Articles | Volume 18, issue 13
13 Jul 2021
Research article | 13 Jul 2021
A novel representation of biological nitrogen fixation and competitive dynamics between nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing plants in a land model (GFDL LM4.1-BNF)
Sian Kou-Giesbrecht et al.
Vivek K. Arora, Christian Seiler, Libo Wang, and Sian Kou-Giesbrecht
The behaviour of natural systems is now very often represented through mathematical models. These models represent our understanding of how the nature works. Of course, the nature doesn't care about our understanding. Since our understanding is not perfect, evaluating models is challenging and there are uncertainties. This manuscript illustrates this uncertainty for land models and argues that evaluating models in the light of uncertainty in various components provides useful information.
Enrico Zorzetto, Sergey Malyshev, Nathaniel Chaney, David Paynter, Raymond Menzel, and Elena Shevliakova
In this paper we develop a methodology to model the spatial distribution of solar radiation received by land over mountainous terrain. The approach is designed to be used in Earth System Models, where coarse grid cells hinder the description of fine scale land-atmosphere interactions. We adopt a clustering algorithm to partiton land domain in a set of homogeneous sub-grid “tiles”, and for each evaluate solar radiation receive by land based on terrain properties.
Zun Yin, Kirsten Findell, Paul Dirmeyer, Elena Shevliakova, Sergey Malyshev, Khaled Ghannam, Nina Raoult, and Zhihong Tan
Land-atmosphere (L-A) interactions concerns daytime process. However, most studies used monthly (M) or entire-day-mean (E) data, due to the lack of daytime-only data. We questioned if M and E are sufficient for assessing L-A coupling strength. Via this study, we found that the evaluation is biased by integrating nighttime or by monthly smoothing. We propose either integrating L-A metrics within models or providing daily products based on optimized averaging algorithms.
Vivek K. Arora, Christian Seiler, Libo Wang, and Sian Kou-Giesbrecht
The behaviour of natural systems is now very often represented through mathematical models. These models represent our understanding of how the nature works. Of course, the nature doesn't care about our understanding. Since our understanding is not perfect, evaluating models is challenging and there are uncertainties. This manuscript illustrates this uncertainty for land models and argues that evaluating models in the light of uncertainty in various components provides useful information.
Ensheng Weng, Igor Aleinov, Ram Singh, Michael J. Puma, Sonali S. McDermid, Nancy Y. Kiang, Maxwell Kelley, Kevin Wilcox, Ray Dybzinski, Caroline E. Farrior, Stephen W. Pacala, and Benjamin I. Cook
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
We developed a new demographic vegetation model to improve the representation of terrestrial vegetation dynamics and ecosystem biogeochemical cycles in an Earth system model. The individual-based competition for light and soil resources makes the modeling of eco-evolutionary optimality possible. This model will enable ModelE to simulate long-term biogeophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks between the climate system and land ecosystems at decadal to century temporal scales.
George C. Hurtt, Louise Chini, Ritvik Sahajpal, Steve Frolking, Benjamin L. Bodirsky, Katherine Calvin, Jonathan C. Doelman, Justin Fisk, Shinichiro Fujimori, Kees Klein Goldewijk, Tomoko Hasegawa, Peter Havlik, Andreas Heinimann, Florian Humpenöder, Johan Jungclaus, Jed O. Kaplan, Jennifer Kennedy, Tamás Krisztin, David Lawrence, Peter Lawrence, Lei Ma, Ole Mertz, Julia Pongratz, Alexander Popp, Benjamin Poulter, Keywan Riahi, Elena Shevliakova, Elke Stehfest, Peter Thornton, Francesco N. Tubiello, Detlef P. van Vuuren, and Xin Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5425–5464,Short summary
To estimate the effects of human land use activities on the carbon–climate system, a new set of global gridded land use forcing datasets was developed to link historical land use data to eight future scenarios in a standard format required by climate models. This new generation of land use harmonization (LUH2) includes updated inputs, higher spatial resolution, more detailed land use transitions, and the addition of important agricultural management layers; it will be used for CMIP6 simulations.
Bing Pu, Paul Ginoux, Huan Guo, N. Christina Hsu, John Kimball, Beatrice Marticorena, Sergey Malyshev, Vaishali Naik, Norman T. O'Neill, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Juliette Paireau, Joseph M. Prospero, Elena Shevliakova, and Ming Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 55–81,Short summary
Dust emission initiates when surface wind velocities exceed a threshold depending on soil and surface characteristics and varying spatially and temporally. Climate models widely use wind erosion thresholds. The climatological monthly global distribution of the wind erosion threshold, Vthreshold, is retrieved using satellite and reanalysis products and improves the simulation of dust frequency, magnitude, and the seasonal cycle in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory land–atmosphere model.
Ensheng Weng, Ray Dybzinski, Caroline E. Farrior, and Stephen W. Pacala
Biogeosciences, 16, 4577–4599,Short summary
Our study illustrates that the competition processes for light and soil resources in a game-theoretic vegetation demographic model can substantially change the prediction of the contribution of ecosystems to the global carbon cycle. The model that tracks the competitive allocation strategies can generate significantly different ecosystem-level predictions than those with fixed allocation strategies.
Isabel Martínez Cano, Helene C. Muller-Landau, S. Joseph Wright, Stephanie A. Bohlman, and Stephen W. Pacala
Biogeosciences, 16, 847–862,
Fabien Paulot, Sergey Malyshev, Tran Nguyen, John D. Crounse, Elena Shevliakova, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17963–17978,
Nathaniel W. Chaney, Marjolein H. J. Van Huijgevoort, Elena Shevliakova, Sergey Malyshev, Paul C. D. Milly, Paul P. G. Gauthier, and Benjamin N. Sulman
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3311–3330,Short summary
The petabytes of existing global environmental data provide an invaluable asset to improve the characterization of land heterogeneity in Earth system models. This study introduces a clustering algorithm that summarizes a domain's heterogeneity through spatially interconnected clusters. A series of land model simulations in central California using this approach illustrate the critical role that multi-scale heterogeneity can have on the macroscale water, energy, and carbon cycles.
Sam S. Rabin, Daniel S. Ward, Sergey L. Malyshev, Brian I. Magi, Elena Shevliakova, and Stephen W. Pacala
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 815–842,Short summary
This paper describes a new fire model that for the first time simulates how fire is used on cropland and pasture in the modern day, as imposed using a recently developed dataset. A non-agricultural fire module is fit algorithmically against non-agricultural burned area. Fitting improves performance and the general global pattern of fire is represented, but some gaps remain. The novel separation of agricultural burning from other fire may necessitate new design thinking in the future.
David M. Lawrence, George C. Hurtt, Almut Arneth, Victor Brovkin, Kate V. Calvin, Andrew D. Jones, Chris D. Jones, Peter J. Lawrence, Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudré, Julia Pongratz, Sonia I. Seneviratne, and Elena Shevliakova
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2973–2998,Short summary
Human land-use activities have resulted in large changes to the Earth's surface, with resulting implications for climate. In the future, land-use activities are likely to expand and intensify further to meet growing demands for food, fiber, and energy. The goal of LUMIP is to take the next steps in land-use change science, and enable, coordinate, and ultimately address the most important land-use science questions in more depth and sophistication than possible in a multi-model context to date.
S. S. Rabin, B. I. Magi, E. Shevliakova, and S. W. Pacala
Biogeosciences, 12, 6591–6604,Short summary
People worldwide use fire to manage agriculture, but often also suppress fire in the landscape surrounding their fields. Here, we estimate the net result of these effects of cropland and pasture on fire at a regional, monthly level. Pasture is shown, for the first time, to contribute strongly to global patterns of burning. Our results could be used to improve representations of burning in global vegetation and climate models, improving our understanding of how people affect the Earth system.
E. S. Weng, S. Malyshev, J. W. Lichstein, C. E. Farrior, R. Dybzinski, T. Zhang, E. Shevliakova, and S. W. Pacala
Biogeosciences, 12, 2655–2694,Short summary
We present a model, LM3-PPA, which simulates vegetation dynamics and biogeochemical processes by explicitly scaling from individual plants to ecosystems using the perfect plasticity approximation. It includes height-structured competition for light- and root-allocation-dependent competition for belowground resources. Because of the tractability of the PPA, the coupled LM3-PPA model is able to retain computational tractability, as well as close linkages to mathematically tractable special cases.
M. Lee, S. Malyshev, E. Shevliakova, P. C. D. Milly, and P. R. Jaffé
Biogeosciences, 11, 5809–5826,
Z. M. Subin, P. C. D. Milly, B. N. Sulman, S. Malyshev, and E. Shevliakova
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
K. E. O. Todd-Brown, J. T. Randerson, F. Hopkins, V. Arora, T. Hajima, C. Jones, E. Shevliakova, J. Tjiputra, E. Volodin, T. Wu, Q. Zhang, and S. D. Allison
Biogeosciences, 11, 2341–2356,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Modelling, TerrestrialLocal-scale evaluation of the simulated interactions between energy, water and vegetation in ISBA, ORCHIDEE and a diagnostic modelImplementation and initial calibration of carbon-13 soil organic matter decomposition in the Yasso modelThe carbon budget of the managed grasslands of Great Britain – informed by earth observationsAccounting for non-rainfall moisture and temperature improves litter decay model performance in a fog-dominated dryland systemIdeas and perspectives: Allocation of carbon from net primary production in models is inconsistent with observations of the age of respired carbonExploring the role of bedrock representation on plant transpiration response during dry periods at four forested sites in EuropeEffects of climate change in European croplands and grasslands: productivity, greenhouse gas balance and soil carbon storageAssimilation of passive microwave vegetation optical depth in LDAS-Monde: a case study over the continental USAGlobal modelling of soil carbonyl sulfide exchangesAssessing the impacts of agricultural managements on soil carbon stocks, nitrogen loss, and crop production – a modelling study in eastern AfricaThe effects of varying drought-heat signatures on terrestrial carbon dynamics and vegetation compositionModeling nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soil incubation experiments using CoupModelResolving temperature limitation on spring productivity in an evergreen conifer forest using a model–data fusion frameworkA robust initialization method for accurate soil organic carbon simulationsEvaluation of carbonyl sulfide biosphere exchange in the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB4)Model simulations of arctic biogeochemistry and permafrost extent are highly sensitive to the implemented snow scheme in LPJ-GUESSTheoretical insights from upscaling Michaelis–Menten microbial dynamics in biogeochemical models: a dimensionless approachEstimated effect of the permafrost carbon feedback on the zero emissions commitment to climate changeAn improved process-oriented hydro-biogeochemical model for simulating dynamic fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide in alpine ecosystems with seasonally frozen soilsOrganic phosphorus cycling may control grassland responses to nitrogen deposition: a long-term field manipulation and modelling studyA triple tree-ring constraint for tree growth and physiology in a global land surface modelSimulating shrubs and their energy and carbon dioxide fluxes in Canada's Low Arctic with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme Including Biogeochemical Cycles (CLASSIC)Competing effects of nitrogen deposition and ozone exposure on northern hemispheric terrestrial carbon uptake and storage, 1850–2099Carbonyl sulfide: comparing a mechanistic representation of the vegetation uptake in a land surface model and the leaf relative uptake approachOptimal model complexity for terrestrial carbon cycle predictionCO2 physiological effect can cause rainfall decrease as strong as large-scale deforestation in the AmazonPlant phenology evaluation of CRESCENDO land surface models – Part 1: Start and end of the growing seasonUnderstanding the effect of fire on vegetation composition and gross primary production in a semi-arid shrubland ecosystem using the Ecosystem Demography (EDv2.2) modelImpacts of fertilization on grassland productivity and water quality across the European Alps under current and warming climate: insights from a mechanistic modelThe climate benefit of carbon sequestrationExtending a land-surface model with Sphagnum moss to simulate responses of a northern temperate bog to whole ecosystem warming and elevated CO2Improving the representation of high-latitude vegetation distribution in dynamic global vegetation modelsRobust processing of airborne laser scans to plant area density profilesInvestigating the sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration to recent snow cover changes in Alaska using a satellite-based permafrost carbon modelHysteretic temperature sensitivity of wetland CH4 fluxes explained by substrate availability and microbial activityModelling the habitat preference of two key Sphagnum species in a poor fen as controlled by capitulum water contentEvaluating two soil carbon models within the global land surface model JSBACH using surface and spaceborne observations of atmospheric CO2Assessing impacts of selective logging on water, energy, and carbon budgets and ecosystem dynamics in Amazon forests using the Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem SimulatorMicrobial dormancy and its impacts on northern temperate and boreal terrestrial ecosystem carbon budgetHistorical CO2 emissions from land use and land cover change and their uncertaintyA Bayesian approach to evaluation of soil biogeochemical modelsRainfall intensification increases the contribution of rewetting pulses to soil heterotrophic respirationWide discrepancies in the magnitude and direction of modeled solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence in response to light conditionsModeling biological nitrogen fixation in global natural terrestrial ecosystemsThe impact of a simple representation of non-structural carbohydrates on the simulated response of tropical forests to droughtBenchmarking and parameter sensitivity of physiological and vegetation dynamics using the Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) at Barro Colorado Island, PanamaModelling nitrification inhibitor effects on N2O emissions after fall- and spring-applied slurry by reducing nitrifier NH4+ oxidation rateDRIFTS band areas as measured pool size proxy to reduce parameter uncertainty in soil organic matter modelsWintertime grassland dynamics may influence belowground biomass under climate change: a model analysisLow sensitivity of gross primary production to elevated CO2 in a mature eucalypt woodland
Jan De Pue, José Miguel Barrios, Liyang Liu, Philippe Ciais, Alirio Arboleda, Rafiq Hamdi, Manuela Balzarolo, Fabienne Maignan, and Françoise Gellens-Meulenberghs
Biogeosciences, 19, 4361–4386,Short summary
The functioning of ecosystems involves numerous biophysical processes which interact with each other. Land surface models (LSMs) are used to describe these processes and form an essential component of climate models. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of three LSMs and their interactions with soil moisture and vegetation. Though we found room for improvement in the simulation of soil moisture and drought stress, the main cause of errors was related to the simulated growth of vegetation.
Jarmo Mäkelä, Laura Arppe, Hannu Fritze, Jussi Heinonsalo, Kristiina Karhu, Jari Liski, Markku Oinonen, Petra Straková, and Toni Viskari
Biogeosciences, 19, 4305–4313,Short summary
Soils account for the largest share of carbon found in terrestrial ecosystems, and accurate depiction of soil carbon decomposition is essential in understanding how permanent these carbon storages are. We present a straightforward way to include carbon isotope concentrations into soil decomposition and carbon storages for the Yasso model, which enables the model to use 13C as a natural tracer to track changes in the underlying soil organic matter decomposition.
Vasileios Myrgiotis, Thomas Luke Smallman, and Mathew Williams
Biogeosciences, 19, 4147–4170,Short summary
This study shows that livestock grazing and grass cutting can determine whether a grassland is adding (source) or removing (sink) carbon (C) to/from the atmosphere. The annual C balance of 1855 managed grassland fields in Great Britain was quantified for 2017–2018 using process modelling and earth observation data. The examined fields were, on average, small C sinks, but the summer drought of 2018 led to a 9-fold increase in the number of fields that became C sources in 2018 compared to 2017.
J. Robert Logan, Kathe E. Todd-Brown, Kathryn M. Jacobson, Peter J. Jacobson, Roland Vogt, and Sarah E. Evans
Biogeosciences, 19, 4129–4146,Short summary
Understanding how plants decompose is important for understanding where the atmospheric CO2 they absorb ends up after they die. In forests, decomposition is controlled by rain but not in deserts. We performed a 2.5-year study in one of the driest places on earth (the Namib desert in southern Africa) and found that fog and dew, not rainfall, closely controlled how quickly plants decompose. We also created a model to help predict decomposition in drylands with lots of fog and/or dew.
Carlos A. Sierra, Verónika Ceballos-Núñez, Henrik Hartmann, David Herrera-Ramírez, and Holger Metzler
Biogeosciences, 19, 3727–3738,Short summary
Empirical work that estimates the age of respired CO2 from vegetation tissue shows that it may take from years to decades to respire previously produced photosynthates. However, many ecosystem models represent respiration processes in a form that cannot reproduce these observations. In this contribution, we attempt to provide compelling evidence, based on recent research, with the aim to promote a change in the predominant paradigm implemented in ecosystem models.
César Dionisio Jiménez-Rodríguez, Mauro Sulis, and Stanislaus Schymanski
Biogeosciences, 19, 3395–3423,Short summary
Vegetation relies on soil water reservoirs during dry periods. However, when this source is depleted, the plants may access water stored deeper in the rocks. This rock moisture contribution is usually omitted in large-scale models, which affects modeled plant water use during dry periods. Our study illustrates that including this additional source of water in the Community Land Model improves the model's ability to reproduce observed plant water use at seasonally dry sites.
Marco Carozzi, Raphaël Martin, Katja Klumpp, and Raia Silvia Massad
Biogeosciences, 19, 3021–3050,Short summary
Crop and grassland production indicates a strong reduction due to the shortening of the length of the growing cycle associated with rising temperatures. Greenhouse gas emissions will increase exponentially over the century, often exceeding the CO2 accumulation of agro-ecosystems. Water demand will double in the next few decades, whereas the benefits in terms of yield will not fill the gap of C losses due to climate perturbation. Climate change will have a regionally distributed effect in the EU.
Anthony Mucia, Bertrand Bonan, Clément Albergel, Yongjun Zheng, and Jean-Christophe Calvet
Biogeosciences, 19, 2557–2581,Short summary
For the first time, microwave vegetation optical depth data are assimilated in a land surface model in order to analyze leaf area index and root zone soil moisture. The advantage of microwave products is the higher observation frequency. A large variety of independent datasets are used to verify the added value of the assimilation. It is shown that the assimilation is able to improve the representation of soil moisture, vegetation conditions, and terrestrial water and carbon fluxes.
Camille Abadie, Fabienne Maignan, Marine Remaud, Jérôme Ogée, J. Elliott Campbell, Mary E. Whelan, Florian Kitz, Felix M. Spielmann, Georg Wohlfahrt, Richard Wehr, Wu Sun, Nina Raoult, Ulli Seibt, Didier Hauglustaine, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Sauveur Belviso, David Montagne, and Philippe Peylin
Biogeosciences, 19, 2427–2463,Short summary
A better constraint of the components of the carbonyl sulfide (COS) global budget is needed to exploit its potential as a proxy of gross primary productivity. In this study, we compare two representations of oxic soil COS fluxes, and we develop an approach to represent anoxic soil COS fluxes in a land surface model. We show the importance of atmospheric COS concentration variations on oxic soil COS fluxes and provide new estimates for oxic and anoxic soil contributions to the COS global budget.
Jianyong Ma, Sam S. Rabin, Peter Anthoni, Anita D. Bayer, Sylvia S. Nyawira, Stefan Olin, Longlong Xia, and Almut Arneth
Biogeosciences, 19, 2145–2169,Short summary
Improved agricultural management plays a vital role in protecting soils from degradation in eastern Africa. We simulated the impacts of seven management practices on soil carbon pools, nitrogen loss, and crop yield under different climate scenarios in this region. This study highlights the possibilities of conservation agriculture when targeting long-term environmental sustainability and food security in crop ecosystems, particularly for those with poor soil conditions in tropical climates.
Elisabeth Tschumi, Sebastian Lienert, Karin van der Wiel, Fortunat Joos, and Jakob Zscheischler
Biogeosciences, 19, 1979–1993,Short summary
Droughts and heatwaves are expected to occur more often in the future, but their effects on land vegetation and the carbon cycle are poorly understood. We use six climate scenarios with differing extreme occurrences and a vegetation model to analyse these effects. Tree coverage and associated plant productivity increase under a climate with no extremes. Frequent co-occurring droughts and heatwaves decrease plant productivity more than the combined effects of single droughts or heatwaves.
Jie Zhang, Wenxin Zhang, Per-Erik Jansson, and Søren O. Petersen
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
In this study, we relied on a properly controlled laboratory experiment to test the model’s capability of simulating the dominant microbial processes and the emissions of one greenhouse gas (nitrous oxide, N2O) from agricultural soils. This study reveals important processes and parameters that regulate N2O emissions in the investigated model framework, and also suggests future steps of model development which has implications on the broader communities of ecosystem modelers.
Stephanie G. Stettz, Nicholas C. Parazoo, A. Anthony Bloom, Peter D. Blanken, David R. Bowling, Sean P. Burns, Cédric Bacour, Fabienne Maignan, Brett Raczka, Alexander J. Norton, Ian Baker, Mathew Williams, Mingjie Shi, Yongguang Zhang, and Bo Qiu
Biogeosciences, 19, 541–558,Short summary
Uncertainty in the response of photosynthesis to temperature poses a major challenge to predicting the response of forests to climate change. In this paper, we study how photosynthesis in a mountainous evergreen forest is limited by temperature. This study highlights that cold temperature is a key factor that controls spring photosynthesis. Including the cold-temperature limitation in an ecosystem model improved its ability to simulate spring photosynthesis.
Eva Kanari, Lauric Cécillon, François Baudin, Hugues Clivot, Fabien Ferchaud, Sabine Houot, Florent Levavasseur, Bruno Mary, Laure Soucémarianadin, Claire Chenu, and Pierre Barré
Biogeosciences, 19, 375–387,Short summary
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is crucial for climate regulation, soil quality, and food security. Predicting its evolution over the next decades is key for appropriate land management policies. However, SOC projections lack accuracy. Here we show for the first time that PARTYSOC, an approach combining thermal analysis and machine learning optimizes the accuracy of SOC model simulations at independent sites. This method can be applied at large scales, improving SOC projections on a continental scale.
Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Ara Cho, Jin Ma, Aleya Kaushik, Katherine D. Haynes, Ian Baker, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Mathijs Groenink, Wouter Peters, John B. Miller, Joseph A. Berry, Jerome Ogée, Laura K. Meredith, Wu Sun, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Huilin Chen, Felix M. Spielmann, Georg Wohlfahrt, Max Berkelhammer, Mary E. Whelan, Kadmiel Maseyk, Ulli Seibt, Roisin Commane, Richard Wehr, and Maarten Krol
Biogeosciences, 18, 6547–6565,Short summary
The gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be used to estimate photosynthesis. To adopt this approach on regional and global scales, we need biosphere models that can simulate COS exchange. So far, such models have not been evaluated against observations. We evaluate the COS biosphere exchange of the SiB4 model against COS flux observations. We find that the model is capable of simulating key processes in COS biosphere exchange. Still, we give recommendations for further improvement of the model.
Alexandra Pongracz, David Wårlind, Paul A. Miller, and Frans-Jan W. Parmentier
Biogeosciences, 18, 5767–5787,Short summary
This study shows that the introduction of a multi-layer snow scheme in the LPJ-GUESS DGVM improved simulations of high-latitude soil temperature dynamics and permafrost extent compared to observations. In addition, these improvements led to shifts in carbon fluxes that contrasted within and outside of the permafrost region. Our results show that a realistic snow scheme is essential to accurately simulate snow–soil–vegetation relationships and carbon–climate feedbacks.
Chris H. Wilson and Stefan Gerber
Biogeosciences, 18, 5669–5679,Short summary
To better mitigate against climate change, it is imperative that ecosystem scientists understand how microbes decompose organic carbon in the soil and thereby release it as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. A major challenge is the high variability across ecosystems in microbial biomass and in the environmental factors like temperature that drive their activity. In this paper, we use math to better understand how this variability impacts carbon dioxide release over large scales.
Andrew H. MacDougall
Biogeosciences, 18, 4937–4952,Short summary
Permafrost soils hold about twice as much carbon as the atmosphere. As the Earth warms the organic matter in these soils will decay, releasing CO2 and CH4. It is expected that these soils will continue to release carbon to the atmosphere long after man-made emissions of greenhouse gases cease. Here we use a method employing hundreds of slightly varying model versions to estimate how much warming permafrost carbon will cause after human emissions of CO2 end.
Wei Zhang, Zhisheng Yao, Siqi Li, Xunhua Zheng, Han Zhang, Lei Ma, Kai Wang, Rui Wang, Chunyan Liu, Shenghui Han, Jia Deng, and Yong Li
Biogeosciences, 18, 4211–4225,Short summary
The hydro-biogeochemical model Catchment Nutrient Management Model – DeNitrification-DeComposition (CNMM-DNDC) is improved by incorporating a soil thermal module to simulate the soil thermal regime in the presence of freeze–thaw cycles. The modified model is validated at a seasonally frozen catchment with typical alpine ecosystems (wetland, meadow and forest). The simulated aggregate emissions of methane and nitrous oxide are highest for the wetland, which is dominated by the methane emissions.
Christopher R. Taylor, Victoria Janes-Bassett, Gareth K. Phoenix, Ben Keane, Iain P. Hartley, and Jessica A. C. Davies
Biogeosciences, 18, 4021–4037,Short summary
We used experimental data to model two phosphorus-limited grasslands and investigated their response to nitrogen (N) deposition. Greater uptake of organic P facilitated a positive response to N deposition, stimulating growth and soil carbon storage. Where organic P access was less, N deposition exacerbated P demand and reduced plant C input to the soil. This caused more C to be released into the atmosphere than is taken in, reducing the climate-mitigation capacity of the modelled grassland.
Jonathan Barichivich, Philippe Peylin, Thomas Launois, Valerie Daux, Camille Risi, Jina Jeong, and Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Biogeosciences, 18, 3781–3803,Short summary
The width and the chemical signals of tree rings have the potential to test and improve the physiological responses simulated by global land surface models, which are at the core of future climate projections. Here, we demonstrate the novel use of tree-ring width and carbon and oxygen stable isotopes to evaluate the representation of tree growth and physiology in a global land surface model at temporal scales beyond experimentation and direct observation.
Gesa Meyer, Elyn R. Humphreys, Joe R. Melton, Alex J. Cannon, and Peter M. Lafleur
Biogeosciences, 18, 3263–3283,Short summary
Shrub and sedge plant functional types (PFTs) were incorporated in the land surface component of the Canadian Earth System Model to improve representation of Arctic tundra ecosystems. Evaluated against 14 years of non-winter measurements, the magnitude and seasonality of carbon dioxide and energy fluxes at a Canadian dwarf-shrub tundra site were better captured by the shrub PFTs than by previously used grass and tree PFTs. Model simulations showed the tundra site to be an annual net CO2 source.
Martina Franz and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 18, 3219–3241,Short summary
The combined effects of ozone and nitrogen deposition on the terrestrial carbon uptake and storage has been unclear. Our simulations, from 1850 to 2099, show that ozone-related damage considerably reduced gross primary production and carbon storage in the past. The growth-stimulating effect induced by nitrogen deposition is offset until the 2050s. Accounting for nitrogen deposition without considering ozone effects might lead to an overestimation of terrestrial carbon uptake and storage.
Fabienne Maignan, Camille Abadie, Marine Remaud, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Róisín Commane, Richard Wehr, J. Elliott Campbell, Sauveur Belviso, Stephen A. Montzka, Nina Raoult, Ulli Seibt, Yoichi P. Shiga, Nicolas Vuichard, Mary E. Whelan, and Philippe Peylin
Biogeosciences, 18, 2917–2955,Short summary
The assimilation of carbonyl sulfide (COS) by continental vegetation has been proposed as a proxy for gross primary production (GPP). Using a land surface and a transport model, we compare a mechanistic representation of the plant COS uptake (Berry et al., 2013) to the classical leaf relative uptake (LRU) approach linking GPP and vegetation COS fluxes. We show that at high temporal resolutions a mechanistic approach is mandatory, but at large scales the LRU approach compares similarly.
Caroline A. Famiglietti, T. Luke Smallman, Paul A. Levine, Sophie Flack-Prain, Gregory R. Quetin, Victoria Meyer, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Stephanie G. Stettz, Yan Yang, Damien Bonal, A. Anthony Bloom, Mathew Williams, and Alexandra G. Konings
Biogeosciences, 18, 2727–2754,Short summary
Model uncertainty dominates the spread in terrestrial carbon cycle predictions. Efforts to reduce it typically involve adding processes, thereby increasing model complexity. However, if and how model performance scales with complexity is unclear. Using a suite of 16 structurally distinct carbon cycle models, we find that increased complexity only improves skill if parameters are adequately informed. Otherwise, it can degrade skill, and an intermediate-complexity model is optimal.
Gilvan Sampaio, Marília H. Shimizu, Carlos A. Guimarães-Júnior, Felipe Alexandre, Marcelo Guatura, Manoel Cardoso, Tomas F. Domingues, Anja Rammig, Celso von Randow, Luiz F. C. Rezende, and David M. Lapola
Biogeosciences, 18, 2511–2525,Short summary
The impact of large-scale deforestation and the physiological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on Amazon rainfall are systematically compared in this study. Our results are remarkable in showing that the two disturbances cause equivalent rainfall decrease, though through different causal mechanisms. These results highlight the importance of not only curbing regional deforestation but also reducing global CO2 emissions to avoid climatic changes in the Amazon.
Daniele Peano, Deborah Hemming, Stefano Materia, Christine Delire, Yuanchao Fan, Emilie Joetzjer, Hanna Lee, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Taejin Park, Philippe Peylin, David Wårlind, Andy Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 18, 2405–2428,Short summary
Global climate models are the scientist’s tools used for studying past, present, and future climate conditions. This work examines the ability of a group of our tools in reproducing and capturing the right timing and length of the season when plants show their green leaves. This season, indeed, is fundamental for CO2 exchanges between land, atmosphere, and climate. This work shows that discrepancies compared to observations remain, demanding further polishing of these tools.
Karun Pandit, Hamid Dashti, Andrew T. Hudak, Nancy F. Glenn, Alejandro N. Flores, and Douglas J. Shinneman
Biogeosciences, 18, 2027–2045,Short summary
A dynamic global vegetation model, Ecosystem Demography (EDv2.2), is used to understand spatiotemporal dynamics of a semi-arid shrub ecosystem under alternative fire regimes. Multi-decadal point simulations suggest shrub dominance for a non-fire scenario and a contrasting phase of shrub and C3 grass growth for a fire scenario. Regional gross primary productivity (GPP) simulations indicate moderate agreement with MODIS GPP and a GPP reduction in fire-affected areas before showing some recovery.
Martina Botter, Matthias Zeeman, Paolo Burlando, and Simone Fatichi
Biogeosciences, 18, 1917–1939,
Carlos A. Sierra, Susan E. Crow, Martin Heimann, Holger Metzler, and Ernst-Detlef Schulze
Biogeosciences, 18, 1029–1048,Short summary
The climate benefit of carbon sequestration (CBS) is a metric developed to quantify avoided warming by two separate processes: the amount of carbon drawdown from the atmosphere and the time this carbon is stored in a reservoir. This metric can be useful for quantifying the role of forests and soils for climate change mitigation and to better quantify the benefits of carbon removals by sinks.
Xiaoying Shi, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Peter E. Thornton, Xiaofeng Xu, Fengming Yuan, Richard J. Norby, Anthony P. Walker, Jeffrey M. Warren, Jiafu Mao, Paul J. Hanson, Lin Meng, David Weston, and Natalie A. Griffiths
Biogeosciences, 18, 467–486,Short summary
The Sphagnum mosses are the important species of a wetland ecosystem. To better represent the peatland ecosystem, we introduced the moss species to the land model component (ELM) of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) by developing water content dynamics and nonvascular photosynthetic processes for moss. We tested the model against field observations and used the model to make projections of the site's carbon cycle under warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration scenarios.
Peter Horvath, Hui Tang, Rune Halvorsen, Frode Stordal, Lena Merete Tallaksen, Terje Koren Berntsen, and Anders Bryn
Biogeosciences, 18, 95–112,Short summary
We evaluated the performance of three methods for representing vegetation cover. Remote sensing provided the best match to a reference dataset, closely followed by distribution modelling (DM), whereas the dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) in CLM4.5BGCDV deviated strongly from the reference. Sensitivity tests show that use of threshold values for predictors identified by DM may improve DGVM performance. The results highlight the potential of using DM in the development of DGVMs.
Johan Arnqvist, Julia Freier, and Ebba Dellwik
Biogeosciences, 17, 5939–5952,Short summary
Data generated by airborne laser scans enable the characterization of surface vegetation for any application that might need it, such as forest management, modeling for numerical weather prediction, or wind energy estimation. In this work we present a new algorithm for calculating the vegetation density using data from airborne laser scans. The new routine is more robust than earlier methods, and an implementation in popular programming languages accompanies the article to support new users.
Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Jennifer D. Watts, Susan M. Natali, Donatella Zona, Junjie Liu, Masahito Ueyama, Hideki Kobayashi, Walter Oechel, and Charles E. Miller
Biogeosciences, 17, 5861–5882,Short summary
We developed a 1 km satellite-data-driven permafrost carbon model to evaluate soil respiration sensitivity to recent snow cover changes in Alaska. Results show earlier snowmelt enhances growing-season soil respiration and reduces annual carbon uptake, while early cold-season soil respiration is linked to the number of snow-free days after the land surface freezes. Our results also show nonnegligible influences of subgrid variability in surface conditions on model-simulated CO2 seasonal cycles.
Kuang-Yu Chang, William J. Riley, Patrick M. Crill, Robert F. Grant, and Scott R. Saleska
Biogeosciences, 17, 5849–5860,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is a strong greenhouse gas that can accelerate climate change and offset mitigation efforts. A key assumption embedded in many large-scale climate models is that ecosystem CH4 emissions can be estimated by fixed temperature relations. Here, we demonstrate that CH4 emissions cannot be parameterized by emergent temperature response alone due to variability driven by microbial and abiotic interactions. We also provide mechanistic understanding for observed CH4 emission hysteresis.
Jinnan Gong, Nigel Roulet, Steve Frolking, Heli Peltola, Anna M. Laine, Nicola Kokkonen, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 17, 5693–5719,Short summary
In this study, which combined a field and lab experiment with modelling, we developed a process-based model for simulating dynamics within peatland moss communities. The model is useful because Sphagnum mosses are key engineers in peatlands; their response to changes in climate via altered hydrology controls the feedback of peatland biogeochemistry to climate. Our work showed that moss capitulum traits related to water retention are the mechanism controlling moss layer dynamics in peatlands.
Tea Thum, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Aki Tsuruta, Tuula Aalto, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Jari Liski, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Tiina Markkanen, Julia Pongratz, Yukio Yoshida, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 17, 5721–5743,Short summary
Global vegetation models are important tools in estimating the impacts of global climate change. The fate of soil carbon is of the upmost importance as its emissions will enhance the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. To evaluate the skill of global vegetation models to model the soil carbon and its responses to environmental factors, it is important to use different data sources. We evaluated two different soil carbon models by using atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.
Maoyi Huang, Yi Xu, Marcos Longo, Michael Keller, Ryan G. Knox, Charles D. Koven, and Rosie A. Fisher
Biogeosciences, 17, 4999–5023,Short summary
The Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) is enhanced to mimic the ecological, biophysical, and biogeochemical processes following a logging event. The model can specify the timing and aerial extent of logging events; determine the survivorship of cohorts in the disturbed forest; and modifying the biomass, coarse woody debris, and litter pools. This study lays the foundation to simulate land use change and forest degradation in FATES as part of an Earth system model.
Junrong Zha and Qianla Zhuang
Biogeosciences, 17, 4591–4610,Short summary
This study incorporated microbial dormancy into a detailed microbe-based biogeochemistry model to examine the fate of Arctic carbon budgets under changing climate conditions. Compared with the model without microbial dormancy, the new model estimated a much higher carbon accumulation in the region during the last and current century. This study highlights the importance of the representation of microbial dormancy in earth system models to adequately quantify the carbon dynamics in the Arctic.
Thomas Gasser, Léa Crepin, Yann Quilcaille, Richard A. Houghton, Philippe Ciais, and Michael Obersteiner
Biogeosciences, 17, 4075–4101,Short summary
We combine several lines of evidence to provide a robust estimate of historical CO2 emissions from land use change. Our novel approach leads to reduced uncertainty and identifies key remaining sources of uncertainty and discrepancy. We also quantify the carbon removal by natural ecosystems that would have occurred if these ecosystems had not been destroyed (mostly via deforestation). Over the last decade, this foregone carbon sink amounted to about 50 % of the actual emissions.
Hua W. Xie, Adriana L. Romero-Olivares, Michele Guindani, and Steven D. Allison
Biogeosciences, 17, 4043–4057,Short summary
Soil biogeochemical models (SBMs) are needed to predict future soil CO2 emissions levels, but we presently lack statistically rigorous frameworks for assessing the predictive utility of SBMs. In this study, we demonstrate one possible approach to evaluating SBMs by comparing the fits of two models to soil CO2 respiration data with recently developed Bayesian statistical goodness-of-fit metrics. Our results demonstrate that our approach is a viable one for continued development and refinement.
Stefano Manzoni, Arjun Chakrawal, Thomas Fischer, Joshua P. Schimel, Amilcare Porporato, and Giulia Vico
Biogeosciences, 17, 4007–4023,Short summary
Carbon dioxide is produced by soil microbes through respiration, which is particularly fast when soils are moistened by rain. Will respiration increase with future more intense rains and longer dry spells? With a mathematical model, we show that wetter conditions increase respiration. In contrast, if rainfall totals stay the same, but rain comes all at once after long dry spells, the average respiration will not change, but the contribution of the respiration bursts after rain will increase.
Nicholas C. Parazoo, Troy Magney, Alex Norton, Brett Raczka, Cédric Bacour, Fabienne Maignan, Ian Baker, Yongguang Zhang, Bo Qiu, Mingjie Shi, Natasha MacBean, Dave R. Bowling, Sean P. Burns, Peter D. Blanken, Jochen Stutz, Katja Grossmann, and Christian Frankenberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 3733–3755,Short summary
Satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) provide a global measure of photosynthetic change. This enables scientists to better track carbon cycle responses to environmental change and tune biochemical processes in vegetation models for an improved simulation of future change. We use tower-instrumented SIF measurements and controlled model experiments to assess the state of the art in terrestrial biosphere SIF modeling and find a wide range of sensitivities to light.
Tong Yu and Qianlai Zhuang
Biogeosciences, 17, 3643–3657,Short summary
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) plays an important role in the global nitrogen cycle. However, the fixation rate has usually been measured or estimated at a particular observational site. This study develops a BNF model considering the symbiotic relationship between legume plants and bacteria. The model is extensively calibrated with site-level observational data and then extrapolated to the global terrestrial ecosystems to quantify the fixation rate in the 1990s.
Simon Jones, Lucy Rowland, Peter Cox, Deborah Hemming, Andy Wiltshire, Karina Williams, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Junjie Liu, Antonio C. L. da Costa, Patrick Meir, Maurizio Mencuccini, and Anna B. Harper
Biogeosciences, 17, 3589–3612,Short summary
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are an important set of molecules that help plants to grow and respire when photosynthesis is restricted by extreme climate events. In this paper we present a simple model of NSC storage and assess the effect that it has on simulations of vegetation at the ecosystem scale. Our model has the potential to significantly change predictions of plant behaviour in global vegetation models, which would have large implications for predictions of the future climate.
Charles D. Koven, Ryan G. Knox, Rosie A. Fisher, Jeffrey Q. Chambers, Bradley O. Christoffersen, Stuart J. Davies, Matteo Detto, Michael C. Dietze, Boris Faybishenko, Jennifer Holm, Maoyi Huang, Marlies Kovenock, Lara M. Kueppers, Gregory Lemieux, Elias Massoud, Nathan G. McDowell, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Jessica F. Needham, Richard J. Norby, Thomas Powell, Alistair Rogers, Shawn P. Serbin, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Abigail L. S. Swann, Charuleka Varadharajan, Anthony P. Walker, S. Joseph Wright, and Chonggang Xu
Biogeosciences, 17, 3017–3044,Short summary
Tropical forests play a crucial role in governing climate feedbacks, and are incredibly diverse ecosystems, yet most Earth system models do not take into account the diversity of plant traits in these forests and how this diversity may govern feedbacks. We present an approach to represent diverse competing plant types within Earth system models, test this approach at a tropical forest site, and explore how the representation of disturbance and competition governs traits of the forest community.
Robert F. Grant, Sisi Lin, and Guillermo Hernandez-Ramirez
Biogeosciences, 17, 2021–2039,Short summary
Nitrification inhibitors (NI) have been shown to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N20), a potent greenhouse gas, from fertilizer and manure applied to agricultural fields. However difficulties in measuring N20 emissions limit our ability to estimate these reductions. Here we propose and test a mathematical model that may allow us to estimate these reductions under diverse site conditions. These estimates will be useful in determining emission factors for NI-amended fertilizer and manure.
Moritz Laub, Michael Scott Demyan, Yvonne Funkuin Nkwain, Sergey Blagodatsky, Thomas Kätterer, Hans-Peter Piepho, and Georg Cadisch
Biogeosciences, 17, 1393–1413,Short summary
Loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere represents a global challenge. We tested an innovative way to reduce the high uncertainty related to turnover of carbon stored in soils. With the use of infrared spectra of soils from model bare fallow systems, we were able to better assess the current state of soil carbon and predict its behavior in overdecadal time spans. In agreement with recent studies, carbon turnover seems faster than earlier assumed, with potential for high loss under mismanagement.
Genki Katata, Rüdiger Grote, Matthias Mauder, Matthias J. Zeeman, and Masakazu Ota
Biogeosciences, 17, 1071–1085,Short summary
In this paper, we demonstrate that high physiological activity levels during the extremely warm winter are allocated into the below-ground biomass and only to a minor extent used for additional plant growth during early spring. This process is so far largely unaccounted for in scenario analysis using global terrestrial biosphere models, and it may lead to carbon accumulation in the soil and/or carbon loss from the soil as a response to global warming.
Jinyan Yang, Belinda E. Medlyn, Martin G. De Kauwe, Remko A. Duursma, Mingkai Jiang, Dushan Kumarathunge, Kristine Y. Crous, Teresa E. Gimeno, Agnieszka Wujeska-Klause, and David S. Ellsworth
Biogeosciences, 17, 265–279,Short summary
This study addressed a major knowledge gap in the response of forest productivity to elevated CO2. We first quantified forest productivity of an evergreen forest under both ambient and elevated CO2, using a model constrained by in situ measurements. The simulation showed the canopy productivity response to elevated CO2 to be smaller than that at the leaf scale due to different limiting processes. This finding provides a key reference for the understanding of CO2 impacts on forest ecosystems.
Adams, M. A., Turnbull, T. L., Sprent, J. I., and Buchmann, N.: Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 113, 4098–4103, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1523936113, 2016.
Anderson-Teixeira, K. J., Wang, M. M. H., McGarvey, J. C., Herrmann, V., Tepley, A. J., Bond-Lamberty, B., and LeBauer, D. S.: ForC: a global database of forest carbon stocks and fluxes, Ecology, 99, 1507, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2229, 2018.
Arora, V. K., Katavouta, A., Williams, R. G., Jones, C. D., Brovkin, V., Friedlingstein, P., Schwinger, J., Bopp, L., Boucher, O., Cadule, P., Chamberlain, M. A., Christian, J. R., Delire, C., Fisher, R. A., Hajima, T., Ilyina, T., Joetzjer, E., Kawamiya, M., Koven, C. D., Krasting, J. P., Law, R. M., Lawrence, D. M., Lenton, A., Lindsay, K., Pongratz, J., Raddatz, T., Séférian, R., Tachiiri, K., Tjiputra, J. F., Wiltshire, A., Wu, T., and Ziehn, T.: Carbon–concentration and carbon–climate feedbacks in CMIP6 models and their comparison to CMIP5 models, Biogeosciences, 17, 4173–4222, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-4173-2020, 2020.
Asner, G. P., Scurlock, J. M. O., and Hicke, J. A.: Global synthesis of leaf area index observations: implications for ecological and remote sensing studies, Global Ecol. Biogeogr., 12, 191–205, 2003.
Averill, C., Bhatnagar, J. M., Dietze, M. C., Pearse, W. D., and Kivlin, S. N.: Global imprint of mycorrhizal fungi on whole-plant nutrient economics, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 116, 23163–23168, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1906655116, 2019.
Batterman, S. A., Hedin, L. O., van Breugel, M., Ransijn, J., Craven, D. J., and Hall, J. S.: Key role of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tropical forest secondary succession, Nature, 502 , 224–227, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12525, 2013.
Binkley, D., Sollins, P., Bell, R., Sachs, D., and Myrold, D.: Biogeochemistry of adjacent conifer and alder‐conifer stands, Ecology, 73, 2022–2033, 1992.
Boring, L. R. and Swank, W. T.: The Role of Black Locust (Robinia Pseudo-Acacia) in Forest Succession, J. Ecol., 72, 749–766, 1984.
Bytnerowicz, T. A., Akana, P. R., Griffin, K. L., and Menge, D. N. L.: The temperature sensitivity of woody dinitrogen fixation across species and growing temperatures, in review, 2021.
Canarini, A., Kaiser, C., Merchant, A., Richter, A., and Wanek, W.: Root exudation of primary metabolites: Mechanisms and their roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli, Front. Plant Sci., 10, 1–19, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00157, 2019.
Chan, Y. K.: Temperature response of an associative N2-fixing Pseudomonas species in pure culture, Can. J. Microbiol., 37, 715–718, https://doi.org/10.1139/m91-122, 1991.
Chapin, D. M., Bliss, L. C., and Bledsoe, L. J.: Environmental regulation of nitrogen fixation in a high arctic lowland ecosystem, Can. J. Botany, 69, 2744–2755, https://doi.org/10.1139/b91-345, 1991.
Chapin, F. S., Matson, P. A., and Vitousek, P. M.: Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology, Springer Science & Business Media, New York, NY, 2011.
Chapin III, F. S., Walker, L. R., Fastie, C. L., and Sharman, L. C.: Mechanisms of Primary Succession Following Deglaciation at Glacier Bay, Alaska, Ecol. Monogr., 64, 149–175, 1994.
Chapin III, F. S., Conway, A. J., Johnstone, J. F., Hollingsworth, T. N., and Hollingsworth, J.: Absence of net long-term successional facilitation by alder in a boreal Alaska floodplain, Ecology, 97, 2986–2997, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.1529, 2016.
Cheng, W., Parton, W. J., Gonzalez-Meler, M. A., Phillips, R., Asao, S., Mcnickle, G. G., Brzostek, E., and Jastrow, J. D.: Synthesis and modeling perspectives of rhizosphere priming, New Phytol., 201, 31–44, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12440, 2014.
Cierjacks, A., Kowarik, I., Joshi, J., Hempel, S., Ristow, M., von der Lippe, M., and Weber, E.: Biological flora of the british isles: Robinia pseudoacacia, J. Ecol., 101, 1623–1640, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12162, 2013.
Cleveland, C. C., Townsend, A. R., Schimel, D. S., Fisher, H., Hedin, L. O., Perakis, S., Latty, E. F., Von Fischer, C., Elseroad, A., and Wasson, M. F.: Global patterns of terrestrial biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in natural ecosystems, Global Biochem. Cy., 13, 623–645, https://doi.org/10.1029/1999GB900014, 1999.
Coxson, D. S. and Kershaw, K. A.: Rehydration response of nitrogenase activity and carbon fixation in terrestrial Nostoc commune from Stipa-Bouteola grassland, Can. J. Botany, 61, 2658–2668, https://doi.org/10.1139/b83-293, 1983.
Crowther, T. W., Glick, H. B., Covey, K. R., Bettigole, C., Maynard, D. S., Thomas, S. M., Smith, J. R., Hintler, G., Duguid, M. C., Amatulli, G., Tuanmu, M.-N., Jetz, W., Salas, C., Stam, C., Piotto, D., Tavani, R., Green, S., Bruce, G., Williams, S. J., Wiser, S. K., Huber, M. O., Hengeveld, G. M., Nabuurs, G.-J., Tikhonova, E., Borchardt, P., Li, C.-F., Powrie, L. W., Fischer, M., Hemp, A., Homeier, J., Cho, P., Vibrans, A. C., Umunay, P. M., Piao, S. L., Rowe, C. W., Ashton, M. S., Crane, P. R., and Bradford, M. A.: Mapping tree density at a global scale, Nature, 525, 201–205, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14967, 2015.
Davies-Barnard, T. and Friedlingstein, P.: The Global Distribution of Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Terrestrial Natural Ecosystems, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 34, 1–17, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GB006387, 2020.
Davies-Barnard, T., Meyerholt, J., Zaehle, S., Friedlingstein, P., Brovkin, V., Fan, Y., Fisher, R. A., Jones, C. D., Lee, H., Peano, D., Smith, B., Wårlind, D., and Wiltshire, A. J.: Nitrogen cycling in CMIP6 land surface models: progress and limitations, Biogeosciences, 17, 5129–5148, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-5129-2020, 2020.
DeLuca, T. H., Zackrisson, O., Nilsson, M.-C., and Sellstedt, A.: Quantifying nitrogen-fixation in feather moss carpets of boreal forests, Nature, 419, 917–920, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01051, 2002.
Dentener, F. J.: Global Maps of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition, 1860, 1993, and 2050, ORNL DAAC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/830, 2006.
Dlugokencky, E. and Tans, P.: Trends in atmospheric carbon dioxide, online, available at: https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/gl_data.html (last access: November 2019), 2020.
Elser, J. J., Bracken, M. E. S., Cleland, E. E., Gruner, D. S., Harpole, W. S., Hillebrand, H., Ngai, J. T., Seabloom, E. W., Shurin, J. B., and Smith, J. E.: Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary producers in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, Ecol. Lett., 10, 1135–1142, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2007.01113.x, 2007.
Falster, D. S., Duursma, R. A., Ishihara, M. I., Barneche, D. R., FitzJohn, R. G., Vårhammar, A., Aiba, M., Ando, M., Anten, N., Aspinwall, M. J., Baltzer, J. L., Baraloto, C., Battaglia, M., Battles, J. J., Lamberty, B. B., Van Breugel, M., Camac, J., Claveau, Y., Coll, L., Dannoura, M., Delagrange, S., Domec, J. C., Fatemi, F., Feng, W., Gargaglione, V., Goto, Y., Hagihara, A., Hall, J. S., Hamilton, S., Harja, D., Hiura, T., Holdaway, R., Hutley, L. B., Ichie, T., Jokela, E. J., Kantola, A., Kelly, J. W. G., Kenzo, T., King, D., Kloeppel, B. D., Kohyama, T., Komiyama, A., Laclau, J. P., Lusk, C. H., Maguire, D. A., Le Maire, G., Mäkelä, A., Markesteijn, L., Marshall, J., McCulloh, K., Miyata, I., Mokany, K., Mori, S., Myster, R. W., Nagano, M., Naidu, S. L., Nouvellon, Y., O'Grady, A. P., O'Hara, K. L., Ohtsuka, T., Osada, N., Osunkoya, O. O., Peri, P. L., Petritan, A. M., Poorter, L., Portsmuth, A., Potvin, C., Ransijn, J., Reid, D., Ribeiro, S. C., Roberts, S. D., Rodríguez, R., Acosta, A. S., Santa-Regina, I., Sasa, K., Selaya, N. G., Sillett, S. C., Sterck, F., Takagi, K., Tange, T., Tanouchi, H., Tissue, D., Umehara, T., Utsugi, H., Vadeboncoeur, M. A., Valladares, F., Vanninen, P., Wang, J. R., Wenk, E., Williams, R., De Aquino Ximenes, F., Yamaba, A., Yamada, T., Yamakura, T., Yanai, R. D., and York, R. A.: BAAD: a Biomass And Allometry Database for woody plants, Ecology, 96, 1445, https://doi.org/10.1890/14-1889.1, 2015.
Finzi, A. C., Abramoff, R. Z., Spiller, K. S., Brzostek, E. R., Darby, B. A., Kramer, M. A., and Phillips, R. P.: Rhizosphere processes are quantitatively important components of terrestrial carbon and nutrient cycles, Glob. Change Biol., 21, 2082–2094, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12816, 2015.
Fowler, D., Coyle, M., Skiba, U., Sutton, M. A., Cape, J. N., Reis, S., Sheppard, L. J., Jenkins, A., Grizzetti, B., Galloway, J. N., Vitousek, P., Leach, A., Bouwman, A. F., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Dentener, F., Stevenson, D., Amann, M., and Voss, M.: The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century, Philos. T. R. Soc. B, 368, 20130164, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0164, 2013.
Goll, D. S., Winkler, A. J., Raddatz, T., Dong, N., Prentice, I. C., Ciais, P., and Brovkin, V.: Carbon–nitrogen interactions in idealized simulations with JSBACH (version 3.10), Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2009–2030, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-2009-2017, 2017.
Gutschick, V. P.: Evolved Strategies in Nitrogen Acquisition by Plants, Am. Nat., 118, 607–637, 1981.
Haverd, V., Smith, B., Nieradzik, L., Briggs, P. R., Woodgate, W., Trudinger, C. M., Canadell, J. G., and Cuntz, M.: A new version of the CABLE land surface model (Subversion revision r4601) incorporating land use and land cover change, woody vegetation demography, and a novel optimisation-based approach to plant coordination of photosynthesis, Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2995–3026, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-2995-2018, 2018.
Hoch, G., Richter, A., and Körner, C.: Non-structural carbon compounds in temperate forest trees, Plant Cell Environ., 26, 1067–1081, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0016-8025.2003.01032.x, 2003.
Houlton, B. Z., Wang, Y. P., Vitousek, P. M., and Field, C. B.: A unifying framework for dinitrogen fixation in the terrestrial biosphere, Nature, 454, 327–330, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07028, 2008.
Huang, Y. and Gerber, S.: Global soil nitrous oxide emissions in a dynamic carbon-nitrogen model, Biogeosciences, 12, 6405–6427, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-6405-2015, 2015.
Hulvey, K. B., Hobbs, R. J., Standish, R. J., Lindenmayer, D. B., Lach, L., and Perring, M. P.: Benefits of tree mixes in carbon plantings, Nat. Clim. Change, 3, 869–874, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1862, 2013.
Jackson, R. B., Mooney, H. A., and Schulze, E.-D.: A global budget for fine root biomass, surface area, and nutrient contents, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94, 7362–7366, 1997.
Johnson, N. C.: Resource Stoichiometry Elucidates the Structure and Function of Arbuscular Mycorrhizas across Scales, New Phytol., 185, 631–647, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2009.03110.x, 2010.
Jones, D. L., Nguyen, C., and Finlay, R. D.: Carbon flow in the rhizosphere: Carbon trading at the soil-root interface, Plant Soil, 321, 5–33, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-009-9925-0, 2009.
Kattge, J., Bönisch, G., Díaz, S., et al.: TRY plant trait database–enhanced coverage and open access, Glob. Change Biol., 26, 119–188, 2020.
Knoepp, J.: Measurements of Soil Bulk Density at the Coweeta Terrestrial Gradient Sites, online, available at: https://coweeta.uga.edu/ResearchData.html (last access: November 2019), 2009a.
Knoepp, J.: Measurements of Soil Nitrogen Transformations at the Coweeta Terrestrial Gradient Sites, online, available at: https://coweeta.uga.edu/ResearchData.html (last access: November 2019), 2009b.
Knoepp, J.: Measurements of Soil %C and %N at the Coweeta Terrestrial Gradient Sites, online, available at: https://coweeta.uga.edu/ResearchData.html (last access: November 2019), 2018.
Kou-Giesbrecht, S. and Menge, D. N. L.: Nitrogen-fixing trees increase soil nitrous oxide emissions: a meta-analysis, Ecology, accepted, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3415, 2021.
Lai, H. R., Hall, J. S., Batterman, S. A., Turner, B. L., and van Breugel, M.: Nitrogen fixer abundance has no effect on biomass recovery during tropical secondary forest succession, J. Ecol., 106, 1415–1427, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12979, 2018.
Lawrence, D. M., Fisher, R. A., Koven, C. D., Oleson, K. W., Swenson, S. C., Bonan, G., Collier, N., Ghimire, B., van Kampenhout, L., Kennedy, D., Kluzek, E., Lawrence, P. J., Li, F., Li, H., Lombardozzi, D., Riley, W. J., Sacks, W. J., Shi, M., Vertenstein, M., Wieder, W. R., Xu, C., Ali, A. A., Badger, A. M., Bisht, G., van den Broeke, M., Brunke, M. A., Burns, S. P., Buzan, J., Clark, M., Craig, A., Dahlin, K., Drewniak, B., Fisher, J. B., Flanner, M., Fox, A. M., Gentine, P., Hoffman, F., Keppel-Aleks, G., Knox, R., Kumar, S., Lenaerts, J., Leung, L. R., Lipscomb, W. H., Lu, Y., Pandey, A., Pelletier, J. D., Perket, J., Randerson, J. T., Ricciuto, D. M., Sanderson, B. M., Slater, A., Subin, Z. M., Tang, J., Thomas, R. Q., Val Martin, M., and Zeng, X.: The Community Land Model Version 5: Description of New Features, Benchmarking, and Impact of Forcing Uncertainty, J. Adv. Model. Earth Sy., 11, 4245–4287, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018MS001583, 2019.
LeBauer, D. S. and Treseder, K. K.: Nitrogen Limitation of Net Primary Productivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems is Globally Distributed, Ecology, 89, 371–379, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.04.020, 2008.
Levy-Varon, J. H., Batterman, S. A., Medvigy, D., Hall, J. S., Van Breugel, M., and Hedin, L. O.: Tropical carbon sink accelerated by symbiotic dinitrogen fixation, Nat. Commun., 10, 1–8, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13656-7, 2019.
Liang, J., Qi, X., Souza, L., and Luo, Y.: Processes regulating progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated carbon dioxide: a meta-analysis, Biogeosciences, 13, 2689–2699, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-2689-2016, 2016.
Liengen, T. and Olsen, R. A.: Seasonal and site-specific variations in nitrogen fixation in a high arctic area, Ny-Alesund, Spitsbergen, Can. J. Microbiol., 43, 759–769, https://doi.org/10.1139/m97-109, 1997.
Martinez Cano, I., Shevliakova, E., Malyshev, S., Wright, S. J., Detto, M., Pacala, S. W., and Muller-Landau, H. C.: Allometric constraints and competition enable the simulation of size structure and carbon fluxes in a dynamic vegetation model of tropical forests (LM3PPA-TV), Glob. Change Biol., 26, 4478–4494, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15188, 2020.
Medlyn, B. E., Dreyer, E., Ellsworth, D., Forstreuter, M., Harley, P. C., Kirschbaum, M. U. F., Le Roux, X., Montpied, P., Strassemeyer, J., Walcroft, A., Wang, K., and Loustau, D.: Temperature response of parameters of a biochemically based model of photosynthesis. II. A review of experimental data, Plant Cell Environ., 25, 1167–1179, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3040.2002.00891.x, 2002.
Medvigy, D., Wofsy, S. C., Munger, J. W., Hollinger, D. Y., and Moorcroft, P. R.: Mechanistic scaling of ecosystem function and dynamics in space and time: Ecosystem Demography model version 2, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 114, G01002, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JG000812, 2009.
Meerts, P.: Mineral nutrient concentrations in sapwood and heartwood: a literature review, Ann. For. Sci., 59, 713–722, 2002.
Meinshausen, M., Vogel, E., Nauels, A., Lorbacher, K., Meinshausen, N., Etheridge, D. M., Fraser, P. J., Montzka, S. A., Rayner, P. J., Trudinger, C. M., Krummel, P. B., Beyerle, U., Canadell, J. G., Daniel, J. S., Enting, I. G., Law, R. M., Lunder, C. R., O'Doherty, S., Prinn, R. G., Reimann, S., Rubino, M., Velders, G. J. M., Vollmer, M. K., Wang, R. H. J., and Weiss, R.: Historical greenhouse gas concentrations for climate modelling (CMIP6), Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2057–2116, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-10-2057-2017, 2017.
Menge, D. N. L. and Hedin, L. O.: Nitrogen Fixation in Different Biogeochemical Niches along a 120 000-Year Chronosequence in New Zealand, Ecology, 90, 2190–2201, 2009.
Menge, D. N. L., Denoyer, J. L., and Lichstein, J. W.: Phylogenetic constraints do not explain the rarity of nitrogen-fixing trees in late-successional temperate forests, PLoS One, 5, e12056, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012056, 2010.
Menge, D. N. L., Wolf, A. A., and Funk, J. L.: Diversity of nitrogen fixation strategies in Mediterranean legumes, Nat. Plants, 1, 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1038/nplants.2015.64, 2015.
Menge, D. N. L., Chisholm, R. A., Davies, S. J., Abu Salim, K., Allen, D., Alvarez, M., Bourg, N., Brockelman, W. Y., Bunyavejchewin, S., Butt, N., Cao, M., Chanthorn, W., Chao, W. C., Clay, K., Condit, R., Cordell, S., da Silva, J. B., Dattaraja, H. S., de Andrade, A. C. S., de Oliveira, A. A., den Ouden, J., Drescher, M., Fletcher, C., Giardina, C. P., Savitri Gunatilleke, C. V., Gunatilleke, I. A. U. N., Hau, B. C. H., He, F., Howe, R., Hsieh, C. F., Hubbell, S. P., Inman-Narahari, F. M., Jansen, P. A., Johnson, D. J., Kong, L. S., Král, K., Ku, C. C., Lai, J., Larson, A. J., Li, X., Li, Y., Lin, L., Lin, Y. C., Liu, S., Lum, S. K. Y., Lutz, J. A., Ma, K., Malhi, Y., McMahon, S., McShea, W., Mi, X., Morecroft, M., Myers, J. A., Nathalang, A., Novotny, V., Ong, P., Orwig, D. A., Ostertag, R., Parker, G., Phillips, R. P., Abd. Rahman, K., Sack, L., Sang, W., Shen, G., Shringi, A., Shue, J., Su, S. H., Sukumar, R., Sun, I. F., Suresh, H. S., Tan, S., Thomas, S. C., Toko, P. S., Valencia, R., Vallejo, M. I., Vicentini, A., Vrška, T., Wang, B., Wang, X., Weiblen, G. D., Wolf, A., Xu, H., Yap, S., Zhu, L., and Fung, T.: Patterns of nitrogen-fixing tree abundance in forests across Asia and America, J. Ecol., 107, 2598–2610, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13199, 2019.
Meyerholt, J., Zaehle, S., and Smith, M. J.: Variability of projected terrestrial biosphere responses to elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 due to uncertainty in biological nitrogen fixation, Biogeosciences, 13, 1491–1518, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-13-1491-2016, 2016.
Meyerholt, J., Sickel, K., and Zaehle, S.: Ensemble projections elucidate effects of uncertainty in terrestrial nitrogen limitation on future carbon uptake, Glob. Change Biol., 26, 3978–3996, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15114, 2020.
Mooney, H. A., Winner, W. E., and Pell, E. J.: Response of plants to multiple stresses, Academic Press, 1991.
Nacry, P., Bouguyon, E., and Gojon, A.: Nitrogen acquisition by roots: Physiological and developmental mechanisms ensuring plant adaptation to a fluctuating resource, Plant Soil, 370, 1–29, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-013-1645-9, 2013.
Oishi, A. C.: AmeriFlux US-Cwt Coweeta, Ver. 1-5., https://doi.org/10.17190/AMF/1671890, 2020.
Oswalt, S. N., Smith, W. B., Miles, P. D., and Pugh, S. A.: Forest Resources of the United States, 2017, 2019.
Peng, J., Wang, Y. P., Houlton, B. Z., Dan, L., Pak, B., and Tang, X.: Global Carbon Sequestration Is Highly Sensitive to Model-Based Formulations of Nitrogen Fixation, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 34, e2019GB006296, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GB006296, 2020.
Phillips, R. P., Brzostek, E., and Midgley, M. G.: The mycorrhizal-associated nutrient economy: A new framework for predicting carbon-nutrient couplings in temperate forests, New Phytol., 199, 41–51, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12221, 2013.
Poorter, H., Niinemets, Ü., Poorter, L., Wright, I. J., and Villar, R.: Causes and consequences of variation in leaf mass per area (LMA): a meta-analysis, New Phytol., 182, 565–588, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02681.x, 2009.
Poorter, H., Niklas, K. J., Reich, P. B., Oleksyn, J., Poot, P., and Mommer, L.: Biomass allocation to leaves, stems and roots: Meta-analyses of interspecific variation and environmental control, New Phytol., 193, 30–50, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03952.x, 2012.
Purves, D. W., Lichstein, J. W., Strigul, N., and Pacala, S. W.: Predicting and understanding forest dynamics using a simple tractable model, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 105, 17018–17022, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0807754105, 2008.
Rastetter, E. B. and Shaver, G. R.: A model of multiple-element limitation for acclimating vegetation, Ecology, 73, 1157–1174, https://doi.org/10.2307/1940666, 1992.
Reay, D. S., Dentener, F. J., Smith, P., Grace, J., and Feely, R. A.: Global nitrogen deposition and carbon sinks, Nat. Geosci., 1, 430–437, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo230, 2008.
Reed, S. C., Cleveland, C. C., and Townsend, A. R.: Functional Ecology of Free-Living Nitrogen Fixation: A Contemporary Perspective, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. S., 42, 489–512, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-102710-145034, 2011.
Richardson, A. D., Carbone, M. S., Keenan, T. F., Czimczik, C. I., Hollinger, D. Y., Murakami, P., Schaberg, P. G., and Xu, X.: Seasonal dynamics and age of stemwood nonstructural carbohydrates in temperate forest trees, New Phytol., 197, 850–861, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.12042, 2013.
Roper, M. M.: Straw decomposition and nitrogenase activity (C2H2 reduction): Effects of soil moisture and temperature, Soil Biol. Biochem., 17, 65–71, https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(85)90091-4, 1985.
Roumet, C., Birouste, M., Picon-Cochard, C., Ghestem, M., Osman, N., Vrignon-Brenas, S., Cao, K. F., and Stokes, A.: Root structure-function relationships in 74 species: Evidence of a root economics spectrum related to carbon economy, New Phytol., 210, 815–826, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13828, 2016.
Scharlemann, J. P. W., Tanner, E. V. J., Hiederer, R., and Kapos, V.: Global soil carbon: Understanding and managing the largest terrestrial carbon pool, Carbon Manag., 5, 81–91, https://doi.org/10.4155/cmt.13.77, 2014.
Schomberg, H. H. and Weaver, R. W.: Nodulation, Nitrogen Fixation, and Early Growth of Arrowleaf Clover in Response to Root Temperature and Starter Nitrogen, Agron. J., 84, 1046–1050, https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1992.00021962008400060026x, 1992.
Schulte-Uebbing, L. and de Vries, W.: Global-scale impacts of nitrogen deposition on tree carbon sequestration in tropical, temperate, and boreal forests: A meta-analysis, Glob. Change Biol., 24, e416–e431, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13862, 2018.
Sheffer, E., Batterman, S. A., Levin, S. A., and Hedin, L. O.: Biome-scale nitrogen fixation strategies selected by climatic constraints on nitrogen cycle, Nat. Plants, 1, 1–6, https://doi.org/10.1038/nplants.2015.182, 2015.
Sheffield, J., Goteti, G., and Wood, E. F.: Development of a 50-Year High-Resolution Global Dataset of Meteorological Forcings for Land Surface Modeling, J. Clim., 19, 3088–3111, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI3790.1, 2006.
Shevliakova, E., Malyshev, S., Martinez-Cano, I., Milly, P. C. D., Pacala, S. W., Ginoux, P., Dunne, K. A., Dunne, J. P., Dupuis, C., Findell, K., Ghannam, K., Horowitz, L. W., John, J. G., Knutson, T. R., Krasting, P. J., Naik, V., Zadeh, N., Zeng, F., and Zeng, Y.: The land component LM4.1 of the GFDL Earth System Model ESM4.1: biophysical and biogeochemical processes and interactions with climate, in preparation, 2021.
Smith, B., Wårlind, D., Arneth, A., Hickler, T., Leadley, P., Siltberg, J., and Zaehle, S.: Implications of incorporating N cycling and N limitations on primary production in an individual-based dynamic vegetation model, Biogeosciences, 11, 2027–2054, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-2027-2014, 2014.
Smith, S. E. and Smith, F. A.: Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizas in Plant Nutrition and Growth: New Paradigms from Cellular to Ecosystem Scales, Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 62, 227–250, https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-arplant-042110-103846, 2011.
Staccone, A., Liao, W., Perakis, S., Compton, J., Clark, C., and Menge, D.: A spatially explicit, empirical estimate of tree-based biological nitrogen fixation in forests of the United States, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 34, e2019GB006241, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019gb006241, 2020.
Staccone, A. P., Kou-Giesbrecht, S., Taylor, B. N., and Menge, D. N. L.: Nitrogen-fixing trees have no net effect on forest growth in the coterminous United States, J. Ecol., 109, 877–887, https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13513, 2021.
Stehfest, E. and Bouwman, L.: N2O and NO emission from agricultural fields and soils under natural vegetation: Summarizing available measurement data and modeling of global annual emissions, Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosy., 74, 207–228, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-006-9000-7, 2006.
Stocker, B. D., Prentice, I. C., Cornell, S. E., Davies-Barnard, T., Finzi, A. C., Franklin, O., Janssens, I., Larmola, T., Manzoni, S., Näsholm, T., Raven, J. A., Rebel, K. T., Reed, S., Vicca, S., Wiltshire, A., and Zaehle, S.: Terrestrial nitrogen cycling in Earth system models revisited, New Phytol., 210, 1165–1168, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.13997, 2016.
Strigul, N., Pristinski, D., Purves, D., Dushoff, J., and Pacala, S.: Scaling from trees to forests: Tractable macroscopic equations for forest dynamics, Ecol. Monogr., 78, 523–545, https://doi.org/10.1890/08-0082.1, 2008.
Sullivan, B. W., Smith, W. K., Alan, R., Nasto, M. K., Reed, S. C., and Chazdon, R. L.: Spatially robust estimates of biological nitrogen (N) fixation imply substantial human alteration of the tropical N cycle, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 111, 8101–8106, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1511978112, 2014.
Sulman, B. N., Shevliakova, E., Brzostek, E. R., Kivlin, S. N., Malyshev, S., Menge, D. N. L., and Zhang, X.: Diverse mycorrhizal associations enhance terrestrial C storage in a global model, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 33, 501–523, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GB005973, 2019.
Swank, W. T. and Waide, J. B.: Characterization of Baseline Precipitation and Stream Chemistry and Nutrient Budgers for Control Watersheds, in: Forest Hydrology and Ecology at Coweeta, 1988.
Taylor, B. N., Chazdon, R. L., Bachelot, B., and Menge, D. N. L.: Nitrogen-fixing trees inhibit growth of regenerating Costa Rican rainforests, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 114, 8817–8822, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1707094114, 2017.
Terrer, C., Vicca, S., Hungate, B. A., Phillips, R. P., and Prentice, I. C.: Mycorrhizal association as a primary control of the CO2 fertilization effect., Science, 353, 72–74, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaf4610, 2016.
Terrer, C., Vicca, S., Stocker, B. D., Hungate, B. A., Phillips, R. P., Reich, P. B., Finzi, A. C., and Prentice, I. C.: Ecosystem responses to elevated CO2 governed by plant-soil interactions and the cost of nitrogen acquisition, New Phytol., 217, 507–522, https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.14872, 2018.
Terrer, C., Prentice, I., Jackson, R., Keenan, T., Kaiser, C., Vicca, S., Fisher, J., Reich, P., Stocker, B., Hungate, B., Penuelos, J., McCallum, I., Soudzilovskala, N., Cernusak, L., Talhelm, A., Van, S. K., Piao, S., Newton, P., Hovenden, M., Blumenthal, D., Liu, Y., Muller, C., Winter, K., Field, C., Viechtbauer, W., Van, L. C., Hoosbeek, M., Watanabe, M., Koike, T., Leshyk, V., Polley, W., and Franklin, O.: Nitrogen and phosphorus constrain the CO2 fertilization of global plant biomass, Nat. Clim. Change, 9, 684–689, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-019-0545-2, 2019.
Thomas, R. Q., Brookshire, E. N. J., and Gerber, S.: Nitrogen limitation on land: How can it occur in Earth system models?, Glob. Change Biol., 21, 1777–1793, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12813, 2015.
Tian, D. and Niu, S.: A global analysis of soil acidification caused by nitrogen addition, Environ. Res. Lett., 10, 24019, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/2/024019, 2015.
Todd, R. L., Meyer, R. D., and Waide, J. B.: Nitrogen Fixation in a Deciduous Forest in the South-Eastern United States, Ecol. Bull., 26, 172–177, 1978.
Treseder, K. K.: A meta-analysis of mycorrhizal responses to nitrogen, phosphorus, and atmospheric CO2 in field studies, New Phytol., 164, 347–355, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01159.x, 2004.
US Forest Service: US Forest Inventory and Analysis Database, available at: http://apps.fs.fed.us/fiadb-downloads/datamart.html (last access: 7 November 2019), 2020a.
US Forest Service: US Forest Inventory and Analysis Forest Health Monitoring Database, available at: http://apps.fs.fed.us/fiadb-downloads/datamart.html (last access: 7 November 2019), 2020b.
Vicca, S., Stocker, B. D., Reed, S., Wieder, W. R., Bahn, M., Fay, P. A., Janssens, I. A., Lambers, H., Peñuelas, J., Piao, S., Rebel, K. T., Sardans, J., Sigurdsson, B. D., Van Sundert, K., Wang, Y. P., Zaehle, S., and Ciais, P.: Using research networks to create the comprehensive datasets needed to assess nutrient availability as a key determinant of terrestrial carbon cycling, Environ. Res. Lett., 13, 125006, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aaeae7, 2018.
Vitousek, P. M., Menge, D. N., Reed, S. C., and Cleveland, C. C.: Biological nitrogen fixation: rates, patterns and ecological controls in terrestrial ecosystems, Philos. T. R. Soc. B, 368, 20130119, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0119, 2013.
Wang, Y. P. and Houlton, B. Z.: Nitrogen constraints on terrestrial carbon uptake: Implications for the global carbon-climate feedback, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL041009, 2009.
Wang, Y. P., Law, R. M., and Pak, B.: A global model of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles for the terrestrial biosphere, Biogeosciences, 7, 2261–2282, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-2261-2010, 2010.
Weng, E. S., Malyshev, S., Lichstein, J. W., Farrior, C. E., Dybzinski, R., Zhang, T., Shevliakova, E., and Pacala, S. W.: Scaling from individual trees to forests in an Earth system modeling framework using a mathematically tractable model of height-structured competition, Biogeosciences, 12, 2655–2694, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-2655-2015, 2015.
Wieder, W. R., Cleveland, C. C., Lawrence, D. M., and Bonan, G. B.: Effects of model structural uncertainty on carbon cycle projections: biological nitrogen fixation as a case study, Environ. Res. Lett., 10, 044016, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/10/4/044016, 2015a.
Wieder, W. R., Cleveland, C. C., Smith, W. K., and Todd-Brown, K.: Future productivity and carbon storage limited by terrestrial nutrient availability, Nat. Geosci., 8, 441–444, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2413, 2015b.
Wright, S. J., Turner, B. L., Yavitt, J. B., Harms, K. E., Kaspari, M., Tanner, E. V. J., Bujan, J., Griffin, E. A., Mayor, J. R., Pasquini, S. C., Sheldrake, M., and Garcia, M. N.: Plant responses to fertilization experiments in lowland, species-rich, tropical forests, Ecology, 99, 1129–1138, https://doi.org/10.1002/ecy.2193, 2018.
Xu, H., Detto, M., Fang, S., Chazdon, R. L., Li, Y., Hau, B. C. H., Fischer, G. A., Weiblen, G. D., Hogan, J. A., Zimmerman, J. K., Uriarte, M., Thompson, J., Lian, J., Cao, K., Kenfack, D., Alonso, A., Bissiengou, P., Memiaghe, H. R., Valencia, R., Yap, S. L., Davies, S. J., Mi, X., and Yao, T. L.: Soil nitrogen concentration mediates the relationship between leguminous trees and neighbor diversity in tropical forests, Communications Biology, 3, 1–8, https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-1041-y, 2020.
Yan, W. and Hunt, L. A.: An equation for modelling the temperature response of plants using only the cardinal temperatures, Ann. Bot.-London, 84, 607–614, https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1999.0955, 1999.
Yang, X., Wittig, V., Jain, A. K., and Post, W.: Integration of nitrogen cycle dynamics into the Integrated Science Assessment Model for the study of terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 23, 1–18, GB4029, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GB003474, 2009.
Zaehle, S. and Friend, A. D.: Carbon and nitrogen cycle dynamics in the O–CN land surface model: 1. Model description, site-scale evaluation, and sensitivity to parameter estimates, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 24, 1–13, GB1006, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GB003521, 2010.
Zhang, J. and Elser, J. J.: stoichiometry in fungi: A meta-analysis, Front. Microbiol., 8, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01281, 2017.
Zhao, M., Golaz, J.-C., Held, I. M., Guo, H., Balaji, V., Benson, R., Chen, J.-H., Chen, X., Donner, L. J., Dunne, J. P., Dunne, K., Durachta, J., Fan, S.-M., Freidenreich, S. M., Garner, S. T., Ginoux, P., Harris, L. M., Horowitz, L. W., Krasting, J. P., Langenhorst, A. R., Liang, Z., Lin, P., Lin, S.-J., Malyshev, S. L., Mason, E., Milly, P. C. D., Ming, Y., Naik, V., Paulot, F., Paynter, D., Phillipps, P., Radhakrishnan, A., Ramaswamy, V., Robinson, T., Schwarzkopf, D., Seman, C. J., Shevliakova, E., Shen, Z., Shin, H., Silvers, L. G., Wilson, J. R., Winton, M., Wittenberg, A. T., Wyman, B., and Xiang, B.: The GFDL Global Atmosphere and Land Model AM4.0/LM4.0: 1. Simulation Characteristics With Prescribed SSTs, J. Adv. Model. Earth Sy., 10, 691–734, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017MS001208, 2018a.
Zhao, M., Golaz, J.-C., Held, I. M., Guo, H., Balaji, V., Benson, R., Chen, J.-H., Chen, X., Donner, L. J., Dunne, J. P., Dunne, K., Durachta, J., Fan, S.-M., Freidenreich, S. M., Garner, S. T., Ginoux, P., Harris, L. M., Horowitz, L. W., Krasting, J. P., Langenhorst, A. R., Liang, Z., Lin, P., Lin, S.-J., Malyshev, S. L., Mason, E., Milly, P. C. D., Ming, Y., Naik, V., Paulot, F., Paynter, D., Phillipps, P., Radhakrishnan, A., Ramaswamy, V., Robinson, T., Schwarzkopf, D., Seman, C. J., Shevliakova, E., Shen, Z., Shin, H., Silvers, L. G., Wilson, J. R., Winton, M., Wittenberg, A. T., Wyman, B., and Xiang, B.: The GFDL Global Atmosphere and Land Model AM4.0/LM4.0: 2. Model Description, Sensitivity Studies, and Tuning Strategies, J. Adv. Model. Earth Sy., 10, 735–769, https://doi.org/10.1002/2017MS001209, 2018b.
Zheng, M., Zhou, Z., Luo, Y., Zhao, P., and Mo, J.: Global pattern and controls of biological nitrogen fixation under nutrient enrichment: A meta-analysis, Glob. Change Biol., 25, 3018–3030, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14705, 2019.
Zheng, M., Zhou, Z., Zhao, P., Luo, Y., Ye, Q., Zhang, K., Song, L., and Mo, J.: Effects of human disturbance activities and environmental change factors on terrestrial nitrogen fixation, Glob. Change Biol., 26, 6203–6217, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15328, 2020.
Zhu, Q., Riley, W. J., Tang, J., Collier, N., Hoffman, F. M., Yang, X., and Bisht, G.: Representing Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Carbon Interactions in the E3SM Land Model: Development and Global Benchmarking, J. Adv. Model. Earth Sy., 11, 2238–2258, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018MS001571, 2019.
Zhu, Y.-G. and Miller, R. M.: Carbon cycling by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soil–plant systems, Trends Plant Sci., 8, 407–409, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1360-1385(03)00192-4, 2003.
The requested paper has a corresponding corrigendum published. Please read the corrigendum first before downloading the article.
Representing biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is an important challenge for land models. We present a novel representation of BNF and updated nitrogen cycling in a land model. It includes a representation of asymbiotic BNF by soil microbes and the competitive dynamics between nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing plants. It improves estimations of major carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes and their temporal dynamics in comparison to previous representations of BNF in land models.
Representing biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is an important challenge for land models. We...