Articles | Volume 18, issue 20
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-5751-2021
https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-5751-2021
Research article
 | 
25 Oct 2021
Research article |  | 25 Oct 2021

Isolation of subpollen particles (SPPs) of birch: SPPs are potential carriers of ice nucleating macromolecules

Julia Burkart, Jürgen Gratzl, Teresa M. Seifried, Paul Bieber, and Hinrich Grothe

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Cited articles

Bacsi, A., Choudhury, B. K., Dharajiya, N., Sur, S., and Boldogh, I.: Subpollen particles: Carriers of allergenic proteins and oxidases, J. Allergy Clin. Immun., 118, 844–850, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2006.07.006, 2006. 
Baker, H. G. and Baker, I.: Starch in angiosperm pollen grains and its anthecological significance, New. Zeal. J. Bot., 17, 535–535, https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.1979.10432569, 1979. 
Bogler, S. and Borduas-Dedekind, N.: Lignin's ability to nucleate ice via immersion freezing and its stability towards physicochemical treatments and atmospheric processing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14509–14522, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-14509-2020, 2020. 
Borduas-Dedekind, N., Ossola, R., David, R. O., Boynton, L. S., Weichlinger, V., Kanji, Z. A., and McNeill, K.: Photomineralization mechanism changes the ability of dissolved organic matter to activate cloud droplets and to nucleate ice crystals, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12397–12412, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-12397-2019, 2019. 
Boucher, O., Randall, D., Artaxo, P., Bretherton, C., Feingold, G., Forster, P., Kerminen, V.-M., Kondo, Y., Liao, H., Lohmann, U., Rasch, P., Satheesh, S. K., Sherwood, S., Stevens, B., and Zhang, X. Y.: Clouds and Aerosols, in: T. F. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, (edn. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M., Cambridge University Press, 571–658, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.016, 2013. 
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Short summary
Extracts of birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleation active and thus impact cloud formation and climate. In this study we develop an extraction method to separate subpollen particles from ice nucleating macromolecules. Our results thereby illustrate that ice nucleating macromolecules can be washed off the subpollen particles and that the ice activity is linked to the presence of proteins.
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