Articles | Volume 15, issue 2
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Spatial variations in snowpack chemistry, isotopic composition of NO3− and nitrogen deposition from the ice sheet margin to the coast of western Greenland
Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK
Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK
N. John Anderson
Dept of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
Institute of Environmental Change & Society, University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
Dept of Biology, University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada
ECRC, Dept of Geography, University College London, Gower Street, London, UK
ECRC, Dept of Geography, University College London, Gower Street, London, UK
Dept of Geography, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK
No articles found.
Charlotte Williams, Tom Hull, Matthew Palmer, Claire Mahaffey, Naomi Greenwood, Jan Kaiser, and Matthew Toberman
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
Oxygen (O2) is a key indicator of ocean health. The risk of O2 loss in the productive coastal/continental slope regions is increasing. Autonomous underwater vehicles equipped with O2 optodes provide lots of data, but have problems resolving strong vertical O2 changes. Here we show how to overcome this and calculate how much O2 is supplied to the low-O2 bottom waters via mixing. Bursts in mixing supply nearly all of the O2 to bottom waters in autumn, stopping them reach ecologically low levels.
Amelia M. H. Bond, Markus M. Frey, Jan Kaiser, Jörg Kleffmann, Anna E. Jones, and Freya A. Squires
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5533–5550,Short summary
Atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) amount fractions measured at Halley Research Station, Antarctica, were found to be low. Vertical fluxes of HONO from the snow were also measured and agree with the estimated HONO production rate from photolysis of snow nitrate. In a simple box model of HONO sources and sinks, there was good agreement between the measured flux and amount fraction. HONO was found to be an important OH radical source at Halley.
Benjamin R. Loveday, Timothy Smyth, Anıl Akpinar, Tom Hull, Mark E. Inall, Jan Kaiser, Bastien Y. Queste, Matt Tobermann, Charlotte A. J. Williams, and Matthew R. Palmer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 3997–4016,Short summary
Using a new approach to combine autonomous underwater glider data and satellite Earth observations, we have generated a 19-month time series of North Sea net primary productivity – the rate at which phytoplankton absorbs carbon dioxide minus that lost through respiration. This time series, which spans 13 gliders, allows for new investigations into small-scale, high-frequency variability in the biogeochemical processes that underpin the carbon cycle and coastal marine ecosystems in shelf seas.
Michael P. Hemming, Jan Kaiser, Jacqueline Boutin, Liliane Merlivat, Karen J. Heywood, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Gareth A. Lee, Marcos Cobas García, David Antoine, and Kiminori Shitashima
Ocean Sci., 18, 1245–1262,Short summary
An underwater glider mission was carried out in spring 2016 near a mooring in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. The glider deployment served as a test of a prototype ion-sensitive field-effect transistor pH sensor. Mean net community production rates were estimated from glider and buoy measurements of dissolved oxygen and inorganic carbon concentrations before and during the spring bloom. Incorporating advection is important for accurate mass budgets. Unexpected metabolic quotients were found.
Josué Bock, Jan Kaiser, Max Thomas, Andreas Bott, and Roland von Glasow
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5807–5828,Short summary
MISTRA-v9.0 is an atmospheric boundary layer chemistry model. The model includes a detailed particle description with regards to the microphysics, gas–particle interactions, and liquid phase chemistry within particles. Version 9.0 is the first release of MISTRA as an open-source community model. This paper presents a thorough description of the model characteristics and components. We show some examples of simulations reproducing previous studies with MISTRA with good consistency.
Tom Hull, Naomi Greenwood, Antony Birchill, Alexander Beaton, Matthew Palmer, and Jan Kaiser
Biogeosciences, 18, 6167–6180,Short summary
The shallow shelf seas play a large role in the global cycling of CO2 and also support large fisheries. We use an autonomous underwater vehicle in the central North Sea to measure the rates of change in oxygen and nutrients. Using these data we determine the amount of carbon dioxide taken out of the atmosphere by the sea and measure how productive the region is. These observations will be useful for improving our predictive models and help us predict and adapt to a changing ocean.
Max Thomas, Johannes C. Laube, Jan Kaiser, Samuel Allin, Patricia Martinerie, Robert Mulvaney, Anna Ridley, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, and Emmanuel Witrant
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6857–6873,Short summary
CFC gases are destroying the Earth's life-protecting ozone layer. We improve understanding of CFC destruction by measuring the isotopic fingerprint of the carbon in the three most abundant CFCs. These are the first such measurements in the main region where CFCs are destroyed – the stratosphere. We reconstruct the atmospheric isotope histories of these CFCs back to the 1950s by measuring air extracted from deep snow and using a model. The model and the measurements are generally consistent.
Luca Possenti, Ingunn Skjelvan, Dariia Atamanchuk, Anders Tengberg, Matthew P. Humphreys, Socratis Loucaides, Liam Fernand, and Jan Kaiser
Ocean Sci., 17, 593–614,Short summary
A Seaglider was deployed for 8 months in the Norwegian Sea mounting an oxygen and, for the first time, a CO2 optode and a chlorophyll fluorescence sensor. The oxygen and CO2 data were used to assess the spatial and temporal variability and calculate the net community production, N(O2) and N(CT). The dataset was used to calculate net community production from inventory changes, air–sea flux, diapycnal mixing and entrainment.
Mark A. Stevenson, Suzanne McGowan, Emma J. Pearson, George E. A. Swann, Melanie J. Leng, Vivienne J. Jones, Joseph J. Bailey, Xianyu Huang, and Erika Whiteford
Biogeosciences, 18, 2465–2485,Short summary
We link detailed stable isotope and biomarker analyses from the catchments of three Arctic upland lakes on Disko Island (West Greenland) to a recent dated sediment core to understand how carbon cycling has changed over the past ~500 years. We find that the carbon deposited in sediments in these upland lakes is predominately sourced from in-lake production due to the catchment's limited terrestrial vegetation and elevation and that recent increases in algal production link with climate change.
Max Thomas, James France, Odile Crabeck, Benjamin Hall, Verena Hof, Dirk Notz, Tokoloho Rampai, Leif Riemenschneider, Oliver John Tooth, Mathilde Tranter, and Jan Kaiser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1833–1849,Short summary
We describe the Roland von Glasow Air-Sea-Ice Chamber, a laboratory facility for studying ocean–sea-ice–atmosphere interactions. We characterise the technical capabilities of our facility to help future users plan and perform experiments. We also characterise the sea ice grown in the facility, showing that the extinction of photosynthetically active radiation, the bulk salinity, and the growth rate of our artificial sea ice are within the range of natural values.
Andrew J. Hodson, Aga Nowak, Mikkel T. Hornum, Kim Senger, Kelly Redeker, Hanne H. Christiansen, Søren Jessen, Peter Betlem, Steve F. Thornton, Alexandra V. Turchyn, Snorre Olaussen, and Alina Marca
The Cryosphere, 14, 3829–3842,Short summary
Methane stored below permafrost is an unknown quantity in the Arctic greenhouse gas budget. In coastal areas with rising sea levels, much of the methane seeps into the sea and is removed before it reaches the atmosphere. However, where land uplift outpaces rising sea levels, the former seabed freezes, pressurising methane-rich groundwater beneath, which then escapes via permafrost seepages called pingos. We describe this mechanism and the origins of the methane discharging from Svalbard pingos.
Jackie R. Webb, Peter R. Leavitt, Gavin L. Simpson, Helen M. Baulch, Heather A. Haig, Kyle R. Hodder, and Kerri Finlay
Biogeosciences, 16, 4211–4227,Short summary
Small farm reservoirs are key features within agricultural landscapes, yet these waterbodies can contribute substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere. This study assessed some of the environmental factors that may impact the production of these GHGs. We found promise that farm reservoirs can act as net greenhouse gas sinks and identified some of the key water quality, landscape, and design features that may support GHG mitigation.
Reiner Onken, Heinz-Volker Fiekas, Laurent Beguery, Ines Borrione, Andreas Funk, Michael Hemming, Jaime Hernandez-Lasheras, Karen J. Heywood, Jan Kaiser, Michaela Knoll, Baptiste Mourre, Paolo Oddo, Pierre-Marie Poulain, Bastien Y. Queste, Aniello Russo, Kiminori Shitashima, Martin Siderius, and Elizabeth Thorp Küsel
Ocean Sci., 14, 321–335,Short summary
In June 2014, high-resolution oceanographic data were collected in the western Mediterranean Sea by two research vessels, 11 gliders, moored instruments, drifters, and one profiling float. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the data set which is utilised by various ongoing studies, focusing on (i) water masses and circulation, (ii) operational forecasting, (iii) data assimilation, (iv) variability of the ocean, and (v) new payloads for gliders.
Michaela Knoll, Ines Borrione, Heinz-Volker Fiekas, Andreas Funk, Michael P. Hemming, Jan Kaiser, Reiner Onken, Bastien Queste, and Aniello Russo
Ocean Sci., 13, 889–904,Short summary
The hydrography and circulation west of Sardinia, observed in June 2014 during REP14-MED by means of various measuring platforms, are presented and compared with previous knowledge. So far, the circulation of this area is not well-known and the hydrography is subject to long-term changes. The different water masses are characterized and temporal changes are emphasized. The observed eddies are specified and geostrophic transports in the upper ocean are presented.
Michael P. Hemming, Jan Kaiser, Karen J. Heywood, Dorothee C.E. Bakker, Jacqueline Boutin, Kiminori Shitashima, Gareth Lee, Oliver Legge, and Reiner Onken
Ocean Sci., 13, 427–442,Short summary
Underwater gliders are useful platforms for monitoring the world oceans at a high resolution. An experimental pH sensor was attached to an underwater glider in the Mediterranean Sea, which is an important carbon sink region. Comparing measurements from the glider with those obtained from a ship indicated that there were issues with the experimental pH sensor. Correcting for these issues enabled us to look at pH variability in the area related to biomass abundance and physical water properties.
Markella Prokopiou, Patricia Martinerie, Célia J. Sapart, Emmanuel Witrant, Guillaume Monteil, Kentaro Ishijima, Sophie Bernard, Jan Kaiser, Ingeborg Levin, Thomas Blunier, David Etheridge, Ed Dlugokencky, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4539–4564,Short summary
Nitrous oxide is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with an increasing mole fraction. To understand its natural and anthropogenic sources we employ isotope measurements. Results show that while the N2O mole fraction increases, its heavy isotope content decreases. The isotopic changes observed underline the dominance of agricultural emissions especially at the early part of the record, whereas in the later decades the contribution from other anthropogenic sources increases.
Imke Grefe, Sophie Fielding, Karen J. Heywood, and Jan Kaiser
Revised manuscript not accepted
Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Jens Dyckmans, Jan Kaiser, Alina Marca, Jürgen Augustin, and Reinhard Well
Biogeosciences, 13, 1129–1144,Short summary
Oxygen isotopic signatures of N2O are formed in complex multistep enzymatic reactions and depend on isotopic fractionation during enzymatic reduction of nitrate to N2O and on the oxygen isotope exchange with soil water. We propose a new method for quantification of oxygen isotope exchange, with simultaneous determination of oxygen isotopic signatures, to decipher the mechanism of oxygen isotopic fractionation. We indicate the differences between fractionation mechanisms by various pathways.
Tom Hull, Naomi Greenwood, Jan Kaiser, and Martin Johnson
Biogeosciences, 13, 943–959,Short summary
We explore the estimation of NCP using an oxygen time series from a surface mooring located in the River Thames plume. Our study site is identified as a region of net heterotrophy with strong seasonal variability. Short-term daily variability in oxygen and horizontal advection is demonstrated to make accurate estimates challenging. The effects of bubble-induced supersaturation is shown to have a large influence on cumulative annual estimates.
S. Walter, A. Kock, T. Steinhoff, B. Fiedler, P. Fietzek, J. Kaiser, M. Krol, M. E. Popa, Q. Chen, T. Tanhua, and T. Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 13, 323–340,Short summary
Oceans are a source of H2, an indirect greenhouse gas. Measurements constraining the temporal and spatial patterns of oceanic H2 emissions are sparse and although H2 is assumed to be produced mainly biologically, direct evidence for biogenic marine production was lacking. By analyzing the H2 isotopic composition (δD) we were able to constrain the global H2 budget in more detail, verify biogenic production and point to additional sources. We also showed that current models are reasonably working.
J. Gloël, C. Robinson, G. H. Tilstone, G. Tarran, and J. Kaiser
Ocean Sci., 11, 947–952,Short summary
We assess benzalkonium chloride (BAC) as alternative to mercuric chloride (HgCl2) for preservation of seawater samples. BAC concentrations of 50mg dm–3 inhibited microbial activity for at least 3 days in samples tested with chlorophyll a concentrations up to 1mg m–3. With fewer risks to health and environment, and lower waste disposal costs, BAC could be a short-term alternative to HgCl2, but cannot replace it for oxygen triple isotope samples, which require storage over weeks to months.
K. Ishijima, M. Takigawa, K. Sudo, S. Toyoda, N. Yoshida, T. Röckmann, J. Kaiser, S. Aoki, S. Morimoto, S. Sugawara, and T. Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
We developed an atmospheric N2O isotopocule model based on a chemistry-coupled atmospheric general circulation model and a simple method to optimize the model, and estimated the isotopic signatures of surface sources at the hemispheric scale. Data obtained from ground-based observations, measurements of firn air, and balloon and aircraft flights were used to optimize the long-term trends, interhemispheric gradients, and photolytic fractionation, respectively, in the model.
S. J. Allin, J. C. Laube, E. Witrant, J. Kaiser, E. McKenna, P. Dennis, R. Mulvaney, E. Capron, P. Martinerie, T. Röckmann, T. Blunier, J. Schwander, P. J. Fraser, R. L. Langenfelds, and W. T. Sturges
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6867–6877,Short summary
Stratospheric ozone protects life on Earth from harmful UV-B radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are man-made compounds which act to destroy this barrier. This paper presents (1) the first measurements of the stratospheric δ(37Cl) of CFCs -11 and -113; (2) the first quantification of long-term trends in the tropospheric δ(37Cl) of CFCs -11, -12 and -113. This study provides a better understanding of source and sink processes associated with these destructive compounds.
D. J. Mrozek, C. van der Veen, M. Kliphuis, J. Kaiser, A. A. Wiegel, and T. Röckmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 811–822,Short summary
Our analytical system is a promising tool for investigating the triple oxygen isotope composition of CO2 from stratospheric air samples of volumes 100ml and smaller. The method is designed for measuring air samples with CO2 mole fractions between 360 and 400ppm, and it is the first fully automated analytical system that uses CeO2 as the isotope exchange medium.
I. Grefe and J. Kaiser
Ocean Sci., 10, 501–512,
V. V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, P. Novelli, D. M. Etheridge, I. Levin, Z. Wang, T. Blunier, J. Chappellaz, J. Kaiser, P. Lang, L. P. Steele, S. Hammer, J. Mak, R. L. Langenfelds, J. Schwander, J. P. Severinghaus, E. Witrant, G. Petron, M. O. Battle, G. Forster, W. T. Sturges, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Steffen, and J. W. C. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7567–7585,
K. Castro-Morales, N. Cassar, D. R. Shoosmith, and J. Kaiser
Biogeosciences, 10, 2273–2291,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Stable Isotopes & Other TracersFractionation of stable carbon isotopes during microbial propionate consumption in anoxic rice paddy soilsSources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide inferred from tower and mobile atmospheric observations in the NetherlandsDownpour dynamics: outsized impacts of storm events on unprocessed atmospheric nitrate export in an urban watershedThe hidden role of dissolved organic carbon in the biogeochemical cycle of carbon in modern redox-stratified lakesBiogeochemical processes captured by carbon isotopes in redox-stratified water columns: a comparative study of four modern stratified lakes along an alkalinity gradientPartitioning of carbon export in the euphotic zone of the oligotrophic South China SeaClimatic controls on leaf wax hydrogen isotope ratios in terrestrial and marine sediments along a hyperarid to humid gradientDetermination of respiration and photosynthesis fractionation factors for atmospheric dioxygen inferred from a vegetation–soil–atmosphere analogue of the terrestrial biosphere in closed chambersPermafrost degradation and nitrogen cycling in Arctic rivers: insights from stable nitrogen isotope studiesNeodymium budget in the Mediterranean Sea: evaluating the role of atmospheric dusts using a high-resolution dynamical-biogeochemical modelNitrate isotope investigations reveal future impacts of climate change on nitrogen inputs and cycling in Arctic fjords: Kongsfjorden and Rijpfjorden (Svalbard)Mineralization of autochthonous particulate organic carbon is a fast channel of organic matter turnover in Germany's largest drinking water reservoirCarbon isotopic ratios of modern C3 and C4 vegetation on the Indian peninsula and changes along the plant–soil–river continuum – implications for vegetation reconstructionsControls on nitrite oxidation in the upper Southern Ocean: insights from winter kinetics experiments in the Indian sectorTracing the source of nitrate in a forested stream showing elevated concentrations during storm eventsIntra-skeletal variability in phosphate oxygen isotope composition reveals regional heterothermies in marine vertebratesIsotopic differences in soil–plant–atmosphere continuum composition and control factors of different vegetation zones on the northern slope of the Qilian MountainsAn analysis of the variability in δ13C in macroalgae from the Gulf of California: indicative of carbon concentration mechanisms and isotope discrimination during carbon assimilationSummertime productivity and carbon export potential in the Weddell Sea, with a focus on the waters adjacent to Larsen C Ice ShelfParticulate biogenic barium tracer of mesopelagic carbon remineralization in the Mediterranean Sea (PEACETIME project)Hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation factors of aerobic methane oxidation in deep-sea waterHost-influenced geochemical signature in the parasitic foraminifera Hyrrokkin sarcophagaComparing modified substrate-induced respiration with selective inhibition (SIRIN) and N2O isotope approaches to estimate fungal contribution to denitrification in three arable soils under anoxic conditionsHow are oxygen budgets influenced by dissolved iron and growth of oxygenic phototrophs in an iron-rich spring system? Initial results from the Espan Spring in Fürth, GermanyStable isotope ratios in seawater nitrate reflect the influence of Pacific water along the northwest Atlantic marginHigh-resolution 14C bomb peak dating and climate response analyses of subseasonal stable isotope signals in wood of the African baobab – a case study from OmanGeographic variability in freshwater methane hydrogen isotope ratios and its implications for global isotopic source signaturesSeasonality of nitrogen sources, cycling, and loading in a New England river discerned from nitrate isotope ratiosEvaluating the response of δ13C in Haloxylon ammodendron, a dominant C4 species in Asian desert ecosystems, to water and nitrogen addition as well as the availability of its δ13C as an indicator of water use efficiencyModern silicon dynamics of a small high-latitude subarctic lakeRadium-228-derived ocean mixing and trace element inputs in the South AtlanticNitrogen isotopic fractionations during nitric oxide production in an agricultural soilSilicon uptake and isotope fractionation dynamics by crop speciesBarium stable isotopes as a fingerprint of biological cycling in the Amazon River basinBottomland hardwood forest growth and stress response to hydroclimatic variation: evidence from dendrochronology and tree ring Δ13C valuesN2O isotope approaches for source partitioning of N2O production and estimation of N2O reduction – validation with the 15N gas-flux method in laboratory and field studiesTechnical note: Single-shell δ11B analysis of Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi using femtosecond laser ablation MC-ICPMS and secondary ion mass spectrometryBiogeochemical evidence of anaerobic methane oxidation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a stratified lake using stable isotopesEffects of 238U variability and physical transport on water column 234Th downward fluxes in the coastal upwelling system off PeruDo degree and rate of silicate weathering depend on plant productivity?Alpine Holocene tree-ring dataset: age-related trends in the stable isotopes of cellulose show species-specific patternsIdeas and perspectives: The same carbon behaves like different elements – an insight into position-specific isotope distributionsSeasonal dynamics of the COS and CO2 exchange of a managed temperate grasslandLeaf-scale quantification of the effect of photosynthetic gas exchange on Δ17O of atmospheric CO2The stable carbon isotope signature of methane produced by saprotrophic fungiUnderstanding the effects of early degradation on isotopic tracers: implications for sediment source attribution using compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA)Oxygen isotope composition of waters recorded in carbonates in strong clumped and oxygen isotopic disequilibriumIsotopic evidence for alteration of nitrous oxide emissions and producing pathways' contribution under nitrifying conditionsTrace element composition of size-fractionated suspended particulate matter samples from the Qatari Exclusive Economic Zone of the Arabian Gulf: the role of atmospheric dustBenthic carbon fixation and cycling in diffuse hydrothermal and background sediments in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica
Ralf Conrad and Peter Claus
Biogeosciences, 20, 3625–3635,Short summary
Knowledge of carbon isotope fractionation is important for the assessment of the pathways involved in the degradation of organic matter. Propionate is an important intermediate. In the presence of sulfate, it was degraded by Syntrophobacter species via acetate to CO2. In the absence of sulfate, it was mainly consumed by Smithella and methanogenic archaeal species via butyrate and acetate to CH4. However, stable carbon isotope fractionation during the degradation process was quite small.
Alessandro Zanchetta, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Steven van Heuven, Andrea Scifo, Hubertus A. Scheeren, Ivan Mammarella, Ute Karstens, Jin Ma, Maarten Krol, and Huilin Chen
Biogeosciences, 20, 3539–3553,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been suggested as a tool to estimate carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake by plants during photosynthesis. However, understanding its sources and sinks is critical to preventing biases in this estimate. Combining observations and models, this study proves that regional sources occasionally influence the measurements at the 60 m tall Lutjewad tower (1 m a.s.l.; 53°24′ N, 6°21′ E) in the Netherlands. Moreover, it estimates nighttime COS fluxes to be −3.0 ± 2.6 pmol m−2 s−1.
Joel T. Bostic, David M. Nelson, and Keith N. Eshleman
Biogeosciences, 20, 2485–2498,Short summary
Land-use changes can affect water quality. We used tracers of pollution sources and water flow paths to show that an urban watershed exports variable sources during storm events relative to a less developed watershed. Our results imply that changing precipitation patterns combined with increasing urbanization may alter sources of pollution in the future.
Robin Havas, Christophe Thomazo, Miguel Iniesto, Didier Jézéquel, David Moreira, Rosaluz Tavera, Jeanne Caumartin, Elodie Muller, Purificación López-García, and Karim Benzerara
Biogeosciences, 20, 2405–2424,Short summary
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a reservoir of prime importance in the C cycle of both continental and marine systems. It has also been suggested to influence the past Earth climate but is still poorly characterized in ancient-Earth-like environments. In this paper we show how DOC analyses from modern redox-stratified lakes can evidence specific metabolic reactions and environmental factors and how these can help us to interpret the C cycle of specific periods in the Earth's past.
Robin Havas, Christophe Thomazo, Miguel Iniesto, Didier Jézéquel, David Moreira, Rosaluz Tavera, Jeanne Caumartin, Elodie Muller, Purificación López-García, and Karim Benzerara
Biogeosciences, 20, 2347–2367,Short summary
We describe the C cycle of four modern stratified water bodies from Mexico, a necessary step to better understand the C cycle of primitive-Earth-like environments, which were dominated by these kinds of conditions. We highlight the importance of local external factors on the C cycle of these systems. Notably, they influence the sensitivity of the carbonate record to environmental changes. We also show the strong C-cycle variability among these lakes and their organic C sediment record.
Yifan Ma, Kuanbo Zhou, Weifang Chen, Junhui Chen, Jin-Yu Terence Yang, and Minhan Dai
Biogeosciences, 20, 2013–2030,Short summary
We distinguished particulate organic carbon (POC) export fluxes out of the nutrient-depleted layer (NDL) and the euphotic zone. The amount of POC export flux at the NDL base suggests that the NDL could be a hotspot of particle export. The substantial POC export flux at the NDL base challenges traditional concepts that the NDL was limited in terms of POC export. The dominant nutrient source for POC export fluxes should be subsurface nutrients, which was determined by 15N isotopic mass balance.
Nestor Gaviria Lugo, Charlotte Läuchli, Hella Wittmann, Anne Bernhard, Patrick Frings, Mahyar Mohtadi, Oliver Rach, and Dirk Sachse
We analyzed how leaf wax hydrogen isotopes in continental and marine sediments respond to climate along one of the strongest aridity gradients in the world, from hyperarid to humid along the Chilean coast Chile. We found that under extreme aridity, the relationship between hydrogen isotopes in waxes and climate is non-linear, suggesting that we should be careful when reconstructing past hydrological changes using leaf wax hydrogen isotopes to avoid overestimating how much climate has changed.
Clémence Paul, Clément Piel, Joana Sauze, Nicolas Pasquier, Frédéric Prié, Sébastien Devidal, Roxanne Jacob, Arnaud Dapoigny, Olivier Jossoud, Alexandru Milcu, and Amaëlle Landais
Biogeosciences, 20, 1047–1062,Short summary
To improve the interpretation of the δ18Oatm and Δ17O of O2 in air bubbles in ice cores, we need to better quantify the oxygen fractionation coefficients associated with biological processes. We performed a simplified analogue of the terrestrial biosphere in a closed chamber. We found a respiration fractionation in agreement with the previous estimates at the microorganism scale, and a terrestrial photosynthetic fractionation was found. This has an impact on the estimation of the Dole effect.
Adam Francis, Raja S. Ganeshram, Robyn E. Tuerena, Robert G. M. Spencer, Robert M. Holmes, Jennifer A. Rogers, and Claire Mahaffey
Biogeosciences, 20, 365–382,Short summary
Climate change is causing extensive permafrost degradation and nutrient releases into rivers with great ecological impacts on the Arctic Ocean. We focused on nitrogen (N) release from this degradation and associated cycling using N isotopes, an understudied area. Many N species are released at degradation sites with exchanges between species. N inputs from permafrost degradation and seasonal river N trends were identified using isotopes, helping to predict climate change impacts.
Mohamed Ayache, Jean-Claude Dutay, Kazuyo Tachikawa, Thomas Arsouze, and Catherine Jeandel
Biogeosciences, 20, 205–227,Short summary
The neodymium (Nd) is one of the most useful tracers to fingerprint water mass provenance. However, the use of Nd is hampered by the lack of adequate quantification of the external sources. Here, we present the first simulation of dissolved Nd concentration and Nd isotopic composition in the Mediterranean Sea using a high-resolution model. We aim to better understand how the various external sources affect the Nd cycle and particularly assess how it is impacted by atmospheric inputs.
Marta Santos-Garcia, Raja S. Ganeshram, Robyn E. Tuerena, Margot C. F. Debyser, Katrine Husum, Philipp Assmy, and Haakon Hop
Biogeosciences, 19, 5973–6002,Short summary
Terrestrial sources of nitrate are important contributors to the nutrient pool in the fjords of Kongsfjorden and Rijpfjorden in Svalbard during the summer, and they sustain most of the fjord primary productivity. Ongoing tidewater glacier retreat is postulated to favour light limitation and less dynamic circulation in fjords. This is suggested to encourage the export of nutrients to the middle and outer part of the fjord system, which may enhance primary production within and in offshore areas.
Marlene Dordoni, Michael Seewald, Karsten Rinke, Kurt Friese, Robert van Geldern, Jakob Schmidmeier, and Johannes A. C. Barth
Biogeosciences, 19, 5343–5355,Short summary
Organic matter (OM) turnover into dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) was investigated by means of carbon isotope mass balances in Germany's largest water reservoir. This includes a metalimnetic oxygen minimum (MOM). Autochthonous particulate organic carbon (POC) was the main contributor to DIC, with rates that were highest for the MOM. Generally low turnover rates outline the environmental fragility of this water body in the case that OM loads increase due to storm events or land use changes.
Frédérique M. S. A. Kirkels, Hugo J. de Boer, Paulina Concha Hernández, Chris R. T. Martes, Marcel T. J. van der Meer, Sayak Basu, Muhammed O. Usman, and Francien Peterse
Biogeosciences, 19, 4107–4127,Short summary
The distinct carbon isotopic values of C3 and C4 plants are widely used to reconstruct past hydroclimate, where more C3 plants reflect wetter and C4 plants drier conditions. Here we examine the impact of regional hydroclimatic conditions on plant isotopic values in the Godavari River basin, India. We find that it is crucial to identify regional plant isotopic values and consider drought stress, which introduces a bias in C3 / C4 plant estimates and associated hydroclimate reconstructions.
Mhlangabezi Mdutyana, Tanya Marshall, Xin Sun, Jessica M. Burger, Sandy J. Thomalla, Bess B. Ward, and Sarah E. Fawcett
Biogeosciences, 19, 3425–3444,Short summary
Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the winter Southern Ocean show a high affinity for nitrite but require a minimum (i.e., "threshold") concentration before they increase their rates of nitrite oxidation significantly. The classic Michaelis–Menten model thus cannot be used to derive the kinetic parameters, so a modified equation was employed that also yields the threshold nitrite concentration. Dissolved iron availability may play an important role in limiting nitrite oxidation.
Weitian Ding, Urumu Tsunogai, Fumiko Nakagawa, Takashi Sambuichi, Hiroyuki Sase, Masayuki Morohashi, and Hiroki Yotsuyanagi
Biogeosciences, 19, 3247–3261,Short summary
Excessive leaching of nitrate from forested catchments during storm events degrades water quality and causes eutrophication in downstream areas. Thus, tracing the source of nitrate increase during storm events in forested streams is important for sustainable forest management. Based on the isotopic compositions of stream nitrate, including Δ17O, this study clarifies that the source of stream nitrate increase during storm events was soil nitrate in the riparian zone.
Nicolas Séon, Romain Amiot, Guillaume Suan, Christophe Lécuyer, François Fourel, Fabien Demaret, Arnauld Vinçon-Laugier, Sylvain Charbonnier, and Peggy Vincent
Biogeosciences, 19, 2671–2681,Short summary
We analysed the oxygen isotope composition of bones and teeth of four marine species possessing regional heterothermies. We observed a consistent link between oxygen isotope composition and temperature heterogeneities recorded by classical methods. This opens up new perspectives on the determination of the thermoregulatory strategies of extant marine vertebrates where conventional methods are difficult to apply, but also allows us to investigate thermophysiologies of extinct vertebrates.
Yuwei Liu, Guofeng Zhu, Zhuanxia Zhang, Zhigang Sun, Leilei Yong, Liyuan Sang, Lei Wang, and Kailiang Zhao
Biogeosciences, 19, 877–889,Short summary
We took the water cycle process of soil–plant–atmospheric precipitation as the research objective. In the water cycle of soil–plant–atmospheric precipitation, precipitation plays the main controlling role. The main source of replenishment for alpine meadow plants is precipitation and alpine meltwater; the main source of replenishment for forest plants is soil water; and the plants in the arid foothills mainly use groundwater.
Roberto Velázquez-Ochoa, María Julia Ochoa-Izaguirre, and Martín Federico Soto-Jiménez
Biogeosciences, 19, 1–27,Short summary
Our research is the first approximation to understand the δ13C macroalgal variability in one of the most diverse marine ecosystems in the world, the Gulf of California. The life-form is the principal cause of δ13C macroalgal variability, mainly taxonomy. However, changes in habitat characteristics and environmental conditions also influence the δ13C macroalgal variability. The δ13C macroalgae is indicative of carbon concentration mechanisms and isotope discrimination during carbon assimilation.
Raquel F. Flynn, Thomas G. Bornman, Jessica M. Burger, Shantelle Smith, Kurt A. M. Spence, and Sarah E. Fawcett
Biogeosciences, 18, 6031–6059,Short summary
Biological activity in the shallow Weddell Sea affects the biogeochemistry of recently formed deep waters. To investigate the drivers of carbon and nutrient export, we measured rates of primary production and nitrogen uptake, characterized the phytoplankton community, and estimated nutrient depletion ratios across the under-sampled western Weddell Sea in mid-summer. Carbon export was highest at the ice shelves and was determined by a combination of physical, chemical, and biological factors.
Stéphanie H. M. Jacquet, Christian Tamburini, Marc Garel, Aurélie Dufour, France Van Vambeke, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Nagib Bhairy, and Sophie Guasco
Biogeosciences, 18, 5891–5902,Short summary
We compared carbon remineralization rates (MRs) in the western and central Mediterranean Sea in late spring during the PEACETIME cruise, as assessed using the barium tracer. We reported higher and deeper (up to 1000 m depth) MRs in the western basin, potentially sustained by an additional particle export event driven by deep convection. The central basin is the site of a mosaic of blooming and non-blooming water masses and showed lower MRs that were restricted to the upper mesopelagic layer.
Shinsuke Kawagucci, Yohei Matsui, Akiko Makabe, Tatsuhiro Fukuba, Yuji Onishi, Takuro Nunoura, and Taichi Yokokawa
Biogeosciences, 18, 5351–5362,Short summary
Hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios of methane as well as the relevant biogeochemical parameters and microbial community compositions in hydrothermal plumes in the Okinawa Trough were observed. We succeeded in simultaneously determining hydrogen and carbon isotope fractionation factors associated with aerobic oxidation of methane in seawater (εH = 49.4 ± 5.0 ‰, εC = 5.2 ± 0.4 ‰) – the former being the first of its kind ever reported.
Nicolai Schleinkofer, David Evans, Max Wisshak, Janina Vanessa Büscher, Jens Fiebig, André Freiwald, Sven Härter, Horst R. Marschall, Silke Voigt, and Jacek Raddatz
Biogeosciences, 18, 4733–4753,Short summary
We have measured the chemical composition of the carbonate shells of the parasitic foraminifera Hyrrokkin sarcophaga in order to test if it is influenced by the host organism (bivalve or coral). We find that both the chemical and isotopic composition is influenced by the host organism. For example strontium is enriched in foraminifera that grew on corals, whose skeleton is built from aragonite, which is naturally enriched in strontium compared to the bivalves' calcite shell.
Lena Rohe, Traute-Heidi Anderson, Heinz Flessa, Anette Goeske, Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, and Reinhard Well
Biogeosciences, 18, 4629–4650,Short summary
This is the first experimental setup combining a complex set of methods (microbial inhibitors and isotopic approaches) to differentiate between N2O produced by fungi or bacteria during denitrification in three soils. Quantifying the fungal fraction with inhibitors was not successful due to large amounts of uninhibited N2O production. All successful methods suggested a small or missing fungal contribution. Artefacts occurring with microbial inhibition to determine N2O fluxes are discussed.
Inga Köhler, Raul E. Martinez, David Piatka, Achim J. Herrmann, Arianna Gallo, Michelle M. Gehringer, and Johannes A. C. Barth
Biogeosciences, 18, 4535–4548,Short summary
We investigated how high Fe(II) levels influence the O2 budget of a circum-neutral Fe(II)-rich spring and if a combined study of dissolved O (DO) and its isotopic composition can help assess this effect. We showed that dissolved Fe(II) can exert strong effects on the δ18ODO even though a constant supply of atmospheric O2 occurs. In the presence of photosynthesis, direct effects of Fe oxidation become masked. Critical Fe(II) concentrations indirectly control the DO by enhancing photosynthesis.
Owen A. Sherwood, Samuel H. Davin, Nadine Lehmann, Carolyn Buchwald, Evan N. Edinger, Moritz F. Lehmann, and Markus Kienast
Biogeosciences, 18, 4491–4510,Short summary
Pacific water flowing eastward through the Canadian Arctic plays an important role in redistributing nutrients to the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Using samples collected from northern Baffin Bay to the southern Labrador Shelf, we show that stable isotopic ratios in seawater nitrate reflect the fraction of Pacific to Atlantic water. These results provide a new framework for interpreting patterns of nitrogen isotopic variability recorded in modern and archival organic materials in the region.
Franziska Slotta, Lukas Wacker, Frank Riedel, Karl-Uwe Heußner, Kai Hartmann, and Gerhard Helle
Biogeosciences, 18, 3539–3564,Short summary
The African baobab is a challenging climate and environmental archive for its semi-arid habitat due to dating uncertainties and parenchyma-rich wood anatomy. Annually resolved F14C data of tree-ring cellulose (1941–2005) from a tree in Oman show the annual character of the baobab’s growth rings but were up to 8.8 % lower than expected for 1964–1967. Subseasonal δ13C and δ18O patterns reveal years with low average monsoon rain as well as heavy rainfall events from pre-monsoonal cyclones.
Peter M. J. Douglas, Emerald Stratigopoulos, Sanga Park, and Dawson Phan
Biogeosciences, 18, 3505–3527,Short summary
Hydrogen isotopes could be a useful tool to help resolve the geographic distribution of methane emissions from freshwater environments. We analyzed an expanded global dataset of freshwater methane hydrogen isotope ratios and found significant geographic variation linked to water isotopic composition. This geographic variability could be used to resolve changing methane fluxes from freshwater environments and provide more accurate estimates of the relative balance of global methane sources.
Veronica R. Rollinson, Julie Granger, Sydney C. Clark, Mackenzie L. Blanusa, Claudia P. Koerting, Jamie M. P. Vaudrey, Lija A. Treibergs, Holly C. Westbrook, Catherine M. Matassa, Meredith G. Hastings, and Craig R. Tobias
Biogeosciences, 18, 3421–3444,Short summary
We measured nutrients and the naturally occurring nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) stable isotope ratios of nitrate discharged from a New England river over an annual cycle, to monitor N loading and identify dominant sources from the watershed. We uncovered a seasonality to loading and sources of N from the watershed. Seasonality in the nitrate isotope ratios also informed on N cycling, conforming to theoretical expectations of riverine nutrient cycling.
Zixun Chen, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoqing Cui, Yaowen Han, Guoan Wang, and Jiazhu Li
Biogeosciences, 18, 2859–2870,Short summary
δ13C in plants is a sensitive long-term indicator of physiological acclimatization. The present study suggests that precipitation change and increasing atmospheric N deposition have little impact on δ13C of H. ammodendron, a dominant plant in central Asian deserts, but affect its gas exchange. In addition, this study shows that δ13C of H. ammodendron could not indicate its water use efficiency (WUE), suggesting that whether δ13C of C4 plants indicates WUE is species-specific.
Petra Zahajská, Carolina Olid, Johanna Stadmark, Sherilyn C. Fritz, Sophie Opfergelt, and Daniel J. Conley
Biogeosciences, 18, 2325–2345,Short summary
The drivers of high accumulation of single-cell siliceous algae (diatoms) in a high-latitude lake have not been fully characterized before. We studied silicon cycling of the lake through water, radon, silicon, and stable silicon isotope balances. Results showed that groundwater brings 3 times more water and dissolved silica than the stream inlet. We demonstrate that groundwater discharge and low sediment deposition have driven the high diatom accumulation in the studied lake in the past century.
Yu-Te Hsieh, Walter Geibert, E. Malcolm S. Woodward, Neil J. Wyatt, Maeve C. Lohan, Eric P. Achterberg, and Gideon M. Henderson
Biogeosciences, 18, 1645–1671,Short summary
The South Atlantic near 40° S is one of the high-productivity and most dynamic nutrient regions in the oceans, but the sources and fluxes of trace elements (TEs) to this region remain unclear. This study investigates seawater Ra-228 and provides important constraints on ocean mixing and dissolved TE fluxes to this region. Vertical mixing is a more important source than aeolian or shelf inputs in this region, but particulate or winter deep-mixing inputs may be required to balance the TE budgets.
Zhongjie Yu and Emily M. Elliott
Biogeosciences, 18, 805–829,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrated distinct nitrogen isotope effects for nitric oxide (NO) production from major microbial and chemical NO sources in an agricultural soil. These results highlight characteristic bond-forming and breaking mechanisms associated with microbial and chemical NO production and implicate that simultaneous isotopic analyses of NO and nitrous oxide (N2O) can lead to unprecedented insights into the sources and processes controlling NO and N2O emissions from agricultural soils.
Daniel A. Frick, Rainer Remus, Michael Sommer, Jürgen Augustin, Danuta Kaczorek, and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 6475–6490,Short summary
Silicon is taken up by some plants to increase structural stability and to develop stress resistance and is rejected by others. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we used the stable isotopes of silicon that shift in their relative abundance depending on the biochemical transformation involved. On species with a rejective (tomato, mustard) and active (wheat) uptake mechanism, grown in hydroculture, we found that the transport of silicic acid is controlled by the precipitation of biogenic opal.
Quentin Charbonnier, Julien Bouchez, Jérôme Gaillardet, and Éric Gayer
Biogeosciences, 17, 5989–6015,Short summary
The abundance and isotope composition of the trace metal barium (Ba) allows us to track and quantify nutrient cycling throughout the Amazon Basin. In particular, we show that the Ba biological fingerprint evolves from that of a strong net nutrient uptake in the mountainous area of the Andes towards efficient nutrient recycling on the plains of the Lower Amazon. Our study highlights the fact that the geochemical signature of rock-derived nutrients transported by the Amazon is scarred by life.
Ajinkya G. Deshpande, Thomas W. Boutton, Ayumi Hyodo, Charles W. Lafon, and Georgianne W. Moore
Biogeosciences, 17, 5639–5653,Short summary
Wetland forests in the southern USA are threatened by changing climate and human-induced pressures. We used tree ring widths and C isotopes as indicators of forest growth and physiological stress, respectively, and compared these to past climate data. We observed that vegetation growing in the drier patches is susceptible to stress, while vegetation growth and physiology in wetter patches is less sensitive to unfavorable environmental conditions, highlighting the importance of optimal wetness.
Dominika Lewicka-Szczebak, Maciej Piotr Lewicki, and Reinhard Well
Biogeosciences, 17, 5513–5537,Short summary
We present the first validation of N2O isotopic approaches for estimating N2O source pathways and N2O reduction. These approaches are widely used for tracing soil nitrogen cycling, but the results of these estimations are very uncertain. Here we report the results from parallel treatments allowing for precise validation of these approaches, and we propose the best strategies for results interpretation, including the new idea of an isotope model integrating three isotopic signatures of N2O.
Markus Raitzsch, Claire Rollion-Bard, Ingo Horn, Grit Steinhoefel, Albert Benthien, Klaus-Uwe Richter, Matthieu Buisson, Pascale Louvat, and Jelle Bijma
Biogeosciences, 17, 5365–5375,Short summary
The isotopic composition of boron in carbonate shells of marine unicellular organisms is a popular tool to estimate seawater pH. Usually, many shells need to be dissolved and measured for boron isotopes, but the information on their spatial distribution is lost. Here, we investigate two techniques that allow for measuring boron isotopes within single shells and show that they yield robust mean values but provide additional information on the heterogeneity within and between single shells.
Florian Einsiedl, Anja Wunderlich, Mathieu Sebilo, Ömer K. Coskun, William D. Orsi, and Bernhard Mayer
Biogeosciences, 17, 5149–5161,Short summary
Nitrate pollution of freshwaters and methane emissions into the atmosphere are crucial factors in deteriorating the quality of drinking water and in contributing to global climate change. Here, we report vertical concentration and stable isotope profiles of CH4, NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ in the water column of Fohnsee (southern Bavaria, Germany) that may indicate linkages between nitrate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation and the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium.
Ruifang C. Xie, Frédéric A. C. Le Moigne, Insa Rapp, Jan Lüdke, Beat Gasser, Marcus Dengler, Volker Liebetrau, and Eric P. Achterberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4919–4936,Short summary
Thorium-234 (234Th) is widely used to study carbon fluxes from the surface ocean to depth. But few studies stress the relevance of oceanic advection and diffusion on the downward 234Th fluxes in nearshore environments. Our study in offshore Peru showed strong temporal variations in both the importance of physical processes on 234Th flux estimates and the oceanic residence time of 234Th, whereas salinity-derived seawater 238U activities accounted for up to 40 % errors in 234Th flux estimates.
Ralf A. Oeser and Friedhelm von Blanckenburg
Biogeosciences, 17, 4883–4917,Short summary
We present a novel strategy to decipher the relative impact of biogenic and abiotic drivers of weathering. We parameterized the nutrient fluxes in four ecosystems along a climate and vegetation gradient situated on the Chilean Coastal Cordillera. We investigated how nutrient demand by plants drives weathering. We found that the increase in biomass nutrient demand is accommodated by faster nutrient recycling rather than an increase in the weathering–release rates.
Tito Arosio, Malin M. Ziehmer, Kurt Nicolussi, Christian Schlüchter, and Markus Leuenberger
Biogeosciences, 17, 4871–4882,Short summary
Stable isotopes in tree-ring cellulose are tools for climatic reconstructions, but interpretation is challenging due to nonclimate trends. We analyzed the tree-age trends in tree-ring isotopes of deciduous larch and evergreen cembran pine. Samples covering the whole Holocene were collected at the tree line in the Alps. For cambial ages over 100 years, we prove the absence of age trends in δD, δ18O, and δ13C for both species. For lower cambial ages, trends differ for each isotope and species.
Yuyang He, Xiaobin Cao, and Huiming Bao
Biogeosciences, 17, 4785–4795,Short summary
Different carbon sites in a large organic molecule have different isotope compositions. Different carbon sites may not have the chance to exchange isotopes at all. The lack of appreciation of this notion might be blamed for an unsettled debate on the thermodynamic state of an organism. Here we demonstrate using minerals, N2O, and acetic acid that the dearth of exchange among different carbon sites renders them as independent as if they were different elements in organic molecules.
Felix M. Spielmann, Albin Hammerle, Florian Kitz, Katharina Gerdel, and Georg Wohlfahrt
Biogeosciences, 17, 4281–4295,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be used as a proxy for plant photosynthesis on an ecosystem scale. However, the relationships between COS and CO2 fluxes and their dependence on daily to seasonal changes in environmental drivers are still poorly understood. We examined COS and CO2 ecosystem fluxes above an agriculturally used mountain grassland for 6 months. Harvesting of the grassland disturbed the otherwise stable COS-to-CO2 uptake ratio. We even found the canopy to release COS during those times.
Getachew Agmuas Adnew, Thijs L. Pons, Gerbrand Koren, Wouter Peters, and Thomas Röckmann
Biogeosciences, 17, 3903–3922,Short summary
We measured the effect of photosynthesis, the largest flux in the carbon cycle, on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 at the leaf level during gas exchange using three plant species. The main factors that limit the impact of land vegetation on the triple oxygen isotope composition of atmospheric CO2 are identified, characterized and discussed. The effect of photosynthesis on the isotopic composition of CO2 is commonly quantified as discrimination (ΔA).
Moritz Schroll, Frank Keppler, Markus Greule, Christian Eckhardt, Holger Zorn, and Katharina Lenhart
Biogeosciences, 17, 3891–3901,Short summary
Fungi have recently been identified to produce the greenhouse gas methane. Here, we investigated the stable carbon isotope values of methane produced by saprotrophic fungi. Our results show that stable isotope values of methane from fungi are dependent on the fungal species and the metabolized substrate. They cover a broad range and overlap with stable carbon isotope values of methane reported for methanogenic archaea, the thermogenic degradation of organic matter, and other eukaryotes.
Pranav Hirave, Guido L. B. Wiesenberg, Axel Birkholz, and Christine Alewell
Biogeosciences, 17, 2169–2180,Short summary
Sediment input into water bodies is a prominent threat to freshwater ecosystems. We tested the stability of tracers employed in freshwater sediment tracing based on compound-specific isotope analysis during early degradation in soil. While bulk δ13C values showed no stability, δ13C values of plant-derived fatty acids and n-alkanes were stably transferred to the soil without soil particle size dependency after an early degradation in organic horizons, thus indicating their suitability as tracers.
Caroline Thaler, Amandine Katz, Magali Bonifacie, Bénédicte Ménez, and Magali Ader
Biogeosciences, 17, 1731–1744,Short summary
Paleoenvironment reconstructions, retrieved from δ18O and Δ47 values measured in carbonate, are compromised when crystallization occurs in isotopic disequilibrium. We show that some paleoenvironmental information can still be retrieved from these paired disequilibrium Δ47 and δ18O values. The possibility of retrieving information on paleowaters, sediments' interstitial waters, or organisms' body water at the carbonate precipitation loci will help understand past Earth and life evolution.
Guillaume Humbert, Mathieu Sébilo, Justine Fiat, Longqi Lang, Ahlem Filali, Véronique Vaury, Mathieu Spérandio, and Anniet M. Laverman
Biogeosciences, 17, 979–993,Short summary
Mitigating emissions of the greenhouse gas N2O requires understanding of the relative contribution of its producing processes in response to environmental variables. We show, using isotopic analysis, that N2O emissions from a nitrifying system were sensitive to oxygenation, temperature and NH4+ concentrations with nitrite reduction being the main N2O source. Temperature appears to be the main control on N2O production, due to its dissimilar effects on ammonium and nitrite oxidizing activities.
Oguz Yigiterhan, Ebrahim Mohd Al-Ansari, Alex Nelson, Mohamed Alaa Abdel-Moati, Jesse Turner, Hamood Abdulla Alsaadi, Barbara Paul, Ibrahim Abdullatif Al-Maslamani, Mehsin Abdulla Al-Ansi Al-Yafei, and James W. Murray
Biogeosciences, 17, 381–404,Short summary
We analyze net-tow samples of plankton and associated particulate matter from the Exclusive Economic Zone, Qatar, Arabian Gulf, using net tows with mesh sizes of 50 and 200 μm to examine the composition of plankton populations. We also focus on the role and composition of the atmospheric dust, representative of terrigenous material, deposited in the Gulf. We concluded that Al, Fe, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Li are of dust origin and As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Zn, and Ca are of anthropogenic/biogenic origin.
Clare Woulds, James B. Bell, Adrian G. Glover, Steven Bouillon, and Louise S. Brown
Biogeosciences, 17, 1–12,Short summary
Sedimented hydrothermal vents occur where heated, mineral-rich (hydrothermal) water seeps through seafloor sediments. They host chemosynthetic microbes, which use chemical energy to fix dissolved carbon dioxide into sugars (chemosynthesis). We conducted carbon tracing experiments, and observed chemosynthesis at both vent and non-vent sites. Thus, chemosynthesis occurred over a much larger area than expected, suggesting it is more widespread than previously thought.
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Few studies have investigated the atmospheric deposition of nitrate in the Arctic or its impacts on Arctic ecosystems. We collected late-season snowpack from three regions in western Greenland from the coast to the edge of the ice sheet. We found major differences in nitrate concentrations (lower at the coast) and deposition load (higher). Nitrate in snowpack undergoes losses and isotopic enrichment which are greatest in inland areas; hence deposition impacts may be greatest at the coast.
Few studies have investigated the atmospheric deposition of nitrate in the Arctic or its impacts...