Articles | Volume 16, issue 13
Research article 16 Jul 2019
Research article | 16 Jul 2019
Decadal fates and impacts of nitrogen additions on temperate forest carbon storage: a data–model comparison
Susan J. Cheng et al.
No articles found.
Alexander J. Winkler, Ranga B. Myneni, Alexis Hannart, Stephen Sitch, Vanessa Haverd, Danica Lombardozzi, Vivek K. Arora, Julia Pongratz, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Daniel S. Goll, Etsushi Kato, Hanqin Tian, Almut Arneth, Pierre Friedlingstein, Atul K. Jain, Sönke Zaehle, and Victor Brovkin
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Satellite observations since the early 1980s show that Earth's greening trend is slowing down and that browning clusters are emerging, especially in the last two decades. A collection of model simulations in conjunction with causal theory points at climatic changes as a key driver of vegetation changes in natural ecosystems. Most models underestimate the observed vegetation browning, especially in tropical rainforests, which could be due to an excessive CO2 fertilization effect in models.
Wolfgang A. Obermeier, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Tammas Loughran, Kerstin Hartung, Ana Bastos, Felix Havermann, Peter Anthoni, Almut Arneth, Daniel S. Goll, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Benjamin Poulter, Stephen Sitch, Michael O. Sullivan, Hanqin Tian, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Soenke Zaehle, and Julia Pongratz
Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESDShort summary
This study, for the first time, presents a spatio-temporally explicit comparison of different model-derived land-use and land cover change emissions (ELUCs) based on the TRENDY v8 dynamic global vegetation models (used in the Global Carbon Budget of 2019). We find huge regional ELUC differences resulting from environmental assumptions, simulated periods and the timing of land use and land cover changes and propose a modified definition to standardize ELUC attribution across time and space.
Leah Birch, Christopher R. Schwalm, Sue Natali, Danica Lombardozzi, Gretchen Keppel-Aleks, Jennifer Watts, Xin Lin, Donatella Zona, Walter Oechel, Torsten Sachs, Thomas Andrew Black, and Brendan M. Rogers
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
The high latitude landscape or Arctic-Boreal Zone has been warming rapidly, impacting the carbon balance, both regionally and globally. Given the possible global effects of climate change, it is important to have accurate climate model simulations. We assess the simulation of the Arctic-Boreal carbon cycle in the Community Land Model (CLM 5.0). We find biases in both the timing and magnitude photosynthesis. We then use observational data to improve the simulation of the carbon cycle.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael O'Sullivan, Matthew W. Jones, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Are Olsen, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Simone Alin, Luiz E. O. C. Aragão, Almut Arneth, Vivek Arora, Nicholas R. Bates, Meike Becker, Alice Benoit-Cattin, Henry C. Bittig, Laurent Bopp, Selma Bultan, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Wiley Evans, Liesbeth Florentie, Piers M. Forster, Thomas Gasser, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Luke Gregor, Nicolas Gruber, Ian Harris, Kerstin Hartung, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Koji Kadono, Etsushi Kato, Vassilis Kitidis, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Yosuke Niwa, Kevin O'Brien, Tsuneo Ono, Paul I. Palmer, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Adam J. P. Smith, Adrienne J. Sutton, Toste Tanhua, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Guido van der Werf, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Rik Wanninkhof, Andrew J. Watson, David Willis, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Wenping Yuan, Xu Yue, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3269–3340,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2020 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Shakirudeen Lawal, Stephen Sitch, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Hao-Wei Wey, Pierre Friedlingstein, Hanqin Tian, and Bruce Hewitson
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for HESSShort summary
While few studies have investigated the impacts of drought on vegetation, their findings are limited by the choice of vegetation proxy and model. Here, we used the LAI as proxy, and DGVMs to simulate drought impacts because the models use observationally-derived climate. We found that the semi-desert biome respond strongly to drought in the summer season, while the tropical forest biome shows weak response. This study could help target areas to improve drought monitoring and simulation.
Julius Vira, Peter Hess, Jeff Melkonian, and William R. Wieder
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4459–4490,Short summary
Mostly emitted by the agricultural sector, ammonia has an important role in atmospheric chemistry. We developed a model to simulate how ammonia emissions respond to changes in temperature and soil moisture, and we evaluated agricultural ammonia emissions globally. The simulated emissions agree with earlier estimates over many regions, but the results highlight the variability of ammonia emissions and suggest that emissions in warm climates may be higher than previously thought.
Emily Kyker-Snowman, William R. Wieder, Serita D. Frey, and A. Stuart Grandy
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4413–4434,Short summary
Microbes drive carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transformations in soil, and soil models have started to include explicit microbial physiology and functioning to try to reduce uncertainty in soil–climate feedbacks. Here, we add N cycling to a microbially explicit soil C model and reproduce C and N dynamics in soil during litter decomposition across a range of sites. We discuss model-generated hypotheses about soil C and N cycling and highlight the need for landscape-scale model evaluation data.
William R. Wieder, Derek Pierson, Stevan Earl, Kate Lajtha, Sara Baer, Ford Ballantyne, Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, Sharon Billings, Laurel M. Brigham, Stephany S. Chacon, Jennifer Fraterrigo, Serita D. Frey, Katerina Georgiou, Marie-Anne de Graaff, A. Stuart Grandy, Melannie D. Hartman, Sarah E. Hobbie, Chris Johnson, Jason Kaye, Emily Kyker-Snowman, Marcy E. Litvak, Michelle C. Mack, Avni Malhotra, Jessica A. M. Moore, Knute Nadelhoffer, Craig Rasmussen, Whendee L. Silver, Benjamin N. Sulman, Xanthe Walker, and Samantha Weintraub
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESSDShort summary
Data collected from research networks present opportunities to test theories and develop models about factors responsible for the long-term persistence and vulnerability of soil organic matter (SOM). Here we present the SOils DAta Harmonization database (SoDaH), a flexible database designed to harmonize diverse SOM datasets from multiple research networks.
Rostislav Kouznetsov, Mikhail Sofiev, Julius Vira, and Gabriele Stiller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5837–5859,Short summary
Estimates of the age of stratospheric air (AoA), its distribution, and trends, obtained by different experimental methods, differ among each other. AoA derived form MIPAS satellite observations, the richest observational dataset on sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the stratosphere, are a clear outlier. With multi-decade simulations of AoA and SF6 in the stratosphere, we show that the origin of the discrepancy is in a methodology of deriving AoA from observations rather than in observational data.
Susanna Salminen-Paatero, Julius Vira, and Jussi Paatero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5759–5769,Short summary
We measured concentrations and isotope ratios of plutonium in air filters collected in Finnish Lapland in 1965–2011. Radioactive-contamination sources were global nuclear-testing fallout and the Fukushima and SNAP-9A accidents. Both real and hypothetical nuclear accidents were studied with atmospheric-dispersion modeling. The radioactive-contamination effect on Finnish Lapland would be minor from an intended nuclear power plant and negligible from a floating nuclear reactor in the Barents Sea.
Shufen Pan, Naiqing Pan, Hanqin Tian, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Hao Shi, Vivek K. Arora, Vanessa Haverd, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Catherine Ottlé, Benjamin Poulter, Sönke Zaehle, and Steven W. Running
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 1485–1509,Short summary
Evapotranspiration (ET) links global water, carbon and energy cycles. We used 4 remote sensing models, 2 machine-learning algorithms and 14 land surface models to analyze the changes in global terrestrial ET. These three categories of approaches agreed well in terms of ET intensity. For 1982–2011, all models showed that Earth greening enhanced terrestrial ET. The small interannual variability of global terrestrial ET suggests it has a potential planetary boundary of around 600 mm yr-1.
Martin Jung, Christopher Schwalm, Mirco Migliavacca, Sophia Walther, Gustau Camps-Valls, Sujan Koirala, Peter Anthoni, Simon Besnard, Paul Bodesheim, Nuno Carvalhais, Frédéric Chevallier, Fabian Gans, Daniel S. Goll, Vanessa Haverd, Philipp Köhler, Kazuhito Ichii, Atul K. Jain, Junzhi Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Jacob A. Nelson, Michael O'Sullivan, Martijn Pallandt, Dario Papale, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Christian Rödenbeck, Stephen Sitch, Gianluca Tramontana, Anthony Walker, Ulrich Weber, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 17, 1343–1365,Short summary
We test the approach of producing global gridded carbon fluxes based on combining machine learning with local measurements, remote sensing and climate data. We show that we can reproduce seasonal variations in carbon assimilated by plants via photosynthesis and in ecosystem net carbon balance. The ecosystem’s mean carbon balance and carbon flux trends require cautious interpretation. The analysis paves the way for future improvements of the data-driven assessment of carbon fluxes.
Samantha J. Basile, Xin Lin, William R. Wieder, Melannie D. Hartman, and Gretchen Keppel-Aleks
Biogeosciences, 17, 1293–1308,Short summary
Soil heterotrophic respiration (HR) is an important component of land–atmosphere carbon exchange but is difficult to observe globally. We analyzed the imprint that this flux leaves on atmospheric CO2 using a set of simulations from HR models with common inputs. Models that represent microbial processes are more variable and have stronger temperature sensitivity than those that do not. Our results show that we can use atmospheric CO2 observations to evaluate and improve models of HR.
Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Joaquim Arteta, Adriana Coman, Lyana Curier, Henk Eskes, Gilles Foret, Clio Gielen, Francois Hendrick, Virginie Marécal, Frédérik Meleux, Jonathan Parmentier, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie J. M. Piters, Matthieu Plu, Andreas Richter, Arjo Segers, Mikhail Sofiev, Álvaro M. Valdebenito, Michel Van Roozendael, Julius Vira, Tim Vlemmix, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2795–2823,Short summary
MAX-DOAS tropospheric NO2 vertical column retrievals from a set of European measurement stations are compared to regional air quality models which contribute to the operational Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Correlations are on the order of 35 %–75 %; large differences occur for individual pollution plumes. The results demonstrate that future model development needs to concentrate on improving representation of diurnal cycles and associated temporal scalings.
Pierre Friedlingstein, Matthew W. Jones, Michael O'Sullivan, Robbie M. Andrew, Judith Hauck, Glen P. Peters, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Stephen Sitch, Corinne Le Quéré, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Josep G. Canadell, Philippe Ciais, Robert B. Jackson, Peter Anthoni, Leticia Barbero, Ana Bastos, Vladislav Bastrikov, Meike Becker, Laurent Bopp, Erik Buitenhuis, Naveen Chandra, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Kim I. Currie, Richard A. Feely, Marion Gehlen, Dennis Gilfillan, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S. Goll, Nicolas Gruber, Sören Gutekunst, Ian Harris, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Emilie Joetzjer, Jed O. Kaplan, Etsushi Kato, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Peter Landschützer, Siv K. Lauvset, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Gregg Marland, Patrick C. McGuire, Joe R. Melton, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Craig Neill, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Anna Peregon, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Christian Rödenbeck, Roland Séférian, Jörg Schwinger, Naomi Smith, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Guido R. van der Werf, Andrew J. Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1783–1838,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2019 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Wenxiu Sun, Peter Hess, Gang Chen, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12917–12933,Short summary
Using both observations and a chemistry climate–model we establish that in most locations changes in the waviness of the 500 hPa flow field, as measured by the local anticyclonic wave activity (AWA), explain a significant fraction of the interannual variability in surface ozone over the United States. In addition, we find that the change in AWA in a future climate (circa 2100) is predicted to cause a change in surface ozone ranging between –6 ppb and 6 ppb.
Ana Bastos, Philippe Ciais, Frédéric Chevallier, Christian Rödenbeck, Ashley P. Ballantyne, Fabienne Maignan, Yi Yin, Marcos Fernández-Martínez, Pierre Friedlingstein, Josep Peñuelas, Shilong L. Piao, Stephen Sitch, William K. Smith, Xuhui Wang, Zaichun Zhu, Vanessa Haverd, Etsushi Kato, Atul K. Jain, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Poulter, and Dan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12361–12375,Short summary
Here we show that land-surface models improved their ability to simulate the increase in the amplitude of seasonal CO2-cycle exchange (SCANBP) by ecosystems compared to estimates by two atmospheric inversions. We find a dominant role of vegetation growth over boreal Eurasia to the observed increase in SCANBP, strongly driven by CO2 fertilization, and an overall negative effect of temperature on SCANBP. Biases can be explained by the sensitivity of simulated microbial respiration to temperature.
Tessa Sophia van der Voort, Utsav Mannu, Frank Hagedorn, Cameron McIntyre, Lorenz Walthert, Patrick Schleppi, Negar Haghipour, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 16, 3233–3246,Short summary
The carbon stored in soils is the largest reservoir of organic carbon on land. In the context of greenhouse gas emissions and a changing climate, it is very important to understand how stable the carbon in the soil is and why. The deeper parts of the soil have often been overlooked even though they store a lot of carbon. In this paper, we discovered that although deep soil carbon is expected to be old and stable, there can be a significant young component that cycles much faster.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Judith Hauck, Julia Pongratz, Penelope A. Pickers, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Almut Arneth, Vivek K. Arora, Leticia Barbero, Ana Bastos, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Scott C. Doney, Thanos Gkritzalis, Daniel S. Goll, Ian Harris, Vanessa Haverd, Forrest M. Hoffman, Mario Hoppema, Richard A. Houghton, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Truls Johannessen, Chris D. Jones, Etsushi Kato, Ralph F. Keeling, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Sebastian Lienert, Zhu Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Nicolas Metzl, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Craig Neill, Are Olsen, Tsueno Ono, Prabir Patra, Anna Peregon, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Pfeil, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Laure Resplandy, Eddy Robertson, Matthias Rocher, Christian Rödenbeck, Ute Schuster, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Tobias Steinhoff, Adrienne Sutton, Pieter P. Tans, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Viovy, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Rebecca Wright, Sönke Zaehle, and Bo Zheng
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2141–2194,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2018 describes the data sets and methodology used to quantify the emissions of carbon dioxide and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. These living data are updated every year to provide the highest transparency and traceability in the reporting of CO2, the key driver of climate change.
Arlene M. Fiore, Emily V. Fischer, George P. Milly, Shubha Pandey Deolal, Oliver Wild, Daniel A. Jaffe, Johannes Staehelin, Olivia E. Clifton, Dan Bergmann, William Collins, Frank Dentener, Ruth M. Doherty, Bryan N. Duncan, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Peter G. Hess, Larry W. Horowitz, Alexandru Lupu, Ian A. MacKenzie, Rokjin Park, Ludwig Ries, Michael G. Sanderson, Martin G. Schultz, Drew T. Shindell, Martin Steinbacher, David S. Stevenson, Sophie Szopa, Christoph Zellweger, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15345–15361,Short summary
We demonstrate a proof-of-concept approach for applying northern midlatitude mountaintop peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) measurements and a multi-model ensemble during April to constrain the influence of continental-scale anthropogenic precursor emissions on PAN. Our findings imply a role for carefully coordinated multi-model ensembles in helping identify observations for discriminating among widely varying (and poorly constrained) model responses of atmospheric constituents to changes in emissions.
Pakawat Phalitnonkiat, Peter G. M. Hess, Mircea D. Grigoriu, Gennady Samorodnitsky, Wenxiu Sun, Ellie Beaudry, Simone Tilmes, Makato Deushi, Beatrice Josse, David Plummer, and Kengo Sudo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11927–11948,Short summary
The co-occurrence of heat waves and pollution events and the resulting high mortality rates emphasize the importance of the co-occurrence of pollution and temperature extremes. We analyze ozone and temperature extremes and their joint occurrence over the United States during the summer months (JJA) in measurement data and in model simulations of the present and future climates.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Pierre Friedlingstein, Stephen Sitch, Julia Pongratz, Andrew C. Manning, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Josep G. Canadell, Robert B. Jackson, Thomas A. Boden, Pieter P. Tans, Oliver D. Andrews, Vivek K. Arora, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Leticia Barbero, Meike Becker, Richard A. Betts, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Catherine E. Cosca, Jessica Cross, Kim Currie, Thomas Gasser, Ian Harris, Judith Hauck, Vanessa Haverd, Richard A. Houghton, Christopher W. Hunt, George Hurtt, Tatiana Ilyina, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Markus Kautz, Ralph F. Keeling, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Ivan Lima, Danica Lombardozzi, Nicolas Metzl, Frank Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Yukihiro Nojiri, X. Antonio Padin, Anna Peregon, Benjamin Pfeil, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Gregor Rehder, Janet Reimer, Christian Rödenbeck, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Benjamin D. Stocker, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Francesco N. Tubiello, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Steven van Heuven, Nicolas Viovy, Nicolas Vuichard, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Watson, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Sönke Zaehle, and Dan Zhu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 405–448,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2017 describes data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. It is the 12th annual update and the 6th published in this journal.
Mikhail Sofiev, Olga Ritenberga, Roberto Albertini, Joaquim Arteta, Jordina Belmonte, Carmi Geller Bernstein, Maira Bonini, Sevcan Celenk, Athanasios Damialis, John Douros, Hendrik Elbern, Elmar Friese, Carmen Galan, Gilles Oliver, Ivana Hrga, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Kai Krajsek, Donat Magyar, Jonathan Parmentier, Matthieu Plu, Marje Prank, Lennart Robertson, Birthe Marie Steensen, Michel Thibaudon, Arjo Segers, Barbara Stepanovich, Alvaro M. Valdebenito, Julius Vira, and Despoina Vokou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12341–12360,Short summary
This work presents the features and evaluates the quality of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service forecasts of olive pollen distribution in Europe. It is shown that the models can predict the main features of the observed pollen distribution but have more difficulties in capturing the season start and end, which appeared shifted by a few days. We also demonstrated that the combined use of model predictions with up-to-date measurements (data fusion) can strongly improve the results.
R. Quinn Thomas, Evan B. Brooks, Annika L. Jersild, Eric J. Ward, Randolph H. Wynne, Timothy J. Albaugh, Heather Dinon-Aldridge, Harold E. Burkhart, Jean-Christophe Domec, Thomas R. Fox, Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke, Timothy A. Martin, Asko Noormets, David A. Sampson, and Robert O. Teskey
Biogeosciences, 14, 3525–3547,Short summary
To improve predictions of future forest productivity, we introduce an analytical approach that uses data from numerous research experiments that have occurred across the southeastern US to calibrate a mathematical forest model and estimate uncertainty in predictions. As a result, predictions using the model are consistent with a rich history of forest research in a region that supplies a large fraction of wood products to the world.
Julius Vira, Elisa Carboni, Roy G. Grainger, and Mikhail Sofiev
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1985–2008,Short summary
The vertical and temporal distributions of sulfur dioxide emissions during the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull were reconstructed by combining data from the IASI satellite instrument with a dispersion model. Unlike in previous studies, both column density (the total amount above a given point) and the plume height were derived from the satellite data. This resulted in more accurate simulated vertical distributions for the times when the emission was not constrained by the column densities.
Geshere Abdisa Gurmesa, Xiankai Lu, Per Gundersen, Yunting Fang, Qinggong Mao, Chen Hao, and Jiangming Mo
Biogeosciences, 14, 2359–2370,Short summary
We measured the abundance of a nitrogen (N) isotope (15N) in two subtropical forests in China to study the cycling of input N (deposition and addition). Plant leaves in both forests were 15N-depleted relative to the atmospheric standard, likely as an imprint from 15N-depleted deposition. Plant 15N changed into 15N of the added N, indicating incorporation of N into plants. Thus, interpretations of ecosystem 15N from high-N-deposition regions need to include data on the 15N deposition signature.
Mehliyar Sadiq, Amos P. K. Tai, Danica Lombardozzi, and Maria Val Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3055–3066,Short summary
Surface ozone harms vegetation, which can influence not only climate but also ozone air quality itself. We implement a scheme for ozone damage on vegetation into an Earth system model, so that for the first time simulated vegetation and ozone can coevolve in a fully coupled simulation. With ozone–vegetation coupling, simulated ozone is found to be significantly higher by up to 6 ppbv. Reduced dry deposition and enhanced isoprene emission contribute to most of these increases.
Danica L. Lombardozzi, Melanie J. B. Zeppel, Rosie A. Fisher, and Ahmed Tawfik
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 321–331,Short summary
Earth's terrestrial surface influences climate by exchanging carbon and water with the atmosphere through stomatal pores. However, most land-surface models, used to predict global carbon and water fluxes, estimate that water lost through stomata is less than what observations show. In this study, we integrate plant water loss data from 204 species into a global land surface model, finding that global estimates of plant water loss increase, soil moisture decreases, and carbon gain also decreases.
Corinne Le Quéré, Robbie M. Andrew, Josep G. Canadell, Stephen Sitch, Jan Ivar Korsbakken, Glen P. Peters, Andrew C. Manning, Thomas A. Boden, Pieter P. Tans, Richard A. Houghton, Ralph F. Keeling, Simone Alin, Oliver D. Andrews, Peter Anthoni, Leticia Barbero, Laurent Bopp, Frédéric Chevallier, Louise P. Chini, Philippe Ciais, Kim Currie, Christine Delire, Scott C. Doney, Pierre Friedlingstein, Thanos Gkritzalis, Ian Harris, Judith Hauck, Vanessa Haverd, Mario Hoppema, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Atul K. Jain, Etsushi Kato, Arne Körtzinger, Peter Landschützer, Nathalie Lefèvre, Andrew Lenton, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Joe R. Melton, Nicolas Metzl, Frank Millero, Pedro M. S. Monteiro, David R. Munro, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Shin-ichiro Nakaoka, Kevin O'Brien, Are Olsen, Abdirahman M. Omar, Tsuneo Ono, Denis Pierrot, Benjamin Poulter, Christian Rödenbeck, Joe Salisbury, Ute Schuster, Jörg Schwinger, Roland Séférian, Ingunn Skjelvan, Benjamin D. Stocker, Adrienne J. Sutton, Taro Takahashi, Hanqin Tian, Bronte Tilbrook, Ingrid T. van der Laan-Luijkx, Guido R. van der Werf, Nicolas Viovy, Anthony P. Walker, Andrew J. Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 8, 605–649,Short summary
The Global Carbon Budget 2016 is the 11th annual update of emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and their partitioning among the atmosphere, land, and ocean. This data synthesis brings together measurements, statistical information, and analyses of model results in order to provide an assessment of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties for years 1959 to 2015, with a projection for year 2016.
Tessa Sophia van der Voort, Frank Hagedorn, Cameron McIntyre, Claudia Zell, Lorenz Walthert, Patrick Schleppi, Xiaojuan Feng, and Timothy Ian Eglinton
Biogeosciences, 13, 3427–3439,Short summary
This study explores heterogeneity in 14C content of soil organic matter (SOM) at different spatial scales and across climatic and geologic gradients, which is essential for a better understanding of SOM stability. Results reveal that despite dissimilar environmental conditions, 14C contents in topsoils is relatively uniform and 14C trends with depth are similar. Plot-scale variability is significant. Statistical analysis found a significant correlation of 14C contents (0–5 cm) and temperature.
Stuart Riddick, Daniel Ward, Peter Hess, Natalie Mahowald, Raia Massad, and Elisabeth Holland
Biogeosciences, 13, 3397–3426,Short summary
Future increases are predicted in the amount of nitrogen produced as manure or used as synthetic fertilizer in agriculture. However, the impact of climate on the subsequent fate of this nitrogen has not been evaluated. Here we describe, analyze and evaluate the FAN (flows of agricultural nitrogen) process model that simulates the the climate-dependent flows of nitrogen from agriculture. The FAN model is suitable for use within a global terrestrial climate model.
Natalie Mahowald, Fiona Lo, Yun Zheng, Laura Harrison, Chris Funk, Danica Lombardozzi, and Christine Goodale
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 211–229,Short summary
This paper evaluates the model predictions of leaf area index in the current climate, compared against satellite observations. It also summarizes the predicted changes in leaf area index in the future, and identifies whether some of the uncertainty in future predictions can be decreased.
M. Sofiev, J. Vira, R. Kouznetsov, M. Prank, J. Soares, and E. Genikhovich
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3497–3522,Short summary
The paper presents a transport mechanism of SILAM CTM based on an algorithm of M. Galperin. We describe the original scheme and its updates needed for applications to long-living species, complex atmospheric flows, etc. The scheme is connected to vertical diffusion, chemical transformation and deposition algorithms. Quality of the advection routine is evaluated with a large set of tests, which showed performance fully comparable with state-of-the-art algorithms at much lower computational costs.
V. Marécal, V.-H. Peuch, C. Andersson, S. Andersson, J. Arteta, M. Beekmann, A. Benedictow, R. Bergström, B. Bessagnet, A. Cansado, F. Chéroux, A. Colette, A. Coman, R. L. Curier, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, A. Drouin, H. Elbern, E. Emili, R. J. Engelen, H. J. Eskes, G. Foret, E. Friese, M. Gauss, C. Giannaros, J. Guth, M. Joly, E. Jaumouillé, B. Josse, N. Kadygrov, J. W. Kaiser, K. Krajsek, J. Kuenen, U. Kumar, N. Liora, E. Lopez, L. Malherbe, I. Martinez, D. Melas, F. Meleux, L. Menut, P. Moinat, T. Morales, J. Parmentier, A. Piacentini, M. Plu, A. Poupkou, S. Queguiner, L. Robertson, L. Rouïl, M. Schaap, A. Segers, M. Sofiev, L. Tarasson, M. Thomas, R. Timmermans, Á. Valdebenito, P. van Velthoven, R. van Versendaal, J. Vira, and A. Ung
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2777–2813,Short summary
This paper describes the air quality forecasting system over Europe put in place in the Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate projects. It provides daily and 4-day forecasts and analyses for the previous day for major gas and particulate pollutants and their main precursors. These products are based on a multi-model approach using seven state-of-the-art models developed in Europe. An evaluation of the performance of the system is discussed in the paper.
M. Sofiev, U. Berger, M. Prank, J. Vira, J. Arteta, J. Belmonte, K.-C. Bergmann, F. Chéroux, H. Elbern, E. Friese, C. Galan, R. Gehrig, D. Khvorostyanov, R. Kranenburg, U. Kumar, V. Marécal, F. Meleux, L. Menut, A.-M. Pessi, L. Robertson, O. Ritenberga, V. Rodinkova, A. Saarto, A. Segers, E. Severova, I. Sauliene, P. Siljamo, B. M. Steensen, E. Teinemaa, M. Thibaudon, and V.-H. Peuch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8115–8130,Short summary
The paper presents the first ensemble modelling experiment for forecasting the atmospheric dispersion of birch pollen in Europe. The study included 7 models of MACC-ENS tested over the season of 2010 and applied for 2013 in forecasting and reanalysis modes. The results were compared with observations in 11 countries, members of European Aeroallergen Network. The models successfully reproduced the timing of the unusually late season of 2013 but had more difficulties with absolute concentration.
L. Meng, R. Paudel, P. G. M. Hess, and N. M. Mahowald
Biogeosciences, 12, 4029–4049,
W. R. Wieder, A. S. Grandy, C. M. Kallenbach, P. G. Taylor, and G. B. Bonan
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 1789–1808,Short summary
Projecting biogeochemical responses to environmental change requires multi-scaled perspectives. However, microbes, the drivers of soil organic matter decomposition and stabilization, remain notably absent from models used to project carbon cycle–climate feedbacks. Here, we apply and evaluate representations of microbial functional diversity across scales and find that such representations may be critical to accurately project soil carbon dynamics in a changing world.
M. Bocquet, H. Elbern, H. Eskes, M. Hirtl, R. Žabkar, G. R. Carmichael, J. Flemming, A. Inness, M. Pagowski, J. L. Pérez Camaño, P. E. Saide, R. San Jose, M. Sofiev, J. Vira, A. Baklanov, C. Carnevale, G. Grell, and C. Seigneur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5325–5358,Short summary
Data assimilation is used in atmospheric chemistry models to improve air quality forecasts, construct re-analyses of concentrations, and perform inverse modeling. Coupled chemistry meteorology models (CCMM) are atmospheric chemistry models that simulate meteorological processes and chemical transformations jointly. We review here the current status of data assimilation in atmospheric chemistry models, with a particular focus on future prospects for data assimilation in CCMM.
P. Hess, D. Kinnison, and Q. Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2341–2365,Short summary
Using a series of model simulations, we find that at widespread NH extratropical locations, interannual tropospheric ozone variability is largely determined by the transport of ozone from the stratosphere. This has implications in the interpretation of measured tropospheric ozone variability in light of changes in the emissions of ozone precursors and in the response of tropospheric ozone to climate change.
J. Vira and M. Sofiev
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 191–203,
W. Sun, P. Hess, and B. Tian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11775–11790,
R. Q. Thomas and M. Williams
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2015–2037,
W. R. Wieder, A. S. Grandy, C. M. Kallenbach, and G. B. Bonan
Biogeosciences, 11, 3899–3917,
Y. P. Wang, B. C. Chen, W. R. Wieder, M. Leite, B. E. Medlyn, M. Rasmussen, M. J. Smith, F. B. Agusto, F. Hoffman, and Y. Q. Luo
Biogeosciences, 11, 1817–1831,
D. Lombardozzi, J. P. Sparks, and G. Bonan
Biogeosciences, 10, 6815–6831,
R. Q. Thomas, G. B. Bonan, and C. L. Goodale
Biogeosciences, 10, 3869–3887,
D. A. Belikov, S. Maksyutov, M. Krol, A. Fraser, M. Rigby, H. Bian, A. Agusti-Panareda, D. Bergmann, P. Bousquet, P. Cameron-Smith, M. P. Chipperfield, A. Fortems-Cheiney, E. Gloor, K. Haynes, P. Hess, S. Houweling, S. R. Kawa, R. M. Law, Z. Loh, L. Meng, P. I. Palmer, P. K. Patra, R. G. Prinn, R. Saito, and C. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1093–1114,
L. K. Emmons, P. G. Hess, J.-F. Lamarque, and G. G. Pfister
Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 1531–1542,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Modelling, TerrestrialThe climate benefit of carbon sequestrationExtending a land-surface model with Sphagnum moss to simulate responses of a northern temperate bog to whole ecosystem warming and elevated CO2Improving the representation of high-latitude vegetation distribution in dynamic global vegetation modelsRobust processing of airborne laser scans to plant area density profilesInvestigating the sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration to recent snow cover changes in Alaska using a satellite-based permafrost carbon modelHysteretic temperature sensitivity of wetland CH4 fluxes explained by substrate availability and microbial activityModelling the habitat preference of two key Sphagnum species in a poor fen as controlled by capitulum water contentEvaluating two soil carbon models within the global land surface model JSBACH using surface and spaceborne observations of atmospheric CO2Assessing impacts of selective logging on water, energy, and carbon budgets and ecosystem dynamics in Amazon forests using the Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem SimulatorMicrobial dormancy and its impacts on northern temperate and boreal terrestrial ecosystem carbon budgetImpacts of fertilization on grassland productivity and water quality across the European Alps: insights from a mechanistic modelHistorical CO2 emissions from land use and land cover change and their uncertaintyA Bayesian approach to evaluation of soil biogeochemical modelsRainfall intensification increases the contribution of rewetting pulses to soil heterotrophic respirationWide discrepancies in the magnitude and direction of modeled solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence in response to light conditionsModeling biological nitrogen fixation in global natural terrestrial ecosystemsThe impact of a simple representation of non-structural carbohydrates on the simulated response of tropical forests to droughtBenchmarking and parameter sensitivity of physiological and vegetation dynamics 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game-theoretic vegetation demographic modelThe importance of physiological, structural and trait responses to drought stress in driving spatial and temporal variation in GPP across Amazon forestsModelling the response of net primary productivity of the Zambezi teak forests to climate change along a rainfall gradient in ZambiaThree decades of simulated global terrestrial carbon fluxes from a data assimilation system confronted with different periods of observationsUsing a modified DNDC biogeochemical model to optimize field management of a multi-crop (cotton, wheat, and maize) system: a site-scale case study in northern ChinaGlobal NO and HONO emissions of biological soil crusts estimated by a process-based non-vascular vegetation modelEstimating the soil N2O emission intensity of croplands in northwest EuropeUnifying soil organic matter formation and persistence frameworks: the MEMS modelEvaluating the simulated mean soil carbon transit times by Earth system models using observationsModeling anaerobic soil organic carbon decomposition in Arctic polygon tundra: insights into soil geochemical influences on carbon mineralizationNeglecting plant–microbe symbioses leads to underestimation of modeled climate impactsA simple time-stepping scheme to simulate leaf area index, phenology, and gross primary production across deciduous broadleaf forests in the eastern United StatesQuantifying global N2O emissions from natural ecosystem soils using trait-based biogeochemistry modelsOptimal inverse estimation of ecosystem parameters from observations of carbon and energy fluxesEmergent relationships with respect to burned area in global satellite observations and fire-enabled vegetation modelsEvaluation of simulated ozone effects in forest ecosystems against biomass damage estimates from fumigation experimentsLeaf area index identified as a major source of variability in modeled CO2 fertilizationAn improved parameterization of leaf area index (LAI) seasonality in the 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AD 1850–2005
Carlos A. Sierra, Susan E. Crow, Martin Heimann, Holger Metzler, and Ernst-Detlef Schulze
Biogeosciences, 18, 1029–1048,Short summary
The climate benefit of carbon sequestration (CBS) is a metric developed to quantify avoided warming by two separate processes: the amount of carbon drawdown from the atmosphere and the time this carbon is stored in a reservoir. This metric can be useful for quantifying the role of forests and soils for climate change mitigation and to better quantify the benefits of carbon removals by sinks.
Xiaoying Shi, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Peter E. Thornton, Xiaofeng Xu, Fengming Yuan, Richard J. Norby, Anthony P. Walker, Jeffrey M. Warren, Jiafu Mao, Paul J. Hanson, Lin Meng, David Weston, and Natalie A. Griffiths
Biogeosciences, 18, 467–486,Short summary
The Sphagnum mosses are the important species of a wetland ecosystem. To better represent the peatland ecosystem, we introduced the moss species to the land model component (ELM) of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) by developing water content dynamics and nonvascular photosynthetic processes for moss. We tested the model against field observations and used the model to make projections of the site's carbon cycle under warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration scenarios.
Peter Horvath, Hui Tang, Rune Halvorsen, Frode Stordal, Lena Merete Tallaksen, Terje Koren Berntsen, and Anders Bryn
Biogeosciences, 18, 95–112,Short summary
We evaluated the performance of three methods for representing vegetation cover. Remote sensing provided the best match to a reference dataset, closely followed by distribution modelling (DM), whereas the dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) in CLM4.5BGCDV deviated strongly from the reference. Sensitivity tests show that use of threshold values for predictors identified by DM may improve DGVM performance. The results highlight the potential of using DM in the development of DGVMs.
Johan Arnqvist, Julia Freier, and Ebba Dellwik
Biogeosciences, 17, 5939–5952,Short summary
Data generated by airborne laser scans enable the characterization of surface vegetation for any application that might need it, such as forest management, modeling for numerical weather prediction, or wind energy estimation. In this work we present a new algorithm for calculating the vegetation density using data from airborne laser scans. The new routine is more robust than earlier methods, and an implementation in popular programming languages accompanies the article to support new users.
Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Jennifer D. Watts, Susan M. Natali, Donatella Zona, Junjie Liu, Masahito Ueyama, Hideki Kobayashi, Walter Oechel, and Charles E. Miller
Biogeosciences, 17, 5861–5882,Short summary
We developed a 1 km satellite-data-driven permafrost carbon model to evaluate soil respiration sensitivity to recent snow cover changes in Alaska. Results show earlier snowmelt enhances growing-season soil respiration and reduces annual carbon uptake, while early cold-season soil respiration is linked to the number of snow-free days after the land surface freezes. Our results also show nonnegligible influences of subgrid variability in surface conditions on model-simulated CO2 seasonal cycles.
Kuang-Yu Chang, William J. Riley, Patrick M. Crill, Robert F. Grant, and Scott R. Saleska
Biogeosciences, 17, 5849–5860,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is a strong greenhouse gas that can accelerate climate change and offset mitigation efforts. A key assumption embedded in many large-scale climate models is that ecosystem CH4 emissions can be estimated by fixed temperature relations. Here, we demonstrate that CH4 emissions cannot be parameterized by emergent temperature response alone due to variability driven by microbial and abiotic interactions. We also provide mechanistic understanding for observed CH4 emission hysteresis.
Jinnan Gong, Nigel Roulet, Steve Frolking, Heli Peltola, Anna M. Laine, Nicola Kokkonen, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 17, 5693–5719,Short summary
In this study, which combined a field and lab experiment with modelling, we developed a process-based model for simulating dynamics within peatland moss communities. The model is useful because Sphagnum mosses are key engineers in peatlands; their response to changes in climate via altered hydrology controls the feedback of peatland biogeochemistry to climate. Our work showed that moss capitulum traits related to water retention are the mechanism controlling moss layer dynamics in peatlands.
Tea Thum, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Aki Tsuruta, Tuula Aalto, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Jari Liski, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Tiina Markkanen, Julia Pongratz, Yukio Yoshida, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 17, 5721–5743,Short summary
Global vegetation models are important tools in estimating the impacts of global climate change. The fate of soil carbon is of the upmost importance as its emissions will enhance the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. To evaluate the skill of global vegetation models to model the soil carbon and its responses to environmental factors, it is important to use different data sources. We evaluated two different soil carbon models by using atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.
Maoyi Huang, Yi Xu, Marcos Longo, Michael Keller, Ryan G. Knox, Charles D. Koven, and Rosie A. Fisher
Biogeosciences, 17, 4999–5023,Short summary
The Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) is enhanced to mimic the ecological, biophysical, and biogeochemical processes following a logging event. The model can specify the timing and aerial extent of logging events; determine the survivorship of cohorts in the disturbed forest; and modifying the biomass, coarse woody debris, and litter pools. This study lays the foundation to simulate land use change and forest degradation in FATES as part of an Earth system model.
Junrong Zha and Qianla Zhuang
Biogeosciences, 17, 4591–4610,Short summary
This study incorporated microbial dormancy into a detailed microbe-based biogeochemistry model to examine the fate of Arctic carbon budgets under changing climate conditions. Compared with the model without microbial dormancy, the new model estimated a much higher carbon accumulation in the region during the last and current century. This study highlights the importance of the representation of microbial dormancy in earth system models to adequately quantify the carbon dynamics in the Arctic.
Martina Botter, Matthias Zeeman, Paolo Burlando, and Simone Fatichi
Revised manuscript accepted for BG
Thomas Gasser, Léa Crepin, Yann Quilcaille, Richard A. Houghton, Philippe Ciais, and Michael Obersteiner
Biogeosciences, 17, 4075–4101,Short summary
We combine several lines of evidence to provide a robust estimate of historical CO2 emissions from land use change. Our novel approach leads to reduced uncertainty and identifies key remaining sources of uncertainty and discrepancy. We also quantify the carbon removal by natural ecosystems that would have occurred if these ecosystems had not been destroyed (mostly via deforestation). Over the last decade, this foregone carbon sink amounted to about 50 % of the actual emissions.
Hua W. Xie, Adriana L. Romero-Olivares, Michele Guindani, and Steven D. Allison
Biogeosciences, 17, 4043–4057,Short summary
Soil biogeochemical models (SBMs) are needed to predict future soil CO2 emissions levels, but we presently lack statistically rigorous frameworks for assessing the predictive utility of SBMs. In this study, we demonstrate one possible approach to evaluating SBMs by comparing the fits of two models to soil CO2 respiration data with recently developed Bayesian statistical goodness-of-fit metrics. Our results demonstrate that our approach is a viable one for continued development and refinement.
Stefano Manzoni, Arjun Chakrawal, Thomas Fischer, Joshua P. Schimel, Amilcare Porporato, and Giulia Vico
Biogeosciences, 17, 4007–4023,Short summary
Carbon dioxide is produced by soil microbes through respiration, which is particularly fast when soils are moistened by rain. Will respiration increase with future more intense rains and longer dry spells? With a mathematical model, we show that wetter conditions increase respiration. In contrast, if rainfall totals stay the same, but rain comes all at once after long dry spells, the average respiration will not change, but the contribution of the respiration bursts after rain will increase.
Nicholas C. Parazoo, Troy Magney, Alex Norton, Brett Raczka, Cédric Bacour, Fabienne Maignan, Ian Baker, Yongguang Zhang, Bo Qiu, Mingjie Shi, Natasha MacBean, Dave R. Bowling, Sean P. Burns, Peter D. Blanken, Jochen Stutz, Katja Grossmann, and Christian Frankenberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 3733–3755,Short summary
Satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) provide a global measure of photosynthetic change. This enables scientists to better track carbon cycle responses to environmental change and tune biochemical processes in vegetation models for an improved simulation of future change. We use tower-instrumented SIF measurements and controlled model experiments to assess the state of the art in terrestrial biosphere SIF modeling and find a wide range of sensitivities to light.
Tong Yu and Qianlai Zhuang
Biogeosciences, 17, 3643–3657,Short summary
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) plays an important role in the global nitrogen cycle. However, the fixation rate has usually been measured or estimated at a particular observational site. This study develops a BNF model considering the symbiotic relationship between legume plants and bacteria. The model is extensively calibrated with site-level observational data and then extrapolated to the global terrestrial ecosystems to quantify the fixation rate in the 1990s.
Simon Jones, Lucy Rowland, Peter Cox, Deborah Hemming, Andy Wiltshire, Karina Williams, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Junjie Liu, Antonio C. L. da Costa, Patrick Meir, Maurizio Mencuccini, and Anna B. Harper
Biogeosciences, 17, 3589–3612,Short summary
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are an important set of molecules that help plants to grow and respire when photosynthesis is restricted by extreme climate events. In this paper we present a simple model of NSC storage and assess the effect that it has on simulations of vegetation at the ecosystem scale. Our model has the potential to significantly change predictions of plant behaviour in global vegetation models, which would have large implications for predictions of the future climate.
Charles D. Koven, Ryan G. Knox, Rosie A. Fisher, Jeffrey Q. Chambers, Bradley O. Christoffersen, Stuart J. Davies, Matteo Detto, Michael C. Dietze, Boris Faybishenko, Jennifer Holm, Maoyi Huang, Marlies Kovenock, Lara M. Kueppers, Gregory Lemieux, Elias Massoud, Nathan G. McDowell, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Jessica F. Needham, Richard J. Norby, Thomas Powell, Alistair Rogers, Shawn P. Serbin, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Abigail L. S. Swann, Charuleka Varadharajan, Anthony P. Walker, S. Joseph Wright, and Chonggang Xu
Biogeosciences, 17, 3017–3044,Short summary
Tropical forests play a crucial role in governing climate feedbacks, and are incredibly diverse ecosystems, yet most Earth system models do not take into account the diversity of plant traits in these forests and how this diversity may govern feedbacks. We present an approach to represent diverse competing plant types within Earth system models, test this approach at a tropical forest site, and explore how the representation of disturbance and competition governs traits of the forest community.
Robert F. Grant, Sisi Lin, and Guillermo Hernandez-Ramirez
Biogeosciences, 17, 2021–2039,Short summary
Nitrification inhibitors (NI) have been shown to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N20), a potent greenhouse gas, from fertilizer and manure applied to agricultural fields. However difficulties in measuring N20 emissions limit our ability to estimate these reductions. Here we propose and test a mathematical model that may allow us to estimate these reductions under diverse site conditions. These estimates will be useful in determining emission factors for NI-amended fertilizer and manure.
Moritz Laub, Michael Scott Demyan, Yvonne Funkuin Nkwain, Sergey Blagodatsky, Thomas Kätterer, Hans-Peter Piepho, and Georg Cadisch
Biogeosciences, 17, 1393–1413,Short summary
Loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere represents a global challenge. We tested an innovative way to reduce the high uncertainty related to turnover of carbon stored in soils. With the use of infrared spectra of soils from model bare fallow systems, we were able to better assess the current state of soil carbon and predict its behavior in overdecadal time spans. In agreement with recent studies, carbon turnover seems faster than earlier assumed, with potential for high loss under mismanagement.
Genki Katata, Rüdiger Grote, Matthias Mauder, Matthias J. Zeeman, and Masakazu Ota
Biogeosciences, 17, 1071–1085,Short summary
In this paper, we demonstrate that high physiological activity levels during the extremely warm winter are allocated into the below-ground biomass and only to a minor extent used for additional plant growth during early spring. This process is so far largely unaccounted for in scenario analysis using global terrestrial biosphere models, and it may lead to carbon accumulation in the soil and/or carbon loss from the soil as a response to global warming.
Karun Pandit, Hamid Dashti, Andrew T. Hudak, Nancy F. Glenn, Alejandro N. Flores, and Douglas J. Shinneman
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Our study explores the application of a dynamic global vegetation model, Ecosystem Demography (EDv2.2) to understand temporal dynamics of ecosystem under alternate fire regimes and the spatial behavior of post-fire restoration. Point-based simulations suggested dominance of shrub in a non-fire scenario and contrasting phases of shrub and C3 grass growth for a fire scenario. Regional simulations showed a decline in GPP for fire affected areas for initial couple of years before showing recovery.
Jinyan Yang, Belinda E. Medlyn, Martin G. De Kauwe, Remko A. Duursma, Mingkai Jiang, Dushan Kumarathunge, Kristine Y. Crous, Teresa E. Gimeno, Agnieszka Wujeska-Klause, and David S. Ellsworth
Biogeosciences, 17, 265–279,Short summary
This study addressed a major knowledge gap in the response of forest productivity to elevated CO2. We first quantified forest productivity of an evergreen forest under both ambient and elevated CO2, using a model constrained by in situ measurements. The simulation showed the canopy productivity response to elevated CO2 to be smaller than that at the leaf scale due to different limiting processes. This finding provides a key reference for the understanding of CO2 impacts on forest ecosystems.
Grace Pold, Seeta A. Sistla, and Kristen M. DeAngelis
Biogeosciences, 16, 4875–4888,Short summary
The litter decomposition model DEMENT was run under ambient temperatures and with 5 °C; of warming. We found that the loss of litter carbon to the atmosphere as CO2 was exacerbated by warming when the microbes in the model differed in their temperature responses, compared to when all microbes responded identically to warming. Our results therefore indicate that predicted changes in litter carbon stocks are sensitive to heterogeneity in key parameters of soil decomposer physiology.
Ensheng Weng, Ray Dybzinski, Caroline E. Farrior, and Stephen W. Pacala
Biogeosciences, 16, 4577–4599,Short summary
Our study illustrates that the competition processes for light and soil resources in a game-theoretic vegetation demographic model can substantially change the prediction of the contribution of ecosystems to the global carbon cycle. The model that tracks the competitive allocation strategies can generate significantly different ecosystem-level predictions than those with fixed allocation strategies.
Sophie Flack-Prain, Patrick Meir, Yadvinder Malhi, Thomas Luke Smallman, and Mathew Williams
Biogeosciences, 16, 4463–4484,Short summary
Across the Amazon rainforest, trees take in carbon through photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis across the basin is threatened by predicted shifts in rainfall patterns. To unpick how changes in rainfall affect photosynthesis, we use a model which combines climate data with our knowledge of photosynthesis and other plant processes. We find that stomatal constraints are less important, and instead shifts in leaf surface area and leaf properties drive changes in photosynthesis with rainfall.
Justine Ngoma, Maarten C. Braakhekke, Bart Kruijt, Eddy Moors, Iwan Supit, James H. Speer, Royd Vinya, and Rik Leemans
Biogeosciences, 16, 3853–3867,Short summary
The Zambezi teak forests are a source of raw material for the timber industry. Through application of the LPJ-GUESS vegetation model, we determined the forests' response to climate change at the wetter Kabompo, drier Sesheke, and intermediate Namwala sites in Zambia. While increased CO2 concentration enhances forests' productivity at Kabompo and Namwala, the decreased rainfall will reduce forests' productivity at Sesheke by the year 2099, resulting in reduced raw material for saw millers.
Karel Castro-Morales, Gregor Schürmann, Christoph Köstler, Christian Rödenbeck, Martin Heimann, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 16, 3009–3032,Short summary
To obtain nearly 30 years of global terrestrial carbon fluxes, we simultaneously incorporated in a land surface model three different time periods of two observational data sets: absorbed photosynthetic active radiation and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. One decade of data is enough to improve the modeled long-term trends and seasonal amplitudes of the assimilated variables, particularly in boreal regions. This model has the potential to provide short-term predictions of land carbon fluxes.
Wei Zhang, Chunyan Liu, Xunhua Zheng, Kai Wang, Feng Cui, Rui Wang, Siqi Li, Zhisheng Yao, and Jiang Zhu
Biogeosciences, 16, 2905–2922,Short summary
A biogeochemical process model-based approach for screening the best management practices (BMPs) of a three-crop system was proposed. The BMPs are the management alternatives with the lowest negative impact potentials that still satisfy all given constraints. Three BMP alternatives with overlapping uncertainties of simulated NIPs were screened from 6000 scenarios using the modified DNDC95 model, which could sustain crop yields, enlarge SOC stock, mitigate GHG, and reduce other nitrogen losses.
Philipp Porada, Alexandra Tamm, Jose Raggio, Yafang Cheng, Axel Kleidon, Ulrich Pöschl, and Bettina Weber
Biogeosciences, 16, 2003–2031,Short summary
The trace gases NO and HONO are crucial for atmospheric chemistry. It has been suggested that biological soil crusts in drylands contribute substantially to global NO and HONO emissions, based on empirical upscaling of laboratory and field observations. Here we apply an alternative, process-based modeling approach to predict these emissions. We find that biological soil crusts emit globally significant amounts of NO and HONO, which also vary depending on the type of biological soil crust.
Vasileios Myrgiotis, Mathew Williams, Robert M. Rees, and Cairistiona F. E. Topp
Biogeosciences, 16, 1641–1655,Short summary
This study focuses on a northwestern European cropland region and shows that the type of crop growing on a soil has notable effects on the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O – a greenhouse gas) from that soil. It was found that N2O emissions from soils under oilseed cultivation are significantly higher than soils under cereal cultivation. This variation is mostly explained by the fact that oilseeds require more nitrogen (fertiliser) than cereals, especially at early crop growth stages.
Andy D. Robertson, Keith Paustian, Stephen Ogle, Matthew D. Wallenstein, Emanuele Lugato, and M. Francesca Cotrufo
Biogeosciences, 16, 1225–1248,Short summary
Predicting how soils respond to varying environmental conditions or land-use change is essential if we aim to promote sustainable management practices and help mitigate climate change. Here, we present a new ecosystem-scale soil model (MEMS v1) that is built upon recent, novel findings and can be run using very few inputs. The model accurately predicted soil carbon stocks for more than 8000 sites across Europe, ranging from cold, wet forests in sandy soils to hot, dry grasslands in clays.
Jing Wang, Jianyang Xia, Xuhui Zhou, Kun Huang, Jian Zhou, Yuanyuan Huang, Lifen Jiang, Xia Xu, Junyi Liang, Ying-Ping Wang, Xiaoli Cheng, and Yiqi Luo
Biogeosciences, 16, 917–926,Short summary
Soil is critical in mitigating climate change mainly because soil carbon turns over much slower in soils than vegetation and the atmosphere. However, Earth system models (ESMs) have large uncertainty in simulating carbon dynamics due to their biased estimation of soil carbon transit time (τsoil). Here, the τsoil estimates from 12 ESMs that participated in CMIP5 were evaluated by a database of measured τsoil. We detected a large spatial variation in measured τsoil across the globe.
Jianqiu Zheng, Peter E. Thornton, Scott L. Painter, Baohua Gu, Stan D. Wullschleger, and David E. Graham
Biogeosciences, 16, 663–680,Short summary
Arctic warming exposes soil carbon to increased degradation, increasing CO2 and CH4 emissions. Models underrepresent anaerobic decomposition that predominates wet soils. We simulated microbial growth, pH regulation, and anaerobic carbon decomposition in a new model, parameterized and validated with prior soil incubation data. The model accurately simulated CO2 production and strong influences of water content, pH, methanogen biomass, and competing electron acceptors on CH4 production.
Mingjie Shi, Joshua B. Fisher, Richard P. Phillips, and Edward R. Brzostek
Biogeosciences, 16, 457–465,Short summary
The ability of plants to slow climate change by taking up carbon hinges in part on there being ample soil nitrogen. We used a model that accounts for the carbon cost to plants of supporting nitrogen-acquiring microbes to explore how nitrogen limitation affects climate. Our model predicted that nitrogen limitation will enhance temperature and decrease precipitation; thus, our results suggest that carbon spent to support nitrogen-acquiring microbes is a critical component of the Earth's climate.
Qinchuan Xin, Yongjiu Dai, and Xiaoping Liu
Biogeosciences, 16, 467–484,Short summary
Terrestrial biosphere models that simulate both leaf dynamics and canopy photosynthesis are required to understand vegetation–climate interactions. A time-stepping scheme is proposed to simulate leaf area index, phenology, and gross primary production via climate variables. The method performs well on simulating deciduous broadleaf forests across the eastern United States; it provides a simplified and improved version of the growing production day model for use in land surface modeling.
Tong Yu and Qianlai Zhuang
Biogeosciences, 16, 207–222,
Debsunder Dutta, David S. Schimel, Ying Sun, Christiaan van der Tol, and Christian Frankenberg
Biogeosciences, 16, 77–103,Short summary
Canopy structural and leaf photosynthesis parameterizations are often fixed over time in Earth system models and represent large sources of uncertainty in predictions of carbon and water fluxes. We develop a moving window nonlinear optimal parameter inversion framework using constraining flux and satellite reflectance observations. The results demonstrate the applicability of the approach for error reduction and capturing the seasonal variability of key ecosystem parameters.
Matthias Forkel, Niels Andela, Sandy P. Harrison, Gitta Lasslop, Margreet van Marle, Emilio Chuvieco, Wouter Dorigo, Matthew Forrest, Stijn Hantson, Angelika Heil, Fang Li, Joe Melton, Stephen Sitch, Chao Yue, and Almut Arneth
Biogeosciences, 16, 57–76,Short summary
Weather, humans, and vegetation control the occurrence of fires. In this study we find that global fire–vegetation models underestimate the strong increase of burned area with higher previous-season plant productivity in comparison to satellite-derived relationships.
Martina Franz, Rocio Alonso, Almut Arneth, Patrick Büker, Susana Elvira, Giacomo Gerosa, Lisa Emberson, Zhaozhong Feng, Didier Le Thiec, Riccardo Marzuoli, Elina Oksanen, Johan Uddling, Matthew Wilkinson, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 15, 6941–6957,Short summary
Four published ozone damage functions previously used in terrestrial biosphere models were evaluated regarding their ability to simulate observed biomass dose–response relationships using the O-CN model. Neither damage function was able to reproduce the observed ozone-induced biomass reductions. Calibrating a plant-functional-type-specific relationship between accumulated ozone uptake and leaf-level photosynthesis did lead to a good agreement between observed and modelled ozone damage.
Qianyu Li, Xingjie Lu, Yingping Wang, Xin Huang, Peter M. Cox, and Yiqi Luo
Biogeosciences, 15, 6909–6925,Short summary
Land-surface models have been widely used to predict the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. A better understanding of model mechanisms that govern terrestrial ecosystem responses to rising atmosphere [CO2] is needed. Our study for the first time shows that the expansion of leaf area under rising [CO2] is the most important response for the stimulation of land carbon accumulation by a land-surface model: CABLE. Processes related to leaf area should be better calibrated.
Ali Asaadi, Vivek K. Arora, Joe R. Melton, and Paul Bartlett
Biogeosciences, 15, 6885–6907,Short summary
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs), which play a central role in a plant's life processes and its response to environmental conditions, are typically not included in terrestrial biogeochemistry models used in Earth system models (ESMs). In this study, we include NSC pools in the framework of the land component of the Canadian ESM and show how they help address the long-standing problem of delayed leaf phenology.
Xingjie Lu, Ying-Ping Wang, Yiqi Luo, and Lifen Jiang
Biogeosciences, 15, 6559–6572,Short summary
How long does C cycle through terrestrial ecosystems is a critical question for understanding land C sequestration capacity under future rising atmosphere [CO2] and climate warming. Under climate change, previous conventional concepts with a steady-state assumption will no longer be suitable for a non-steady state. Our results using the new concept, C transit time, suggest more significant responses in terrestrial C cycle under rising [CO2] and climate warming.
Istem Fer, Ryan Kelly, Paul R. Moorcroft, Andrew D. Richardson, Elizabeth M. Cowdery, and Michael C. Dietze
Biogeosciences, 15, 5801–5830,Short summary
The computer models we use to understand and forecast the ecosystem changes have multiple components that determine their outcomes. Due to our limited observation capacities, these components bear uncertainties that in return affect our predictions. While there are techniques for reducing these uncertainties, they are not applicable to every model due to computational and statistical barriers. This research presents a method that lowers those barriers and allows us to improve model predictions.
Johannes Meyerholt and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 15, 5677–5698,Short summary
Terrestrial biosphere models employ various representations of ecosystem nitrogen loss, some based on soil N availability, some based on net N mineralization. We show in local and global simulations that this variety leads to pronounced uncertainty in the predicted magnitude and sign of ecosystem N loss change under elevated CO2. Suprisingly, this uncertainty barely affects predicted carbon storage responses to elevated CO2, illustrating the need for new benchmarks especially in the boreal zone.
Eunjee Lee, Fan-Wei Zeng, Randal D. Koster, Brad Weir, Lesley E. Ott, and Benjamin Poulter
Biogeosciences, 15, 5635–5652,Short summary
Land carbon fluxes are controlled in part by the responses of terrestrial ecosystems to atmospheric conditions near the Earth's surface. This study offers a comprehensive evaluation of the consequences of multiple facets of spatiotemporal variability in atmospheric CO2 for carbon cycle dynamics. Globally, consideration of the diurnal CO2 variability reduces the gross primary production and net land carbon uptake. The relative contributions of other variability vary regionally and seasonally.
Junrong Zha and Qianlai Zhuang
Biogeosciences, 15, 5621–5634,Short summary
This study used a detailed microbial-based soil decomposition biogeochemistry model to examine the fate of much arctic soil carbon under changing climate conditions. We found that the detailed microbial decomposition biogeochemistry model estimated a much lower carbon accumulation in the region during this century. The amount of soil carbon considered in the 21st-century simulations determines the regional carbon sink and source strengths, regardless of the complexity of models used.
Fernando Esteban Moyano, Nadezda Vasilyeva, and Lorenzo Menichetti
Biogeosciences, 15, 5031–5045,Short summary
Soils are complex systems storing large quantities of carbon in the form of organic matter. Understanding how climatic drivers such as temperature and moisture influence the decomposition and thus the turnover of this carbon is crucial for predicting feedbacks between climate and soils. This study aims at improving our mechanistic understanding of how these factors interact to drive decomposition and thus modify the capacity of soils to emit or capture atmospheric CO2.
Nemesio J. Rodríguez-Fernández, Arnaud Mialon, Stephane Mermoz, Alexandre Bouvet, Philippe Richaume, Ahmad Al Bitar, Amen Al-Yaari, Martin Brandt, Thomas Kaminski, Thuy Le Toan, Yann H. Kerr, and Jean-Pierre Wigneron
Biogeosciences, 15, 4627–4645,Short summary
Existing global scale above-ground biomass (AGB) maps are made at very high spatial resolution collecting data during several years. In this paper we discuss the use of a new data set from the SMOS satellite: the vegetation optical depth estimated from low microwave frequencies. It is shown that this new data set is highly sensitive to AGB. The spacial resolution of SMOS is coarse (40 km) but the new data set can be used to monitor AGB variations with time due to its high revisit frequency.
Victoria Naipal, Philippe Ciais, Yilong Wang, Ronny Lauerwald, Bertrand Guenet, and Kristof Van Oost
Biogeosciences, 15, 4459–4480,Short summary
We seek to better understand the links between soil erosion by rainfall and the global carbon (C) cycle by coupling a soil erosion model to the C cycle of a land surface model. With this modeling approach we evaluate the effects of soil removal on soil C stocks in the presence of climate change and land use change. We find that accelerated soil erosion leads to a potential SOC removal flux of 74 ±18 Pg of C globally over the period AD 1850–2005, with significant impacts on the land C balance.
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Nitrogen deposition and fertilizer can change how much carbon is stored in plants and soils. Understanding how much added nitrogen is recovered in plants or soils is critical to estimating the size of the future land carbon sink. We compared how nitrogen additions are recovered in modeled soil and plant stocks against data from long-term nitrogen addition experiments. We found that the model simulates recovery of added nitrogen into soils through a different process than found in the field.
Nitrogen deposition and fertilizer can change how much carbon is stored in plants and soils....