Articles | Volume 18, issue 8
Research article 20 Apr 2021
Research article | 20 Apr 2021
Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from alder, aspen and spruce short-rotation forest plantations in the United Kingdom
Gemma Purser et al.
No articles found.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Matthias Sörgel, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Biogeosciences, 18, 2809–2825,Short summary
The exchange of the gas ammonia between the atmosphere and the surface is an important biogeochemical process, but little is known of this exchange for certain ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest. This study took measurements of ammonia exchange over an Amazon rainforest site and subsequently modelled the observed deposition and emission patterns. We observed emissions of ammonia from the rainforest, which can be simulated accurately by using a canopy resistance modelling approach.
Julia Drewer, Melissa M. Leduning, Robert I. Griffiths, Tim Goodall, Peter E. Levy, Nicholas Cowan, Edward Comynn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Justin Sentian, Noreen Majalap, and Ute M. Skiba
Biogeosciences, 18, 1559–1575,Short summary
In Southeast Asia, oil palm plantations have largely replaced tropical forests. The impact of this shift in land use on greenhouse gas fluxes and soil microbial communities remains uncertain. We have found emission rates of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide on mineral soil to be higher from oil palm plantations than logged forest over a 2-year study and concluded that emissions have increased over the last 42 years in Sabah, with the proportion of emissions from plantations increasing.
Sirwan Yamulki, Jack Forster, Georgios Xenakis, Adam Ash, Jacqui Brunt, Mike Perks, and James I. L. Morison
Revised manuscript accepted for BG
Y. Sim Tang, Chris R. Flechard, Ulrich Dämmgen, Sonja Vidic, Vesna Djuricic, Marta Mitosinkova, Hilde T. Uggerud, Maria J. Sanz, Ivan Simmons, Ulrike Dragosits, Eiko Nemitz, Marsailidh Twigg, Netty van Dijk, Yannick Fauvel, Francisco Sanz, Martin Ferm, Cinzia Perrino, Maria Catrambone, David Leaver, Christine F. Braban, J. Neil Cape, Mathew R. Heal, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 875–914,Short summary
The DELTA® approach provided speciated, monthly data on reactive gases (NH3, HNO3, SO2, HCl) and aerosols (NH4+, NO3−, SO42−, Cl−, Na+) across Europe (2006–2010). Differences in spatial and temporal concentrations and patterns between geographic regions and four ecosystem types were captured. NH3 and NH4NO3 were dominant components, highlighting their growing relative importance in ecosystem impacts (acidification, eutrophication) and human health effects (NH3 as a precursor to PM2.5) in Europe.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Matthias Sörgel, Mathew R. Heal, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Marta Sá, Christopher Pöhlker, Jost Lavric, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15551–15584,Short summary
The Amazon rainforest is a unique
laboratoryto study the processes which govern the exchange of gases and aerosols to and from the atmosphere. This study investigated these processes by measuring the atmospheric concentrations of trace gases and particles at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory. We found that the long-range transport of pollutants can affect the atmospheric composition above the Amazon rainforest and that the gases ammonia and nitrous acid can be emitted from the rainforest.
James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Chiara Di Marco, Neil Mullinger, James Allan, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ruthambara Joshi, Mathew R. Heal, W. Joe F. Acton, Nick Hewitt, Pawel Misztal, Will Drysdale, Tuhin K. Mandal, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We present the first real-time composition of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in Old Delhi using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. Seasonal analysis shows peak concentrations occur during the post-monsoon and novel-tracers reveal the largest sources are a combination of local open and regional crop residue burning. Strong links between increased chloride aerosol concentrations and burning sources of PM1 suggest burning sources are responsible for the post-monsoon chloride peak.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Upasana Panda, Eoghan Darbyshire, James M. Cash, Rutambhara Joshi, Ben Langford, Chiara F. Di Marco, Neil Mullinger, W. Joe F. Acton, Will Drysdale, Eiko Nemitz, Michael Flynn, Aristeidis Voliotis, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, James Lee, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Mathew R. Heal, Sachin S. Gunthe, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Siddhartha Singh, Vijay Soni, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The work presented in this manuscript shows the first multisite online measurements of PM1 in Delhi, India. It covers measurements over different seasons in Old and New Delhi during 2018. OA source apportionment was performed using PMF. Traffic showed to be the main primary aerosol source for both OA and BC, as seen with the PMF analysis and aethalometer model analysis. This indicates that in Delhi control of primary traffic exhaust emissions would make a significant reduction to air pollution.
Hannah L. Walker, Mathew R. Heal, Christine F. Braban, Mhairi Coyle, Sarah R. Leeson, Ivan Simmons, Matthew R. Jones, Richard Kift, and Marsailidh M. Twigg
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Quantifying local photolysis rates are critical to understanding local air quality. We present the first year of a long-term filter radiometer measurement dataset in the UK (Auchencorth Moss, SE Scotland), and demonstrate the potential application of this data to account for variations in local meteorology (e.g. clouds and aerosols) in atmospheric models, which otherwise increase computational cost. The scientific and policy value of these measurements are also emphasised.
Chris R. Flechard, Andreas Ibrom, Ute M. Skiba, Wim de Vries, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Nancy B. Dise, Janne F. J. Korhonen, Nina Buchmann, Arnaud Legout, David Simpson, Maria J. Sanz, Marc Aubinet, Denis Loustau, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Ivan A. Janssens, Mari Pihlatie, Ralf Kiese, Jan Siemens, André-Jean Francez, Jürgen Augustin, Andrej Varlagin, Janusz Olejnik, Radosław Juszczak, Mika Aurela, Daniel Berveiller, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Ulrich Dämmgen, Nicolas Delpierre, Vesna Djuricic, Julia Drewer, Eric Dufrêne, Werner Eugster, Yannick Fauvel, David Fowler, Arnoud Frumau, André Granier, Patrick Gross, Yannick Hamon, Carole Helfter, Arjan Hensen, László Horváth, Barbara Kitzler, Bart Kruijt, Werner L. Kutsch, Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Michal V. Marek, Giorgio Matteucci, Marta Mitosinkova, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Kim Pilegaard, Gabriel Pita, Francisco Sanz, Jan K. Schjoerring, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Y. Sim Tang, Hilde Uggerud, Marek Urbaniak, Netty van Dijk, Timo Vesala, Sonja Vidic, Caroline Vincke, Tamás Weidinger, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Eiko Nemitz, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1583–1620,Short summary
Experimental evidence from a network of 40 monitoring sites in Europe suggests that atmospheric nitrogen deposition to forests and other semi-natural vegetation impacts the carbon sequestration rates in ecosystems, as well as the net greenhouse gas balance including other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Excess nitrogen deposition in polluted areas also leads to other environmental impacts such as nitrogen leaching to groundwater and other pollutant gaseous emissions.
Chris R. Flechard, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Wim de Vries, Andreas Ibrom, Nina Buchmann, Nancy B. Dise, Ivan A. Janssens, Johan Neirynck, Leonardo Montagnani, Andrej Varlagin, Denis Loustau, Arnaud Legout, Klaudia Ziemblińska, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Julia Drewer, Werner Eugster, André-Jean Francez, Radosław Juszczak, Barbara Kitzler, Werner L. Kutsch, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Giorgio Matteucci, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Janusz Olejnik, Maria J. Sanz, Jan Siemens, Timo Vesala, Caroline Vincke, Eiko Nemitz, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Ute M. Skiba, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1621–1654,Short summary
Nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere to unfertilized terrestrial vegetation such as forests can increase carbon dioxide uptake and favour carbon sequestration by ecosystems. However the data from observational networks are difficult to interpret in terms of a carbon-to-nitrogen response, because there are a number of other confounding factors, such as climate, soil physical properties and fertility, and forest age. We propose a model-based method to untangle the different influences.
Zongbo Shi, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Roy M. Harrison, Sue Grimmond, Siyao Yue, Tong Zhu, James Lee, Yiqun Han, Matthias Demuzere, Rachel E. Dunmore, Lujie Ren, Di Liu, Yuanlin Wang, Oliver Wild, James Allan, W. Joe Acton, Janet Barlow, Benjamin Barratt, David Beddows, William J. Bloss, Giulia Calzolai, David Carruthers, David C. Carslaw, Queenie Chan, Lia Chatzidiakou, Yang Chen, Leigh Crilley, Hugh Coe, Tie Dai, Ruth Doherty, Fengkui Duan, Pingqing Fu, Baozhu Ge, Maofa Ge, Daobo Guan, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Kebin He, Mathew Heal, Dwayne Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Michael Hollaway, Min Hu, Dongsheng Ji, Xujiang Jiang, Rod Jones, Markus Kalberer, Frank J. Kelly, Louisa Kramer, Ben Langford, Chun Lin, Alastair C. Lewis, Jie Li, Weijun Li, Huan Liu, Junfeng Liu, Miranda Loh, Keding Lu, Franco Lucarelli, Graham Mann, Gordon McFiggans, Mark R. Miller, Graham Mills, Paul Monk, Eiko Nemitz, Fionna O'Connor, Bin Ouyang, Paul I. Palmer, Carl Percival, Olalekan Popoola, Claire Reeves, Andrew R. Rickard, Longyi Shao, Guangyu Shi, Dominick Spracklen, David Stevenson, Yele Sun, Zhiwei Sun, Shu Tao, Shengrui Tong, Qingqing Wang, Wenhua Wang, Xinming Wang, Xuejun Wang, Zifang Wang, Lianfang Wei, Lisa Whalley, Xuefang Wu, Zhijun Wu, Pinhua Xie, Fumo Yang, Qiang Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Yuanhang Zhang, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7519–7546,Short summary
APHH-Beijing is a collaborative international research programme to study the sources, processes and health effects of air pollution in Beijing. This introduction to the special issue provides an overview of (i) the APHH-Beijing programme, (ii) the measurement and modelling activities performed as part of it and (iii) the air quality and meteorological conditions during joint intensive field campaigns as a core activity within APHH-Beijing.
Ksenia Aleksankina, Stefan Reis, Massimo Vieno, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2881–2898,Short summary
Atmospheric chemistry transport models are widely used to underpin policies to mitigate the detrimental effects of air pollution on human health and ecosystems. Understanding the level of confidence in model predictions is thus vital. We present a comprehensive approach for uncertainty assessment and global variance-based sensitivity analysis to propagate uncertainty from model input data and identify the extent to which uncertainty in different emissions drives the model output uncertainty.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Marsailidh M. Twigg, Nicholas Cowan, Matthew R. Jones, Sarah R. Leeson, William J. Bloss, Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh Crilley, Matthias Sörgel, Meinrat Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16953–16978,Short summary
Understanding the impact of agricultural activities on the atmosphere requires more measurements of inorganic trace gases and associated aerosol counterparts. This research presents 1 month of measurements above agricultural grassland during a period of fertiliser application. It was found that emissions of the important trace gases ammonia and nitrous acid peaked after fertiliser use and that the velocity at which the measured aerosols were deposited was dependent upon their size.
Y. Sim Tang, Christine F. Braban, Ulrike Dragosits, Ivan Simmons, David Leaver, Netty van Dijk, Janet Poskitt, Sarah Thacker, Manisha Patel, Heather Carter, M. Glória Pereira, Patrick O. Keenan, Alan Lawlor, Christopher Conolly, Keith Vincent, Mathew R. Heal, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16293–16324,Short summary
A unique long-term dataset (1999–2015) of atmospheric gases (HNO3, SO2, HCl, NH3) and aerosol (NO3-, SO42-, Cl-, NH4+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) from two integrated UK networks (>12 sites) was analysed to assess spatial, temporal, and long-term trends. A change in particulate phase from (NH4)2SO4 to NH4NO3 is seen, with indications that a larger fraction of the reduced and oxidized N is remaining in the gas phase. Key pollutant events captured highlight influence of trans-boundary transport into the UK.
Ksenia Aleksankina, Mathew R. Heal, Anthony J. Dore, Marcel Van Oijen, and Stefan Reis
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1653–1664,Short summary
Atmospheric chemistry transport models are widely used to underpin policy decisions. We present a global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis approach to understand how uncertainty in input emissions of SO2, NOx, and NH3 drives uncertainties in model outputs, using the FRAME model as an example. We interpret results for input emissions uncertainty ranges reported by the national emissions inventory. Variance-based measures of sensitivity were used to apportion model output uncertainty.
Riinu Ots, Mathew R. Heal, Dominique E. Young, Leah R. Williams, James D. Allan, Eiko Nemitz, Chiara Di Marco, Anais Detournay, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Hugh Coe, Scott C. Herndon, Ian A. Mackenzie, David C. Green, Jeroen J. P. Kuenen, Stefan Reis, and Massimo Vieno
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4497–4518,Short summary
The main hypothesis of this paper is that people who live in large cities in the UK disobey the
smoke control lawas it has not been actively enforced for decades now. However, the use of wood in residential heating has increased, partly due to renewable energy targets, but also for discretionary (i.e. pleasant fireplaces) reasons. Our study is based mainly in London, but similar struggles with urban air quality due to residential wood and coal burning are seen in other major European cities.
Christopher S. Malley, Erika von Schneidemesser, Sarah Moller, Christine F. Braban, W. Kevin Hicks, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3563–3587,Short summary
This study quantifies the contribution of hourly nitrogen dioxide (NO2) variation to annual NO2 concentrations at > 2500 sites across Europe. Sites with distinct monthly, hour of day, and hourly NO2 contributions to annual NO2 were not grouped into specific European regions. Within relatively small areas there were sites with similar annual NO2 but with differences in these contributions. Therefore, measures implemented to reduce annual NO2 in one location may not be as effective in others.
Yuk S. Tang, Christine F. Braban, Ulrike Dragosits, Anthony J. Dore, Ivan Simmons, Netty van Dijk, Janet Poskitt, Gloria Dos Santos Pereira, Patrick O. Keenan, Christopher Conolly, Keith Vincent, Rognvald I. Smith, Mathew R. Heal, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 705–733,Short summary
A unique long-term dataset of NH3 and NH4+ data from the NAMN is used to assess spatial, seasonal and long-term variability across the UK. NH3 is spatially variable, with distinct temporal profiles according to source types. NH4+ is spatially smoother, with peak concentrations in spring from long-range transport. Decrease in NH3 is smaller than emissions, but NH4+ decreased faster than NH3, due to a shift from stable (NH4)2SO4 to semi-volatile NH4NO3, increasing the atmospheric lifetime of NH3.
Sarah R. Leeson, Peter E. Levy, Netty van Dijk, Julia Drewer, Sophie Robinson, Matthew R. Jones, John Kentisbeer, Ian Washbourne, Mark A. Sutton, and Lucy J. Sheppard
Biogeosciences, 14, 5753–5764,Short summary
Nitrogen deposition was experimentally increased on a Scottish peat bog over a period of 13 years (2002–2015), simulating pollution from agricultural and fossil-fuel sources. We measured emissions of the greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O), in response to the increased nitrogen input. In the plots treated with ammonium and nitrate solution, no response was seen. Areas subjected to high ammonia emitted more N2O than expected. Differences were related to impacts on the vegetation.
Chun Lin, Mathew R. Heal, Massimo Vieno, Ian A. MacKenzie, Ben G. Armstrong, Barbara K. Butland, Ai Milojevic, Zaid Chalabi, Richard W. Atkinson, David S. Stevenson, Ruth M. Doherty, and Paul Wilkinson
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1767–1787,Short summary
We evaluated EMEP4UK-WRF v4.3 atmospheric chemistry transport simulations at 5 km horizontal resolution over the UK for use in air pollution epidemiology and health burden assessment. Model-measurement comparison focused on daily and annual means for NO2, O3, PM10, and PM2.5. Important statistics for evaluation of air-quality model output against policy (and hence health)-relevant standards – correlation, bias, and root mean square error – were evaluated by site type, year, month and day-of-week.
Kerry J. Dinsmore, Julia Drewer, Peter E. Levy, Charles George, Annalea Lohila, Mika Aurela, and Ute M. Skiba
Biogeosciences, 14, 799–815,Short summary
Release of greenhouse gases from northern soils contributes significantly to the global atmosphere and plays an important role in regulating climate. This study, based in N. Finland, aimed to measure and understand release of CH4 and N2O, and using satellite imagery, upscale our results to a 2 × 2 km area. Wetlands released large amounts of CH4, with emissions linked to temperature and the presence of Sphagnum; landscape emissions were 2.05 mg C m−2 hr−1. N2O fluxes were consistently near-zero.
Riinu Ots, Massimo Vieno, James D. Allan, Stefan Reis, Eiko Nemitz, Dominique E. Young, Hugh Coe, Chiara Di Marco, Anais Detournay, Ian A. Mackenzie, David C. Green, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13773–13789,Short summary
Emissions of cooking organic aerosol (COA; from charbroiling, frying, etc.) are currently absent in European emissions inventories yet measurements have pointed to significant COA concentrations. In this study, emissions of COA were developed for the UK by model iteration against year-long measurements at two sites in London. Modelled COA dropped rapidly outside of major urban areas, suggesting that although a notable component in UK urban air, COA does not have a significant effect on rural PM.
Nicholas J. Cowan, Peter E. Levy, Daniela Famulari, Margaret Anderson, Julia Drewer, Marco Carozzi, David S. Reay, and Ute M. Skiba
Biogeosciences, 13, 4811–4821,Short summary
Using a quantum cascade laser we measured N2O fluxes before and after a tillage event on a long-term grazed grassland field using the flux chamber and eddy covariance methods. The measurements were gap-filled using a generalised additive model which used meteorological data at the site. Results suggest that tillage of soils containing plant material (crop residues) releases a relatively large amount of N2O-N, similar in magnitude to approximately 0.9 % of the nitrogen in the plant materials.
Riinu Ots, Dominique E. Young, Massimo Vieno, Lu Xu, Rachel E. Dunmore, James D. Allan, Hugh Coe, Leah R. Williams, Scott C. Herndon, Nga L. Ng, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Robert Bergström, Chiara Di Marco, Eiko Nemitz, Ian A. Mackenzie, Jeroen J. P. Kuenen, David C. Green, Stefan Reis, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6453–6473,Short summary
This study investigates the contribution of diesel vehicle emissions to organic aerosol formation and particulate matter concentrations in London. Comparisons of simulated pollutant concentrations with observations show good agreement and give confidence in the skill of the model applied. The contribution of diesel vehicle emissions, which are currently not included in official emissions inventories, is demonstrated to be substantial, indicating that more research on this topic is required.
Rebecca M. McKenzie, Mustafa Z. Özel, J. Neil Cape, Julia Drewer, Kerry J. Dinsmore, Eiko Nemitz, Y. Sim Tang, Netty van Dijk, Margaret Anderson, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Mark A. Sutton, Martin W. Gallagher, and Ute Skiba
Biogeosciences, 13, 2353–2365,Short summary
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) contributes significantly to the overall nitrogen budget and can potentially be biologically available as a source of N. Despite this it is not routinely measured. This study found that DON contributed up to 10 % of the total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) found in precipitation and was the most dominant fraction in soil water (99 %) and stream water (75 %).
M. Vieno, M. R. Heal, M. L. Williams, E. J. Carnell, E. Nemitz, J. R. Stedman, and S. Reis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 265–276,
C. S. Malley, C. F. Braban, P. Dumitrean, J. N. Cape, and M. R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8361–8380,Short summary
In this study the regional component of ground level ozone is linked to the chemical loss of 27 measured VOCs at two UK monitoring sites and integrated with gridded European VOC emissions. The relative VOC chemical loss indicates that emission controls of a large number of VOCs and targeting VOCs with highest chemical loss are both required to reduce regional ozone. The benefit resulting from the disaggregation of VOC source sectors to the identification of high VOC-emitting sources is shown.
C. S. Malley, M. R. Heal, G. Mills, and C. F. Braban
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4025–4042,Short summary
Health- and vegetation-relevant ozone exposure metrics (SOMO10/SOMO35 and PODY/AOT40 respectively) are analysed between 1990 and 2013 using data from the UK EMEP supersites: Auchencorth Moss, southern Scotland and Harwell, south-east England. Analysis shows that for health-relevant ozone exposure, improvement has been achieved for SOMO35 but not for SOMO10 despite European mitigation strategies reducing precursor emissions. Vegetation impacts based on PODY have also not decreased.
L. R. Crilley, W. J. Bloss, J. Yin, D. C. S. Beddows, R. M. Harrison, J. D. Allan, D. E. Young, M. Flynn, P. Williams, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prevot, M. R. Heal, J. F. Barlow, C. H. Halios, J. D. Lee, S. Szidat, and C. Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3149–3171,Short summary
Wood is a renewable fuel but its combustion for residential heating releases a number of locally acting air pollutants, most notably particulate matter known to have adverse effects on human health. This paper used chemical tracers for wood smoke to estimate the contribution that burning wood makes to concentrations of airborne particles in the atmosphere of southern England and most particularly in London.
C. Helfter, C. Campbell, K. J. Dinsmore, J. Drewer, M. Coyle, M. Anderson, U. Skiba, E. Nemitz, M. F. Billett, and M. A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 12, 1799–1811,Short summary
The CO2 sink strength of a temperate peatland in SE Scotland exhibited large inter-annual variability which was well-correlated to the length of the growing season. Mean winter air temperature explained 87% of the inter-annual variability in the sink strength of the following summer, indicating a phenological memory effect. Autotrophic respiration is thought to be dominant, but heterotrophic processes might have been enhanced during dry spells increasing the loss of CO2 to the atmosphere.
C. Metzger, P.-E. Jansson, A. Lohila, M. Aurela, T. Eickenscheidt, L. Belelli-Marchesini, K. J. Dinsmore, J. Drewer, J. van Huissteden, and M. Drösler
Biogeosciences, 12, 125–146,Short summary
To identify site specific differences in CO2-related processes in open peatlands, we calibrated a process oriented model to fit to detailed measurements of carbon fluxes and compared the resulting parameter ranges between the sites. For most processes a common configuration could be applied. Site specific differences were identified for soil respiration coefficients, plant radiation-use efficiencies and plant storage fractions for spring regrowth.
S. J. O'Shea, G. Allen, M. W. Gallagher, K. Bower, S. M. Illingworth, J. B. A. Muller, B. T. Jones, C. J. Percival, S. J-B. Bauguitte, M. Cain, N. Warwick, A. Quiquet, U. Skiba, J. Drewer, K. Dinsmore, E. G. Nisbet, D. Lowry, R. E. Fisher, J. L. France, M. Aurela, A. Lohila, G. Hayman, C. George, D. B. Clark, A. J. Manning, A. D. Friend, and J. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13159–13174,Short summary
This paper presents airborne measurements of greenhouse gases collected in the European Arctic. Regional scale flux estimates for the northern Scandinavian wetlands are derived. These fluxes are found to be in excellent agreement with coincident surface measurements within the aircraft's sampling domain. This has allowed a significant low bias to be identified in two commonly used process-based land surface models.
U. Skiba, S. K. Jones, J. Drewer, C. Helfter, M. Anderson, K. Dinsmore, R. McKenzie, E. Nemitz, and M. A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 10, 1231–1241,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Air - Land ExchangeCarbon dioxide fluxes and carbon balance of an agricultural grassland in southern FinlandSun-induced fluorescence and near-infrared reflectance of vegetation track the seasonal dynamics of gross primary production over AfricaMeasurement and modelling of the dynamics of NH3 surface–atmosphere exchange over the Amazonian rainforestWinter atmospheric nutrient and pollutant deposition on Western Sayan Mountain lakes (Siberia)Methane efflux from an American bison herdIce nucleation by viruses and their potential for cloud glaciationTechnical note: Inexpensive modification of Exetainers for the reliable storage of trace-level hydrogen and carbon monoxide gas samplesBioaerosols in the Amazon rain forest: Temporal variations and vertical profiles of Eukarya, Bacteria and ArchaeaA climate-dependent global model of ammonia emissions from chicken farmingCalculating canopy stomatal conductance from eddy covariance measurements, in light of the energy budget closure problemDecoupling of a Douglas fir canopy: a look into the subcanopy with continuous vertical temperature profilesVariations in diurnal and seasonal net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange in a semiarid sandy grassland ecosystem in China's Horqin Sandy LandBiogenic volatile organic compound ambient mixing ratios and emission rates in the Alaskan Arctic tundraSurfaces of silver birch (Betula pendula) are sources of biological ice nuclei: in vivo and in situ investigationsIdeas and perspectives: enhancing the impact of the FLUXNET network of eddy covariance sitesEvapotranspiration over agroforestry sites in GermanyOH reactivity from the emissions of different tree species: investigating the missing reactivity in a boreal forestVegetation influence and environmental controls on greenhouse gas fluxes from a drained thermokarst lake in the western Canadian ArcticExamining the link between vegetation leaf area and land–atmosphere exchange of water, energy, and carbon fluxes using FLUXNET dataCloudRoots: integration of advanced instrumental techniques and process modelling of sub-hourly and sub-kilometre land–atmosphere interactionsEnvironmental controls on ecosystem-scale cold-season methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in an Arctic tundra ecosystemDistinguishing between early- and late-covering crops in the land surface model Noah-MP: impact on simulated surface energy fluxes and temperatureA robust data cleaning procedure for eddy covariance flux measurementsScaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approachLeveraging the signature of heterotrophic respiration on atmospheric CO2 for model benchmarkingEstimating causal networks in biosphere–atmosphere interaction with the PCMCI approachA double peak in the seasonality of California's photosynthesis as observed from spaceNitrogen use efficiency and N2O and NH3 losses attributed to three fertiliser types applied to an intensively managed silage cropBiogenic isoprenoid emissions under drought stress: different responses for isoprene and terpenesInsights from mercury stable isotopes on terrestrial–atmosphere exchange of Hg(0) in the Arctic tundraReviews and syntheses: Turning the challenges of partitioning ecosystem evaporation and transpiration into opportunitiesEl Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event reduces CO2 uptake of an Indonesian oil palm plantationCarbon–water flux coupling under progressive droughtReviews and syntheses: influences of landscape structure and land uses on local to regional climate and air qualityIdentification of secondary fatty alcohols in atmospheric aerosols in temperate forestsModelling land–atmosphere daily exchanges of NO, NH3, and CO2 in a semi-arid grazed ecosystem in SenegalSimulating the atmospheric CO2 concentration across the heterogeneous landscape of Denmark using a coupled atmosphere–biosphere mesoscale model systemEvaluating multi-year, multi-site data on the energy balance closure of eddy-covariance flux measurements at cropland sites in southwestern GermanyInterpreting eddy covariance data from heterogeneous Siberian tundra: land-cover-specific methane fluxes and spatial representativenessGlobal atmospheric CO2 inverse models converging on neutral tropical land exchange, but disagreeing on fossil fuel and atmospheric growth rateAssessing biotic contributions to CO2 fluxes in northern China using the Vegetation, Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM-CHINA) and observations from 2005 to 2009Assessing the dynamics of vegetation productivity in circumpolar regions with different satellite indicators of greenness and photosynthesisReviews and syntheses: Carbon use efficiency from organisms to ecosystems – definitions, theories, and empirical evidenceEddy covariance flux errors due to random and systematic timing errors during data acquisitionSynthetic ozone deposition and stomatal uptake at flux tower sitesIntegrated management of a Swiss cropland is not sufficient to preserve its soil carbon pool in the long termBasic and extensible post-processing of eddy covariance flux data with REddyProcCarbon exchange in an Amazon forest: from hours to yearsSeasonal variations of Quercus pubescens isoprene emissions from an in natura forest under drought stress and sensitivity to future climate change in the Mediterranean areaAn assessment of natural methane fluxes simulated by the CLASS-CTEM model
Laura Heimsch, Annalea Lohila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Henriikka Vekuri, Jussi Heinonsalo, Olli Nevalainen, Mika Korkiakoski, Jari Liski, Tuomas Laurila, and Liisa Kulmala
Biogeosciences, 18, 3467–3483,Short summary
CO2 and H2O fluxes were measured at a newly established eddy covariance site in southern Finland for 2 years from 2018 to 2020. This agricultural grassland site focuses on the conversion from intensive towards more sustainable agricultural management. The first summer experienced prolonged dry periods, and notably larger fluxes were observed in the second summer. The field acted as a net carbon sink during both study years.
Anteneh Getachew Mengistu, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Gerbrand Koren, Maurits L. Kooreman, K. Folkert Boersma, Torbern Tagesson, Jonas Ardö, Yann Nouvellon, and Wouter Peters
Biogeosciences, 18, 2843–2857,Short summary
In this study, we assess the usefulness of Sun-Induced Fluorescence of Terrestrial Ecosystems Retrieval (SIFTER) data from the GOME-2A instrument and near-infrared reflectance of vegetation (NIRv) from MODIS to capture the seasonality and magnitudes of gross primary production (GPP) derived from six eddy-covariance flux towers in Africa in the overlap years between 2007–2014. We also test the robustness of sun-induced fluoresence and NIRv to compare the seasonality of GPP for the major biomes.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Matthias Sörgel, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Biogeosciences, 18, 2809–2825,Short summary
The exchange of the gas ammonia between the atmosphere and the surface is an important biogeochemical process, but little is known of this exchange for certain ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest. This study took measurements of ammonia exchange over an Amazon rainforest site and subsequently modelled the observed deposition and emission patterns. We observed emissions of ammonia from the rainforest, which can be simulated accurately by using a canopy resistance modelling approach.
Daniel Diaz-de-Quijano, Aleksander Vladimirovich Ageev, Elena Anatolevna Ivanova, and Olesia Valerevna Anishchenko
Biogeosciences, 18, 1601–1618,Short summary
Winter atmospheric nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) depositions were measured for the first time in the Western Sayan Mountains (Siberia). The low and very low atmospheric N and P depositions could be responsible for the observed lake phytoplankton N–P colimitation. We hypothesize that slight imbalances in the nutrient deposition, as expected in the context of global change (climate, forest fires and anthropogenic nitrogen emissions), could have important effects on the ecology of these lakes.
Paul C. Stoy, Adam A. Cook, John E. Dore, Natascha Kljun, William Kleindl, E. N. Jack Brookshire, and Tobias Gerken
Biogeosciences, 18, 961–975,Short summary
The reintroduction of American bison creates multiple environmental benefits. Ruminants like bison also emit methane – a potent greenhouse gas – to the atmosphere, which has not been measured to date in a field setting. We measured methane efflux from an American bison herd during winter using eddy covariance. Automated cameras were used to approximate their location to calculate per-animal flux. From the measurements, bison do not emit more methane than the cattle they often replace.
Michael P. Adams, Nina S. Atanasova, Svetlana Sofieva, Janne Ravantti, Aino Heikkinen, Zoé Brasseur, Jonathan Duplissy, Dennis H. Bamford, and Benjamin J. Murray
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
The formation of ice in clouds is critically important for the planet's climate. Hence, we need to know which aerosol types nucleate ice and how effectively they do so. Here we show that virus particles, with a range of architectures, nucleate ice when immersed in supercooled water. However, we also show that they only make a minor contribution to the ice-nucleating particle population in the terrestrial atmosphere, but cannot rule them out as being important in the marine environment.
Philipp A. Nauer, Eleonora Chiri, Thanavit Jirapanjawat, Chris Greening, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 18, 729–737,Short summary
Hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are atmospheric trace gases cycled via microbial metabolisms. We observed strong H2 and CO contamination from rubber septa used to seal common gas sample storage vials. Here we propose a simple and inexpensive modification of such vials to allow reliable storage of H2, CO and methane trace-gas samples for timescales of weeks to months, thus enabling extensive field campaigns to investigate H2 and CO biogeochemistry in remote areas.
Maria Prass, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Paulo Artaxo, Florian Ditas, Wolfgang Elbert, Marco Aurélio Franco, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Thomas Klimach, Leslie Ann Kremper, Eckhard Thines, David Walter, Jens Weber, Bettina Weber, Bernhard M. Fuchs, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Bioaerosols in the atmosphere over the Amazon rain forest were analyzed by molecular biological staining and microscopy. Eukaryotic, bacterial and archaeal aerosols were quantified in time series and altitude profiles exhibiting clear differences in number concentrations and vertical distributions. Our results provide insights into the sources and dispersion of different Amazonian bioaerosol types as a basis for a better understanding of biosphere-atmosphere interactions.
Jize Jiang, David S. Stevenson, Aimable Uwizeye, Giuseppe Tempio, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 18, 135–158,Short summary
Ammonia is a key water and air pollutant and impacts human health and climate change. Ammonia emissions mainly originate from agriculture. We find that chicken agriculture contributes to large ammonia emissions, especially in hot and wet regions. These emissions can be greatly affected by the local environment, i.e. temperature and humidity, and also by human management. We develop a model that suggests ammonia emissions from chicken farming are likely to increase under a warming climate.
Richard Wehr and Scott R. Saleska
Biogeosciences, 18, 13–24,Short summary
Water and carbon exchange between plants and the atmosphere is governed by stomata: adjustable pores in the surfaces of leaves. The combined gas conductance of all the stomata in a canopy has long been estimated using an equation that is shown here to be systematically incorrect because it relies on measurements that are generally inadequate. An alternative approach is shown to be more accurate in all probable scenarios and to imply different responses of stomatal conductance to the environment.
Bart Schilperoort, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, César Jiménez Rodríguez, Christiaan van der Tol, Bas van de Wiel, and Hubert Savenije
Biogeosciences, 17, 6423–6439,Short summary
With distributed temperature sensing (DTS) we measured a vertical temperature profile in a forest, from the forest floor to above the treetops. Using this temperature profile we can see which parts of the forest canopy are colder (thus more dense) or warmer (and less dense) and study the effect this has on the suppression of turbulent mixing. This can be used to improve our knowledge of the interaction between the atmosphere and forests and improve carbon dioxide flux measurements over forests.
Yayi Niu, Yuqiang Li, Hanbo Yun, Xuyang Wang, Xiangwen Gong, Yulong Duan, and Jing Liu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6309–6326,Short summary
We report the results from continuous year-round CO2 observations from a sandy grassland in the Horqin Sandy Land using the eddy covariance technique. To quantify the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variation in net ecosystem CO2 exchange, gross primary productivity, and ecosystem respiration and to identify the different scales of environmental factors and the underlying mechanisms, we also explored how the annual precipitation affects the net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its components.
Hélène Angot, Katelyn McErlean, Lu Hu, Dylan B. Millet, Jacques Hueber, Kaixin Cui, Jacob Moss, Catherine Wielgasz, Tyler Milligan, Damien Ketcherside, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, and Detlev Helmig
Biogeosciences, 17, 6219–6236,Short summary
We report biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) ambient levels and emission rates from key vegetation species in the Alaskan arctic tundra, providing a new data set to further constrain isoprene chemistry under low NOx conditions in models. We add to the growing body of evidence that climate-induced changes in the vegetation composition will significantly affect the BVOC emission potential of the tundra, with implications for atmospheric oxidation processes and climate feedbacks.
Teresa M. Seifried, Paul Bieber, Laura Felgitsch, Julian Vlasich, Florian Reyzek, David G. Schmale III, and Hinrich Grothe
Biogeosciences, 17, 5655–5667,
Biogeosciences, 17, 5587–5598,Short summary
FLUXNET is a large, bottom-up, self-coordinated network of sites. It provided ecosystem–atmosphere greenhouse gas fluxes from stations around the world that were used as bases for a large number of publications and studies. Today many applications require recent updates on the data to track more closely the ecosystem responses to climate change and link ground data with satellite programs. For this reason, a new organization of FLUXNET is needed, keeping as its target the FAIR principles.
Christian Markwitz, Alexander Knohl, and Lukas Siebicke
Biogeosciences, 17, 5183–5208,Short summary
Agroforestry has been shown to alter the microclimate and to lead to higher carbon sequestration above ground and in the soil. In this study, we investigated the impact of agroforestry systems on system-scale evapotranspiration (ET) due to concerns about increased water losses to the atmosphere. Results showed small differences in annual sums of ET over agroforestry relative to monoculture systems, indicating that agroforestry in Germany can be a land use alternative to monoculture agriculture.
Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Simon Schallhart, Virpi Tarvainen, Jaana Bäck, and Heidi Hellén
Biogeosciences, 17, 4681–4705,Short summary
In this paper, we study emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from three boreal tree species. Individual compounds are quantified with on-line separation analytical techniques, while the total reactivity of the emissions is measured using a custom-built instrument. On some occasions, in particular when the trees suffer from stress, the total reactivity measured is higher than the sum of the reactivity of individual compounds. This indicates that the threes emit VOCs that remain unknown.
June Skeeter, Andreas Christen, Andrée-Anne Laforce, Elyn Humphreys, and Greg Henry
Biogeosciences, 17, 4421–4441,Short summary
This study investigates carbon fluxes at Illisarvik, an artificial drained thermokarst lake basin (DTLB) in Canada's Northwest Territories. This is the first carbon balance study in a DTLB outside of Alaska. We used neural networks to identify the factors controlling fluxes and to model the effects of the controlling factors. We discuss the role of vegetation heterogeneity in fluxes, especially of methane, and we show how the carbon fluxes differ from Alaskan DTLBs.
Anne J. Hoek van Dijke, Kaniska Mallick, Martin Schlerf, Miriam Machwitz, Martin Herold, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Biogeosciences, 17, 4443–4457,Short summary
We investigated the link between the vegetation leaf area index (LAI) and the land–atmosphere exchange of water, energy, and carbon fluxes. We show that the correlation between the LAI and water and energy fluxes depends on the vegetation type and aridity. For carbon fluxes, however, the correlation with the LAI was strong and independent of vegetation and aridity. This study provides insight into when the vegetation LAI can be used to model or extrapolate land–atmosphere fluxes.
Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Patrizia Ney, Oscar Hartogensis, Hugo de Boer, Kevin van Diepen, Dzhaner Emin, Geiske de Groot, Anne Klosterhalfen, Matthias Langensiepen, Maria Matveeva, Gabriela Miranda-García, Arnold F. Moene, Uwe Rascher, Thomas Röckmann, Getachew Adnew, Nicolas Brüggemann, Youri Rothfuss, and Alexander Graf
Biogeosciences, 17, 4375–4404,Short summary
The CloudRoots field experiment has obtained an open comprehensive observational data set that includes soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to investigate the interactions between a heterogeneous land surface and its overlying atmospheric boundary layer, including the rapid perturbations of clouds in evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate that in order to understand and represent diurnal variability, we need to measure and model processes from the leaf to the landscape scales.
Dean Howard, Yannick Agnan, Detlev Helmig, Yu Yang, and Daniel Obrist
Biogeosciences, 17, 4025–4042,Short summary
The Arctic tundra represents a vast store of carbon that may be broken down by microbial activity into greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. Though microbes are less active in winter, the long duration of the cold season makes this period very important for carbon cycling. We show that, under conditions of warmer winter air temperatures and greater snowfall, deeper soils can remain warm enough to sustain significantly enhanced CH4 emission. This could have large implications for future climates.
Kristina Bohm, Joachim Ingwersen, Josipa Milovac, and Thilo Streck
Biogeosciences, 17, 2791–2805,
Domenico Vitale, Gerardo Fratini, Massimo Bilancia, Giacomo Nicolini, Simone Sabbatini, and Dario Papale
Biogeosciences, 17, 1367–1391,Short summary
This work describes a data cleaning procedure for the detection of eddy covariance fluxes affected by systematic errors. We believe that the proposed procedure can serve as a basis toward a unified quality control strategy suitable for the centralized data processing pipelines, where the use of completely data-driven and scalable procedures that guarantee high-quality standards and reproducibility of the released products constitutes an essential prerequisite.
Martin Jung, Christopher Schwalm, Mirco Migliavacca, Sophia Walther, Gustau Camps-Valls, Sujan Koirala, Peter Anthoni, Simon Besnard, Paul Bodesheim, Nuno Carvalhais, Frédéric Chevallier, Fabian Gans, Daniel S. Goll, Vanessa Haverd, Philipp Köhler, Kazuhito Ichii, Atul K. Jain, Junzhi Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Jacob A. Nelson, Michael O'Sullivan, Martijn Pallandt, Dario Papale, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Christian Rödenbeck, Stephen Sitch, Gianluca Tramontana, Anthony Walker, Ulrich Weber, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 17, 1343–1365,Short summary
We test the approach of producing global gridded carbon fluxes based on combining machine learning with local measurements, remote sensing and climate data. We show that we can reproduce seasonal variations in carbon assimilated by plants via photosynthesis and in ecosystem net carbon balance. The ecosystem’s mean carbon balance and carbon flux trends require cautious interpretation. The analysis paves the way for future improvements of the data-driven assessment of carbon fluxes.
Samantha J. Basile, Xin Lin, William R. Wieder, Melannie D. Hartman, and Gretchen Keppel-Aleks
Biogeosciences, 17, 1293–1308,Short summary
Soil heterotrophic respiration (HR) is an important component of land–atmosphere carbon exchange but is difficult to observe globally. We analyzed the imprint that this flux leaves on atmospheric CO2 using a set of simulations from HR models with common inputs. Models that represent microbial processes are more variable and have stronger temperature sensitivity than those that do not. Our results show that we can use atmospheric CO2 observations to evaluate and improve models of HR.
Christopher Krich, Jakob Runge, Diego G. Miralles, Mirco Migliavacca, Oscar Perez-Priego, Tarek El-Madany, Arnaud Carrara, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 17, 1033–1061,Short summary
Causal inference promises new insight into biosphere–atmosphere interactions using time series only. To understand the behaviour of a specific method on such data, we used artificial and observation-based data. The observed structures are very interpretable and reveal certain ecosystem-specific behaviour, as only a few relevant links remain, in contrast to pure correlation techniques. Thus, causal inference allows to us gain well-constrained insights into processes and interactions.
Alexander J. Turner, Philipp Köhler, Troy S. Magney, Christian Frankenberg, Inez Fung, and Ronald C. Cohen
Biogeosciences, 17, 405–422,Short summary
We present the highest resolution solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) dataset from satellite measurements, providing previously unobservable phenomena related to plant photosynthesis. We find a strong correspondence between TROPOMI SIF and AmeriFlux GPP. We then observe a double peak in the seasonality of California's photosynthesis, not seen by traditional vegetation indices (e.g., MODIS). This is further corroborated by EOF/PC analysis.
Nicholas Cowan, Peter Levy, Andrea Moring, Ivan Simmons, Colin Bache, Amy Stephens, Joana Marinheiro, Jocelyn Brichet, Ling Song, Amy Pickard, Connie McNeill, Roseanne McDonald, Juliette Maire, Benjamin Loubet, Polina Voylokov, Mark Sutton, and Ute Skiba
Biogeosciences, 16, 4731–4745,Short summary
Commonly used nitrogen fertilisers, ammonium nitrate, urea and urea coated with a urease inhibitor, were applied to experimental plots. Fertilisation with ammonium nitrate supported the largest yields but also resulted in the largest nitrous oxide emissions. Urea was the largest emitter of ammonia. The coated urea did not significantly increase yields; however, ammonia emissions were substantially smaller than urea. The coated urea was the best environmentally but is economically unattractive.
Boris Bonn, Ruth-Kristina Magh, Joseph Rombach, and Jürgen Kreuzwieser
Biogeosciences, 16, 4627–4645,Short summary
The effect of soil water availability (SWA) on emissions of isoprenoids by trees was studied by setting up a parameterization from published data. SWA impact on isoprene emissions can be described by a growth type curve, while monoterpene emissions display a pattern reflecting plants’ stomata opening. Sesquiterpene fluxes tend to increase at the start of severe drought until resources decline. Feedbacks on atmospheric processes such as ozone and aerosol particles are further studied.
Martin Jiskra, Jeroen E. Sonke, Yannick Agnan, Detlev Helmig, and Daniel Obrist
Biogeosciences, 16, 4051–4064,Short summary
The tundra plays a pivotal role in Arctic mercury cycling by storing atmospheric mercury deposition and shuttling it to the Arctic Ocean. We used the isotopic fingerprint of mercury to investigate the processes controlling atmospheric mercury deposition. We found that the uptake of atmospheric mercury by vegetation was the major deposition source. Direct deposition to snow or soils only played a minor role. These results improve our understanding of Arctic mercury cycling.
Paul C. Stoy, Tarek S. El-Madany, Joshua B. Fisher, Pierre Gentine, Tobias Gerken, Stephen P. Good, Anne Klosterhalfen, Shuguang Liu, Diego G. Miralles, Oscar Perez-Priego, Angela J. Rigden, Todd H. Skaggs, Georg Wohlfahrt, Ray G. Anderson, A. Miriam J. Coenders-Gerrits, Martin Jung, Wouter H. Maes, Ivan Mammarella, Matthias Mauder, Mirco Migliavacca, Jacob A. Nelson, Rafael Poyatos, Markus Reichstein, Russell L. Scott, and Sebastian Wolf
Biogeosciences, 16, 3747–3775,Short summary
Key findings are the nearly optimal response of T to atmospheric water vapor pressure deficits across methods and scales. Additionally, the notion that T / ET intermittently approaches 1, which is a basis for many partitioning methods, does not hold for certain methods and ecosystems. To better constrain estimates of E and T from combined ET measurements, we propose a combination of independent measurement techniques to better constrain E and T at the ecosystem scale.
Christian Stiegler, Ana Meijide, Yuanchao Fan, Ashehad Ashween Ali, Tania June, and Alexander Knohl
Biogeosciences, 16, 2873–2890,Short summary
We show the response of a commercial oil palm plantation in Indonesia to the extreme El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event in 2015. Our measurements and model suggest that without human-induced forest fires and related smoke emissions, the observed negative impact on oil palm carbon dioxide greenhouse gas fluxes, carbon accumulation and yield due to ENSO-related drought would have been less pronounced. With respect to climate change we highlight the importance of fire prevention in the area.
Sven Boese, Martin Jung, Nuno Carvalhais, Adriaan J. Teuling, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 16, 2557–2572,Short summary
This study examines how limited water availability during droughts affects water-use efficiency. This metric describes how much carbon an ecosystem can assimilate for each unit of water lost by transpiration. We test how well different water-use efficiency models can capture the dynamics of transpiration decrease due to increased soil-water limitation. Accounting for the interacting effects of radiation and water limitation is necessary to accurately predict transpiration during these periods.
Raia Silvia Massad, Juliette Lathière, Susanna Strada, Mathieu Perrin, Erwan Personne, Marc Stéfanon, Patrick Stella, Sophie Szopa, and Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudré
Biogeosciences, 16, 2369–2408,Short summary
Human activities strongly interfere in the land–atmosphere interactions through changes in land use and land cover changes and land management. The objectives of this review are to synthesize the existing experimental and modelling works that investigate physical, chemical, and biogeochemical interactions between land surface and the atmosphere. Greater consideration of atmospheric chemistry, through land–atmosphere interactions, as a decision parameter for land management is essential.
Yuzo Miyazaki, Divyavani Gowda, Eri Tachibana, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, and Tsutom Hiura
Biogeosciences, 16, 2181–2188,Short summary
Fatty alcohols (FAs) are major components of surface lipids and can act as surface-active atmospheric organic aerosols, influencing the cloud formation. We identified five secondary FAs in atmospheric aerosols at two temperate forest sites and revealed their distinct seasonal variation for the first time. Our results suggest that they originated mostly from plant wax and could be used as useful tracers for primary biological aerosol particles.
Claire Delon, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Dominique Serça, Erwan Personne, Eric Mougin, Marcellin Adon, Valérie Le Dantec, Benjamin Loubet, Rasmus Fensholt, and Torbern Tagesson
Biogeosciences, 16, 2049–2077,Short summary
In the Sahel region during the wet season, CO2 and NO are released to the atmosphere, and NH3 is deposited on the soil. During the dry season, processes are strongly reduced. This paper shows the temporal variation in these soil–atmosphere exchanges of trace gases for 2 years, their sharp increase when the first rains fall onto dry soils, and how microbial processes are involved. We use a modelling approach, which is necessary when continuous measurements are not possible in remote regions.
Anne Sofie Lansø, Thomas Luke Smallman, Jesper Heile Christensen, Mathew Williams, Kim Pilegaard, Lise-Lotte Sørensen, and Camilla Geels
Biogeosciences, 16, 1505–1524,Short summary
Although coastal regions only amount to 7 % of the global oceans, their contribution to the global oceanic surface exchange of CO2 is much greater. In this study, we gain detailed insight into how these coastal marine fluxes compare to CO2 exchange from coastal land regions. Annually, the coastal marine exchanges are smaller than the total uptake of CO2 from the land surfaces within the study area but comparable in size to terrestrial fluxes from individual land cover classes of the region.
Ravshan Eshonkulov, Arne Poyda, Joachim Ingwersen, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Tobias K. D. Weber, Pascal Kremer, Petra Högy, Alim Pulatov, and Thilo Streck
Biogeosciences, 16, 521–540,Short summary
We compared the energy balance closure (EBC) under varying environmental conditions and investigated a wide range of possible reasons for the energy imbalance. As measures for the imbalance, we used ordinary linear regression, the energy balance ratio (EBR), and the energy residual. The EBR was also investigated as a function of buoyancy, friction velocity, and atmospheric stability. Moreover, the relationship between the EBC and flux source area or footprint was also investigated.
Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Mika Aurela, Juha Hatakka, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Juha Mikola, Viktor Ivakhov, Vladimir Kondratyev, and Tuomas Laurila
Biogeosciences, 16, 255–274,Short summary
We analysed ecosystem-scale measurements of methane exchange between Arctic tundra and the atmosphere, taking into account the large variations in vegetation and soil properties. The measurements are spatial averages, but using meteorological and statistical modelling techniques we could estimate methane emissions for different land cover types and quantify how well the measurements correspond to the spatial variability. This provides a more accurate estimate of the regional methane emission.
Benjamin Gaubert, Britton B. Stephens, Sourish Basu, Frédéric Chevallier, Feng Deng, Eric A. Kort, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Christian Rödenbeck, Tazu Saeki, David Schimel, Ingrid Van der Laan-Luijkx, Steven Wofsy, and Yi Yin
Biogeosciences, 16, 117–134,Short summary
We have compared global carbon budgets calculated from numerical inverse models and CO2 observations, and evaluated how these systems reproduce vertical gradients in atmospheric CO2 from aircraft measurements. We found that available models have converged on near-neutral tropical total fluxes for several decades, implying consistent sinks in intact tropical forests, and that assumed fossil fuel emissions and predicted atmospheric growth rates are now the dominant axes of disagreement.
Archana Dayalu, J. William Munger, Steven C. Wofsy, Yuxuan Wang, Thomas Nehrkorn, Yu Zhao, Michael B. McElroy, Chris P. Nielsen, and Kristina Luus
Biogeosciences, 15, 6713–6729,Short summary
Accounting for the vegetation signal is critical for comprehensive CO2 budget assessment in China. We model and evaluate hourly vegetation carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange (mass per unit area per unit time) in northern China from 2005 to 2009. The model is driven by satellite and meteorological data, is linked to ground-level ecosystem observations, and is applicable to other time periods. We find vegetation uptake of CO2 in summer is comparable to emissions from fossil fuels in northern China.
Sophia Walther, Luis Guanter, Birgit Heim, Martin Jung, Gregory Duveiller, Aleksandra Wolanin, and Torsten Sachs
Biogeosciences, 15, 6221–6256,Short summary
We explored the timing of the peak of the short annual growing season in tundra ecosystems as indicated by an extensive suite of satellite indicators of vegetation productivity. Delayed peak greenness compared to peak photosynthesis is consistently found across years and land-cover classes. Plants also experience growth after optimal conditions for assimilation regarding light and temperature have passed. Our results have implications for the modelling of the circumpolar carbon balance.
Stefano Manzoni, Petr Čapek, Philipp Porada, Martin Thurner, Mattias Winterdahl, Christian Beer, Volker Brüchert, Jan Frouz, Anke M. Herrmann, Björn D. Lindahl, Steve W. Lyon, Hana Šantrůčková, Giulia Vico, and Danielle Way
Biogeosciences, 15, 5929–5949,Short summary
Carbon fixed by plants and phytoplankton through photosynthesis is ultimately stored in soils and sediments or released to the atmosphere during decomposition of dead biomass. Carbon-use efficiency is a useful metric to quantify the fate of carbon – higher efficiency means higher storage and lower release to the atmosphere. Here we summarize many definitions of carbon-use efficiency and study how this metric changes from organisms to ecosystems and from terrestrial to aquatic environments.
Gerardo Fratini, Simone Sabbatini, Kevin Ediger, Brad Riensche, George Burba, Giacomo Nicolini, Domenico Vitale, and Dario Papale
Biogeosciences, 15, 5473–5487,Short summary
Using a simulation study and field data, we quantify the biases that can be introduced in fluxes measured by eddy covariance (EC) if the raw high-frequency data are affected by random and systematic timing misalignments. Our study was motivated by the increasingly widespread adoption of fully digital EC systems potentially subject to such timing errors. We found biases as large as 10 %. We further propose a test to evaluate EC data logging systems for their time synchronization capabilities.
Jason A. Ducker, Christopher D. Holmes, Trevor F. Keenan, Silvano Fares, Allen H. Goldstein, Ivan Mammarella, J. William Munger, and Jordan Schnell
Biogeosciences, 15, 5395–5413,Short summary
We have developed an accurate method (SynFlux) to estimate ozone deposition and stomatal uptake across 103 flux tower sites (43 US, 60 Europe), where ozone concentrations and fluxes have not been measured. In all, the SynFlux public dataset provides monthly values of ozone dry deposition for 926 site years across a wide array of ecosystems. The SynFlux dataset will promote further applications to ecosystem, air quality, or climate modeling across the geoscience community.
Carmen Emmel, Annina Winkler, Lukas Hörtnagl, Andrew Revill, Christof Ammann, Petra D'Odorico, Nina Buchmann, and Werner Eugster
Biogeosciences, 15, 5377–5393,Short summary
It is of great interest to know whether croplands act as a net source or sink of atmospheric CO2 and if soil carbon (C) stocks are preserved over long timescales due to the role of C in soil fertility. For a cropland in Switzerland it was found that managing the field under the Swiss framework of the Proof of Ecological Performance (PEP) resulted in soil C losses of 18.0 %. Additional efforts are needed to bring Swiss management practices closer to the goal of preserving soil C in the long term.
Thomas Wutzler, Antje Lucas-Moffat, Mirco Migliavacca, Jürgen Knauer, Kerstin Sickel, Ladislav Šigut, Olaf Menzer, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 15, 5015–5030,Short summary
Net fluxes of carbon dioxide at the ecosystem level measured by eddy covariance are a main source for understanding biosphere–atmosphere interactions. However, there is a need for more usable and extensible tools for post-processing steps of the half-hourly flux data. Therefore, we developed the REddyProc package, providing data filtering, gap filling, and flux partitioning. The extensible functions are compatible with state-of-the-art tools but allow easier integration in extended analysis.
Matthew N. Hayek, Marcos Longo, Jin Wu, Marielle N. Smith, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Raphael Tapajós, Rodrigo da Silva, David R. Fitzjarrald, Plinio B. Camargo, Lucy R. Hutyra, Luciana F. Alves, Bruce Daube, J. William Munger, Kenia T. Wiedemann, Scott R. Saleska, and Steven C. Wofsy
Biogeosciences, 15, 4833–4848,Short summary
We investigated the roles that weather and forest disturbances like drought play in shaping changes in ecosystem photosynthesis and carbon exchange in an Amazon forest. We discovered that weather largely influenced differences between years, but a prior drought, which occurred 3 years before measurements started, likely hampered photosynthesis in the first year. This is the first atmospheric evidence that drought can have legacy impacts on Amazon forest photosynthesis.
Anne-Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Christophe Boissard, Elena Ormeño, Juliette Lathière, Ilja M. Reiter, Henri Wortham, Jean-Philippe Orts, Brice Temime-Roussel, Bertrand Guenet, Svenja Bartsch, Thierry Gauquelin, and Catherine Fernandez
Biogeosciences, 15, 4711–4730,Short summary
From seasonal in situ observations on how a Mediterranean ecosystem responds to drought, a specific isoprene emission (ER, emission rates) algorithm was developed, upon which 2100 projections (IPCC RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios) were made. Emission rates were found to be mainly sensitive to future temperature changes and poorly represented by current empirical emission models. Drought was found to aggravate thermal stress on emission rates.
Vivek K. Arora, Joe R. Melton, and David Plummer
Biogeosciences, 15, 4683–4709,Short summary
Earth system models (ESMs) project future changes in climate in response to changes in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). However, before this can be achieved the natural fluxes of a given GHG must also be modelled. This paper evaluates the natural methane fluxes simulated by the CLASS-CTEM model (which is the land component of the Canadian ESM) against observations to show that the simulated methane emissions from wetlands and fires, and soil uptake of methane are realistic.
AQEG: Non-methane Volatile Organic Compounds in the UK, Air Quality Expert Group (AQEG), DEFRA, online, available at: https://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/assets/documents/reports/cat09/2006240803_Non_Methane_Volatile_Organic_Compounds_in_the_UK.pdf (23 March 2021), 2020.
Asensio, D., Peñuelas, J., Llusià, J., Ogaya, R., and Filella, I.: Interannual and interseasonal soil CO2 efflux and VOC exchange rates in a Mediterranean holm oak forest in response to experimental drought, Soil Biol. Biochem., 39, 2471–2484, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.04.019, 2007a.
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Short-rotation forest plantations could help reduce greenhouse gases but can emit biogenic volatile organic compounds. Emissions were measured at a plantation trial in Scotland. Standardised emissions of isoprene from foliage were higher from hybrid aspen than from Sitka spruce and low from Italian alder. Emissions of total monoterpene were lower. The forest floor was only a small source. Model estimates suggest an SRF expansion of 0.7 Mha could increase total UK emissions between < 1 %–35 %.
Short-rotation forest plantations could help reduce greenhouse gases but can emit biogenic...