Articles | Volume 14, issue 5
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Technical note: Coupling infrared gas analysis and cavity ring down spectroscopy for autonomous, high-temporal-resolution measurements of DIC and δ13C–DIC
School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, 2480, Australia
National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, NSW, 2450, Australia
Kai G. Schulz
Centre for Coastal Biogeochemistry, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, 2480, Australia
Matheus C. Carvalho
Centre for Coastal Biogeochemistry, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, 2480, Australia
Isaac R. Santos
National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, NSW, 2450, Australia
Damien T. Maher
School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, 2480, Australia
National Marine Science Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Coffs Harbour, NSW, 2450, Australia
No articles found.
Aaron Ferderer, Zanna Chase, Fraser Kennedy, Kai G. Schulz, and Lennart T. Bach
Biogeosciences, 19, 5375–5399,Short summary
Ocean alkalinity enhancement has the capacity to remove vast quantities of carbon from the atmosphere, but its effect on marine ecosystems is largely unknown. We assessed the effect of increased alkalinity on a coastal phytoplankton community when seawater was equilibrated and not equilibrated with atmospheric CO2. We found that the phytoplankton community was moderately affected by increased alkalinity and equilibration with atmospheric CO2 had little influence on this effect.
Charly A. Moras, Lennart T. Bach, Tyler Cyronak, Renaud Joannes-Boyau, and Kai G. Schulz
Biogeosciences, 19, 3537–3557,Short summary
This research presents the first laboratory results of quick and hydrated lime dissolution in natural seawater. These two minerals are of great interest for ocean alkalinity enhancement, a strategy aiming to decrease atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Following the dissolution of these minerals, we identified several hurdles and presented ways to avoid them or completely negate them. Finally, we proceeded to various simulations in today’s oceans to implement the strategy at its highest potential.
Shao-Min Chen, Ulf Riebesell, Kai G. Schulz, Elisabeth von der Esch, Eric P. Achterberg, and Lennart T. Bach
Biogeosciences, 19, 295–312,Short summary
Oxygen minimum zones in the ocean are characterized by enhanced carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and are being further acidified by increasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2. Here we report CO2 system measurements in a mesocosm study offshore Peru during a rare coastal El Niño event to investigate how CO2 dynamics may respond to ongoing ocean deoxygenation. Our observations show that nitrogen limitation, productivity, and plankton community shift play an important role in driving the CO2 dynamics.
Naima Iram, Emad Kavehei, Damien T. Maher, Stuart E. Bunn, Mehran Rezaei Rashti, Bahareh Shahrabi Farahani, and Maria Fernanda Adame
Biogeosciences, 18, 5085–5096,Short summary
Greenhouse gas emissions were measured and compared from natural coastal wetlands and their converted agricultural lands across annual seasonal cycles in tropical Australia. Ponded pastures emitted ~ 200-fold-higher methane than any other tested land use type, suggesting the highest greenhouse gas mitigation potential and financial incentives by the restoration of ponded pastures to natural coastal wetlands.
Kai G. Schulz, Eric P. Achterberg, Javier Arístegui, Lennart T. Bach, Isabel Baños, Tim Boxhammer, Dirk Erler, Maricarmen Igarza, Verena Kalter, Andrea Ludwig, Carolin Löscher, Jana Meyer, Judith Meyer, Fabrizio Minutolo, Elisabeth von der Esch, Bess B. Ward, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 18, 4305–4320,Short summary
Upwelling of nutrient-rich deep waters to the surface make eastern boundary upwelling systems hot spots of marine productivity. This leads to subsurface oxygen depletion and the transformation of bioavailable nitrogen into inert N2. Here we quantify nitrogen loss processes following a simulated deep water upwelling. Denitrification was the dominant process, and budget calculations suggest that a significant portion of nitrogen that could be exported to depth is already lost in the surface ocean.
Dylan R. Brown, Humberto Marotta, Roberta B. Peixoto, Alex Enrich-Prast, Glenda C. Barroso, Mario L. G. Soares, Wilson Machado, Alexander Pérez, Joseph M. Smoak, Luciana M. Sanders, Stephen Conrad, James Z. Sippo, Isaac R. Santos, Damien T. Maher, and Christian J. Sanders
Biogeosciences, 18, 2527–2538,Short summary
Hypersaline tidal flats (HTFs) are coastal ecosystems with freshwater deficits often occurring in arid or semi-arid regions near mangrove supratidal zones with no major fluvial contributions. This study shows that HTFs are important carbon and nutrient sinks which may be significant given their extensive coverage. Our findings highlight a previously unquantified carbon as well as a nutrient sink and suggest that coastal HTF ecosystems could be included in the emerging blue carbon framework.
Michelle N. Simone, Kai G. Schulz, Joanne M. Oakes, and Bradley D. Eyre
Biogeosciences, 18, 1823–1838,Short summary
Estuaries are responsible for a large contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the global C cycle, but it is unknown how this will change in the future. DOC fluxes from unvegetated sediments were investigated ex situ subject to conditions of warming and ocean acidification. The future climate shifted sediment fluxes from a slight DOC source to a significant sink, with global coastal DOC export decreasing by 80 %. This has global implications for C cycling and long-term C storage.
Yota Harada, Rod M. Connolly, Brian Fry, Damien T. Maher, James Z. Sippo, Luke C. Jeffrey, Adam J. Bourke, and Shing Yip Lee
Biogeosciences, 17, 5599–5613,Short summary
In 2015–2016, an extensive area of mangroves along ~ 1000 km of coastline in the Gulf of Carpentaria, Australia, experienced dieback as a result of a climatic extreme event that included drought conditions and low sea levels. Multiannual field campaigns conducted from 2016 to 2018 show substantial recovery of the mangrove vegetation. However, stable isotopes suggest long-lasting changes in carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling following the dieback.
Lennart Thomas Bach, Allanah Joy Paul, Tim Boxhammer, Elisabeth von der Esch, Michelle Graco, Kai Georg Schulz, Eric Achterberg, Paulina Aguayo, Javier Arístegui, Patrizia Ayón, Isabel Baños, Avy Bernales, Anne Sophie Boegeholz, Francisco Chavez, Gabriela Chavez, Shao-Min Chen, Kristin Doering, Alba Filella, Martin Fischer, Patricia Grasse, Mathias Haunost, Jan Hennke, Nauzet Hernández-Hernández, Mark Hopwood, Maricarmen Igarza, Verena Kalter, Leila Kittu, Peter Kohnert, Jesus Ledesma, Christian Lieberum, Silke Lischka, Carolin Löscher, Andrea Ludwig, Ursula Mendoza, Jana Meyer, Judith Meyer, Fabrizio Minutolo, Joaquin Ortiz Cortes, Jonna Piiparinen, Claudia Sforna, Kristian Spilling, Sonia Sanchez, Carsten Spisla, Michael Sswat, Mabel Zavala Moreira, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 17, 4831–4852,Short summary
The eastern boundary upwelling system off Peru is among Earth's most productive ocean ecosystems, but the factors that control its functioning are poorly constrained. Here we used mesocosms, moored ~ 6 km offshore Peru, to investigate how processes in plankton communities drive key biogeochemical processes. We show that nutrient and light co-limitation keep productivity and export at a remarkably constant level while stoichiometry changes strongly with shifts in plankton community structure.
James Z. Sippo, Isaac R. Santos, Christian J. Sanders, Patricia Gadd, Quan Hua, Catherine E. Lovelock, Nadia S. Santini, Scott G. Johnston, Yota Harada, Gloria Reithmeir, and Damien T. Maher
Biogeosciences, 17, 4707–4726,Short summary
In 2015–2016, a massive mangrove dieback event occurred along ~1000 km of coastline in Australia. Multiple lines of evidence from climate data, wood and sediment samples suggest low water availability within the dead mangrove forest. Wood and sediments also reveal a large increase in iron concentrations in mangrove sediments during the dieback. This study supports the hypothesis that the forest dieback was associated with low water availability driven by a climate-change-related ENSO event.
Stacy Deppeler, Kai G. Schulz, Alyce Hancock, Penelope Pascoe, John McKinlay, and Andrew Davidson
Biogeosciences, 17, 4153–4171,Short summary
Our study showed how ocean acidification can exert both direct and indirect influences on the interactions among trophic levels within the microbial loop. Microbial grazer abundance was reduced at CO2 concentrations at and above 634 µatm, while microbial communities increased in abundance, likely due to a reduction in being grazed. Such changes in predator–prey interactions with ocean acidification could have significant effects on the food web and biogeochemistry in the Southern Ocean.
Luke C. Jeffrey, Damien T. Maher, Scott G. Johnston, Kylie Maguire, Andrew D. L. Steven, and Douglas R. Tait
Biogeosciences, 16, 1799–1815,Short summary
Wetlands represent the largest natural source of methane (CH4), so understanding CH4 drivers is important for management and climate models. We compared several CH4 pathways of a remediated subtropical Australian wetland. We found permanently inundated sites emitted more CH4 than seasonally inundated sites and that the soil properties of each site corresponded to CH4 emissions. This suggests that selective wetland remediation of favourable soil types may help to mitigate unwanted CH4 emissions.
Yong Zhang, Lennart T. Bach, Kai T. Lohbeck, Kai G. Schulz, Luisa Listmann, Regina Klapper, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 15, 3691–3701,Short summary
To compare variations in physiological responses to pCO2 between populations, we measured growth, POC and PIC production rates at a pCO2 range from 120 to 2630 µatm for 17 strains of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi from the Azores, Canary Islands, and Norwegian coast near Bergen. Optimal pCO2 for growth and POC production rates and tolerance to low pH was significantly higher for the Bergen population than the Azores and Canary Islands populations.
Natasha A. Gafar and Kai G. Schulz
Biogeosciences, 15, 3541–3560,Short summary
Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica are the most prolific calcifying phytoplankton in today's oceans. We compare their sensitivity to combined anthropogenic stressors of temperature, light and CO2. For the future, we project a niche contraction for G. oceanica. Furthermore, there was good correlation of our new metric, the CaCO3 production potential, with satellite-derived concentrations in the modern ocean, indicating means of assessing overall coccolithophorid success in the future.
Alyce M. Hancock, Andrew T. Davidson, John McKinlay, Andrew McMinn, Kai G. Schulz, and Rick L. van den Enden
Biogeosciences, 15, 2393–2410,Short summary
Absorption of carbon dioxide (CO2) realized by humans is decreasing the ocean pH (ocean acidification). Single-celled organisms (microbes) support the Antarctic ecosystem, yet little is known about their sensitivity to ocean acidification. This study shows a shift in a natural Antarctic microbial community, with CO2 levels exceeding 634 μatm changing the community composition and favouring small cells. This would have significant flow effects for Antarctic food webs and elemental cycles.
Stacy Deppeler, Katherina Petrou, Kai G. Schulz, Karen Westwood, Imojen Pearce, John McKinlay, and Andrew Davidson
Biogeosciences, 15, 209–231,Short summary
We combined productivity and photophysiology measurements to investigate the effects of ocean acidification on a natural Antarctic marine microbial community. Our study identifies a threshold for CO2 tolerance in the phytoplankton community between 953 and 1140 μatm of CO2, above which productivity declines. Bacteria were tolerant to CO2 up to 1641 μatm. We identify physiological changes in the phytoplankton at high CO2 that allowed them to acclimate to the high CO2 treatment.
Coulson A. Lantz, Kai G. Schulz, Laura Stoltenberg, and Bradley D. Eyre
Biogeosciences, 14, 5377–5391,Short summary
This study examined the combined effect of seawater warming and organic matter enrichment on coral reef sediment metabolism. Sediments under control conditions were net autotrophic and net calcifying. Warming shifted the sediment to net heterotrophy and net dissolution, while organic matter enrichment increased net production and net calcification. When combined, the effects of each treatment were counterbalanced and sediment metabolism did not significantly differ from control treatments.
Hanieh T. Farid, Kai G. Schulz, and Andrew L. Rose
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
This study provides new insights into: (a) how organic exudates from a marine cyanobacterium may influence iron speciation and bioavailability in the extracellular milieu; and (b) approaches for evaluating rate constants for Fe(II) oxidation in the presence of unknown organic ligands. Given that microorganisms play critical roles in biochemical cycling of trace metals in water systems, the findings are expected to improve nutrient uptake models and be of interest to broad range of readers.
Silke Lischka, Lennart T. Bach, Kai-Georg Schulz, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 14, 447–466,Short summary
We conducted a large-scale field experiment using 55 m3 floating containers (mesocosms) to investigate consequences of near-future projected CO2 elevations (ocean acidification) on a Baltic Sea plankton community in Storfjärden (Finland). The focus of our study was on single- and multicelled small-sized organisms dwelling in the water column. Our results suggest that increasing CO2 concentrations may change the species composition and promote specific food web interactions.
Thomas Hornick, Lennart T. Bach, Katharine J. Crawfurd, Kristian Spilling, Eric P. Achterberg, Jason N. Woodhouse, Kai G. Schulz, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Ulf Riebesell, and Hans-Peter Grossart
Biogeosciences, 14, 1–15,
Kristian Spilling, Kai G. Schulz, Allanah J. Paul, Tim Boxhammer, Eric P. Achterberg, Thomas Hornick, Silke Lischka, Annegret Stuhr, Rafael Bermúdez, Jan Czerny, Kate Crawfurd, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Hans-Peter Grossart, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 6081–6093,Short summary
We performed an experiment in the Baltic Sea in order to investigate the consequences of the increasing CO2 levels on biological processes in the free water mass. There was more accumulation of organic carbon at high CO2 levels. Surprisingly, this was caused by reduced loss processes (respiration and bacterial production) in a high-CO2 environment, and not by increased photosynthetic fixation of CO2. Our carbon budget can be used to better disentangle the effects of ocean acidification.
Francesca Gallo, Kai G. Schulz, Eduardo B. Azevedo, João Madruga, and Joana Barcelos e Ramos
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Global change driven by humans activities may affect phytoplankton, which are important primary producers. Assessing the combined effect of turbulence and ocean acidification on the species Asterionellopsis glacialis, we found that turbulence magnifies the acidification stress, with negative effects on their growth. In the natural environment, this might have consequences to phytoplankton community composition and production with feedbacks to climate.
Kristian Spilling, Allanah J. Paul, Niklas Virkkala, Tom Hastings, Silke Lischka, Annegret Stuhr, Rafael Bermúdez, Jan Czerny, Tim Boxhammer, Kai G. Schulz, Andrea Ludwig, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 4707–4719,Short summary
Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are reducing the pH in the world's oceans. We determined the plankton community composition and measured primary production, respiration rates and carbon export during an ocean acidification experiment. Our results suggest that increased CO2 reduced respiration and increased net carbon fixation at high CO2. This did not, however, translate into higher carbon export, and consequently did not work as a negative feedback mechanism for decreasing pH.
Juntian Xu, Lennart T. Bach, Kai G. Schulz, Wenyan Zhao, Kunshan Gao, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 4637–4643,
Alison L. Webb, Emma Leedham-Elvidge, Claire Hughes, Frances E. Hopkins, Gill Malin, Lennart T. Bach, Kai Schulz, Kate Crawfurd, Corina P. D. Brussaard, Annegret Stuhr, Ulf Riebesell, and Peter S. Liss
Biogeosciences, 13, 4595–4613,Short summary
This paper presents concentrations of several trace gases produced by the Baltic Sea phytoplankton community during a mesocosm experiment with five different CO2 levels. Average concentrations of dimethylsulphide were lower in the highest CO2 mesocosms over a 6-week period, corresponding to previous mesocosm experiment results. No dimethylsulfoniopropionate was detected due to a methodological issue. Concentrations of iodine- and bromine-containing halocarbons were unaffected by increasing CO2.
Allanah J. Paul, Eric P. Achterberg, Lennart T. Bach, Tim Boxhammer, Jan Czerny, Mathias Haunost, Kai-Georg Schulz, Annegret Stuhr, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 3901–3913,
Anna Jansson, Silke Lischka, Tim Boxhammer, Kai G. Schulz, and Joanna Norkko
Biogeosciences, 13, 3377–3385,Short summary
We studied the responses of larvae of Macoma balthica to a range of future CO2 scenarios using large mesocosms encompassing the entire pelagic community. We focused on the growth and settlement process of M. balthica when exposed to future CO2 levels, and found the size and time to settlement to increase along the CO2 gradient, suggesting a developmental delay. The strong impact of increasing CO2 on early-stage bivalves is alarming as these stages are crucial for sustaining viable populations.
Monika Nausch, Lennart Thomas Bach, Jan Czerny, Josephine Goldstein, Hans-Peter Grossart, Dana Hellemann, Thomas Hornick, Eric Pieter Achterberg, Kai-Georg Schulz, and Ulf Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 13, 3035–3050,Short summary
Studies investigating the effect of increasing CO2 levels on the phosphorus cycle in natural waters are lacking although phosphorus often controls phytoplankton development in aquatic systems. The aim of our study was to analyse effects of elevated CO2 levels on phosphorus pool sizes and uptake. Therefore, we conducted a CO2-manipulation mesocosm experiment in the Storfjärden (western Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea) in summer 2012. We compared the phosphorus dynamics in different mesocosm treatment
M. N. Müller, J. Barcelos e Ramos, K. G. Schulz, U. Riebesell, J. Kaźmierczak, F. Gallo, L. Mackinder, Y. Li, P. N. Nesterenko, T. W. Trull, and G. M. Hallegraeff
Biogeosciences, 12, 6493–6501,Short summary
The White Cliffs of Dover date back to the Cretaceous and are made up of microscopic chalky shells which were produced mainly by marine phytoplankton (coccolithophores). This is iconic proof for their success at times of relatively high seawater calcium concentrations and, as shown here, to be linked to their ability to precipitate calcium as chalk. The invention of calcification can thus be considered an evolutionary milestone allowing coccolithophores to thrive at times when others struggled.
A. J. Paul, L. T. Bach, K.-G. Schulz, T. Boxhammer, J. Czerny, E. P. Achterberg, D. Hellemann, Y. Trense, M. Nausch, M. Sswat, and U. Riebesell
Biogeosciences, 12, 6181–6203,
M. N. Müller, M. Lebrato, U. Riebesell, J. Barcelos e Ramos, K. G. Schulz, S. Blanco-Ameijeiras, S. Sett, A. Eisenhauer, and H. M. Stoll
Biogeosciences, 11, 1065–1075,
B. D. Eyre, I. R. Santos, and D. T. Maher
Biogeosciences, 10, 2601–2615,
T. Cyronak, I. R. Santos, D. V. Erler, and B. D. Eyre
Biogeosciences, 10, 2467–2480,
U. Riebesell, J. Czerny, K. von Bröckel, T. Boxhammer, J. Büdenbender, M. Deckelnick, M. Fischer, D. Hoffmann, S. A. Krug, U. Lentz, A. Ludwig, R. Muche, and K. G. Schulz
Biogeosciences, 10, 1835–1847,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Stable Isotopes & Other TracersDetermination of respiration and photosynthesis fractionation factors for atmospheric dioxygen inferred from a vegetation–soil–atmosphere analogue of the terrestrial biosphere in closed chambersPermafrost degradation and nitrogen cycling in Arctic rivers: insights from stable nitrogen isotope studiesNeodymium budget in the Mediterranean Sea: evaluating the role of atmospheric dusts using a high-resolution dynamical-biogeochemical modelNitrate isotope investigations reveal future impacts of climate change on nitrogen inputs and cycling in Arctic fjords: Kongsfjorden and Rijpfjorden (Svalbard)Mineralization of autochthonous particulate organic carbon is a fast channel of organic matter turnover in Germany's largest drinking water reservoirPartitioning of carbon export in the upper water column of the oligotrophic South China SeaCarbon isotopic ratios of modern C3 and C4 vegetation on the Indian peninsula and changes along the plant–soil–river continuum – implications for vegetation reconstructionsControls on nitrite oxidation in the upper Southern Ocean: insights from winter kinetics experiments in the Indian sectorTracing the source of nitrate in a forested stream showing elevated concentrations during storm eventsIntra-skeletal variability in phosphate oxygen isotope composition reveals regional heterothermies in marine vertebratesIsotopic differences in soil–plant–atmosphere continuum composition and control factors of different vegetation zones on the northern slope of the Qilian MountainsAn analysis of the variability in δ13C in macroalgae from the Gulf of California: indicative of carbon concentration mechanisms and isotope discrimination during carbon assimilationSummertime productivity and carbon export potential in the Weddell Sea, with a focus on the waters adjacent to Larsen C Ice ShelfParticulate biogenic barium tracer of mesopelagic carbon remineralization in the Mediterranean Sea (PEACETIME project)Hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation factors of aerobic methane oxidation in deep-sea waterHost-influenced geochemical signature in the parasitic foraminifera Hyrrokkin sarcophagaComparing modified substrate-induced respiration with selective inhibition (SIRIN) and N2O isotope approaches to estimate fungal contribution to denitrification in three arable soils under anoxic conditionsHow are oxygen budgets influenced by dissolved iron and growth of oxygenic phototrophs in an iron-rich spring system? Initial results from the Espan Spring in Fürth, GermanyStable isotope ratios in seawater nitrate reflect the influence of Pacific water along the northwest Atlantic marginHigh-resolution 14C bomb peak dating and climate response analyses of subseasonal stable isotope signals in wood of the African baobab – a case study from OmanGeographic variability in freshwater methane hydrogen isotope ratios and its implications for global isotopic source signaturesSeasonality of nitrogen sources, cycling, and loading in a New England river discerned from nitrate isotope ratiosEvaluating the response of δ13C in Haloxylon ammodendron, a dominant C4 species in Asian desert ecosystems, to water and nitrogen addition as well as the availability of its δ13C as an indicator of water use efficiencyModern silicon dynamics of a small high-latitude subarctic lakeRadium-228-derived ocean mixing and trace element inputs in the South AtlanticNitrogen isotopic fractionations during nitric oxide production in an agricultural soilSilicon uptake and isotope fractionation dynamics by crop speciesBarium stable isotopes as a fingerprint of biological cycling in the Amazon River basinBottomland hardwood forest growth and stress response to hydroclimatic variation: evidence from dendrochronology and tree ring Δ13C valuesN2O isotope approaches for source partitioning of N2O production and estimation of N2O reduction – validation with the 15N gas-flux method in laboratory and field studiesTechnical note: Single-shell δ11B analysis of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi using femtosecond laser ablation MC-ICPMS and secondary ion mass spectrometryBiogeochemical evidence of anaerobic methane oxidation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a stratified lake using stable isotopesEffects of 238U variability and physical transport on water column 234Th downward fluxes in the coastal upwelling system off PeruDo degree and rate of silicate weathering depend on plant productivity?Alpine Holocene tree-ring dataset: age-related trends in the stable isotopes of cellulose show species-specific patternsIdeas and perspectives: The same carbon behaves like different elements – an insight into position-specific isotope distributionsSeasonal dynamics of the COS and CO2 exchange of a managed temperate grasslandLeaf-scale quantification of the effect of photosynthetic gas exchange on Δ17O of atmospheric CO2The stable carbon isotope signature of methane produced by saprotrophic fungiUnderstanding the effects of early degradation on isotopic tracers: implications for sediment source attribution using compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA)Oxygen isotope composition of waters recorded in carbonates in strong clumped and oxygen isotopic disequilibriumIsotopic evidence for alteration of nitrous oxide emissions and producing pathways' contribution under nitrifying conditionsTrace element composition of size-fractionated suspended particulate matter samples from the Qatari Exclusive Economic Zone of the Arabian Gulf: the role of atmospheric dustBenthic carbon fixation and cycling in diffuse hydrothermal and background sediments in the Bransfield Strait, AntarcticaChanges in gross oxygen production, net oxygen production, and air-water gas exchange during seasonal ice melt in Whycocomagh Bay, a Canadian estuary in the Bras d'Or Lake systemPlants or bacteria? 130 years of mixed imprints in Lake Baldegg sediments (Switzerland), as revealed by compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and biomarker analysisCommercial traceability of Arapaima spp. fisheries in the Amazon basin: can biogeochemical tags be useful?Distribution of Fe isotopes in particles and colloids in the salinity gradient along the Lena River plume, Laptev SeaEarly season N2O emissions under variable water management in rice systems: source-partitioning emissions using isotope ratios along a depth profileEvolution of 231Pa and 230Th in overflow waters of the North Atlantic
Clémence Paul, Clément Piel, Joana Sauze, Nicolas Pasquier, Frédéric Prié, Sébastien Devidal, Roxanne Jacob, Arnaud Dapoigny, Olivier Jossoud, Alexandru Milcu, and Amaëlle Landais
Biogeosciences, 20, 1047–1062,Short summary
To improve the interpretation of the δ18Oatm and Δ17O of O2 in air bubbles in ice cores, we need to better quantify the oxygen fractionation coefficients associated with biological processes. We performed a simplified analogue of the terrestrial biosphere in a closed chamber. We found a respiration fractionation in agreement with the previous estimates at the microorganism scale, and a terrestrial photosynthetic fractionation was found. This has an impact on the estimation of the Dole effect.
Adam Francis, Raja S. Ganeshram, Robyn E. Tuerena, Robert G. M. Spencer, Robert M. Holmes, Jennifer A. Rogers, and Claire Mahaffey
Biogeosciences, 20, 365–382,Short summary
Climate change is causing extensive permafrost degradation and nutrient releases into rivers with great ecological impacts on the Arctic Ocean. We focused on nitrogen (N) release from this degradation and associated cycling using N isotopes, an understudied area. Many N species are released at degradation sites with exchanges between species. N inputs from permafrost degradation and seasonal river N trends were identified using isotopes, helping to predict climate change impacts.
Mohamed Ayache, Jean-Claude Dutay, Kazuyo Tachikawa, Thomas Arsouze, and Catherine Jeandel
Biogeosciences, 20, 205–227,Short summary
The neodymium (Nd) is one of the most useful tracers to fingerprint water mass provenance. However, the use of Nd is hampered by the lack of adequate quantification of the external sources. Here, we present the first simulation of dissolved Nd concentration and Nd isotopic composition in the Mediterranean Sea using a high-resolution model. We aim to better understand how the various external sources affect the Nd cycle and particularly assess how it is impacted by atmospheric inputs.
Marta Santos-Garcia, Raja S. Ganeshram, Robyn E. Tuerena, Margot C. F. Debyser, Katrine Husum, Philipp Assmy, and Haakon Hop
Biogeosciences, 19, 5973–6002,Short summary
Terrestrial sources of nitrate are important contributors to the nutrient pool in the fjords of Kongsfjorden and Rijpfjorden in Svalbard during the summer, and they sustain most of the fjord primary productivity. Ongoing tidewater glacier retreat is postulated to favour light limitation and less dynamic circulation in fjords. This is suggested to encourage the export of nutrients to the middle and outer part of the fjord system, which may enhance primary production within and in offshore areas.
Marlene Dordoni, Michael Seewald, Karsten Rinke, Kurt Friese, Robert van Geldern, Jakob Schmidmeier, and Johannes A. C. Barth
Biogeosciences, 19, 5343–5355,Short summary
Organic matter (OM) turnover into dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was investigated by means of carbon isotope mass balances in Germany's largest water reservoir. This includes a metalimnetic oxygen minimum (MOM). Autochthonous particulate organic carbon (POC) was the main contributor to DIC, with rates that were highest for the MOM. Generally low turnover rates outline the environmental fragility of this water body in the case that OM loads increase due to storm events or land use changes.
Yifan Ma, Kuanbo Zhou, Weifang Chen, Junhui Chen, Jin-Yu Terence Yang, and Minhan Dai
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We distinguished particulate organic carbon (POC) export fluxes out of the nutrient-depleted layer (NDL) and the euphotic zone. The amount of POC export flux at the NDL base suggests that the NDL could be hotspots of particle export. The substantial POC export flux at the NDL base challenges traditional concepts that the NDL was limited for POC export. The dominant nutrient source for POC export fluxes should be subsurface nutrients which was determined by 15N isotopic mass balance.
Frédérique M. S. A. Kirkels, Hugo J. de Boer, Paulina Concha Hernández, Chris R. T. Martes, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, Sayak Basu, Muhammed O. Usman, and Francien Peterse
Biogeosciences, 19, 4107–4127,Short summary
The distinct carbon isotopic values of C3 and C4 plants are widely used to reconstruct past hydroclimate, where more C3 plants reflect wetter and C4 plants drier conditions. Here we examine the impact of regional hydroclimatic conditions on plant isotopic values in the Godavari River basin, India. We find that it is crucial to identify regional plant isotopic values and consider drought stress, which introduces a bias in C3 / C4 plant estimates and associated hydroclimate reconstructions.
Mhlangabezi Mdutyana, Tanya Marshall, Xin Sun, Jessica M. Burger, Sandy J. Thomalla, Bess B. Ward, and Sarah E. Fawcett
Biogeosciences, 19, 3425–3444,Short summary
Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the winter Southern Ocean show a high affinity for nitrite but require a minimum (i.e., "threshold") concentration before they increase their rates of nitrite oxidation significantly. The classic Michaelis–Menten model thus cannot be used to derive the kinetic parameters, so a modified equation was employed that also yields the threshold nitrite concentration. Dissolved iron availability may play an important role in limiting nitrite oxidation.
Weitian Ding, Urumu Tsunogai, Fumiko Nakagawa, Takashi Sambuichi, Hiroyuki Sase, Masayuki Morohashi, and Hiroki Yotsuyanagi
Biogeosciences, 19, 3247–3261,Short summary
Excessive leaching of nitrate from forested catchments during storm events degrades water quality and causes eutrophication in downstream areas. Thus, tracing the source of nitrate increase during storm events in forested streams is important for sustainable forest management. Based on the isotopic compositions of stream nitrate, including Δ17O, this study clarifies that the source of stream nitrate increase during storm events was soil nitrate in the riparian zone.
Nicolas Séon, Romain Amiot, Guillaume Suan, Christophe Lécuyer, François Fourel, Fabien Demaret, Arnauld Vinçon-Laugier, Sylvain Charbonnier, and Peggy Vincent
Biogeosciences, 19, 2671–2681,Short summary
We analysed the oxygen isotope composition of bones and teeth of four marine species possessing regional heterothermies. We observed a consistent link between oxygen isotope composition and temperature heterogeneities recorded by classical methods. This opens up new perspectives on the determination of the thermoregulatory strategies of extant marine vertebrates where conventional methods are difficult to apply, but also allows us to investigate thermophysiologies of extinct vertebrates.
Yuwei Liu, Guofeng Zhu, Zhuanxia Zhang, Zhigang Sun, Leilei Yong, Liyuan Sang, Lei Wang, and Kailiang Zhao
Biogeosciences, 19, 877–889,Short summary
We took the water cycle process of soil–plant–atmospheric precipitation as the research objective. In the water cycle of soil–plant–atmospheric precipitation, precipitation plays the main controlling role. The main source of replenishment for alpine meadow plants is precipitation and alpine meltwater; the main source of replenishment for forest plants is soil water; and the plants in the arid foothills mainly use groundwater.
Roberto Velázquez-Ochoa, María Julia Ochoa-Izaguirre, and Martín Federico Soto-Jiménez
Biogeosciences, 19, 1–27,Short summary
Our research is the first approximation to understand the δ13C macroalgal variability in one of the most diverse marine ecosystems in the world, the Gulf of California. The life-form is the principal cause of δ13C macroalgal variability, mainly taxonomy. However, changes in habitat characteristics and environmental conditions also influence the δ13C macroalgal variability. The δ13C macroalgae is indicative of carbon concentration mechanisms and isotope discrimination during carbon assimilation.
Raquel F. Flynn, Thomas G. Bornman, Jessica M. Burger, Shantelle Smith, Kurt A. M. Spence, and Sarah E. Fawcett
Biogeosciences, 18, 6031–6059,Short summary
Biological activity in the shallow Weddell Sea affects the biogeochemistry of recently formed deep waters. To investigate the drivers of carbon and nutrient export, we measured rates of primary production and nitrogen uptake, characterized the phytoplankton community, and estimated nutrient depletion ratios across the under-sampled western Weddell Sea in mid-summer. Carbon export was highest at the ice shelves and was determined by a combination of physical, chemical, and biological factors.
Stéphanie H. M. Jacquet, Christian Tamburini, Marc Garel, Aurélie Dufour, France Van Vambeke, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Nagib Bhairy, and Sophie Guasco
Biogeosciences, 18, 5891–5902,Short summary
We compared carbon remineralization rates (MRs) in the western and central Mediterranean Sea in late spring during the PEACETIME cruise, as assessed using the barium tracer. We reported higher and deeper (up to 1000 m depth) MRs in the western basin, potentially sustained by an additional particle export event driven by deep convection. The central basin is the site of a mosaic of blooming and non-blooming water masses and showed lower MRs that were restricted to the upper mesopelagic layer.
Shinsuke Kawagucci, Yohei Matsui, Akiko Makabe, Tatsuhiro Fukuba, Yuji Onishi, Takuro Nunoura, and Taichi Yokokawa
Biogeosciences, 18, 5351–5362,Short summary
Hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios of methane as well as the relevant biogeochemical parameters and microbial community compositions in hydrothermal plumes in the Okinawa Trough were observed. We succeeded in simultaneously determining hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation factors associated with aerobic oxidation of methane in seawater (εH = 49.4 ± 5.0 ‰, εC = 5.2 ± 0.4 ‰) – the former being the first of its kind ever reported.
Nicolai Schleinkofer, David Evans, Max Wisshak, Janina Vanessa Büscher, Jens Fiebig, André Freiwald, Sven Härter, Horst R. Marschall, Silke Voigt, and Jacek Raddatz
Biogeosciences, 18, 4733–4753,Short summary
We have measured the chemical composition of the carbonate shells of the parasitic foraminifera Hyrrokkin sarcophaga in order to test if it is influenced by the host organism (bivalve or coral). We find that both the chemical and isotopic composition is influenced by the host organism. For example strontium is enriched in foraminifera that grew on corals, whose skeleton is built from aragonite, which is naturally enriched in strontium compared to the bivalves' calcite shell.
Lena Rohe, Traute-Heidi Anderson, Heinz Flessa, Anette Goeske, Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, and Reinhard Well
Biogeosciences, 18, 4629–4650,Short summary
This is the first experimental setup combining a complex set of methods (microbial inhibitors and isotopic approaches) to differentiate between N2O produced by fungi or bacteria during denitrification in three soils. Quantifying the fungal fraction with inhibitors was not successful due to large amounts of uninhibited N2O production. All successful methods suggested a small or missing fungal contribution. Artefacts occurring with microbial inhibition to determine N2O fluxes are discussed.
Inga Köhler, Raul E. Martinez, David Piatka, Achim J. Herrmann, Arianna Gallo, Michelle M. Gehringer, and Johannes A. C. Barth
Biogeosciences, 18, 4535–4548,Short summary
We investigated how high Fe(II) levels influence the O2 budget of a circum-neutral Fe(II)-rich spring and if a combined study of dissolved O (DO) and its isotopic composition can help assess this effect. We showed that dissolved Fe(II) can exert strong effects on the δ18ODO even though a constant supply of atmospheric O2 occurs. In the presence of photosynthesis, direct effects of Fe oxidation become masked. Critical Fe(II) concentrations indirectly control the DO by enhancing photosynthesis.
Owen A. Sherwood, Samuel H. Davin, Nadine Lehmann, Carolyn Buchwald, Evan N. Edinger, Moritz F. Lehmann, and Markus Kienast
Biogeosciences, 18, 4491–4510,Short summary
Pacific water flowing eastward through the Canadian Arctic plays an important role in redistributing nutrients to the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Using samples collected from northern Baffin Bay to the southern Labrador Shelf, we show that stable isotopic ratios in seawater nitrate reflect the fraction of Pacific to Atlantic water. These results provide a new framework for interpreting patterns of nitrogen isotopic variability recorded in modern and archival organic materials in the region.
Franziska Slotta, Lukas Wacker, Frank Riedel, Karl-Uwe Heußner, Kai Hartmann, and Gerhard Helle
Biogeosciences, 18, 3539–3564,Short summary
The African baobab is a challenging climate and environmental archive for its semi-arid habitat due to dating uncertainties and parenchyma-rich wood anatomy. Annually resolved F14C data of tree-ring cellulose (1941–2005) from a tree in Oman show the annual character of the baobab’s growth rings but were up to 8.8 % lower than expected for 1964–1967. Subseasonal δ13C and δ18O patterns reveal years with low average monsoon rain as well as heavy rainfall events from pre-monsoonal cyclones.
Peter M. J. Douglas, Emerald Stratigopoulos, Sanga Park, and Dawson Phan
Biogeosciences, 18, 3505–3527,Short summary
Hydrogen isotopes could be a useful tool to help resolve the geographic distribution of methane emissions from freshwater environments. We analyzed an expanded global dataset of freshwater methane hydrogen isotope ratios and found significant geographic variation linked to water isotopic composition. This geographic variability could be used to resolve changing methane fluxes from freshwater environments and provide more accurate estimates of the relative balance of global methane sources.
Veronica R. Rollinson, Julie Granger, Sydney C. Clark, Mackenzie L. Blanusa, Claudia P. Koerting, Jamie M. P. Vaudrey, Lija A. Treibergs, Holly C. Westbrook, Catherine M. Matassa, Meredith G. Hastings, and Craig R. Tobias
Biogeosciences, 18, 3421–3444,Short summary
We measured nutrients and the naturally occurring nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) stable isotope ratios of nitrate discharged from a New England river over an annual cycle, to monitor N loading and identify dominant sources from the watershed. We uncovered a seasonality to loading and sources of N from the watershed. Seasonality in the nitrate isotope ratios also informed on N cycling, conforming to theoretical expectations of riverine nutrient cycling.
Zixun Chen, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoqing Cui, Yaowen Han, Guoan Wang, and Jiazhu Li
Biogeosciences, 18, 2859–2870,Short summary
δ13C in plants is a sensitive long-term indicator of physiological acclimatization. The present study suggests that precipitation change and increasing atmospheric N deposition have little impact on δ13C of H. ammodendron, a dominant plant in central Asian deserts, but affect its gas exchange. In addition, this study shows that δ13C of H. ammodendron could not indicate its water use efficiency (WUE), suggesting that whether δ13C of C4 plants indicates WUE is species-specific.
Petra Zahajská, Carolina Olid, Johanna Stadmark, Sherilyn C. Fritz, Sophie Opfergelt, and Daniel J. Conley
Biogeosciences, 18, 2325–2345,Short summary
The drivers of high accumulation of single-cell siliceous algae (diatoms) in a high-latitude lake have not been fully characterized before. We studied silicon cycling of the lake through water, radon, silicon, and stable silicon isotope balances. Results showed that groundwater brings 3 times more water and dissolved silica than the stream inlet. We demonstrate that groundwater discharge and low sediment deposition have driven the high diatom accumulation in the studied lake in the past century.
Yu-Te Hsieh, Walter Geibert, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, Neil J. Wyatt, Maeve C. Lohan, Eric P. Achterberg, and Gideon M. Henderson
Biogeosciences, 18, 1645–1671,Short summary
The South Atlantic near 40° S is one of the high-productivity and most dynamic nutrient regions in the oceans, but the sources and fluxes of trace elements (TEs) to this region remain unclear. This study investigates seawater Ra-228 and provides important constraints on ocean mixing and dissolved TE fluxes to this region. Vertical mixing is a more important source than aeolian or shelf inputs in this region, but particulate or winter deep-mixing inputs may be required to balance the TE budgets.
Zhongjie Yu and Emily M. Elliott
Biogeosciences, 18, 805–829,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrated distinct nitrogen isotope effects for nitric oxide (NO) production from major microbial and chemical NO sources in an agricultural soil. These results highlight characteristic bond-forming and breaking mechanisms associated with microbial and chemical NO production and implicate that simultaneous isotopic analyses of NO and nitrous oxide (N2O) can lead to unprecedented insights into the sources and processes controlling NO and N2O emissions from agricultural soils.
Daniel A. Frick, Rainer Remus, Michael Sommer, Jürgen Augustin, Danuta Kaczorek, and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 6475–6490,Short summary
Silicon is taken up by some plants to increase structural stability and to develop stress resistance and is rejected by others. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we used the stable isotopes of silicon that shift in their relative abundance depending on the biochemical transformation involved. On species with a rejective (tomato, mustard) and active (wheat) uptake mechanism, grown in hydroculture, we found that the transport of silicic acid is controlled by the precipitation of biogenic opal.
Quentin Charbonnier, Julien Bouchez, Jérôme Gaillardet, and Éric Gayer
Biogeosciences, 17, 5989–6015,Short summary
The abundance and isotope composition of the trace metal barium (Ba) allows us to track and quantify nutrient cycling throughout the Amazon Basin. In particular, we show that the Ba biological fingerprint evolves from that of a strong net nutrient uptake in the mountainous area of the Andes towards efficient nutrient recycling on the plains of the Lower Amazon. Our study highlights the fact that the geochemical signature of rock-derived nutrients transported by the Amazon is scarred by life.
Ajinkya G. Deshpande, Thomas W. Boutton, Ayumi Hyodo, Charles W. Lafon, and Georgianne W. Moore
Biogeosciences, 17, 5639–5653,Short summary
Wetland forests in the southern USA are threatened by changing climate and human-induced pressures. We used tree ring widths and C isotopes as indicators of forest growth and physiological stress, respectively, and compared these to past climate data. We observed that vegetation growing in the drier patches is susceptible to stress, while vegetation growth and physiology in wetter patches is less sensitive to unfavorable environmental conditions, highlighting the importance of optimal wetness.
Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Maciej Piotr Lewicki, and Reinhard Well
Biogeosciences, 17, 5513–5537,Short summary
We present the first validation of N2O isotopic approaches for estimating N2O source pathways and N2O reduction. These approaches are widely used for tracing soil nitrogen cycling, but the results of these estimations are very uncertain. Here we report the results from parallel treatments allowing for precise validation of these approaches, and we propose the best strategies for results interpretation, including the new idea of an isotope model integrating three isotopic signatures of N2O.
Markus Raitzsch, Claire Rollion-Bard, Ingo Horn, Grit Steinhoefel, Albert Benthien, Klaus-Uwe Richter, Matthieu Buisson, Pascale Louvat, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 17, 5365–5375,Short summary
The isotopic composition of boron in carbonate shells of marine unicellular organisms is a popular tool to estimate seawater pH. Usually, many shells need to be dissolved and measured for boron isotopes, but the information on their spatial distribution is lost. Here, we investigate two techniques that allow for measuring boron isotopes within single shells and show that they yield robust mean values but provide additional information on the heterogeneity within and between single shells.
Florian Einsiedl, Anja Wunderlich, Mathieu Sebilo, Ömer K. Coskun, William D. Orsi, and Bernhard Mayer
Biogeosciences, 17, 5149–5161,Short summary
Nitrate pollution of freshwaters and methane emissions into the atmosphere are crucial factors in deteriorating the quality of drinking water and in contributing to global climate change. Here, we report vertical concentration and stable isotope profiles of CH4, NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ in the water column of Fohnsee (southern Bavaria, Germany) that may indicate linkages between nitrate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium.
Ruifang C. Xie, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Insa Rapp, Jan Lüdke, Beat Gasser, Marcus Dengler, Volker Liebetrau, and Eric P. Achterberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4919–4936,Short summary
Thorium-234 (234Th) is widely used to study carbon fluxes from the surface ocean to depth. But few studies stress the relevance of oceanic advection and diffusion on the downward 234Th fluxes in nearshore environments. Our study in offshore Peru showed strong temporal variations in both the importance of physical processes on 234Th flux estimates and the oceanic residence time of 234Th, whereas salinity-derived seawater 238U activities accounted for up to 40 % errors in 234Th flux estimates.
Ralf A. Oeser and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4883–4917,Short summary
We present a novel strategy to decipher the relative impact of biogenic and abiotic drivers of weathering. We parameterized the nutrient fluxes in four ecosystems along a climate and vegetation gradient situated on the Chilean Coastal Cordillera. We investigated how nutrient demand by plants drives weathering. We found that the increase in biomass nutrient demand is accommodated by faster nutrient recycling rather than an increase in the weathering–release rates.
Tito Arosio, Malin M. Ziehmer, Kurt Nicolussi, Christian Schlüchter, and Markus Leuenberger
Biogeosciences, 17, 4871–4882,Short summary
Stable isotopes in tree-ring cellulose are tools for climatic reconstructions, but interpretation is challenging due to nonclimate trends. We analyzed the tree-age trends in tree-ring isotopes of deciduous larch and evergreen cembran pine. Samples covering the whole Holocene were collected at the tree line in the Alps. For cambial ages over 100 years, we prove the absence of age trends in δD, δ18O, and δ13C for both species. For lower cambial ages, trends differ for each isotope and species.
Yuyang He, Xiaobin Cao, and Huiming Bao
Biogeosciences, 17, 4785–4795,Short summary
Different carbon sites in a large organic molecule have different isotope compositions. Different carbon sites may not have the chance to exchange isotopes at all. The lack of appreciation of this notion might be blamed for an unsettled debate on the thermodynamic state of an organism. Here we demonstrate using minerals, N2O, and acetic acid that the dearth of exchange among different carbon sites renders them as independent as if they were different elements in organic molecules.
Felix M. Spielmann, Albin Hammerle, Florian Kitz, Katharina Gerdel, and Georg Wohlfahrt
Biogeosciences, 17, 4281–4295,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be used as a proxy for plant photosynthesis on an ecosystem scale. However, the relationships between COS and CO2 fluxes and their dependence on daily to seasonal changes in environmental drivers are still poorly understood. We examined COS and CO2 ecosystem fluxes above an agriculturally used mountain grassland for 6 months. Harvesting of the grassland disturbed the otherwise stable COS-to-CO2 uptake ratio. We even found the canopy to release COS during those times.
Getachew Agmuas Adnew, Thijs L. Pons, Gerbrand Koren, Wouter Peters, and Thomas Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 3903–3922,Short summary
We measured the effect of photosynthesis, the largest flux in the carbon cycle, on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 at the leaf level during gas exchange using three plant species. The main factors that limit the impact of land vegetation on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 are identified, characterized and discussed. The effect of photosynthesis on the isotopic composition of CO2 is commonly quantified as discrimination (ΔA).
Moritz Schroll, Frank Keppler, Markus Greule, Christian Eckhardt, Holger Zorn, and Katharina Lenhart
Biogeosciences, 17, 3891–3901,Short summary
Fungi have recently been identified to produce the greenhouse gas methane. Here, we investigated the stable carbon isotope values of methane produced by saprotrophic fungi. Our results show that stable isotope values of methane from fungi are dependent on the fungal species and the metabolized substrate. They cover a broad range and overlap with stable carbon isotope values of methane reported for methanogenic archaea, the thermogenic degradation of organic matter, and other eukaryotes.
Pranav Hirave, Guido L. B. Wiesenberg, Axel Birkholz, and Christine Alewell
Biogeosciences, 17, 2169–2180,Short summary
Sediment input into water bodies is a prominent threat to freshwater ecosystems. We tested the stability of tracers employed in freshwater sediment tracing based on compound-specific isotope analysis during early degradation in soil. While bulk δ13C values showed no stability, δ13C values of plant-derived fatty acids and n-alkanes were stably transferred to the soil without soil particle size dependency after an early degradation in organic horizons, thus indicating their suitability as tracers.
Caroline Thaler, Amandine Katz, Magali Bonifacie, Bénédicte Ménez, and Magali Ader
Biogeosciences, 17, 1731–1744,Short summary
Paleoenvironment reconstructions, retrieved from δ18O and Δ47 values measured in carbonate, are compromised when crystallization occurs in isotopic disequilibrium. We show that some paleoenvironmental information can still be retrieved from these paired disequilibrium Δ47 and δ18O values. The possibility of retrieving information on paleowaters, sediments' interstitial waters, or organisms' body water at the carbonate precipitation loci will help understand past Earth and life evolution.
Guillaume Humbert, Mathieu Sébilo, Justine Fiat, Longqi Lang, Ahlem Filali, Véronique Vaury, Mathieu Spérandio, and Anniet M. Laverman
Biogeosciences, 17, 979–993,Short summary
Mitigating emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O requires understanding of the relative contribution of its producing processes in response to environmental variables. We show, using isotopic analysis, that N2O emissions from a nitrifying system were sensitive to oxygenation, temperature and NH4+ concentrations with nitrite reduction being the main N2O source. Temperature appears to be the main control on N2O production, due to its dissimilar effects on ammonium and nitrite oxidizing activities.
Oguz Yigiterhan, Ebrahim Mohd Al-Ansari, Alex Nelson, Mohamed Alaa Abdel-Moati, Jesse Turner, Hamood Abdulla Alsaadi, Barbara Paul, Ibrahim Abdullatif Al-Maslamani, Mehsin Abdulla Al-Ansi Al-Yafei, and James W. Murray
Biogeosciences, 17, 381–404,Short summary
We analyze net-tow samples of plankton and associated particulate matter from the Exclusive Economic Zone, Qatar, Arabian Gulf, using net tows with mesh sizes of 50 and 200 μm to examine the composition of plankton populations. We also focus on the role and composition of the atmospheric dust, representative of terrigenous material, deposited in the Gulf. We concluded that Al, Fe, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Li are of dust origin and As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, and Ca are of anthropogenic/biogenic origin.
Clare Woulds, James B. Bell, Adrian G. Glover, Steven Bouillon, and Louise S. Brown
Biogeosciences, 17, 1–12,Short summary
Sedimented hydrothermal vents occur where heated, mineral-rich (hydrothermal) water seeps through seafloor sediments. They host chemosynthetic microbes, which use chemical energy to fix dissolved carbon dioxide into sugars (chemosynthesis). We conducted carbon tracing experiments, and observed chemosynthesis at both vent and non-vent sites. Thus, chemosynthesis occurred over a much larger area than expected, suggesting it is more widespread than previously thought.
Cara C. Manning, Rachel H. R. Stanley, David P. Nicholson, Brice Loose, Ann Lovely, Peter Schlosser, and Bruce G. Hatcher
Biogeosciences, 16, 3351–3376,Short summary
We measured rates of biological activity and gas exchange in a Canadian estuary during ice melt. We quantified gas exchange using inert, deliberately released tracers and found that the gas transfer rate at > 90 % ice cover was 6 % of the rate for nearly ice-free conditions. We measured oxygen concentration and isotopic composition and used the data to detect changes in the rates of photosynthesis and respiration (autotrophy and heterotrophy) as the ice melted.
Marlène Lavrieux, Axel Birkholz, Katrin Meusburger, Guido L. B. Wiesenberg, Adrian Gilli, Christian Stamm, and Christine Alewell
Biogeosciences, 16, 2131–2146,Short summary
A fingerprinting approach using compound-specific stable isotopes was applied to a lake sediment core to reconstruct erosion processes over the past 150 years in a Swiss catchment. Even though the reconstruction of land use and eutrophication history was successful, the observation of comparatively low δ13C values of plant-derived fatty acids in the sediment suggests their alteration within the lake. Thus, their use as a tool for source attribution in sediment cores needs further investigation.
Luciana A. Pereira, Roberto V. Santos, Marília Hauser, Fabrice Duponchelle, Fernando Carvajal, Christophe Pecheyran, Sylvain Bérail, and Marc Pouilly
Biogeosciences, 16, 1781–1797,Short summary
This study presents the first step for a chemical origin certification of pirarucu fishery in the Amazon. A preliminary isotopic tool to improve the actual tracking system integrates ecological, social, and economic aspects of Amazon dynamics. The geographic origin validation of farmed and wild fishes contributes to environmental and social practices, secures food and income to communities, helps manage endangered species, reinforces aquaculture, and combats illegal fisheries.
Sarah Conrad, Johan Ingri, Johan Gelting, Fredrik Nordblad, Emma Engström, Ilia Rodushkin, Per S. Andersson, Don Porcelli, Örjan Gustafsson, Igor Semiletov, and Björn Öhlander
Biogeosciences, 16, 1305–1319,Short summary
Iron analysis of the particulate, colloidal, and truly dissolved fractions along the Lena River freshwater plume showed that the particulate iron dominates close to the coast. Over 99 % particulate and about 90 % colloidal iron were lost, while the truly dissolved phase was almost constant. Iron isotopes suggest that the shelf acts as a sink for particles and colloids with negative iron isotope values, while colloids with positive iron isotope values travel further out into the Arctic Ocean.
Elizabeth Verhoeven, Matti Barthel, Longfei Yu, Luisella Celi, Daniel Said-Pullicino, Steven Sleutel, Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Johan Six, and Charlotte Decock
Biogeosciences, 16, 383–408,Short summary
This study utilized state-of-the-art measurements of nitrogen isotopes to evaluate nitrogen cycling and to assess the biological sources of the potent greenhouse gas, N2O, in response to water-saving practices in rice systems. Water-saving practices did emit more N2O, and high N2O production had a lower 15N isotope signature. Modeling and visual interpretation indicate that these emissions mostly came from denitrification or nitrifier denitrification, controlled upstream by nitrification rates.
Feifei Deng, Gideon M. Henderson, Maxi Castrillejo, Fiz F. Perez, and Reiner Steinfeldt
Biogeosciences, 15, 7299–7313,Short summary
To better use Pa / Th to reconstruct deep water ventilation rate, we assessed controls on 230Th and 231Pa in the northern North Atlantic. With extended optimum multi-parameter analysis and CFC-based water-mass age, we found the imprint of young overflow water on Th and Pa and enhanced scavenging near the seafloor. A significantly higher advective loss of Pa to the south relative to Th in the Atlantic was estimated, supporting the use of Pa / Th for assessing basin-scale meridional transport.
Baer, D. S., Paul, J. B., Gupta, M., and O'Keefe, A.: Sensitive absorption measurements in the near-infrared region using off-axis integrated-cavity-output spectroscopy, Appl. Phys. B, 75, 261–265, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-002-0971-z, 2002.
Balch, W. M., Bates, N. R., Lam, P. J., Twining, B. S., Rosengard, S. Z., Bowler, B. C., Drapeau, D. T., Garley, R., Lubelczyk, L. C., Mitchell, C., and Rauschenberg, S.: Factors regulating the Great Calcite Belt in the Southern Ocean and its biogeochemical significance, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 30, 1124–1144, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GB005414, 2016.
Bandstra, L., Hales, B., and Takahashi, T.: High-frequency measurements of total CO2: Method development and first oceanographic observations, Mar. Chem., 100, 24–38, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2005.10.009, 2006.
Bass, A. M., Bird, M. I., Munksgaard, N. C., and Wurster, C. M.: ISO-CADICA: Isotopic – continuous, automated dissolved inorganic carbon analyser, Rapid Commun. Mass Sp., 26, 639–644, https://doi.org/10.1002/rcm.6143, 2012.
Bass, A. M., O' Grady, D., Berkin, C., Leblanc, M., Tweed, S., Nelson, P. N., and Bird, M. I.: High diurnal variation in dissolved inorganic C, δ13C values and surface efflux of CO2 in a seasonal tropical floodplain, Environ. Chem. Lett., 11, 399–405, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-013-0421-7, 2013.
Bass, A. M., Munksgaard, N. C., Leblanc, M., Tweed, S., and Bird, M. I.: Contrasting carbon export dynamics of human impacted and pristine tropical catchments in response to a short-lived discharge event, Hydrol. Proc., 28, 1835–1843, https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9716, 2014a.
Bass, A. M., Munksgaard, N. C., O'Grady, D., Williams, M. J. M., Bostock, H. C., Rintoul, S. R., and Bird, M. I.: Continuous shipboard measurements of oceanic δ18O, δD and δ13CDIC along a transect from New Zealand to Antarctica using cavity ring-down isotope spectrometry, J. Mar. Syst., 137, 21–27, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmarsys.2014.04.003, 2014b.
Bates, N. R., Orchowska, M. I., Garley, R., and Mathis, J. T.: Summertime calcium carbonate undersaturation in shelf waters of the western Arctic Ocean: how biological processes exacerbate the impact of ocean acidification, Biogeosciences, 10, 5281–5309, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-5281-2013, 2013.
Bates, N. R., Garley, R., Frey, K. E., Shake, K. L., and Mathis, J. T.: Sea-ice melt CO2–carbonate chemistry in the western Arctic Ocean: meltwater contributions to air–sea CO2 gas exchange, mixed-layer properties and rates of net community production under sea ice, Biogeosciences, 11, 6769–6789, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-6769-2014, 2014.
Becker, M., Andersen, N., Fiedler, B., Fietzek, P., Körtzinger, A., Steinhoff, T., and Friedrichs, G.: Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy for continuous monitoring of δ13C(CO2) and fCO2 in the surface ocean, Limnol. Oceanogr.-Meth., 10, 752–766, https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2012.10.752, 2012.
Becker, M., Andersen, N., Erlenkeuser, H., Humphreys, M. P., Tanhua, T., and Körtzinger, A.: An internally consistent dataset of δ13C-DIC in the North Atlantic Ocean – NAC13v1, Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 559–570, https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-8-559-2016, 2016.
Berryman, E. M., Marshall, J. D., Rahn, T., Cook, S. P., and Litvak, M.: Adaptation of continuous-flow cavity ring-down spectroscopy for batch analysis of δ13C of CO2 and comparison with isotope ratio mass spectrometry, Rapid Commun. Mass Sp., 25, 2355–2360, 2011.
Byrne, R. H.: Measuring Ocean Acidification: New Technology for a New Era of Ocean Chemistry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 5352–5360, https://doi.org/10.1021/es405819p, 2014.
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Crosson, E. R.: A cavity ring-down analyzer for measuring atmospheric levels of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor, Appl. Phys. B, 92, 403–408, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00340-008-3135-y, 2008.
Fassbender, A. J., Sabine, C. L., Lawrence-Slavas, N., De Carlo, E. H., Meinig, C., and Maenner Jones, S.: Robust Sensor for Extended Autonomous Measurements of Surface Ocean Dissolved Inorganic Carbon, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 3628–3635, https://doi.org/10.1021/es5047183, 2015.
Friederich, G. E., Walz, P. M., Burczynski, M. G., and Chavez, F. P.: Inorganic carbon in the central California upwelling system during the 1997–1999 El Niño–La Niña event, Prog. Oceanogr., 54, 185–203, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6611(02)00049-6, 2002.
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The conventional method for determining dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and it carbon stable isotope ratio (δ13C–DIC) can be a laborious process which can limit sampling frequency. This paper presents a new approach to autonomously determine DIC & δ13C–DIC at high temporal resolution. The simple method requires no customised design. Instead it uses two commercially available instruments and achieved a sampling resolution of 16 mins with precision and accuracy comparable to conventional methods.
The conventional method for determining dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and it carbon stable...