Articles | Volume 15, issue 7
Research article 09 Apr 2018
Research article | 09 Apr 2018
High-frequency productivity estimates for a lake from free-water CO2 concentration measurements
Maria Provenzale et al.
No articles found.
Fabienne Maignan, Camille Abadie, Marine Remaud, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Róisín Commane, Richard Wehr, J. Elliott Campbell, Sauveur Belviso, Stephen A. Montzka, Nina Raoult, Ulli Seibt, Yoichi P. Shiga, Nicolas Vuichard, Mary E. Whelan, and Philippe Peylin
Biogeosciences, 18, 2917–2955,Short summary
The assimilation of carbonyl sulfide (COS) by continental vegetation has been proposed as a proxy for gross primary production (GPP). Using a land surface and a transport model, we compare a mechanistic representation of the plant COS uptake (Berry et al., 2013) to the classical leaf relative uptake (LRU) approach linking GPP and vegetation COS fluxes. We show that at high temporal resolutions a mechanistic approach is mandatory, but at large scales the LRU approach compares similarly.
Olli Peltola, Karl Lapo, Ilkka Martinkauppi, Ewan O'Connor, Christoph K. Thomas, and Timo Vesala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2409–2427,Short summary
We evaluated the suitability of fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) for observing spatial (>25 cm) and temporal (>1 s) details of airflow within and above forests. The DTS measurements could discern up to third-order moments of the flow and observe spatial details of coherent flow motions. Similar measurements are not possible with more conventional measurement techniques. Hence, the DTS measurements will provide key insights into flows close to roughness elements, e.g. trees.
Alex Resovsky, Michel Ramonet, Leonard Rivier, Jerome Tarniewicz, Philippe Ciais, Martin Steinbacher, Ivan Mammarella, Meelis Mölder, Michal Heliasz, Dagmar Kubistin, Matthias Lindauer, Jennifer Müller-Williams, Sebastien Conil, and Richard Engelen
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We present a technical description of a statistical methodology for extracting synoptic and seasonal length anomalies from CO2 time series. The definition of what represents an anomalous signal is somewhat subjective, which we touch on throughout the paper. We show, however, that the method performs reasonably well in extracting portions of the time series influenced by significant NAO+ weather episodes and continent-wide terrestrial biospheric aberrations.
Nahid Atashi, Dariush Rahimi, Victoria A. Sinclair, Martha A. Zaidan, Anton Rusanen, Henri Vuollekoski, Markku Kulmala, Timo Vesala, and Tareq Hussein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
Dew formation potential during a long-term period (1979–2018) was assessed in Iran aiming to identify dew formation zones and to investigate the impacts of long-term variation in meteorological parameters on dew formation.
Tamara Emmerichs, Astrid Kerkweg, Huug Ouwersloot, Silvano Fares, Ivan Mammarella, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 495–519,Short summary
Dry deposition to vegetation is a major sink of ground-level ozone. Its parameterization in atmospheric chemistry models represents a significant source of uncertainty for global tropospheric ozone. We extended the current model parameterization with a relevant pathway and important meteorological adjustment factors. The comparison with measurements shows that this enables a more realistic model representation of ozone dry deposition velocity. Globally, annual dry deposition loss increases.
Kyle B. Delwiche, Sara Helen Knox, Avni Malhotra, Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Gavin McNicol, Sarah Feron, Zutao Ouyang, Dario Papale, Carlo Trotta, Eleonora Canfora, You-Wei Cheah, Danielle Christianson, M. Carmelita R. Alberto, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Dennis Baldocchi, Sheel Bansal, David P. Billesbach, Gil Bohrer, Rosvel Bracho, Nina Buchmann, David I. Campbell, Gerardo Celis, Jiquan Chen, Weinan Chen, Housen Chu, Higo J. Dalmagro, Sigrid Dengel, Ankur R. Desai, Matteo Detto, Han Dolman, Elke Eichelmann, Eugenie Euskirchen, Daniela Famulari, Thomas Friborg, Kathrin Fuchs, Mathias Goeckede, Sébastien Gogo, Mangaliso J. Gondwe, Jordan P. Goodrich, Pia Gottschalk, Scott L. Graham, Martin Heimann, Manuel Helbig, Carole Helfter, Kyle S. Hemes, Takashi Hirano, David Hollinger, Lukas Hörtnagl, Hiroki Iwata, Adrien Jacotot, Joachim Jansen, Gerald Jurasinski, Minseok Kang, Kuno Kasak, John King, Janina Klatt, Franziska Koebsch, Ken W. Krauss, Derrick Y. F. Lai, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, Luca Belelli Marchesini, Jaclyn Hatala Matthes, Trofim Maximon, Lutz Merbold, Bhaskar Mitra, Timothy H. Morin, Eiko Nemitz, Mats B. Nilsson, Shuli Niu, Walter C. Oechel, Patricia Y. Oikawa, Keisuke Ono, Matthias Peichl, Olli Peltola, Michele L. Reba, Andrew D. Richardson, William Riley, Benjamin R. K. Runkle, Youngryel Ryu, Torsten Sachs, Ayaka Sakabe, Camilo Rey Sanchez, Edward A. Schuur, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Oliver Sonnentag, Jed P. Sparks, Ellen Stuart-Haëntjens, Cove Sturtevant, Ryan C. Sullivan, Daphne J. Szutu, Jonathan E. Thom, Margaret S. Torn, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Jessica Turner, Masahito Ueyama, Alex C. Valach, Rodrigo Vargas, Andrej Varlagin, Alma Vazquez-Lule, Joseph G. Verfaillie, Timo Vesala, George L. Vourlitis, Eric J. Ward, Christian Wille, Georg Wohlfahrt, Guan Xhuan Wong, Zhen Zhang, Donatella Zona, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Benjamin Poulter, and Robert B. Jackson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ESSDShort summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas, yet we lack knowledge about its global emissions and drivers. We present FLUXNET-CH4, a new global collection of methane measurements and a critical resource for the research community. We use FLUXNET-CH4 data to quantify the seasonality of methane emissions from freshwater wetlands, finding that methane seasonality varies strongly with latitude. Our new database and analysis will improve wetland model accuracy and inform greenhouse gas budgets.
Olli Peltola, Toprak Aslan, Andreas Ibrom, Eiko Nemitz, Üllar Rannik, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Gas fluxes measured by the eddy covariance (EC) technique are subject to filtering due to unideal instrumentation. For linear first-order systems this filtering causes also a time-lag between vertical wind speed and gas signal which is additional to the gas travel time in the sampling line. The effect of this additional time-lag on EC fluxes is ignored in current EC data processing routines. Here we show that this oversight biases EC fluxes and hence propose an approach to rectify this bias.
Pavel Alekseychik, Aino Korrensalo, Ivan Mammarella, Samuli Launiainen, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Ilkka Korpela, and Timo Vesala
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Bogs of Northern Eurasia represent a major type of peatland ecosystem and contain vast amounts of carbon, but carbon balance monitoring studies on bogs remain scarce. The current project explores six years of carbon balance data obtained using the state-of-art eddy-covariance technique at a Finnish bog Siikaneva. The results reveal relatively low interannual variability indicative of ecosystem resilience to both cool and hot summers, and provides new insight into the seasonal course of C fluxes.
Camille Yver-Kwok, Carole Philippon, Peter Bergamaschi, Tobias Biermann, Francescopiero Calzolari, Huilin Chen, Sebastien Conil, Paolo Cristofanelli, Marc Delmotte, Juha Hatakka, Michal Heliasz, Ove Hermansen, Kateřina Komínková, Dagmar Kubistin, Nicolas Kumps, Olivier Laurent, Tuomas Laurila, Irene Lehner, Janne Levula, Matthias Lindauer, Morgan Lopez, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, Per Marklund, Jean-Marc Metzger, Meelis Mölder, Stephen M. Platt, Michel Ramonet, Leonard Rivier, Bert Scheeren, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Paul Smith, Martin Steinbacher, Gabriela Vítková, and Simon Wyss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 89–116,Short summary
The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a pan-European research infrastructure which provides harmonized and high-precision scientific data on the carbon cycle and the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. All stations have to undergo a rigorous assessment before being labeled, i.e., receiving approval to join the network. In this paper, we present the labeling process for the ICOS atmospheric network through the 23 stations that were labeled between November 2017 and November 2019.
Toprak Aslan, Olli Peltola, Andreas Ibrom, Eiko Nemitz, Üllar Rannik, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Vertical turbulent fluxes of gases measured by the eddy covariance (EC) technique are subject to high frequency losses. There are different methods used to describe this low-pass filtering effect and to correct the measured fluxes. In this study, we analyzed the systematic uncertainty related to this correction for various attenuation and signal-to-noise ratios. A new and robust transfer function method is finally proposed.
Yuan Zhang, Ana Bastos, Fabienne Maignan, Daniel Goll, Olivier Boucher, Laurent Li, Alessandro Cescatti, Nicolas Vuichard, Xiuzhi Chen, Christof Ammann, M. Altaf Arain, T. Andrew Black, Bogdan Chojnicki, Tomomichi Kato, Ivan Mammarella, Leonardo Montagnani, Olivier Roupsard, Maria J. Sanz, Lukas Siebicke, Marek Urbaniak, Francesco Primo Vaccari, Georg Wohlfahrt, Will Woodgate, and Philippe Ciais
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5401–5423,Short summary
We improved the ORCHIDEE LSM by distinguishing diffuse and direct light in canopy and evaluated the new model with observations from 159 sites. Compared with the old model, the new model has better sunny GPP and reproduced the diffuse light fertilization effect observed at flux sites. Our simulations also indicate different mechanisms causing the observed GPP enhancement under cloudy conditions at different times. The new model has the potential to study large-scale impacts of aerosol changes.
Anna B. Harper, Karina E. Williams, Patrick C. McGuire, Maria Carolina Duran Rojas, Debbie Hemming, Anne Verhoef, Chris Huntingford, Lucy Rowland, Toby Marthews, Cleiton Breder Eller, Camilla Mathison, Rodolfo L. B. Nobrega, Nicola Gedney, Pier Luigi Vidale, Fred Otu-Larbi, Divya Pandey, Sebastien Garrigues, Azin Wright, Darren Slevin, Martin G. De Kauwe, Eleanor Blyth, Jonas Ärdo, Andrew Black, Damien Bonal, Nina Buchmann, Benoit Burban, Kathrin Fuchs, Agnès de Grandcourt, Ivan Mammarella, Lutz Merbold, Leonardo Montagnani, Yann Nouvellon, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, and Georg Wohlfahrt
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
Drought is predicted to increase in the future due to climate change. Plants respond to drier soils by reducing stomatal conductance, in order to conserve water and avoid damage, and this response is important for the global carbon cycle and local/regional climate feedbacks. We evaluated ten representations of stress in the JULES land-surface model against site observations, and make recommendations for future use of the model.
Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Pasi Kolari, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Huilin Chen, Ulli Seibt, Wu Sun, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3957–3975,Short summary
Biosphere–atmosphere gas exchange (flux) measurements of carbonyl sulfide (COS) are becoming popular for estimating biospheric photosynthesis. To compare COS flux measurements across different measurement sites, we need standardized protocols for data processing. We analyze how various data processing steps affect the calculated COS flux and how they differ from carbon dioxide (CO2) flux processing steps, and we aim to settle on a set of recommended protocols for COS flux calculation.
Xuefei Li, Outi Wahlroos, Sami Haapanala, Jukka Pumpanen, Harri Vasander, Anne Ojala, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 17, 3409–3425,Short summary
We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes and quantified the global warming potential of different surface areas in a recently created urban wetland in Southern Finland. The ecosystem has a small net climate warming effect which was mainly contributed by the open-water areas. Our results suggest that limiting open-water areas and setting a design preference for areas of emergent vegetation in the establishment of urban wetlands can be a beneficial practice when considering solely the climate impact.
Christopher P. O. Reyer, Ramiro Silveyra Gonzalez, Klara Dolos, Florian Hartig, Ylva Hauf, Matthias Noack, Petra Lasch-Born, Thomas Rötzer, Hans Pretzsch, Henning Meesenburg, Stefan Fleck, Markus Wagner, Andreas Bolte, Tanja G. M. Sanders, Pasi Kolari, Annikki Mäkelä, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Jukka Pumpanen, Alessio Collalti, Carlo Trotta, Giorgio Matteucci, Ettore D'Andrea, Lenka Foltýnová, Jan Krejza, Andreas Ibrom, Kim Pilegaard, Denis Loustau, Jean-Marc Bonnefond, Paul Berbigier, Delphine Picart, Sébastien Lafont, Michael Dietze, David Cameron, Massimo Vieno, Hanqin Tian, Alicia Palacios-Orueta, Victor Cicuendez, Laura Recuero, Klaus Wiese, Matthias Büchner, Stefan Lange, Jan Volkholz, Hyungjun Kim, Joanna A. Horemans, Friedrich Bohn, Jörg Steinkamp, Alexander Chikalanov, Graham P. Weedon, Justin Sheffield, Flurin Babst, Iliusi Vega del Valle, Felicitas Suckow, Simon Martel, Mats Mahnken, Martin Gutsch, and Katja Frieler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1295–1320,Short summary
Process-based vegetation models are widely used to predict local and global ecosystem dynamics and climate change impacts. Due to their complexity, they require careful parameterization and evaluation to ensure that projections are accurate and reliable. The PROFOUND Database provides a wide range of empirical data to calibrate and evaluate vegetation models that simulate climate impacts at the forest stand scale to support systematic model intercomparisons and model development in Europe.
Sheila Wachiye, Lutz Merbold, Timo Vesala, Janne Rinne, Matti Räsänen, Sonja Leitner, and Petri Pellikka
Biogeosciences, 17, 2149–2167,Short summary
Limited data on emissions in Africa translate into uncertainty during GHG budgeting. We studied annual CO2, N2O, and CH4 emissions in four land-use types in Kenyan savanna using static chambers and gas chromatography. CO2 emissions varied between seasons and land-use types. Soil moisture and vegetation explained the seasonal variation, while soil temperature was insignificant. N2O and CH4 emissions did not vary at all sites. Our results are useful in climate change mitigation interventions.
Chris R. Flechard, Andreas Ibrom, Ute M. Skiba, Wim de Vries, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Nancy B. Dise, Janne F. J. Korhonen, Nina Buchmann, Arnaud Legout, David Simpson, Maria J. Sanz, Marc Aubinet, Denis Loustau, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Ivan A. Janssens, Mari Pihlatie, Ralf Kiese, Jan Siemens, André-Jean Francez, Jürgen Augustin, Andrej Varlagin, Janusz Olejnik, Radosław Juszczak, Mika Aurela, Daniel Berveiller, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Ulrich Dämmgen, Nicolas Delpierre, Vesna Djuricic, Julia Drewer, Eric Dufrêne, Werner Eugster, Yannick Fauvel, David Fowler, Arnoud Frumau, André Granier, Patrick Gross, Yannick Hamon, Carole Helfter, Arjan Hensen, László Horváth, Barbara Kitzler, Bart Kruijt, Werner L. Kutsch, Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Michal V. Marek, Giorgio Matteucci, Marta Mitosinkova, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Kim Pilegaard, Gabriel Pita, Francisco Sanz, Jan K. Schjoerring, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Y. Sim Tang, Hilde Uggerud, Marek Urbaniak, Netty van Dijk, Timo Vesala, Sonja Vidic, Caroline Vincke, Tamás Weidinger, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Eiko Nemitz, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1583–1620,Short summary
Experimental evidence from a network of 40 monitoring sites in Europe suggests that atmospheric nitrogen deposition to forests and other semi-natural vegetation impacts the carbon sequestration rates in ecosystems, as well as the net greenhouse gas balance including other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Excess nitrogen deposition in polluted areas also leads to other environmental impacts such as nitrogen leaching to groundwater and other pollutant gaseous emissions.
Chris R. Flechard, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Wim de Vries, Andreas Ibrom, Nina Buchmann, Nancy B. Dise, Ivan A. Janssens, Johan Neirynck, Leonardo Montagnani, Andrej Varlagin, Denis Loustau, Arnaud Legout, Klaudia Ziemblińska, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Julia Drewer, Werner Eugster, André-Jean Francez, Radosław Juszczak, Barbara Kitzler, Werner L. Kutsch, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Giorgio Matteucci, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Janusz Olejnik, Maria J. Sanz, Jan Siemens, Timo Vesala, Caroline Vincke, Eiko Nemitz, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Ute M. Skiba, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1621–1654,Short summary
Nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere to unfertilized terrestrial vegetation such as forests can increase carbon dioxide uptake and favour carbon sequestration by ecosystems. However the data from observational networks are difficult to interpret in terms of a carbon-to-nitrogen response, because there are a number of other confounding factors, such as climate, soil physical properties and fertility, and forest age. We propose a model-based method to untangle the different influences.
Paul C. Stoy, Tarek S. El-Madany, Joshua B. Fisher, Pierre Gentine, Tobias Gerken, Stephen P. Good, Anne Klosterhalfen, Shuguang Liu, Diego G. Miralles, Oscar Perez-Priego, Angela J. Rigden, Todd H. Skaggs, Georg Wohlfahrt, Ray G. Anderson, A. Miriam J. Coenders-Gerrits, Martin Jung, Wouter H. Maes, Ivan Mammarella, Matthias Mauder, Mirco Migliavacca, Jacob A. Nelson, Rafael Poyatos, Markus Reichstein, Russell L. Scott, and Sebastian Wolf
Biogeosciences, 16, 3747–3775,Short summary
Key findings are the nearly optimal response of T to atmospheric water vapor pressure deficits across methods and scales. Additionally, the notion that T / ET intermittently approaches 1, which is a basis for many partitioning methods, does not hold for certain methods and ecosystems. To better constrain estimates of E and T from combined ET measurements, we propose a combination of independent measurement techniques to better constrain E and T at the ecosystem scale.
Jarmo Mäkelä, Jürgen Knauer, Mika Aurela, Andrew Black, Martin Heimann, Hideki Kobayashi, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Hank Margolis, Tiina Markkanen, Jouni Susiluoto, Tea Thum, Toni Viskari, Sönke Zaehle, and Tuula Aalto
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 4075–4098,Short summary
We assess the differences of six stomatal conductance formulations, embedded into a land–vegetation model JSBACH, on 10 boreal coniferous evergreen forest sites. We calibrate the model parameters using all six functions in a multi-year experiment, as well as for a separate drought event at one of the sites, using the adaptive population importance sampler. The analysis reveals weaknesses in the stomatal conductance formulation-dependent model behaviour that we are able to partially amend.
Petri Kiuru, Anne Ojala, Ivan Mammarella, Jouni Heiskanen, Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Heli Miettinen, Timo Vesala, and Timo Huttula
Biogeosciences, 16, 3297–3317,Short summary
Many boreal lakes emit the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. We incorporated four different gas exchange models into a physico-biochemical lake model and studied their ability to simulate lake air–water CO2 fluxes. The inclusion of refined gas exchange models in lake models that simulate carbon cycling is important to assess lake carbon budgets. However, higher estimates for inorganic carbon sources in boreal lakes are needed to balance the CO2 losses to the atmosphere.
Olli Peltola, Timo Vesala, Yao Gao, Olle Räty, Pavel Alekseychik, Mika Aurela, Bogdan Chojnicki, Ankur R. Desai, Albertus J. Dolman, Eugenie S. Euskirchen, Thomas Friborg, Mathias Göckede, Manuel Helbig, Elyn Humphreys, Robert B. Jackson, Georg Jocher, Fortunat Joos, Janina Klatt, Sara H. Knox, Natalia Kowalska, Lars Kutzbach, Sebastian Lienert, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Daniel F. Nadeau, Mats B. Nilsson, Walter C. Oechel, Matthias Peichl, Thomas Pypker, William Quinton, Janne Rinne, Torsten Sachs, Mateusz Samson, Hans Peter Schmid, Oliver Sonnentag, Christian Wille, Donatella Zona, and Tuula Aalto
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1263–1289,Short summary
Here we develop a monthly gridded dataset of northern (> 45 N) wetland methane (CH4) emissions. The data product is derived using a random forest machine-learning technique and eddy covariance CH4 fluxes from 25 wetland sites. Annual CH4 emissions from these wetlands calculated from the derived data product are comparable to prior studies focusing on these areas. This product is an independent estimate of northern wetland CH4 emissions and hence could be used, e.g. for process model evaluation.
Elisa Männistö, Aino Korrensalo, Pavel Alekseychik, Ivan Mammarella, Olli Peltola, Timo Vesala, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 16, 2409–2421,Short summary
We studied methane emitted as episodic bubble release (ebullition) from water and bare peat surfaces of a boreal bog over three years. There was more ebullition from water than from bare peat surfaces, and it was controlled by peat temperature, water level, atmospheric pressure and the weekly temperature sum. However, the contribution of methane bubbles to the total ecosystem methane emission was small. This new information can be used to improve process models of peatland methane dynamics.
Ekaterina Ezhova, Ilona Ylivinkka, Joel Kuusk, Kaupo Komsaare, Marko Vana, Alisa Krasnova, Steffen Noe, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Belan, Sung-Bin Park, Jošt Valentin Lavrič, Martin Heimann, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Pasi Kolari, Jaana Bäck, Üllar Rannik, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17863–17881,Short summary
Understanding the connections between aerosols, solar radiation and photosynthesis in terrestrial ecosystems is important for estimates of the CO2 balance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosols and clouds influence solar radiation. In this study, we quantify the aerosol effect on solar radiation in boreal forests and study forest ecosystems response to this change in the radiation conditions. The analysis is based on atmospheric observations from several remote stations in Eurasian forests.
Qiaozhi Zha, Chao Yan, Heikki Junninen, Matthieu Riva, Nina Sarnela, Juho Aalto, Lauriane Quéléver, Simon Schallhart, Lubna Dada, Liine Heikkinen, Otso Peräkylä, Jun Zou, Clémence Rose, Yonghong Wang, Ivan Mammarella, Gabriel Katul, Timo Vesala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17437–17450,Short summary
Vertical measurements of highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) below and above the forest canopy were performed for the first time in a boreal forest during September 2016. Our results highlight that near-ground HOM measurements may only be representative of a small fraction of the entire nocturnal boundary layer, which may sequentially influence the growth of newly formed particles and SOA formation close to ground surface, where the majority of measurements are conducted.
Leena Järvi, Üllar Rannik, Tom V. Kokkonen, Mona Kurppa, Ari Karppinen, Rostislav D. Kouznetsov, Pekka Rantala, Timo Vesala, and Curtis R. Wood
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5421–5438,Short summary
Identical EC systems on two sides of a building in central Helsinki were used to assess the uncertainty of the vertical fluxes on the single measurement point from July 2013 to September 2015. Sampling at only one point yielded up to 12% underestimation in the cumulative carbon fluxes; for sensible and latent heat the respective values were up to 5 and 8%. The commonly used statistics, kurtosis and skewness, are not necessarily suitable for filtering out data in a densely built urban area.
Pertti Hari, Steffen Noe, Sigrid Dengel, Jan Elbers, Bert Gielen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Bart Kruijt, Liisa Kulmala, Anders Lindroth, Ivan Mammarella, Tuukka Petäjä, Guy Schurgers, Anni Vanhatalo, Markku Kulmala, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13321–13328,Short summary
The development of eddy-covariance measurements of ecosystem CO2 fluxes began a new era in the field studies of photosynthesis. The interpretation of the very variable CO2 fluxes in evergreen forests has been problematic especially in seasonal transition times. We apply two theoretical needle-level equations and show they can predict photosynthetic CO2 flux between the atmosphere and Scots pine forests. This has strong implications for the interpretation of the global change and boreal forests.
Jason A. Ducker, Christopher D. Holmes, Trevor F. Keenan, Silvano Fares, Allen H. Goldstein, Ivan Mammarella, J. William Munger, and Jordan Schnell
Biogeosciences, 15, 5395–5413,Short summary
We have developed an accurate method (SynFlux) to estimate ozone deposition and stomatal uptake across 103 flux tower sites (43 US, 60 Europe), where ozone concentrations and fluxes have not been measured. In all, the SynFlux public dataset provides monthly values of ozone dry deposition for 926 site years across a wide array of ecosystems. The SynFlux dataset will promote further applications to ecosystem, air quality, or climate modeling across the geoscience community.
Mary E. Whelan, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Teresa E. Gimeno, Richard Wehr, Georg Wohlfahrt, Yuting Wang, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Timothy W. Hilton, Sauveur Belviso, Philippe Peylin, Róisín Commane, Wu Sun, Huilin Chen, Le Kuai, Ivan Mammarella, Kadmiel Maseyk, Max Berkelhammer, King-Fai Li, Dan Yakir, Andrew Zumkehr, Yoko Katayama, Jérôme Ogée, Felix M. Spielmann, Florian Kitz, Bharat Rastogi, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Julia Marshall, Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Lisa Wingate, Laura K. Meredith, Wei He, Rüdiger Bunk, Thomas Launois, Timo Vesala, Johan A. Schmidt, Cédric G. Fichot, Ulli Seibt, Scott Saleska, Eric S. Saltzman, Stephen A. Montzka, Joseph A. Berry, and J. Elliott Campbell
Biogeosciences, 15, 3625–3657,Short summary
Measurements of the trace gas carbonyl sulfide (OCS) are helpful in quantifying photosynthesis at previously unknowable temporal and spatial scales. While CO2 is both consumed and produced within ecosystems, OCS is mostly produced in the oceans or from specific industries, and destroyed in plant leaves in proportion to CO2. This review summarizes the advancements we have made in the understanding of OCS exchange and applications to vital ecosystem water and carbon cycle questions.
Jouni Susiluoto, Maarit Raivonen, Leif Backman, Marko Laine, Jarmo Makela, Olli Peltola, Timo Vesala, and Tuula Aalto
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1199–1228,Short summary
Methane is an important greenhouse gas and methane emissions from wetlands contribute to the warming of the climate. Wetland methane emissions are also challenging to estimate. We analyze the performance of a new wetland emission computer model utilizing mathematical methods and using data from a wetland in southern Finland. The analysis helps to explain how wetlands produce methane and how emission modeling can be improved and uncertainties in the emission estimates reduced in future studies.
Aino Korrensalo, Elisa Männistö, Pavel Alekseychik, Ivan Mammarella, Janne Rinne, Timo Vesala, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 15, 1749–1761,Short summary
We measured methane fluxes of a boreal bog from six different plant community types in 2012–2014. We found only little variation in methane fluxes among plant community types. Peat temperature as well as both leaf area of plant species with air channels and of all vegetation are important factors controlling the fluxes. We also detected negative net fluxes indicating methane consumption each year. Our results can be used to improve the models of peatland methane dynamics under climate change.
Olli Peltola, Maarit Raivonen, Xuefei Li, and Timo Vesala
Biogeosciences, 15, 937–951,Short summary
Emission via bubbling, i.e. ebullition, is one of the main CH4 emission pathways from wetlands to the atmosphere, yet it is still coarsely represented in wetland CH4 models. In this study three ebullition modelling approaches are evaluated. Modeled annual CH4 emissions were similar, whereas temporal variability in CH4 emissions varied an order of magnitude between the approaches. Hence realistic description of ebullition is needed when models are compared to and calibrated against measurements.
Chunjing Qiu, Dan Zhu, Philippe Ciais, Bertrand Guenet, Gerhard Krinner, Shushi Peng, Mika Aurela, Christian Bernhofer, Christian Brümmer, Syndonia Bret-Harte, Housen Chu, Jiquan Chen, Ankur R. Desai, Jiří Dušek, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Krzysztof Fortuniak, Lawrence B. Flanagan, Thomas Friborg, Mateusz Grygoruk, Sébastien Gogo, Thomas Grünwald, Birger U. Hansen, David Holl, Elyn Humphreys, Miriam Hurkuck, Gerard Kiely, Janina Klatt, Lars Kutzbach, Chloé Largeron, Fatima Laggoun-Défarge, Magnus Lund, Peter M. Lafleur, Xuefei Li, Ivan Mammarella, Lutz Merbold, Mats B. Nilsson, Janusz Olejnik, Mikaell Ottosson-Löfvenius, Walter Oechel, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Matthias Peichl, Norbert Pirk, Olli Peltola, Włodzimierz Pawlak, Daniel Rasse, Janne Rinne, Gaius Shaver, Hans Peter Schmid, Matteo Sottocornola, Rainer Steinbrecher, Torsten Sachs, Marek Urbaniak, Donatella Zona, and Klaudia Ziemblinska
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 497–519,Short summary
Northern peatlands store large amount of soil carbon and are vulnerable to climate change. We implemented peatland hydrological and carbon accumulation processes into the ORCHIDEE land surface model. The model was evaluated against EC measurements from 30 northern peatland sites. The model generally well reproduced the spatial gradient and temporal variations in GPP and NEE at these sites. Water table depth was not well predicted but had only small influence on simulated NEE.
Wu Sun, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Kadmiel Maseyk, Huilin Chen, Ivan Mammarella, Timo Vesala, Janne Levula, Helmi Keskinen, and Ulli Seibt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1363–1378,Short summary
Most soils consume carbonyl sulfide (COS) and CO due to microbial uptake, but whether boreal forest soils act like this is uncertain. We measured growing season soil COS and CO fluxes in a Finnish pine forest. The soil behaved as a consistent and relatively invariant sink of COS and CO. Uptake rates of COS and CO decrease with soil moisture due to diffusion limitation and increase with respiration because of microbial control. Using COS to infer photosynthesis is not affected by soil COS flux.
Simon Schallhart, Pekka Rantala, Maija K. Kajos, Juho Aalto, Ivan Mammarella, Taina M. Ruuskanen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 815–832,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have impact to air quality, human health and climate. We investigated the development of VOC exchange in a boreal forest between April and June 2013. VOC exchange and diversity increased towards summer, but over 75 % of the biogenic net exchange was driven by methanol, monoterpenes and acetone only. The boreal forest emitted less than 0.2 % carbon in form of VOCs in relation to the carbon uptake.
Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Anne Ojala, David Bastviken, Tobias Biermann, Jouni J. Heiskanen, Anders Lindroth, Olli Peltola, Miitta Rantakari, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 15, 429–445,Short summary
Global estimates of freshwater greenhouse gas emissions are usually based on simple gas transfer models that underestimate the emissions. Thus, comparison of different gas transfer models is required for evaluating the uncertainties. This study compares three commonly used methods for estimating greenhouse gas emissions over lakes. We conclude that simple gas transfer models underestimate the emissions and more recent models should be used for global freshwater greenhouse gas emission estimates.
Maarit Raivonen, Sampo Smolander, Leif Backman, Jouni Susiluoto, Tuula Aalto, Tiina Markkanen, Jarmo Mäkelä, Janne Rinne, Olli Peltola, Mika Aurela, Annalea Lohila, Marin Tomasic, Xuefei Li, Tuula Larmola, Sari Juutinen, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Martin Heimann, Sanna Sevanto, Thomas Kleinen, Victor Brovkin, and Timo Vesala
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4665–4691,Short summary
Wetlands are one of the most significant natural sources of the strong greenhouse gas methane. We developed a model that can be used within a larger wetland carbon model to simulate the methane emissions. In this study, we present the model and results of its testing. We found that the model works well with different settings and that the results depend primarily on the rate of input anoxic soil respiration and also on factors that affect the simulated oxygen concentrations in the wetland soil.
Pertti Hari, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Liisa Kulmala, Markku Kulmala, Steffen Noe, Tuukka Petäjä, Anni Vanhatalo, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15045–15053,Short summary
We developed a theory on the seasonal behaviour of photosynthesis in natural conditions and tested the theory with intensive measurements. Light, temperature, water vapor and CO2 concentration explained the daily variation in photosynthesis, and the physiological state of the photosynthetic machinery explained the annual pattern of photosynthesis. The theory explained about 95 % of the variance of photosynthesis measured with chambers in the field in northern Finland.
Mikko Auvinen, Leena Järvi, Antti Hellsten, Üllar Rannik, and Timo Vesala
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4187–4205,Short summary
Correct spatial interpretation of a micrometeorological measurement requires the determination of its effective source area, or footprint. In urban areas the use of analytical models becomes highly questionable. This work introduces a computational methodology that enables the generation of footprints for complex urban sites. The methodology is based on conducting high-resolution flow and particle analysis on a model that features a detailed topographic description of a real city environment.
Yao Gao, Tiina Markkanen, Mika Aurela, Ivan Mammarella, Tea Thum, Aki Tsuruta, Huiyi Yang, and Tuula Aalto
Biogeosciences, 14, 4409–4422,Short summary
We investigated the response of water use efficiency (WUE) to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) on the daily time scale mainly using EC flux data from the Hyytiälä (southern Finland) flux site. Simulation results from the JSBACH land surface model were also evaluated against the observed results. The performance of three WUE metrics at the ecosystem level (EWUE, IWUE, and uWUE) during the severe summer drought were studied and showed different results.
Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Kadmiel Maseyk, Ulli Seibt, Wu Sun, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Pasi Kolari, Juho Aalto, Alessandro Franchin, Roberta Vecchi, Gianluigi Valli, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11453–11465,Short summary
Carbon cycle studies rely on the accuracy of models to estimate the amount of CO2 being taken up by vegetation. The gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) can serve as a tool to estimate the vegetative CO2 uptake by scaling the ecosystem uptake of COS to that of CO2. Here we investigate the nighttime fluxes of COS. The relationships found in this study will aid in implementing nighttime COS uptake in models, which is key to obtain accurate estimates of vegetative CO2 uptake with the use of COS.
Pavel Alekseychik, Ivan Mammarella, Dmitry Karpov, Sigrid Dengel, Irina Terentieva, Alexander Sabrekov, Mikhail Glagolev, and Elena Lapshina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9333–9345,Short summary
West Siberian peatlands occupy a large fraction of land area in the region, and yet little is known about their interaction with the atmosphere. We took the first measurements of CO2 and energy surface balances over a typical bog of West Siberian middle taiga, in the vicinity of the Mukhrino field station (Khanty–Mansiysk). The May–August study in a wet year (2015) revealed a relatively large photosynthetic sink of CO2 that was close to the high end of estimates at bog sites elsewhere.
Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Mari Pihlatie, Samuli Launiainen, Markku Kulmala, Marja-Liisa Riekkola, Jevgeni Parshintsev, Ivan Mammarella, Timo Vesala, and Jussi Heinonsalo
Biogeosciences, 14, 1075–1091,Short summary
The alkylamines are important precursors in secondary aerosol formation in boreal forests. We quantified alkylamine concentrations in fungal species present in boreal forests in order to estimate soil as a source of atmospheric alkylamines. Based on our knowledge we estimated possible soil–atmosphere exchange of these compounds. The results shows that the boreal forest soil could act as a source of alkylamines depending on environmental conditions and studied compound.
Putian Zhou, Laurens Ganzeveld, Üllar Rannik, Luxi Zhou, Rosa Gierens, Ditte Taipale, Ivan Mammarella, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1361–1379,Short summary
We implemented a multi-layer O3 dry deposition model in a 1-D model SOSAA to simulate O3 flux and concentration within and above a boreal forest at SMEAR II in Hyytiälä, Finland, in August 2010. The results showed that when RH > 70 % the O3 uptake on leaf wet skin was ~ 51 % to the total deposition at night and ~ 19 % at daytime. The sub-canopy contribution below 4.2 m was ~ 38 % at daytime. The averaged daily chemical contribution to total O3 alteration inside the canopy was less than 10 %.
Aino Korrensalo, Pavel Alekseychik, Tomáš Hájek, Janne Rinne, Timo Vesala, Lauri Mehtätalo, Ivan Mammarella, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 14, 257–269,Short summary
Photosynthetic parameters of peatland plant species were measured over one growing season in an ombrotrophic bog. Based on these measurements, ecosystem-level photosynthesis was calculated for the whole growing season and compared with an estimate derived from micrometeorological measurements. These two estimates corresponded well. Species with low areal cover at the site but high photosynthetic efficiency appeared to be potentially important for the ecosystem-level carbon balance.
Jarmo Mäkelä, Jouni Susiluoto, Tiina Markkanen, Mika Aurela, Heikki Järvinen, Ivan Mammarella, Stefan Hagemann, and Tuula Aalto
Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 23, 447–465,Short summary
The land-based hydrological cycle is one of the key processes controlling the growth and wilting of plants and the amount of carbon vegetation can assimilate. Recent studies have shown that many land surface models have biases in this area. We optimized parameters in one such model (JSBACH) and were able to enhance the model performance in many respects, but the response to drought remained unaffected. Further studies into this aspect should include alternative stomatal conductance formulations.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Üllar Rannik, Olli Peltola, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5163–5181,Short summary
We review available methods for the random error estimation of turbulent fluxes that are widely used by the flux community. Flux errors are evaluated theoretically as well as via numerical calculations by using measured and simulated records. We recommend two flux random errors with clear physical meaning: the total error resulting from stochastic nature of turbulence, well approximated by the method of Finkelstein and Sims (2001), and the error of the flux due to the instrumental noise.
Ivan Mammarella, Olli Peltola, Annika Nordbo, Leena Järvi, and Üllar Rannik
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4915–4933,Short summary
In this study we have performed an inter-comparison between EddyUH and EddyPro, two public and commonly used software packages for eddy covariance data processing and calculation. The aims are to estimate the flux uncertainty due to the use of different software packages, and to assess the most critical processing steps, determining the largest deviations in the calculated fluxes. We focus not only on water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes, but also on the methane flux.
Mari Pihlatie, Üllar Rannik, Sami Haapanala, Olli Peltola, Narasinha Shurpali, Pertti J. Martikainen, Saara Lind, Niina Hyvönen, Perttu Virkajärvi, Mark Zahniser, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 13, 5471–5485,Short summary
The sources and sinks of carbon monoxide (CO) in the biosphere are poorly understood. We report the first continuous data series of CO fluxes measured by eddy covariance method in an agricultural bioenergy crop. The CO fluxes were seasonally and diurnally variable demonstrating the parallel consumption and production processes. Radiation was the main driver of CO emissions, and the eddy covariance method was demonstrated as suitable for linking short-term flux dynamics to environmental drivers.
Yiying Chen, James Ryder, Vladislav Bastrikov, Matthew J. McGrath, Kim Naudts, Juliane Otto, Catherine Ottlé, Philippe Peylin, Jan Polcher, Aude Valade, Andrew Black, Jan A. Elbers, Eddy Moors, Thomas Foken, Eva van Gorsel, Vanessa Haverd, Bernard Heinesch, Frank Tiedemann, Alexander Knohl, Samuli Launiainen, Denis Loustau, Jérôme Ogée, Timo Vessala, and Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2951–2972,Short summary
In this study, we compiled a set of within-canopy and above-canopy measurements of energy and water fluxes, and used these data to parametrize and validate the new multi-layer energy budget scheme for a range of forest types. An adequate parametrization approach has been presented for the global-scale land surface model (ORCHIDEE-CAN). Furthermore, model performance of the new multi-layer parametrization was compared against the existing single-layer scheme.
Andrey Glazunov, Üllar Rannik, Victor Stepanenko, Vasily Lykosov, Mikko Auvinen, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2925–2949,Short summary
Large-eddy simulation (LES) and Lagrangian stochastic modeling of passive particle dispersion were applied to the scalar flux footprint determination in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. The footprint functions obtained in LES were compared with the functions calculated with the use of first-order single-particle Lagrangian stochastic models (LSMs) and zeroth-order Lagrangian stochastic models - the random displacement models (RDMs).
Victor Stepanenko, Ivan Mammarella, Anne Ojala, Heli Miettinen, Vasily Lykosov, and Timo Vesala
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1977–2006,Short summary
A 1-D lake model is presented, reproducing temperature, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane. All prognostic variables are treated in unified manner via generic 1-D transport equation. The model is validated vs. comprehensive observational data set gathered at Kuivajärvi Lake (Finland). Our results suggest that a gas transfer through thermocline under intense seiche motions is a bottleneck in quantifying greenhouse gas dynamics in dimictic lakes, calling for further research.
Üllar Rannik, Luxi Zhou, Putian Zhou, Rosa Gierens, Ivan Mammarella, Andrey Sogachev, and Michael Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3145–3160,Short summary
Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model coupled with detailed atmospheric chemistry and aerosol dynamical model was used to quantify the role of aerosol and ABL dynamics in the vertical transport of aerosols at a pine forest site in southern Finland. Simulations showed that under dynamical conditions the particle fluxes above canopy can significantly deviate from the dry deposition into the canopy. The deviation can be systematic for certain particle sizes over a period of several days.
Saara E. Lind, Narasinha J. Shurpali, Olli Peltola, Ivan Mammarella, Niina Hyvönen, Marja Maljanen, Mari Räty, Perttu Virkajärvi, and Pertti J. Martikainen
Biogeosciences, 13, 1255–1268,Short summary
We showed that the reed canary grass (RCG) was environmentally friendly from the CO2 balance point of view when cultivated on this mineral soil. When compared to the earlier findings on the same crop on organic soil site, the capacity of the crop to withdraw atmospheric CO2 was even stronger on the present mineral soil site than that on the organic soil site. For full estimation of the climatic impacts of this bioenergy system, a life cycle assessment will be needed.
A. Collalti, S. Marconi, A. Ibrom, C. Trotta, A. Anav, E. D'Andrea, G. Matteucci, L. Montagnani, B. Gielen, I. Mammarella, T. Grünwald, A. Knohl, F. Berninger, Y. Zhao, R. Valentini, and M. Santini
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 479–504,Short summary
This study evaluates the performances of the new version (v.5.1) of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model in simulating gross primary productivity (GPP), against eddy covariance GPP data for 10 FLUXNET forest sites across Europe. The model consistently reproduces both in timing and in magnitude daily and monthly GPP variability across all sites, with the exception of the two Mediterranean sites. Inclusion of forest structure within simulation ameliorate in some cases the model output.
P. Hari, T. Petäjä, J. Bäck, V.-M. Kerminen, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Vihma, T. Laurila, Y. Viisanen, T. Vesala, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1017–1028,Short summary
This manuscript introduces a conceptual design of a global, hierarchical observation network which provides tools and increased understanding to tackle the inter-connected environmental and societal challenges that we will face in the coming decades. Each ecosystem type on the globe has its own characteristic features that need to be taken into consideration. The hierarchical network is able to tackle problems related to large spatial scales, heterogeneity of ecosystems and their complexity.
Y. Gao, T. Markkanen, T. Thum, M. Aurela, A. Lohila, I. Mammarella, M. Kämäräinen, S. Hagemann, and T. Aalto
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 175–191,
T. Li, W. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Y. Lu, G. Wang, Z. Niu, M. Raivonen, and T. Vesala
Biogeosciences, 12, 6853–6868,Short summary
Natural wetlands in China have experienced extensive conversion and climate warming, which makes the estimation of methane emission from wetlands highly uncertain. In this paper, we simulated an increase of 25.5% in national CH4 fluxes from 1950 to 2010, which was mainly induced by climate warming. Although climate warming has accelerated CH4 fluxes, the total amount of national CH4 emissions decreased by approximately 2.35 Tg (1.91－2.81 Tg), due to a large wetland loss of 17.0 million ha.
M. Kulmala, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Petäjä, T. Kurten, V.-M. Kerminen, Y. Viisanen, P. Hari, S. Sorvari, J. Bäck, V. Bondur, N. Kasimov, V. Kotlyakov, G. Matvienko, A. Baklanov, H. D. Guo, A. Ding, H.-C. Hansson, and S. Zilitinkevich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13085–13096,Short summary
The Pan-European Experiment (PEEX) is introduced. PEEX is a multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research, research infrastructure and capacity-building program. This paper outlines the mission, vision and objectives of PEEX and introduces its main components, including the research agenda, research infrastructure, knowledge transfer and potential impacts on society. The paper also summarizes the main scientific questions that PEEX is going to tackle in the future.
F. Minunno, M. Peltoniemi, S. Launiainen, M. Aurela, A. Lindroth, A. Lohila, I. Mammarella, K. Minkkinen, and A. Mäkelä
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Ü. Rannik, S. Haapanala, N. J. Shurpali, I. Mammarella, S. Lind, N. Hyvönen, O. Peltola, M. Zahniser, P. J. Martikainen, and T. Vesala
Biogeosciences, 12, 415–432,
O. Peltola, A. Hensen, C. Helfter, L. Belelli Marchesini, F. C. Bosveld, W. C. M. van den Bulk, J. A. Elbers, S. Haapanala, J. Holst, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Nemitz, T. Röckmann, A. T. Vermeulen, and I. Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 11, 3163–3186,
E.-M. Kyrö, R. Väänänen, V.-M. Kerminen, A. Virkkula, T. Petäjä, A. Asmi, M. Dal Maso, T. Nieminen, S. Juhola, A. Shcherbinin, I. Riipinen, K. Lehtipalo, P. Keronen, P. P. Aalto, P. Hari, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4383–4396,
J. Aalto, P. Kolari, P. Hari, V.-M. Kerminen, P. Schiestl-Aalto, H. Aaltonen, J. Levula, E. Siivola, M. Kulmala, and J. Bäck
Biogeosciences, 11, 1331–1344,
O. Peltola, I. Mammarella, S. Haapanala, G. Burba, and T. Vesala
Biogeosciences, 10, 3749–3765,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: LimnologyPorewater δ13CDOC indicates variable extent of degradation in different talik layers of coastal Alaskan thermokarst lakesHolocene phototrophic community and anoxia dynamics in meromictic Lake Jaczno (NE Poland) using high-resolution hyperspectral imaging and HPLC dataChanging sources and processes sustaining surface CO2 and CH4 fluxes along a tropical river to reservoir systemMethane oxidation in the waters of a humics-rich boreal lake stimulated by photosynthesis, nitrite, Fe(III) and humicsThe relative importance of photodegradation and biodegradation of terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon across four lakes of differing trophic statusMethane in the Danube Delta: The importance of spatial patterns and diel cycles for atmospheric emission estimatesThe influences of historic lake trophy and mixing regime changes on long-term phosphorus fraction retention in sediments of deep eutrophic lakes: a case study from Lake Burgäschi, SwitzerlandIce formation on lake surfaces in winter causes warm-season bias of lacustrine brGDGT temperature estimatesDrivers of diffusive CH4 emissions from shallow subarctic lakes on daily to multi-year timescalesHigh organic carbon burial but high potential for methane ebullition in the sediments of an Amazonian hydroelectric reservoirDirect O2 control on the partitioning between denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in lake sedimentsSpatial distribution of environmental indicators in surface sediments of Lake Bolshoe Toko, Yakutia, RussiaOstracods as ecological and isotopic indicators of lake water salinity changes: the Lake Van exampleReviews and syntheses: Dams, water quality and tropical reservoir stratificationNitrogen cycling in Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie: oscillations between strong and weak export and implications for harmful algal bloomsDistinctive effects of allochthonous and autochthonous organic matter on CDOM spectra in a tropical lakeNitrification and ammonium dynamics in Taihu Lake, China: seasonal competition for ammonium between nitrifiers and cyanobacteriaQuality transformation of dissolved organic carbon during water transit through lakes: contrasting controls by photochemical and biological processesContinuous measurement of air–water gas exchange by underwater eddy covarianceCapturing temporal and spatial variability in the chemistry of shallow permafrost pondsOrganic carbon mass accumulation rate regulates the flux of reduced substances from the sediments of deep lakesCyanobacterial carbon concentrating mechanisms facilitate sustained CO2 depletion in eutrophic lakesNew insights on resource stoichiometry: assessing availability of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to bacterioplanktonSpatio-seasonal variability of chromophoric dissolved organic matter absorption and responses to photobleaching in a large shallow temperate lakeIsotopic composition of nitrate and particulate organic matter in a pristine dam reservoir of western India: implications for biogeochemical processesBacterial production in subarctic peatland lakes enriched by thawing permafrostPhotochemical mineralisation in a boreal brown water lake: considerable temporal variability and minor contribution to carbon dioxide productionAre flood-driven turbidity currents hot spots for priming effect in lakes?Organic carbon burial efficiency in a subtropical hydroelectric reservoirImportance of within-lake processes in affecting the dynamics of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic and inorganic nitrogen in an Adirondack forested lake/watershedTemperature dependence of the relationship between pCO2 and dissolved organic carbon in lakesThe nature of organic carbon in density-fractionated sediments in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (California)Microbial nutrient limitation in Arctic lakes in a permafrost landscape of southwest GreenlandPhototrophic pigment diversity and picophytoplankton in permafrost thaw lakesCarbon dynamics in highly heterotrophic subarctic thaw pondsImpact of forest harvesting on water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter in eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes in summerSpatial distribution and sources of organic carbon in the surface sediment of Bosten Lake, ChinaHuman land uses enhance sediment denitrification and N2O production in Yangtze lakes primarily by influencing lake water qualityThermal processes of thermokarst lakes in the continuous permafrost zone of northern Siberia – observations and modeling (Lena River Delta, Siberia)Biogeochemistry of a large and deep tropical lake (Lake Kivu, East Africa: insights from a stable isotope study covering an annual cycleThermokarst lake methanogenesis along a complete talik profileSeasonal dynamics of organic carbon and metals in thermokarst lakes from the discontinuous permafrost zone of western SiberiaMethanotrophy within the water column of a large meromictic tropical lake (Lake Kivu, East Africa)The effects of river inflow and retention time on the spatial heterogeneity of chlorophyll and water–air CO2 fluxes in a tropical hydropower reservoirPartial coupling and differential regulation of biologically and photochemically labile dissolved organic carbon across boreal aquatic networksEvidence for vivianite formation and its contribution to long-term phosphorus retention in a recent lake sediment: a novel analytical approachEnhanced bacterial decomposition with increasing addition of autochthonous to allochthonous carbon without any effect on bacterial community compositionLong-term trends of water chemistry in mountain streams in Sweden – slow recovery from acidificationYear-round N2O production by benthic NOx reduction in a monomictic south-alpine lakeDepth-dependent molecular composition and photo-reactivity of dissolved organic matter in a boreal lake under winter and summer conditions
Ove H. Meisel, Joshua F. Dean, Jorien E. Vonk, Lukas Wacker, Gert-Jan Reichart, and Han Dolman
Biogeosciences, 18, 2241–2258,Short summary
Arctic permafrost lakes form thaw bulbs of unfrozen soil (taliks) beneath them where carbon degradation and greenhouse gas production are increased. We analyzed the stable carbon isotopes of Alaskan talik sediments and their porewater dissolved organic carbon and found that the top layers of these taliks are likely more actively degraded than the deeper layers. This in turn implies that these top layers are likely also more potent greenhouse gas producers than the underlying deeper layers.
Stamatina Makri, Andrea Lami, Luyao Tu, Wojciech Tylmann, Hendrik Vogel, and Martin Grosjean
Biogeosciences, 18, 1839–1856,Short summary
Anoxia in lakes is a major growing concern. In this study we applied a multiproxy approach combining high-resolution hyperspectral imaging (HSI) pigment data with specific HPLC data to examine the Holocene evolution and main drivers of lake anoxia and trophic state changes. We find that when human impact was low, these changes were driven by climate and natural lake-catchment evolution. In the last 500 years, increasing human impact has promoted lake eutrophication and permanent anoxia.
Cynthia Soued and Yves T. Prairie
Biogeosciences, 18, 1333–1350,Short summary
Freshwater reservoirs emit greenhouse gases (GHGs, CO2 and CH4) to the atmosphere; however, the sources underlying these emissions are numerous, and their magnitude is not well known. This study quantifies surface CO2 and CH4 emissions and all their potential sources in a tropical reservoir. Results highlight the changes in GHG sources along the river–reservoir continuum, with internal metabolism being a key component but highly uncertain and challenging to estimate at an ecosystem scale.
Sigrid van Grinsven, Kirsten Oswald, Bernhard Wehrli, Corinne Jegge, Jakob Zopfi, Moritz F. Lehmann, and Carsten J. Schubert
Revised manuscript accepted for BG
Christopher M. Dempsey, Jennifer A. Brentrup, Sarah Magyan, Lesley B. Knoll, Hilary M. Swain, Evelyn E. Gaiser, Donald P. Morris, Michael T. Ganger, and Craig E. Williamson
Biogeosciences, 17, 6327–6340,Short summary
We looked at how terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the watersheds of four different lakes responded to both biodegradation (i.e., microbes) and photodegradation (i.e., sunlight). The traditional paradigm is that biodegradation is more important than photodegradation. Our research shows that, on short timescales (i.e., 7 d), sunlight is more important than microbes in degrading DOC. Interestingly, the lakes had different responses to sunlight based on their trophic status.
Anna Canning, Bernhard Wehrli, and Arne Körtzinger
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Inland waters, are usually not well restrained in terms of greenhouse gas measurements. One of these regions is the Danube River Delta, Romania. Therefore, we measured continuously with sensors to collect high resolution data for CO2, CH4 and O2, throughout the Danube Delta. We found significant variation over the day and night and between regions, for all concentrations. This leads to the implications of spot sampling just during the day, which could potentially lead to vast underestimations.
Luyao Tu, Paul Zander, Sönke Szidat, Ronald Lloren, and Martin Grosjean
Biogeosciences, 17, 2715–2729,Short summary
In a small, deep lake on the Swiss Plateau, net fluxes of labile P fractions in sediments that can be released to surface waters have been predominately controlled by past hypolimnetic anoxic conditions since the early 1900s. More than 40 years of hypolimnetic withdrawal can effectively reduce net P fluxes in sediments and internal P loads but not effectively decrease eutrophication. These findings should likely serve the management of deep eutrophic lakes in temperate zones.
Jiantao Cao, Zhiguo Rao, Fuxi Shi, and Guodong Jia
Biogeosciences, 17, 2521–2536,Short summary
BrGDGT distribution in Gonghai Lake is different from surrounding soils, and its derived temperature reflects a mean annual lake water temperature (LWT) that is higher than the mean annual air temperature (AT). The higher mean annual LWT is due to ice formation in winter that prevents thermal exchange between lake water and air.
Joachim Jansen, Brett F. Thornton, Alicia Cortés, Jo Snöälv, Martin Wik, Sally MacIntyre, and Patrick M. Crill
Biogeosciences, 17, 1911–1932,Short summary
Lakes are important emitters of the greenhouse gas methane. We use field observations and a model to evaluate the importance of known drivers of methane production and release. Fast and slow changes of the diffusive flux were governed by wind speed and sediment temperature, respectively. Increased turbulence enhanced release, but storms depleted the lakes of gas and limited emissions. Our findings may inform model studies on the effects of weather and climate change on lake methane emissions.
Gabrielle R. Quadra, Sebastian Sobek, José R. Paranaíba, Anastasija Isidorova, Fábio Roland, Roseilson do Vale, and Raquel Mendonça
Biogeosciences, 17, 1495–1505,Short summary
Hydropower is expanding in the Amazon Basin, but the potential effects of river damming on carbon fluxes cannot be gauged due to a lack of studies. We quantified, for the first time in an Amazonian reservoir, both organic carbon burial and the concentrations of methane in the sediments. We found that the dual role of sediments as both a carbon sink and methane source may be particularly pronounced in this Amazonian reservoir.
Adeline N. Y. Cojean, Jakob Zopfi, Alan Gerster, Claudia Frey, Fabio Lepori, and Moritz F. Lehmann
Biogeosciences, 16, 4705–4718,Short summary
Our results demonstrate the importance of oxygen in regulating the fate of nitrogen (N) in the sediments of Lake Lugano south basin, Switzerland. Hence, our study suggests that, by changing oxygen concentration in bottom waters, the seasonal water column turnover may significantly regulate the partitioning between N removal and N recycling in surface sediments, and it is likely that a similar pattern can be expected in a wide range of environments.
Boris K. Biskaborn, Larisa Nazarova, Lyudmila A. Pestryakova, Liudmila Syrykh, Kim Funck, Hanno Meyer, Bernhard Chapligin, Stuart Vyse, Ruslan Gorodnichev, Evgenii Zakharov, Rong Wang, Georg Schwamborn, Hannah L. Bailey, and Bernhard Diekmann
Biogeosciences, 16, 4023–4049,Short summary
To better understand time-series data in lake sediment cores in times of rapidly changing climate, we study within-lake spatial variabilities of environmental indicator data in 38 sediment surface samples along spatial habitat gradients in the boreal deep Lake Bolshoe Toko (Russia). Our methods comprise physicochemical as well as diatom and chironomid analyses. Species diversities vary according to benthic niches, while abiotic proxies depend on river input, water depth, and catchment lithology.
Jeremy McCormack, Finn Viehberg, Derya Akdemir, Adrian Immenhauser, and Ola Kwiecien
Biogeosciences, 16, 2095–2114,Short summary
We juxtapose changes in ostracod taxonomy, morphology (noding) and oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic composition for the last 150 kyr with independent low-resolution salinity proxies. We demonstrate that for Lake Van, salinity is the most important factor influencing the composition of the ostracod assemblage and the formation of nodes on the valves of limnocytherinae species. Ostracod δ18O shows a higher sensibility towards climatic and hydrological variations than the bulk isotopy.
Robert Scott Winton, Elisa Calamita, and Bernhard Wehrli
Biogeosciences, 16, 1657–1671,Short summary
A global boom in dam construction throughout the world’s tropics motivated us to review and synthesize information on the water quality impacts of dams with a focus on low-latitude contexts and scope for mitigation. Sediment trapping and reservoir stratification are key process driving chemical and ecological impacts on tropical rivers. We analyze the 54 most-voluminous low-latitude reservoirs and find that stratification seems to be a ubiquitous phenomenon.
Kateri R. Salk, George S. Bullerjahn, Robert Michael L. McKay, Justin D. Chaffin, and Nathaniel E. Ostrom
Biogeosciences, 15, 2891–2907,Short summary
This paper highlights dynamic nitrogen cycling in a freshwater estuary, with implications for harmful algal blooms and downstream nitrogen loading. Phytoplankton and microbes actively consumed nitrogen in this system, contributing to recycling of nitrogen within the system and permanent nitrogen removal, respectively. However, delivery of nitrogen from the river and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by phytoplankton outweighed nitrogen uptake, resulting in variable downstream nitrogen delivery.
Luciana Pena Mello Brandão, Ludmila Silva Brighenti, Peter Anton Staehr, Eero Asmala, Philippe Massicotte, Denise Tonetta, Francisco Antônio Rodrigues Barbosa, Diego Pujoni, and José Fernandes Bezerra-Neto
Biogeosciences, 15, 2931–2943,Short summary
Using mesocosms we investigated the effect of the increase in the allochthonous and autochthonous sources of DOM in a tropical lake, in order to simulate its effects on the characteristics of lakes caused by anthropogenic impacts. The seasonal allochthonous input has much larger effects on the lake and, in addition to increasing nutrients, alters the transparency of water and consequently controls the seasonal dynamics of phytoplankton (autochthonous source) and lake ecology.
Justyna J. Hampel, Mark J. McCarthy, Wayne S. Gardner, Lu Zhang, Hai Xu, Guangwei Zhu, and Silvia E. Newell
Biogeosciences, 15, 733–748,Short summary
Our paper highlights the importance of dual-nutrient management: nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in lakes with cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms. Taihu Lake (China) experiences seasonal blooms due to increased input of N and P from field runoff. The main process investigated in our study, nitrification, is important for N removal through denitrification. We show that nitrification is less efficient during the blooms, due to competition for nutrients between N microbes and cyanobacteria.
Martin Berggren, Marcus Klaus, Balathandayuthabani Panneer Selvam, Lena Ström, Hjalmar Laudon, Mats Jansson, and Jan Karlsson
Biogeosciences, 15, 457–470,Short summary
The quality of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), especially its color, is a defining feature of freshwater ecosystems. We found that colored DOC fractions are surprisingly resistant to natural degradation during water transit through many brown-water lakes. This is explained by the dominance of microbial processes that appear to selectively remove noncolored DOC. However, in lakes where sunlight degradation plays a relatively larger role, significant DOC bleaching occurs.
Peter Berg and Michael L. Pace
Biogeosciences, 14, 5595–5606,Short summary
We use the aquatic eddy covariance technique – developed first for benthic O2 flux measurements – right below the air–water interface (~ 4 cm) to determine gas exchange rates and coefficients. This use of the technique is particularly useful in studies of gas exchange and its dynamics and controls. The approach can thus help reduce the recognized problem of large uncertainties linked to gas exchange estimates in traditional aquatic ecosystem studies.
Matthew Q. Morison, Merrin L. Macrae, Richard M. Petrone, and LeeAnn Fishback
Biogeosciences, 14, 5471–5485,Short summary
Shallow ponds and lakes are common features in permafrost systems. We show that the chemistry of these water bodies can be dynamic, although the changes are consistent through time between ponds. This synchrony in some water chemistry appears to be related to water level variations. Because hydrological conditions can vary greatly over the course of the year and during a storm, this work underscores the importance of interpreting water samples from these systems within their hydrologic context.
Thomas Steinsberger, Martin Schmid, Alfred Wüest, Robert Schwefel, Bernhard Wehrli, and Beat Müller
Biogeosciences, 14, 3275–3285,Short summary
Based on a broad dataset of lake sediment analysis and porewater measurements from various Swiss lakes, this paper argues that the accumulation of organic carbon in the sediment is one of the main driving forces for the generation of reduced substances such as methane and ammonia. These substances significantly contribute to the hypolimnetic oxygen consumption. The relationships presented help to evaluate the scale of the flux of reduced substances where no direct measurements are available.
Ana M. Morales-Williams, Alan D. Wanamaker Jr., and John A. Downing
Biogeosciences, 14, 2865–2875,Short summary
Our study investigated the mechanisms sustaining cyanobacteria blooms when CO2 is depleted in lake surface waters. We found that when lake CO2 concentrations drop below those of the atmosphere, cyanobacteria switch on carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs), allowing them to actively take up bicarbonate. This may provide bloom-forming cyanobacteria with a competitive advantage over other algae. These results provide insight into the timing and duration of blooms in high-nutrient lakes.
Ana R. A. Soares, Ann-Kristin Bergström, Ryan A. Sponseller, Joanna M. Moberg, Reiner Giesler, Emma S. Kritzberg, Mats Jansson, and Martin Berggren
Biogeosciences, 14, 1527–1539,
María Encina Aulló-Maestro, Peter Hunter, Evangelos Spyrakos, Pierre Mercatoris, Attila Kovács, Hajnalka Horváth, Tom Preston, Mátyás Présing, Jesús Torres Palenzuela, and Andrew Tyler
Biogeosciences, 14, 1215–1233,Short summary
As first study within my PhD with the general objective to improve and adapt remote sensing algorithms for the estimation of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) content in lakes in a global scale, we carried out this set of measurements and experiments. This study gives us a better understanding of sources and variability in the optical properties of CDOM in lakes and how photobleaching controls and affects them.
Pratirupa Bardhan, Syed Wajih Ahmad Naqvi, Supriya G. Karapurkar, Damodar M. Shenoy, Siby Kurian, and Hema Naik
Biogeosciences, 14, 767–779,Short summary
Although India has the third highest number of dams globally, there is a knowledge gap on the cycling of bioessential elements in such systems. This study (first of its kind) investigates the stable isotopes of nitrate and particulate organic matter in a pristine Indian reservoir. Nitrogen transformations in the anaerobic bottom waters were isotopically characterised. Overall, solar intensity, water depth and redox conditions are the major controls on the biogeochemical cycling in this system.
Bethany N. Deshpande, Sophie Crevecoeur, Alex Matveev, and Warwick F. Vincent
Biogeosciences, 13, 4411–4427,Short summary
Subarctic lakes are changing in size as a result of permafrost thawing, resulting in mobilization of soil materials. Our study characterizes the carbon and nutrient regime of a set of thaw lakes and their adjacent permafrost soils in a rapidly degrading landscape, showing how these materials create favorable conditions for aquatic bacterial communities. We discuss the controls over the bacterial community, and demonstrate that gain processes are not a primary control.
Marloes Groeneveld, Lars Tranvik, Sivakiruthika Natchimuthu, and Birgit Koehler
Biogeosciences, 13, 3931–3943,Short summary
Temporal variability in the apparent quantum yield of photochemical CDOM mineralisation in a boreal brown water lake was severalfold smaller than previously reported across different lakes. Simulated DIC photoproduction (2012–2014) averaged 2.0 ± 0.1 to 10.3 ± 0.7 g C m−2 yr−1 using the least and most reactive sample, which represented 1 to 8 % of the total mean CO2 emissions. Thus, direct CDOM photomineralisation makes only a minor contribution to mean CO2 emissions from Swedish brown water lakes.
Damien Bouffard and Marie-Elodie Perga
Biogeosciences, 13, 3573–3584,Short summary
This survey of an exceptional flood over Lake Geneva challenges the long-standing hypothesis that dense, particle-loaded and oxygenated rivers plunging into lakes necessarily contribute to deep-oxygen replenishment. We identified some river intrusions as hot spots for oxygen consumption, where inputs of fresh river-borne organic matter reactivate the respiration of more refractory lacustrine organic matter in a process referred to as "priming effect".
Raquel Mendonça, Sarian Kosten, Sebastian Sobek, Simone Jaqueline Cardoso, Marcos Paulo Figueiredo-Barros, Carlos Henrique Duque Estrada, and Fábio Roland
Biogeosciences, 13, 3331–3342,Short summary
Hydroelectric reservoirs in the tropics emit greenhouse gases but also bury carbon in their sediments. We investigated the efficiency of organic carbon (OC) burial in a large tropical reservoir, using spatially resolved measurements of sediment accumulation, and found that more than half (~ 57 %) of the OC deposited onto the sediment is buried. This high efficiency in OC burial indicates that tropical reservoirs may bury OC more efficiently than natural lakes.
Phil-Goo Kang, Myron J. Mitchell, Patrick J. McHale, Charles T. Driscoll, Shreeram Inamdar, and Ji-Hyung Park
Biogeosciences, 13, 2787–2801,Short summary
Lakes play important roles in controlling organic matter derived from watersheds and within-lake production. The organic matter is normally measured by elemental quantities, such as carbon(C) and nitrogen(N), because the two elements are essential for aquatic ecosystems. We observed an decrease of C, but an increase of N in organic matters in a lake. The reason of the different pattern might be that inorganic N in the lake appeared to be recycled to produce organic N due to within-lake processes.
L. Pinho, C. M. Duarte, H. Marotta, and A. Enrich-Prast
Biogeosciences, 13, 865–871,Short summary
Unlike the positive relationship reported before between partial pression of carbon dioxide and dissolved organic carbon for lake waters, we found no significant relationship in our low-latitude lakes, despite very broad ranges in both variables. The strength of this relationship declines with increasing water temperature, suggesting substantial differences in carbon cycling in warm lakes, which must be considered when upscaling limnetic carbon cycling to global scales.
S. G. Wakeham and E. A. Canuel
Biogeosciences, 13, 567–582,Short summary
Bed sediments from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (CA) were fractionated according to density and analyzed for sediment mass distribution, elemental (C and N) composition, mineral surface area, and stable carbon and radiocarbon isotope compositions of organic carbon (OC) and fatty acids to evaluate the nature of organic carbon in river sediments. These data demonstrate the complex source and age distributions within river sediments.
B. Burpee, J. E. Saros, R. M. Northington, and K. S. Simon
Biogeosciences, 13, 365–374,Short summary
This study investigates microbial nutrient limitation patterns across a region of southwest Greenland in relation to environmental factors. Using microbial enzyme activities to infer nutrient limitation patterns, we determined that most lakes are P-limited. Further, P limitation was tightly controlled by lake dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration.
A. Przytulska, J. Comte, S. Crevecoeur, C. Lovejoy, I. Laurion, and W. F. Vincent
Biogeosciences, 13, 13–26,Short summary
Permafrost thaw lakes are a subject of increasing research interest given their abundance across the northern landscape. Our aim in the present study was to characterize the photosynthetic communities in a range of subarctic thaw lakes using a combination of HPLC analysis of algal and bacterial pigments, flow cytometry and molecular analysis. Our results showed that the thaw lakes contain diverse phototrophic communities and are a previously unrecognized habitat for abundant picophotoautotrophs.
T. Roiha, I. Laurion, and M. Rautio
Biogeosciences, 12, 7223–7237,Short summary
Global warming thaws permafrost and accelerates the formation of thaw ponds in subarctic and arctic regions. These abundant ponds receive large terrestrial carbon inputs from the thawing and eroding permafrost, which is mainly used by bacterioplankton for the production of new biomass. Bacteria metabolism also produces high levels of CO2 and CH4, which make thaw ponds important sources of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. We present carbon dynamics in thaw ponds in northern Quebec.
P. Glaz, J.-P. Gagné, P. Archambault, P. Sirois, and C. Nozais
Biogeosciences, 12, 6999–7011,Short summary
In this study, we showed that logging activities have a short-term impact (1 year after the perturbation) on water quality in boreal Eastern Canadian Shield lakes. However, this effect seems to mitigate 2 years after the perturbation. Further, the analysis of the absorbance and fluorescence data showed that while DOC concentrations did significantly increase in perturbed lakes, the DOM quality did not measurably change.
Z. T. Yu, X. J. Wang, E. L. Zhang, C. Y. Zhao, and X. Q. Liu
Biogeosciences, 12, 6605–6615,Short summary
Bosten Lake is the largest inland freshwater lake in China, which has been impacted by land use changes, with implications for carbon burial. Our study showed a large spatial variability in total organic carbon (TOC) (1.8–4.4%); 54–90% of TOC was from autochthonous sources. Higher TOC content was found in the east and central-north sections and near the mouth of the Kaidu River, which was attributable to allochthonous, autochthonous plus allochthonous, and autochthonous sources, respectively.
W. Liu, L. Yao, Z. Wang, Z. Xiong, and G. Liu
Biogeosciences, 12, 6059–6070,
J. Boike, C. Georgi, G. Kirilin, S. Muster, K. Abramova, I. Fedorova, A. Chetverova, M. Grigoriev, N. Bornemann, and M. Langer
Biogeosciences, 12, 5941–5965,Short summary
We show that lakes in northern Siberia are very efficient with respect to energy absorption and mixing using measurements as well as numerical modeling. We show that (i) the lakes receive substantial energy for warming from net short-wave radiation; (ii) convective mixing occurs beneath the ice cover, follow beneath the ice cover, following ice break-up, summer, and fall (iii) modeling suggests that the annual mean net heat flux across the bottom sediment boundary is approximately zero.
C. Morana, F. Darchambeau, F. A. E. Roland, A. V. Borges, F. Muvundja, Z. Kelemen, P. Masilya, J.-P. Descy, and S. Bouillon
Biogeosciences, 12, 4953–4963,
J. K. Heslop, K. M. Walter Anthony, A. Sepulveda-Jauregui, K. Martinez-Cruz, A. Bondurant, G. Grosse, and M. C. Jones
Biogeosciences, 12, 4317–4331,Short summary
The relative magnitude of thermokarst lake CH4 production in surface sediments vs. deeper-thawed permafrost is not well understood. We assessed CH4 production potentials from a lake sediment core and adjacent permafrost tunnel in interior Alaska. CH4 production was highest in the organic-rich surface lake sediments and recently thawed permafrost at the bottom of the talik, implying CH4 production is highly variable and that both modern and ancient OM are important to lake CH4 production.
R. M. Manasypov, S. N. Vorobyev, S. V. Loiko, I. V. Kritzkov, L. S. Shirokova, V. P. Shevchenko, S. N. Kirpotin, S. P. Kulizhsky, L. G. Kolesnichenko, V. A. Zemtzov, V. V. Sinkinov, and O. S. Pokrovsky
Biogeosciences, 12, 3009–3028,Short summary
A year-around hydrochemical study (including full winter freezing and spring flood) of shallow thermokarst lakes from a discontinuous permafrost zone of western Siberia revealed conceptually new features of element concentration evolution over different seasons within a large scale of the lake size.
C. Morana, A. V. Borges, F. A. E. Roland, F. Darchambeau, J.-P. Descy, and S. Bouillon
Biogeosciences, 12, 2077–2088,
F. S. Pacheco, M. C. S. Soares, A. T. Assireu, M. P. Curtarelli, F. Roland, G. Abril, J. L. Stech, P. C. Alvalá, and J. P. Ometto
Biogeosciences, 12, 147–162,Short summary
CO2 fluxes in Funil Reservoir (FR) is driven by primary production and river inflow dynamics. Our findings suggest that the lack of spatial data in reservoir C budget calculations can affect regional and global estimates. Our results support the idea that the FR is a dynamic system where the hydrodynamics represented by changes in the river inflow and retention time are potentially a more important force driving both the Chl and pCO2 spatial variability than the in-system ecological factors.
J.-F. Lapierre and P. A. del Giorgio
Biogeosciences, 11, 5969–5985,
M. Rothe, T. Frederichs, M. Eder, A. Kleeberg, and M. Hupfer
Biogeosciences, 11, 5169–5180,
K. Attermeyer, T. Hornick, Z. E. Kayler, A. Bahr, E. Zwirnmann, H.-P. Grossart, and K. Premke
Biogeosciences, 11, 1479–1489,
H. Borg and M. Sundbom
Biogeosciences, 11, 173–184,
C. V. Freymond, C. B. Wenk, C. H. Frame, and M. F. Lehmann
Biogeosciences, 10, 8373–8383,
M. Gonsior, P. Schmitt-Kopplin, and D. Bastviken
Biogeosciences, 10, 6945–6956,
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We extensively tested and refined a direct, high-frequency free-water CO2 measurement method to study the lake net ecosystem productivity. The method was first proposed in 2008, but neglected ever since. With high-frequency direct methods, we can calculate the lake productivity more precisely, and parameterise its dependency on environmental variables. This helps us expand our knowledge on the carbon cycle in the water, and leads to a better integration of water bodies in carbon budgets.
We extensively tested and refined a direct, high-frequency free-water CO2 measurement method to...