distribution of free-living marine nematodes in the Clarion–Clipperton Zone: implications for future deep-sea mining scenariosCharacterizing photosymbiosis in modern planktonic foraminiferaIdentifying areas prone to coastal hypoxia – the role of topographyObservations of deep-sea fishes and mobile scavengers from the abyssal DISCOL experimental mining areaOcean acidification and high irradiance stimulate the photo-physiological fitness, growth and carbon production of the Antarctic cryptophyte Geminigera cryophilaRates and drivers of Red Sea plankton community metabolismReviews and syntheses: Insights into deep-sea food webs and global environmental gradients revealed by stable isotope (δ15N, δ13C) and fatty acid trophic biomarkersLight-dependent calcification in Red Sea giant clam Tridacna maxima
Federica Maggioni, Mireille Pujo-Pay, Jérome Aucan, Carlo Cerrano, Barbara Calcinai, Claude Payri, Francesca Benzoni, Yves Letourneur, and Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa
Biogeosciences, 18, 5117–5140,Short summary
Based on current experimental evidence, climate change will affect up to 90 % of coral reefs worldwide. The originality of this study arises from our recent discovery of an exceptional study site where environmental conditions (temperature, pH, and oxygen) are even worse than those forecasted for the future. While these conditions are generally recognized as unfavorable for marine life, we found a rich and abundant coral reef thriving under such extreme environmental conditions.
Julie Meilland, Michael Siccha, Maike Kaffenberger, Jelle Bijma, and Michal Kucera
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Planktonic foraminifera population dynamics has long been assumed to be controlled by synchronous reproduction and ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM). Due to contradictory observations, this concept became controversial. We here test it in the Atlantic ocean for four species of foraminifera representing the main clades. Our observations support the existence of synchronised reproduction and OVM but show that more than half of the population does not follow the canonical trajectory.
Nisan Sariaslan and Martin R. Langer
Biogeosciences, 18, 4073–4090,Short summary
Analyses of foraminiferal assemblages from the Mamanguape mangrove estuary (northern Brazil) revealed highly diverse, species-rich, and structurally complex biotas. The atypical fauna resembles shallow-water offshore assemblages and are interpreted to be the result of highly saline ocean waters penetrating deep into the estuary. The findings contrast with previous studies, have implications for the fossil record, and provide novel perspectives for reconstructing mangrove environments.
Jutta E. Wollenburg, Jelle Bijma, Charlotte Cremer, Ulf Bickmeyer, and Zora Mila Colomba Zittier
Biogeosciences, 18, 3903–3915,Short summary
Cultured at in situ high-pressure conditions Cibicides and Cibicidoides taxa develop lasting ectoplasmic structures that cannot be retracted or resorbed. An ectoplasmic envelope surrounds their test and may protect the shell, e.g. versus carbonate aggressive bottom water conditions. Ectoplasmic roots likely anchor the specimens in areas of strong bottom water currents, trees enable them to elevate themselves above ground, and twigs stabilize and guide the retractable pseudopodial network.
Biogeosciences, 18, 3631–3635,Short summary
The Indian Ocean Rim hosts many of the underdeveloped and emerging economies that depend on ocean resources for the livelihood of millions. Operational ocean information services cater to the requirements of resource managers and end-users to efficiently harness resources, mitigate threats and ensure safety. This paper outlines existing tools and explores the ongoing research that has the potential to convert the findings into operational services in the near- to midterm.
Finn Mielck, Rune Michaelis, H. Christian Hass, Sarah Hertel, Caroline Ganal, and Werner Armonies
Biogeosciences, 18, 3565–3577,Short summary
Marine sand mining is becoming more and more important to nourish fragile coastlines that face global change. We investigated the largest sand extraction site in the German Bight. The study reveals that after more than 35 years of mining, the excavation pits are still detectable on the seafloor while the sediment composition has largely changed. The organic communities living in and on the seafloor were strongly decimated, and no recovery is observable towards previous conditions.
France Van Wambeke, Elvira Pulido, Philippe Catala, Julie Dinasquet, Kahina Djaoudi, Anja Engel, Marc Garel, Sophie Guasco, Barbara Marie, Sandra Nunige, Vincent Taillandier, Birthe Zäncker, and Christian Tamburini
Biogeosciences, 18, 2301–2323,Short summary
Michaelis–Menten kinetics were determined for alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase in the Mediterranean Sea. Although the ectoenzymatic-hydrolysis contribution to heterotrophic prokaryotic needs was high in terms of N, it was low in terms of C. This study points out the biases in interpretation of the relative differences in activities among the three tested enzymes in regard to the choice of added concentrations of fluorogenic substrates.
Emmanuel Devred, Andrea Hilborn, and Cornelia den Heyer
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
A plume of high primary productivity around Sable Island (SI), eastern Canada, has increased in magnitude and surface area over the last twenty years as shown by satellite ocean color. At the same time, hauling of grey seals on SI increased from 100,000 to 360,000 individuals during the winter. Nitrogen fertilization by seal excretion explains the seasonal cycle and trends of phytoplankton biomass. The results highlight the positive feedback of marine mammal conservation on the marine ecosystem.
Oscar E. Romero, Simon Ramondenc, and Gerhard Fischer
Biogeosciences, 18, 1873–1891,Short summary
Upwelling intensity along NW Africa varies on the interannual to decadal timescale. Understanding its changes is key for the prediction of future changes of CO2 sequestration in the northeastern Atlantic. Based on a multiyear (1988–2009) sediment trap experiment at the site CBmeso, fluxes and the species composition of the diatom assemblage are presented. Our data help in establishing the scientific basis for forecasting and modeling future states of this ecosystem and its decadal changes.
Katharine T. Bigham, Ashley A. Rowden, Daniel Leduc, and David A. Bowden
Biogeosciences, 18, 1893–1908,Short summary
Turbidity flows – underwater avalanches – are large-scale physical disturbances believed to have profound impacts on productivity and diversity of benthic communities in the deep sea. We reviewed published studies and found that current evidence for changes in productivity is ambiguous at best, but the influence on regional and local diversity is clearer. We suggest study design criteria that may lead to a better understanding of large-scale disturbance effects on deep-sea benthos.
Phillip Williamson, Hans-Otto Pörtner, Steve Widdicombe, and Jean-Pierre Gattuso
Biogeosciences, 18, 1787–1792,Short summary
The reliability of ocean acidification research was challenged in early 2020 when a high-profile paper failed to corroborate previously observed impacts of high CO2 on the behaviour of coral reef fish. We now know the reason why: the
replicatedstudies differed in many ways. Open-minded and collaborative assessment of all research results, both negative and positive, remains the best way to develop process-based understanding of the impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms.
Michael Lintner, Bianca Lintner, Wolfgang Wanek, Nina Keul, and Petra Heinz
Biogeosciences, 18, 1395–1406,Short summary
Foraminifera are unicellular marine organisms that play an important role in the marine element cycle. Changes of environmental parameters such as salinity or temperature have a significant impact on the faunal assemblages. Our experiments show that changes in salinity immediately influence the foraminiferal activity. Also the light regime has a significant impact on carbon or nitrogen processing in foraminifera which contain no kleptoplasts.
Michele Casini, Martin Hansson, Alessandro Orio, and Karin Limburg
Biogeosciences, 18, 1321–1331,Short summary
In the past 20 years the condition of the eastern Baltic cod has dropped, with large implications for the fishery. Our results show that simultaneously the cod population has moved deeper while low-oxygenated waters detrimental for cod growth have become shallower. Cod have thus dwelled more in detrimental waters, explaining the drop in its condition. This study, using long-term fish and hydrological monitoring data, evidences the impact of deoxygenation on fish biology and fishing.
Elizabeth D. LaBone, Kenneth A. Rose, Dubravko Justic, Haosheng Huang, and Lixia Wang
Biogeosciences, 18, 487–507,Short summary
The hypoxic zone is an area of low dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Gulf of Mexico. Fish can be killed by exposure to hypoxia and can be negatively impacted by exposure to low, nonlethal DO concentrations (sublethal DO). We found that high sublethal area resulted in higher exposure and DO variability had a small effect on exposure. There was a large variation in exposure among individuals, which when combined with spatial variability of DO, can result in an underestimation of exposure when averaged.
Svenja Reents, Peter Mueller, Hao Tang, Kai Jensen, and Stefanie Nolte
Biogeosciences, 18, 403–411,Short summary
By conducting a flooding experiment with two genotypes of the salt-marsh grass Elymus athericus, we show considerable differences in biomass response to flooding within the same species. As biomass production plays a major role in sedimentation processes and thereby salt-marsh accretion, we emphasise the importance of taking intraspecific differences into account when evaluating ecosystem resilience to accelerated sea level rise.
Cara Nissen and Meike Vogt
Biogeosciences, 18, 251–283,Short summary
Using a regional Southern Ocean ecosystem model, we find that the relative importance of Phaeocystis and diatoms at high latitudes is controlled by iron and temperature variability, with light levels controlling the seasonal succession in coastal areas. Yet, biomass losses via aggregation and grazing matter as well. We show that the seasonal succession of Phaeocystis and diatoms impacts the seasonality of carbon export fluxes with ramifications for nutrient cycling and food web dynamics.
Jiangtao Li, Lingyuan Gu, Shijie Bai, Jie Wang, Lei Su, Bingbing Wei, Li Zhang, and Jiasong Fang
Biogeosciences, 18, 113–133,Short summary
Few studies have focused on the particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) microbes of the deep ocean. Here we determined PA and FL microbial communities along depth profiles of the SCS. PA and FL fractions accommodated divergent microbial compositions, and most of them are potentially generalists with PA and FL dual lifestyles. A potential vertical connectivity between surface-specific microbes and those in the deep ocean was indicated, likely through microbial attachment to sinking particles.
Saskia Brix, Karen J. Osborn, Stefanie Kaiser, Sarit B. Truskey, Sarah M. Schnurr, Nils Brenke, Marina Malyutina, and Pedro Martinez Arbizu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6163–6184,Short summary
The Clarion–Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ) located in the Pacific is commercially the most important area of proposed manganese nodule mining. Extraction of this will influence the life and distribution of small deep-sea invertebrates like peracarid crustaceans, of which >90 % are undescribed species new to science. We are doing a species delimitation approach as baseline for an ecological interpretation of species distribution and discuss the results in light of future deep-sea conservation.
Amal Jayakumar and Bess B. Ward
Biogeosciences, 17, 5953–5966,Short summary
Diversity and community composition of nitrogen-fixing microbes in the three main oxygen minimum zones of the world ocean were investigated using nifH clone libraries. Representatives of three main clusters of nifH genes were detected. Sequences were most diverse in the surface waters. The most abundant OTUs were affiliated with Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. The sequences were biogeographically distinct and the dominance of a few OTUs was commonly observed in OMZs in this (and other) studies.
Guillermo Feliú, Marc Pagano, Pamela Hidalgo, and François Carlotti
Biogeosciences, 17, 5417–5441,Short summary
The impact of Saharan dust deposition events on the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem was studied during a basin-scale survey (PEACETIME cruise, May–June 2017). Short-term responses of the zooplankton community were observed after episodic dust deposition events, highlighting the impact of these events on productivity up to the zooplankton level in the poorly fertilized pelagic ecosystems of the southern Mediterranean Sea.
Douglas Lessa, Raphaël Morard, Lukas Jonkers, Igor M. Venancio, Runa Reuter, Adrian Baumeister, Ana Luiza Albuquerque, and Michal Kucera
Biogeosciences, 17, 4313–4342,Short summary
We observed that living planktonic foraminifera had distinct vertically distributed communities across the Subtropical South Atlantic. In addition, a hierarchic alternation of environmental parameters was measured to control the distribution of planktonic foraminifer's species depending on the water depth. This implies that not only temperature but also productivity and subsurface processes are signed in fossil assemblages, which could be used to perform paleoceanographic reconstructions.
Karl M. Attard and Ronnie N. Glud
Biogeosciences, 17, 4343–4353,Short summary
Light-use efficiency defines the ability of primary producers to convert sunlight energy to primary production. This report provides a framework to compute hourly and daily light-use efficiency using underwater eddy covariance, a recent technological development that produces habitat-scale rates of primary production for many different habitat types. The approach, tested on measured flux data, provides a useful means to compare habitat productivity across time and space.
Stacy Deppeler, Kai G. Schulz, Alyce Hancock, Penelope Pascoe, John McKinlay, and Andrew Davidson
Biogeosciences, 17, 4153–4171,Short summary
Our study showed how ocean acidification can exert both direct and indirect influences on the interactions among trophic levels within the microbial loop. Microbial grazer abundance was reduced at CO2 concentrations at and above 634 µatm, while microbial communities increased in abundance, likely due to a reduction in being grazed. Such changes in predator–prey interactions with ocean acidification could have significant effects on the food web and biogeochemistry in the Southern Ocean.
Mirjana Najdek, Marino Korlević, Paolo Paliaga, Marsej Markovski, Ingrid Ivančić, Ljiljana Iveša, Igor Felja, and Gerhard J. Herndl
Biogeosciences, 17, 3299–3315,Short summary
The response of Cymodocea nodosa to environmental changes was reported during a 15-month period. The meadow decline was triggered in spring by the simultaneous reduction of available light in the water column and the creation of anoxic conditions in the rooted area. This disturbance was critical for the plant since it took place during its recruitment phase when metabolic needs are maximal and stored reserves minimal. The loss of such habitat-forming seagrass is a major environmental concern.
Timm Schoening, Autun Purser, Daniel Langenkämper, Inken Suck, James Taylor, Daphne Cuvelier, Lidia Lins, Erik Simon-Lledó, Yann Marcon, Daniel O. B. Jones, Tim Nattkemper, Kevin Köser, Martin Zurowietz, Jens Greinert, and Jose Gomes-Pereira
Biogeosciences, 17, 3115–3133,Short summary
Seafloor imaging is widely used in marine science and industry to explore and monitor areas of interest. The selection of the most appropriate imaging gear and deployment strategy depends on the target application. This paper compares imaging platforms like autonomous vehicles or towed camera frames and different deployment strategies of those in assessing the megafauna abundance of polymetallic-nodule fields. The deep-sea mining industry needs that information for robust impact monitoring.
Tatsuro Tanioka and Katsumi Matsumoto
Biogeosciences, 17, 2939–2954,Short summary
We conducted an extensive literature survey (meta-analysis) on how the C : N : P ratio varies with change in key environmental drivers. We found that the expected reduction in nutrients and warming under the future climate change scenario is likely to result in increased C : P and C : N of marine phytoplankton. Further, our findings highlight the greater stoichiometric plasticity of eukaryotes over prokaryotes, which provide us insights on how to understand and model plankton.
Vanessa Joglar, Antero Prieto, Esther Barber-Lluch, Marta Hernández-Ruiz, Emilio Fernández, and Eva Teira
Biogeosciences, 17, 2807–2823,Short summary
Coastal marine ecosystems are among the most ecologically and economically productive areas providing a large fraction of ecosystem goods and services to human populations, and B vitamins have long been considered important growth factors for phytoplankton. Our findings indicate that the responses of microbial plankton to B-vitamin supply are mainly driven by the bacterial community composition and that microbial plankton in this area seems to be well adapted to cope with B-vitamin shortage.
Tasnim Patel, Henri Robert, Cedric D'Udekem D'Acoz, Koen Martens, Ilse De Mesel, Steven Degraer, and Isa Schön
Biogeosciences, 17, 2731–2744,Short summary
Exploitation of deep-sea resources in one of the largest ecosystems on the planet has rendered research of its biodiversity more urgent than ever before. We investigated the known habitats and connectivity of deep-sea scavenging amphipods and obtained important knowledge about several species. We also demonstrated that a long-term disturbance experiment has possibly reduced amphipod biodiversity. These data and further sampling expeditions are instrumental for formulating sustainable policies.
Daphne Cuvelier, Pedro A. Ribeiro, Sofia P. Ramalho, Daniel Kersken, Pedro Martinez Arbizu, and Ana Colaço
Biogeosciences, 17, 2657–2680,Short summary
Polymetallic nodule mining will remove hard substrata from the abyssal deep-sea floor. The only neighbouring ecosystems featuring hard substratum are seamounts, and their inhabiting fauna could aid in recovery post-mining. Nevertheless, first observations of seamount megafauna were very different from nodule-associated megafauna and showed little overlap. The possible uniqueness of these ecosystems implies that they should be included in management plans for the conservation of biodiversity.
Karen F. Wishner, Brad Seibel, and Dawn Outram
Biogeosciences, 17, 2315–2339,Short summary
Increasing deoxygenation and oxygen minimum zone expansion are consequences of global warming. Copepod species had different vertical distribution strategies and physiologies associated with oxygen profile variability (0–1000 m). Species (1) changed vertical distributions and maximum abundance depth, (2) shifted diapause depth, (3) changed diel vertical migration depths, or (4) changed epipelagic depth range in the aerobic mixed layer. Present-day variability helps predict future scenarios.
Magdalini Christodoulou, Timothy O'Hara, Andrew F. Hugall, Sahar Khodami, Clara F. Rodrigues, Ana Hilario, Annemiek Vink, and Pedro Martinez Arbizu
Biogeosciences, 17, 1845–1876,Short summary
Unexpectedly high diversity was revealed in areas licenced for polymetallic nodule mining exploration in the Pacific Ocean. For the first time, a comprehensive reference library including 287 novel ophiuroid sequences allocated to 43 species was produced. Differences in food availability along the nodule province of CCZ were reflected in the biodiversity patterns observed. The APEI3's dissimilarity with the exploration contract areas questions its ability to serve as a biodiversity reservoir.
Julie Meilland, Hélène Howa, Vivien Hulot, Isaline Demangel, Joëlle Salaün, and Thierry Garlan
Biogeosciences, 17, 1437–1450,Short summary
This study reports on planktonic foraminifera (PF) diversity and distribution in the Barents Sea. The species Globigerinita uvula and Turborotalita quinqueloba dominate the water column while surface sediments are dominated by Neogloboquadrina pachyderma. We hypothesize the unusual dominance of G. uvula in the water to be a seasonal signal or a result of climate forcing. Size-normalized-protein concentrations of PF show a northward decrease, suggesting biomass to vary with the environment.
Julien Richirt, Bettina Riedel, Aurélia Mouret, Magali Schweizer, Dewi Langlet, Dorina Seitaj, Filip J. R. Meysman, Caroline P. Slomp, and Frans J. Jorissen
Biogeosciences, 17, 1415–1435,Short summary
The paper presents the response of benthic foraminiferal communities to seasonal absence of oxygen coupled with the presence of hydrogen sulfide, considered very harmful for several living organisms. Our results suggest that the foraminiferal community mainly responds as a function of the duration of the adverse conditions. This knowledge is especially useful to better understand the ecology of benthic foraminifera but also in the context of palaeoceanographic interpretations.
Xiangqi Yi, Fei-Xue Fu, David A. Hutchins, and Kunshan Gao
Biogeosciences, 17, 1169–1180,Short summary
Combined effects of warming and light intensity were estimated in N2-fixing cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Its physiological responses to warming were significantly modulated by light, with growth peaking at 27 °C under the light-saturating condition but being non-responsive across the range of 23–31 °C under the light-limiting condition. Light shortage also weakened the acclimation ability of Trichodesmium to warming, making light-limited Trichodesmium more sensitive to acute temperature change.
Jan Goleń, Jarosław Tyszka, Ulf Bickmeyer, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 17, 995–1011,Short summary
We studied the organisation and dynamics of actin in foraminifera. Actin is one of the key structural proteins in most lifeforms. Our investigations show that in foraminifera it forms small granules, around 1 µm in diameter, that display rapid movement. This granularity is unusual in comparison to other organisms. We suppose that these granules are most likely involved in the formation of all types of pseudopods responsible for movement, food capturing, biomineralisation, and other functions.
Paulo Bonifácio, Pedro Martínez Arbizu, and Lénaïck Menot
Biogeosciences, 17, 865–886,Short summary
The patterns observed in the composition of polychaete assemblages were attributed to variations in food supply at the regional scale and nodule density at the local scale. The high levels of species replacement were mainly driven by rare species, leading to regional species pool estimates between 498 and 240 000 species. The high proportion of singletons seems reflect an under-sampling bias that is currently preventing the assessment of potential biodiversity loss due to nodule mining.
Stephanie Dutkiewicz, Pedro Cermeno, Oliver Jahn, Michael J. Follows, Anna E. Hickman, Darcy A. A. Taniguchi, and Ben A. Ward
Biogeosciences, 17, 609–634,Short summary
Phytoplankton are an essential component of the marine food web and earth's carbon cycle. We use observations, ecological theory and a unique trait-based ecosystem model to explain controls on patterns of marine phytoplankton biodiversity. We find that different dimensions of diversity (size classes, biogeochemical functional groups, thermal norms) are controlled by a disparate combination of mechanisms. This may explain why previous studies of phytoplankton diversity had conflicting results.
Emily White, Clara J. M. Hoppe, and Björn Rost
Biogeosciences, 17, 635–647,Short summary
The Arctic picoeukaryote Micromonas pusilla was acclimated to two pCO2 levels under a constant and a dynamic light, simulating more realistic light fields. M. pusilla was able to benefit from ocean acidification with an increase in growth rate, irrespective of the light regime. In dynamic light M. pusilla optimised its photophysiology for effective light usage during both low- and high-light periods. This highlights M. pusilla is likely to cope well with future conditions in the Arctic Ocean.
Oscar E. Romero, Karl-Heinz Baumann, Karin A. F. Zonneveld, Barbara Donner, Jens Hefter, Bambaye Hamady, Vera Pospelova, and Gerhard Fischer
Biogeosciences, 17, 187–214,Short summary
Monitoring of the multiannual evolution of populations representing different trophic levels allows for obtaining insights into the impact of climate variability in marine coastal upwelling ecosystems. By using a multiyear, continuous (1,900 d) sediment trap record, we assess the dynamics and fluxes of calcareous, organic and siliceous microorganisms off Mauritania (NW Africa). The experiment allowed for the recognition of a general sequence of seasonal variations of the main populations.
Ulrike Hanz, Claudia Wienberg, Dierk Hebbeln, Gerard Duineveld, Marc Lavaleye, Katriina Juva, Wolf-Christian Dullo, André Freiwald, Leonardo Tamborrino, Gert-Jan Reichart, Sascha Flögel, and Furu Mienis
Biogeosciences, 16, 4337–4356,Short summary
Along the Namibian and Angolan margins, low oxygen conditions do not meet environmental ranges for cold–water corals and hence are expected to be unsuitable habitats. Environmental conditions show that tidal movements deliver water with more oxygen and high–quality organic matter, suggesting that corals compensate unfavorable conditions with availability of food. With the expected expansion of oxygen minimum zones in the future, this study provides an example how ecosystems cope with extremes.
Alexia Dubuc, Ronald Baker, Cyril Marchand, Nathan J. Waltham, and Marcus Sheaves
Biogeosciences, 16, 3959–3976,Short summary
Little is known about how hypoxia influences mangrove fish assemblages. In situ video observations reveal species-specific avoidance strategies in response to developing hypoxia in a mangrove forest. Taxa commonly using mangroves could withstand hypoxia, while others usually associated with reef habitats were not recorded below 70 % saturation. These results suggest that hypoxia is an important factor shaping mangrove fish assemblages and could explain the low species richness usually observed.
Mariem Saavedra-Pellitero, Karl-Heinz Baumann, Miguel Ángel Fuertes, Hartmut Schulz, Yann Marcon, Nele Manon Vollmar, José-Abel Flores, and Frank Lamy
Biogeosciences, 16, 3679–3702,Short summary
Open ocean phytoplankton include coccolithophore algae, a key element in carbon cycle regulation with important feedbacks to the climate system. We document latitudinal variability in both coccolithophore assemblage and the mass variation in one particular species, Emiliania huxleyi, for a transect across the Drake Passage (in the Southern Ocean). Coccolithophore abundance, diversity and maximum depth habitat decrease southwards, coinciding with changes in the predominant E. huxleyi morphotypes.
Freija Hauquier, Lara Macheriotou, Tania N. Bezerra, Great Egho, Pedro Martínez Arbizu, and Ann Vanreusel
Biogeosciences, 16, 3475–3489,Short summary
Future mining operations in the deep sea provide a source of scientific uncertainty and call for detailed study of the ecosystem. We investigated one of the most diverse and abundant taxa present in deep-sea sediments, nematodes, and demonstrate the importance of sediment attributes for their communities. Especially species that are less common and have a limited spatial distribution will be vulnerable to mining-induced changes. Our findings can serve as a reference for future impact studies.
Haruka Takagi, Katsunori Kimoto, Tetsuichi Fujiki, Hiroaki Saito, Christiane Schmidt, Michal Kucera, and Kazuyoshi Moriya
Biogeosciences, 16, 3377–3396,Short summary
Photosymbiosis (endosymbiosis with algae) is an evolutionary important ecology for many marine organisms but has poorly been identified among planktonic foraminifera. In this study, we identified and characterized photosymbiosis of various species of planktonic foraminifera by focusing on their photosynthesis–related features. We finally proposed a new framework showing a potential strength of photosymbiosis, which will serve as a basis for future ecological studies of planktonic foraminifera.
Elina A. Virtanen, Alf Norkko, Antonia Nyström Sandman, and Markku Viitasalo
Biogeosciences, 16, 3183–3195,Short summary
Our understanding of the drivers of hypoxia fundamentally hinges on patterns of water circulation and vertical mixing that can be difficult to resolve in coastal regions. We identified areas prone to oxygen loss in a complex marine area without knowledge of biogeochemical properties, using only parameters which describe the enclosed seafloors with restricted water exchange. Our approach could help nutrient abatement measures and pinpoint areas where management actions are most urgently needed.
Jeffrey C. Drazen, Astrid B. Leitner, Sage Morningstar, Yann Marcon, Jens Greinert, and Autun Purser
Biogeosciences, 16, 3133–3146,Short summary
We investigated the fish and scavenger community after a deep seafloor disturbance experiment intended to simulate the effects of deep-sea mining. Fish density returned to background levels after several years; however the dominant fish was rarely found in ploughed habitat after 26 years. Given the significantly larger scale of industrial mining, these results could translate to population-level effects. The abyssal fish community at the site was similar to that in the Clarion–Clipperton Zone.
Scarlett Trimborn, Silke Thoms, Pascal Karitter, and Kai Bischof
Biogeosciences, 16, 2997–3008,Short summary
Ecophysiological studies on Antarctic cryptophytes to assess whether climatic changes such as ocean acidification and enhanced stratification affect their growth in Antarctic coastal waters in the future are lacking so far. Our results reveal beneficial effects of ocean acidification in conjunction with enhanced irradiance on growth and photosynthesis of the Antarctic cyrptophyte Geminigera cryophila. Hence, cryptophytes such as G. cryophila may be potential winners of these climatic changes.
Daffne C. López-Sandoval, Katherine Rowe, Paloma Carillo-de-Albonoz, Carlos M. Duarte, and Susana Agustí
Biogeosciences, 16, 2983–2995,Short summary
We addressed how the intertwined effect of temperature and nutrients modulates the metabolic response of planktonic communities in the Red Sea, one of the warmest seas on earth. Our study unveiled that photosynthesis increases at a faster pace than respiration rates for this group of organisms formed by microalgae, bacteria, and drifting animals. This anomaly is likely due to the nature of the basin where the warmest waters are frequently enriched with nutrients, which favours microalgae growth.
Camilla Parzanini, Christopher C. Parrish, Jean-François Hamel, and Annie Mercier
Biogeosciences, 16, 2837–2856,Short summary
This review synthesized current knowledge of deep-sea food webs and provided a preliminary analysis of global geographic patterns in the biochemical composition of deep-water organisms. Our results revealed both latitudinal and depth wise trends in the biochemical composition of deep-sea animals. In addition, the link across latitudes between surface primary production and deep-water communities was highlighted, which has important implications in the face of global climate change.
Susann Rossbach, Vincent Saderne, Andrea Anton, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 16, 2635–2650,Short summary
Giant clams including the species Tridacna maxima are unique among bivalves as they live in symbiosis with unicellular algae and generally function as net photoautotrophs. Light is therefore crucial for these species to thrive. We show that net calcification and photosynthetic rates of T. maxima are light dependent, with maximum rates at conditions comparable to 4 m water depth, reflected also in the depth-related distribution in the Red Sea with maximum abundances in shallow sunlit coral reefs.
Alvain, S., Loisel, H., and Dessailly, D.: Theoretical analysis of ocean color radiances anomalies and implications for phytoplankton groups detection in case I waters, Opt. Express, 20, 1070–1083, 2012.
Araujo, M. B.: Biodiversity hotspots and zones of ecological transition, Conserv Biol., 16, 1662–1663, 2002.
Bailey, R. G. (Ed.): Ecosystem geography, Springer, New York, 1996.
Bakun, A. and Parrish, H. R.: Comparative studies of coastal pelagic fish reproductive habitats: the anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) of the southern Atlantic, ICES J. Mar. Sci., 48, 343–361, 1991.
Barale, V.: The European and Marginal Seas: An Overview, in: Remote Sensing of the European Sea, edited by: Barale, V. and Gade, M., Springer, the Netherlands, 3–22, 2008.
Bredin, K. A., Gerriets, S. H., and Van Guelpen, L.: Distribution of rare, endangered and keystone marine vertebrate species in Bay of Fundy Seascapes, Report to the Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment, Atlantic Canada Conservation Data Centre, 73 pp., 2001.
Brewin, R. J. W., Lavender, S. J., Hardman-Mountford, N. J., and Hirata, T.: A spectral response approach for detecting dominant phytoplankton size class from satellite remote sensing, Acta Oceanol. Sin., 29, 14–32, 2010.
Buitenhuis, E. T., Vogt, M., Moriarty, R., Bednaršek, N., Doney, S. C., Leblanc, K., Le Quéré, C., Luo, Y.-W., O'Brien, C., O'Brien, T., Peloquin, J., Schiebel, R., and Swan, C.: MAREDAT: towards a world atlas of MARine Ecosystem DATa, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 227–239, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-5-227-2013, 2013.
Campbell, J. W.: The lognormal distribution as a model for bio-optical variability in the sea, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 13237–13254, 1995.
CEP: Belyaeva, V. N. (Ed.): Caspian biodiversity database, Caspian Environment Programme, Baku, Azerbaijan, 2002.
Chon, T.: Self-Organizing Maps applied to ecological sciences, Ecol. Inform., 6, 50–61, 2011.
Day, J. and Roff, J. C.: Planning for representative marine protected areas: A framework for Canada's oceans, Report prepared for World Wildlife Fund Canada, Toronto, 148 pp., 2000.
De'ath, G. and Fabricius, K. E.: Classification and regression trees: A powerful yet simple technique for ecological data analysis, Ecology, 81, 3178–3192, 2000.
Devred, E., Sathyendranath, S., and Platt, T.: Delineation of ecological provinces using ocean colour radiometry, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 346, 1–13, 2007.
Dice, L. R.: Measures of the amount of ecologic association between species, Ecology, 26, 297–302, 1945.
Dietrich, G. (Ed.): General Oceanography: An Introduction. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., New York, 1963.
Ecosystem Principles Advisory Panel (EPAP): Ecosystem based management: A report to congress by the Ecosystem Principles Advisory Panel, 54 pp., 1996.
Fendereski, F., Salmanmahiny, A., Hosseini, S. A., and Fazli, H.: The First Attempt to Test Correlation between MODIS Chlorophyll a Concentrations and In Situ Measurments in The Southern Caspian Sea, in: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Oceans from Space, European Commission EUR 24324 EN, Venice, Italy, 26–30 April 2010, 89–90, 2010.
Frades, I. and Matthiessen, R.: Overview on Techniques in Cluster Analysis, in: Bioinformatics Methods in Clinical Research, Methods in Molecular Biology, edited by: Matthiesen, R., Humana Press, New York, USA, 593, 81–107, 2010.
Ginzburg, A. I., Kostianoy, A. G., and Sheremet, N. A.: Sea Surface Temperature Variability, in: The Caspian Sea environment: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, edited by: Kosarev, A. N. and Kostianoy, A. G., Springer, Berlin, 59–81, 2005.
Gonzalez, A. I., Grana, M., Anjou, A. D., and Albizuri, F. X.: A sensitivity analysis of the self organizing map as an adaptive one-pass non-stationary clustering algorithm: the case of color quantization of image sequences, Neural Process. Lett., 6, 77–89, 1997.
Gregr, E. J. and Bodtker, K. M.: Adaptive classification of marine ecosystems: Identifying biologically meaningful regions in the marine environment, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 54, 385–402, 2007.
Hardman-Mountford, N. J., Hirata, T., Richardson, K. A., and Aiken, J.: An objective methodology for the classification of ecological pattern into biomes and provinces for the pelagic ocean, Remote Sens. Environ., 112, 3341–3352, 2008.
Hirata, T., Hardman-Mountford, N. J., Brewin, R. J. W., Aiken, J., Barlow, R., Suzuki, K., Isada, T., Howell, E., Hashioka, T., Noguchi-Aita, M., and Yamanaka, Y.: Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types, Biogeosciences, 8, 311–327, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-8-311-2011M, 2011.
Hoepffner, N. and DoWell, M. D.: Assessing the dynamics of ecological provinces in the European Seas, European Commission-Joint Research Centre, 43 pp., 2005.
Hong, Y., Li, Q., Jiang, J., and Tu, Z.: Learning a mixture of sparse distance metrics for classification dimentionality reduction, ICCV proceedings of the 2011 international conference on computer vision, USA, 906–913, 2011.
Ibrayev, R. A., Ozsoy, E., Schrum, C., and Sur, H. \.I.: Seasonal variability of the Caspian Sea three-dimensional circulation, sea level and air-sea interaction, Ocean Sci., 6, 311–329, 2010.
Irwin, L. L., Rock, D. F., and Rock, S. C.: Habitat selection by northern spotted owls in mixed-coniferous forests, J. Wildl. Manage., 76, 200–213, 2012.
Jain, A. K. and Dubes, R. C.: Algorithms for Clustering Data. Prentice-Hall advanced reference series, Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 1988.
Kara, A. B., Wallcraft, A. J., Metzger, E. J., and Gunduz, M.: Impacts of freshwater on the seasonal variations of surface salinity and circulation in the Caspian Sea, Cont Shelf Res., 30, 1211–1225, 2010.
Karpinsky, M. G.: Pseudosolenia calcar-avis (Bacillariophyta, Centrophyceae) in the Caspian Sea, Russ. J. Biolog. Invas., 1, 81–86, 2010.
Karpinsky, M. G., Katunin, D. N., Goryunova, V. B., and Shiganova, T. A.: Biological features and resources, in: The Caspian Sea environment: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, edited by: Kosarev, A. N. and Kostianoy, A. G., Springer, Berlin, 191–210, 2005.
Kavanaugh, M. T., Hales, B. Saraceno, M., Spitz, Y. H., White, A. E., and Letelier, R. M.: Hierarchical and dynamic seascapes: A quantitative framework for scaling pelagic biogeochemistry and ecology, Prog Oceanogr., 120, 291–304, 2013.
Kideys, A. E., Roohi, A. Eker-Develi, E., Melin, F., and Beare, D.: Increased chlorophyll levels in the southern Caspian Sea following an invasion of jellyfish, Res. Lett. Ecol., 2008, 1–4, 2008.
Kohonen, T. (Ed.): Self-Organizing Maps, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 3rd Edn., 2000.
Kopelevich, O. V., Burenkov, V. I., Ershova, S. V., Sheberstov, S. V., and Evdoshenko, M. A.: Application of SeaWiFS data for studying variability of bio-optical characteristics in the Barents, Black and Caspian Seas, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 51, 1063–1091, 2004.
Kopelevich, O. V., Burenkov, V. I., and Sheberstov, S. V.: Case studies of optical remote sensing in the Barents Sea, Black Sea and Caspian Sea, in: Remote Sensing of the European Sea, edited by: Barale, V. and Gade, M., Springer, the Netherlands, 53–66, 2008.
Kosarev, A. N.: Physico-geographical conditions of the Caspian Sea, in: The Caspian Sea environment: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, edited by: Kosarev, A. N. and Kostianoy, A. G., Springer, Berlin, 5–31, 2005.
Kosarev, A. N. and Kostianoy, A. G. (Eds.): The Caspian Sea environment: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Springer, Berlin, 2005.
Kosarev, A. N. and Tuzhilkin, V. S.: The Caspian Sea Climatic thermohaline fields, Moscow: State Oceanographic Institute, 96 pp., 1995 (in Russian).
Kramer, C. Y.: Extension of multiple range tests to group means with unequal numbers of replications, Biometrics, 12, 307–310, 1956.
Lachkar, Z. and Gruber, N.: A comparative study of biological production in eastern boundary upwelling systems using an artificial neural network, Biogeosciences, 9, 293–308, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-9-293, 2012.
Landis, J. R. and Koch, G. G.: The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data, Biometrics, 33, 159–174, 1997.
Leloup, J. A., Lachkar, Z., Boulanger, J., and Thiria, S.: Detecting decadal changes in ENSO using neural networks, Clim. Dynam., 28, 147–162, 2007.
Leonov, A. V. and Stygar, O. V.: Mathematical modeling of organogenic material biotransformation processes for studying the conditions of water eutrophication in the Caspian Sea surface layer, Water Resour., 28, 535–552, 2001.
Longhurst, A. (Ed.): Ecological Geography of the sea, Academic Press, San Diego, 1998.
Maritorena, S., D' Andon, O. H. F., Mangin, A., and Siegel, D. A.: Merged Satellite Ocean Color Data products using a bio-optical model: characteristics, benefits and issues, Remote Sens. Environ., 114, 1791–1804, 2010.
May, R., Dandy, G., and Maier, H.: Review of input variable selection methods for artificial neural networks, in: Artificial neural networks-Methodological advances and biomedical applications, edited by: Suzuki, K., In-Tech, Vukovar, Croatia, 19–44, 2011.
McDermid, G. J., Franklin, S. E., and LeDrew, E. F.: Remote sensing for large-area habitat mapping, Prog. Phys. Geog., 29, 449–474, 2005.
Nezlin, P. N.: Patterns of seasonal and inter-annual variability of remotely sensed chlorophyll, in: The Caspian Sea environment: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, edited by: Kosarev, A. N. and Kostianoy, A. G., Springer, Berlin, 143–157, 2005.
Niiler, P.: Deepening of the wind-mixed layer, J. Mar. Res., 33, 405–422, 1975.
Nybaken, J. W. (Ed.): Marine biology: an ecological approach, Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, California, fifth Edn., 2000.
Platt, T. and Sathyendranath, S.: Spatial structure of pelagic ecosystem processes in the global ocean, Ecosystems, 2, 384–394, 1999.
Platt, T., Bouman, H., Devred, E., Fuentes-Yaco, C., and Sathyendranath, S.: Physical forcing and phytoplankton distribution, Sci. Mar., 69, 55–73, 2005.
Raftery, A. E. and Dean, N.: Variable Selection for Model-Based Clustering, J Am. Stat. Assoc., 101, 168–178, 2006.
Raitsos, D. E., Lavender, S. J., Maravelias, C. D., Haralabous, J., Richardson, A., and Reid, P. C.: Identifying four phytoplankton functional types from space: An ecological approach, Limnol. Oceanogr., 532, 605–613, 2008.
Reynolds, C. S. (Ed.): The Ecology of Phytoplankton. Cambridge University Press, USA, 2006.
Richardson, L. L. and LeDerew, E. F. (Eds.): Remote Sensing of Aquatic Coastal Ecosystem Processes, Science and Management Applications, Springer, the Netherlands, 2006.
Robinson, I. (Edt.): Measuring the Oceans from Space – the Principles and Methods of Satellite Oceanography, Springer-Praxis Publishing Ltd., Chichester, UK, 2004.
Roff, J. C., Taylor, M. E., and Laughren, J.: Geophysical approaches to the classification, delineation and monitoring of marine habitats and their communities, Aquat. Conserv., 13, 77–90, 2003.
Saraceno, M., Provost, C., and Lebbah, M.: Biophysical regions identification using an artificial neuronal network: A case study in the South Western Atlantic, Adv. Space Res., 37, 793–805, 2006.
Saravi Nasrollahzadeh, H., Bin Din, Z., Foong, S. Y., and Makhlough, A.: Trophic status of the Caspian Sea based on water quality parameters and phytoplankton diversity, Cont. Shelf Res., 28, 1153–1165, 2008.
Shiganova, T. A.: Biotic Homogenization of Inland Seas of the Ponto-Caspian, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 41, 103–125, 2010.
Shiganova, T. A.: Review of the status of invasive species, with special focus on the most invasive species Mnemiopsis leidyi (A. Agassiz, 1865) and their effects on the Caspian ecosystem, Regional consulter on invasive species to the CaspECO, P. P. Shirshov institute of oceanology Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, 126 pp., 2011.
Shiganova, T. A., Kamakin, A. M., Zhukova, O. P., Ushivtsev, V. B., Dulimov, A. B., and Musaeva, E. I.: An invader in the Caspian Sea ctenophore Mnemiopsis and its initial effect on pelagic ecosystem, Oceanology, 41, 517–524, 2001.
Shiganova, T. A., Dumont, H. J., Sokolsky, A. F., Kamakin, A. M., Tinenkova, D., and Kurasheva, E. K.: Population dynamics of Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Caspian Sea, and effects on the Caspian ecosystem, in: Aquatic invasions in the Black, Caspian, and Mediterranean Seas, edited by: Dumont, H. J., Shiganova, T. A., and Niermann, U., Springer, the Netherlands, 71–111, 2004.
Shiganova, T. A., Musaeva, E. I., Pautova, L. A., and Bulgakova, Yu. V.: The problem of invaders in the Caspian Sea in the context of the findings of new zoo- and phytoplankton species from the Black Sea, Biol. Bull., 32, 65–74, 2005.
Sim, J. and Wright, C. C.: The kappa statistic in reliability studies: use, interpretation, and sample size requirements, Phys. Ther., 85, 257–268, 2005.
Sørensen, T.: A method of establishing groups of equal amplitude in plant sociology based on similarity of species and its application to analyses of the vegetation on Danish commons, Biol. Skrif., 5, 1–34, 1948.
Spalding, M. D., Agostini, V. N., Rice, J., and Grant, S. M.: Pelagic provinces of the world: A biogeographic classification of the world's surface pelagic waters, Ocean Coast. Manage., 60, 19–30, 2012.
Thomalla, S. J., Fauchereau, N., Swart, S., and Monterio, P. M. S.: Regional scale characteristics of the seasonal cycle of chlorophyll in the Southern Ocean, Biogeosciences, 8, 2849–2866, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-8-2849, 2011.
Thrush, S. F. and Dayton, P. K.: What Can Ecology Contribute to Ecosystem-Based Management?, Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci., 2, 419–441, 2010.
Tuzhilkin, V. S. and Kosarev, A. N.: Thermohaline structure and general circulation of the Caspian Sea waters, in: The Caspian Sea environment: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, edited by: Kosarev, A. N. and Kostianoy, A. G., Springer, Berlin, 33–57, 2005.
Tuzhilkin, V. S., Katunin, D. N., and Nalbandov, Y. R.: Natural chemistry of Caspian Sea waters, in: The Caspian Sea environment: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, edited by: Kosarev, A. N. and Kostianoy, A. G., Springer, Berlin, 83–108, 2005.
UNEP: Stolberg, F., Borysova, O., Mitrofanov, I., Barannik, V., and Eghtesadi, P.: Caspian Sea, GIWA Regional assessment 23, University of Kalmar, Kalmar, Sweden, 2006.
Uriarte, E. A. and Martin, F. D.: Topology preservation in SOM, Int. J. Mathemat. Comput. Sci., 1, 19–22, 2005.
Valavanis, V. D. (Ed.): Essential fish habitat mapping in the Mediterranean, Springer, the Netherlands, 2008.
Verfaillie, E., Degraer, S., Schelfaut, K., Willems, W., and Lancker, V. V.: A protocol for classifying ecologically relevant marine zones, a statistical approach, Estuar. Coast Shelf Sci., 83, 175–185, 2009.
Vichi, M., Allen, J. I., Masina, S., and Hardman-Mountford, N. J.: The emergence of ocean biogeochemical provinces: A quantitative assessment and a diagnostic for model evaluation, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 25, 1–17, 2011.
Wheater, C. P. and Cook, P. A. (Eds.): Using Statistics to Understand the Environment, The Taylor & Francis e-Library, London and New York, 2005.
Zacharias, M. A. and Roff, J. C.: A hierarchical ecological approach to conserving marine biodiversity, Conserv. Biol., 14, 1327–1334, 2000.
Zar, J. H. (Ed.): Biostatistical Analysis, fourth ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1999.
Zonn, I. S.: Environmental issue of the Caspian, in: The Caspian Sea Environment: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, edited by: Kosarev, A. N. and Kostianoy, A. G., Springer, Berlin, 223–242, 2005.
Zwirglmaier, K., Jardillier, L., Ostrowski, M., Mazard, S., Garczarek, L., Vaulot, D., Not, F., Massana, R., Ulloa, O., and Scanlan, D. J.: Global phylogeography of marine Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus reveals a distinct partitioning of lineages among oceanic biomes, Environ. Microbiol., 10, 147–161, 2008.