Articles | Volume 19, issue 1
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Versatile soil gas concentration and isotope monitoring: optimization and integration of novel soil gas probes with online trace gas detection
School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Joseph R. Roscioli
Aerodyne Research Inc., Billerica, MA 01821, USA
Joanne H. Shorter
Aerodyne Research Inc., Billerica, MA 01821, USA
Till H. M. Volkmann
Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Oracle, AZ 85623, USA
Applied Intelligence, Accenture, 61476 Kronberg im Taunus, Hesse, Germany
Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Oracle, AZ 85623, USA
Jordan E. Krechmer
Aerodyne Research Inc., Billerica, MA 01821, USA
Laura K. Meredith
School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Oracle, AZ 85623, USA
No articles found.
Jian Zhao, Ella Häkkinen, Frans Graeffe, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Juha Kangasluoma, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3707–3730,Short summary
Based on the combined measurements of gas- and particle-phase highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from α-pinene ozonolysis, enhancement of dimers in particles was observed. We conducted experiments wherein the dimer to monomer (D / M) ratios of HOMs in the gas phase were modified (adding CO / NO) to investigate the effects of the corresponding D / M ratios in the particles. These results are important for a better understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere.
John W. Halfacre, Jordan Stewart, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, Christoph Dyroff, Tara I. Yacovitch, Michael Flynn, Stephen J. Andrews, Steven S. Brown, Patrick R. Veres, and Pete M. Edwards
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1407–1429,Short summary
This study details a new sampling method for the optical detection of hydrogen chloride (HCl). HCl is an important atmospheric reservoir for chlorine atoms, which can affect nitrogen oxide cycling and the lifetimes of volatile organic compounds and ozone. However, HCl has a high affinity for interacting with surfaces, thereby preventing fast, quantitative measurements. The sampling technique in this study minimizes these surface interactions and provides a high-quality measurement of HCl.
Kevin John Nihill, Matthew M. Coggon, Christopher Y. Lim, Abigail R. Koss, Bin Yuan, Jordan E. Krechmer, Kanako Sekimoto, Jose-Luis Jimenez, Joost de Gouw, Christopher D. Cappa, Colette L. Heald, Carsten Warneke, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In this work, we collect emissions from controlled burns of biomass fuels that can be found in the Western US into an environmental chamber in order to simulate their oxidation as they pass through the atmosphere. These findings provide a detailed characterization of the composition of the atmosphere downwind of wildfires. In turn, this will help to explore the effects of these changing emissions on downwind populations, and will also directly inform atmospheric and climate models.
Qing Ye, Matthew B. Goss, Jordan E. Krechmer, Francesca Majluf, Alexander Zaytsev, Yaowei Li, Joseph R. Roscioli, Manjula Canagaratna, Frank N. Keutsch, Colette L. Heald, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16003–16015,Short summary
The atmospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a major natural source of sulfate particles in the atmosphere. However, its mechanism is poorly constrained. In our work, laboratory measurements and mechanistic modeling were conducted to comprehensively investigate DMS oxidation products and key reaction rates. We find that the peroxy radical (RO2) has a controlling effect on product distribution and aerosol yield, with the isomerization of RO2 leading to the suppression of aerosol yield.
Peeyush Khare, Jordan E. Krechmer, Jo E. Machesky, Tori Hass-Mitchell, Cong Cao, Junqi Wang, Francesca Majluf, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Sonja Malek, Will Wang, Karl Seltzer, Havala O. T. Pye, Roisin Commane, Brian C. McDonald, Ricardo Toledo-Crow, John E. Mak, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14377–14399,Short summary
Ammonium adduct chemical ionization is used to examine the atmospheric abundances of oxygenated volatile organic compounds associated with emissions from volatile chemical products, which are now key contributors of reactive precursors to ozone and secondary organic aerosols in urban areas. The application of this valuable measurement approach in densely populated New York City enables the evaluation of emissions inventories and thus the role these oxygenated compounds play in urban air quality.
Tara I. Yacovitch, Christoph Dyroff, Joseph R. Roscioli, Conner Daube, J. Barry McManus, and Scott C. Herndon
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Ethylene oxide is a toxic, carcinogenic compound used in the medical and bulk sterilization industry. Here we describe a precise and fast laser-based ethylene oxide monitor. We report months-long concentrations at a Massachusetts site, and we show how they suggest a potential emission source 35 km away. This source, and another, are confirmed by driving the instrument downwind of the sites, where concentrations were tens to tens of thousands of times greater than background levels.
Ella Häkkinen, Jian Zhao, Frans Graeffe, Nicolas Fauré, Jordan Krechmer, Douglas Worsnop, Hilkka Timonen, Mikael Ehn, and Juha Kangasluoma
Highly oxygenated compounds contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric organic aerosol, and thus impact the global climate. Knowledge of their transformations and fate after condensing into the particle phase has been limited by the lack of suitable detection techniques. Here, we present an online method for measuring highly oxygenated compounds from organic aerosol. We evaluate the performance of the method and demonstrate that the method is applicable to different organic species.
Andrew J. Lindsay, Daniel C. Anderson, Rebecca A. Wernis, Yutong Liang, Allen H. Goldstein, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, Christoph Dyroff, Ed C. Fortner, Philip L. Croteau, Francesca Majluf, Jordan E. Krechmer, Tara I. Yacovitch, Walter B. Knighton, and Ezra C. Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4909–4928,Short summary
Wildfire smoke dramatically impacts air quality and often has elevated concentrations of ozone. We present measurements of ozone and its precursors at a rural site periodically impacted by wildfire smoke. Measurements of total peroxy radicals, key ozone precursors that have been studied little within wildfires, compare well with chemical box model predictions. Our results indicate no serious issues with using current chemistry mechanisms to model chemistry in aged wildfire plumes.
Haiyan Li, Thomas Golin Almeida, Yuanyuan Luo, Jian Zhao, Brett B. Palm, Christopher D. Daub, Wei Huang, Claudia Mohr, Jordan E. Krechmer, Theo Kurtén, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1811–1827,Short summary
This work evaluated the potential for PTR-based mass spectrometers to detect ROOR and ROOH peroxides both experimentally and through computations. Laboratory experiments using a Vocus PTR observed only noisy signals of potential dimers during α-pinene ozonolysis and a few small signals of dimeric compounds during cyclohexene ozonolysis. Quantum chemical calculations for model ROOR and ROOH systems showed that most of these peroxides should fragment partially following protonation.
Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Ara Cho, Jin Ma, Aleya Kaushik, Katherine D. Haynes, Ian Baker, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Mathijs Groenink, Wouter Peters, John B. Miller, Joseph A. Berry, Jerome Ogée, Laura K. Meredith, Wu Sun, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Huilin Chen, Felix M. Spielmann, Georg Wohlfahrt, Max Berkelhammer, Mary E. Whelan, Kadmiel Maseyk, Ulli Seibt, Roisin Commane, Richard Wehr, and Maarten Krol
Biogeosciences, 18, 6547–6565,Short summary
The gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be used to estimate photosynthesis. To adopt this approach on regional and global scales, we need biosphere models that can simulate COS exchange. So far, such models have not been evaluated against observations. We evaluate the COS biosphere exchange of the SiB4 model against COS flux observations. We find that the model is capable of simulating key processes in COS biosphere exchange. Still, we give recommendations for further improvement of the model.
Dongyu S. Wang, Chuan Ping Lee, Jordan E. Krechmer, Francesca Majluf, Yandong Tong, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Julia Schmale, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, Josef Dommen, Imad El Haddad, Jay G. Slowik, and David M. Bell
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6955–6972,Short summary
To understand the sources and fate of particulate matter in the atmosphere, the ability to quantitatively describe its chemical composition is essential. In this work, we developed a calibration method for a state-of-the-art measurement technique without the need for chemical standards. Statistical analyses identified the driving factors behind instrument sensitivity variability towards individual components of particulate matter.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6835–6850,Short summary
Iodide-adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I-CIMS) has been widely used to analyze airborne organics. In this study, I-CIMS sensitivities of isomers within a formula are found to generally vary by 1 and up to 2 orders of magnitude. Comparisons between measured and predicted moles, obtained using a voltage-scanning calibration approach, show that predictions for individual compounds or formulas might carry high uncertainty, yet the summed moles of analytes agree reasonably well.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6551–6560,Short summary
Calibration techniques have been recently developed to log-linearly correlate analyte sensitivity with CIMS operating conditions particularly for compounds without authentic standards. In this work, we examine the previously ignored bias in the log-linear-based calibration method and estimate an average bias of 30 %, with 1 order of magnitude for less sensitive compounds in some circumstances. A step-by-step guide was provided to reduce and even remove the bias.
Chenshuo Ye, Bin Yuan, Yi Lin, Zelong Wang, Weiwei Hu, Tiange Li, Wei Chen, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Shan Huang, Jipeng Qi, Baolin Wang, Chen Wang, Wei Song, Xinming Wang, E Zheng, Jordan E. Krechmer, Penglin Ye, Zhanyi Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8455–8478,Short summary
We performed measurements of gaseous and particulate organic compounds using a state-of-the-art online mass spectrometer in urban air. Using the dataset, we provide a holistic chemical characterization of oxygenated organic compounds in the polluted urban atmosphere, which can serve as a reference for the future field measurements of organic compounds in cities.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3895–3907,Short summary
Measurement techniques that can achieve molecular characterizations are necessary to understand the differences of fate and transport within isomers produced in the atmospheric oxidation process. In this work, we develop an instrument to conduct isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organics. We assess the number of isomers per chemical formula in atmospherically relevant samples and examine the feasibility of extending the use of an existing instrument to a broader range of analytes.
Demetrios Pagonis, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Hongyu Guo, Douglas A. Day, Melinda K. Schueneman, Wyatt L. Brown, Benjamin A. Nault, Harald Stark, Kyla Siemens, Alex Laskin, Felix Piel, Laura Tomsche, Armin Wisthaler, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Hannah S. Halliday, Jordan E. Krechmer, Richard H. Moore, David S. Thomson, Carsten Warneke, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1545–1559,Short summary
We describe the airborne deployment of an extractive electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-MS). The instrument provides a quantitative 1 Hz measurement of the chemical composition of organic aerosol up to altitudes of 7 km, with single-compound detection limits as low as 50 ng per standard cubic meter.
Arttu Ylisirniö, Luis M. F. Barreira, Iida Pullinen, Angela Buchholz, John Jayne, Jordan E. Krechmer, Douglas R. Worsnop, Annele Virtanen, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 355–367,Short summary
FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS enables online volatility measurements of chemical compounds in ambient aerosols. Previously published volatility calibration results however differ from each other significantly. In this study we investigate the reason for this discrepancy. We found a major source of error in the widely used syringe deposition method and propose a new method for volatility calibration by using atomized calibration compounds.
Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Chinmoy Sarkar, Leah Williams, Farzaneh Khalaj, Alex Guenther, John Jayne, Hugh Coe, Douglas Worsnop, Celia Faiola, and Manjula Canagaratna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10953–10965,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Real plant emissions are much more diverse than the few proxies widely used for studies of plant SOA. Here we present the first study of SOA from Californian sage plants and the oxygenated monoterpenes representing their major emissions. We identify SOA products and show the importance of the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules and oligomers.
Archit Mehra, Yuwei Wang, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Francesca Majluf, Melissa A. Morris, Michael Priestley, Thomas J. Bannan, Daniel J. Bryant, Kelly L. Pereira, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Andrew R. Rickard, Mike J. Newland, Harald Stark, Philip Croteau, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Lin Wang, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9783–9803,Short summary
Aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from anthropogenic activity are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Here we present a detailed chemical characterisation of SOA from four C9-aromatic isomers and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). We identify and compare their oxidation products in the gas and particle phases, showing the different relative importance of oxidation pathways and proportions of highly oxygenated organic molecules.
Yuwei Wang, Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Gan Yang, Xiaoyu Hu, Yiqun Lu, Andrew Lambe, Manjula Canagaratna, Jianmin Chen, Douglas Worsnop, Hugh Coe, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9563–9579,Short summary
A series of OH-initiated oxidation experiments of trimethylbenzene were investigated in the absence and presence of NOx. Many C9 products with 1–11 oxygen atoms and C18 products presumably formed from dimerization of C9 peroxy radicals were observed, hinting at the extensive existence of autoxidation and accretion reaction pathways. The presence of NOx would suppress the formation of highly oxygenated C18 molecules and enhance the formation of organonitrates and even dinitrate compounds.
Andrew T. Lambe, Ezra C. Wood, Jordan E. Krechmer, Francesca Majluf, Leah R. Williams, Philip L. Croteau, Manuela Cirtog, Anaïs Féron, Jean-Eudes Petit, Alexandre Albinet, Jose L. Jimenez, and Zhe Peng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2397–2411,Short summary
We present a new method to continuously generate N2O5 in the gas phase that is injected into a reactor where it decomposes to generate nitrate radicals (NO3). To assess the applicability of the method towards different chemical systems, we present experimental and model characterization of the integrated NO3 exposure and other metrics as a function of operating conditions. We demonstrate the method by characterizing secondary organic aerosol particles generated from the β-pinene + NO3 reaction.
Haiyan Li, Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Liine Heikkinen, Kaspar Daellenbach, Jordan E. Krechmer, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Douglas Worsnop, Markku Kulmala, Eric Villenave, Emilie Perraudin, Mikael Ehn, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1941–1959,Short summary
We deployed the recently developed Vocus PTR-TOF in the French Landes forest during summertime to gain insights into terpene chemistry. In addition to isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and the low-volatility diterpenes, various terpene reaction products are characterized. Through the analysis of terpene chemistry, we demonstrate the capability of the Vocus PTR-TOF for the detection of oxidized reaction products, highlighting its importance in investigating atmospheric oxidation processes.
Abigail R. Koss, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Alexander Zaytsev, Jordan E. Krechmer, Martin Breitenlechner, Kevin J. Nihill, Christopher Y. Lim, James C. Rowe, Joseph R. Roscioli, Frank N. Keutsch, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1021–1041,Short summary
Oxidation chemistry of organic compounds in the atmosphere produces a diverse spectrum of products. This diversity is difficult to represent in air quality and climate models, and in laboratory experiments it results in large and complex datasets. This work evaluates several methods to simplify the chemistry of oxidation systems in environmental chambers, including positive matrix factorization, hierarchical clustering analysis, and gamma kinetics parameterization.
Alexander Zaytsev, Abigail R. Koss, Martin Breitenlechner, Jordan E. Krechmer, Kevin J. Nihill, Christopher Y. Lim, James C. Rowe, Joshua L. Cox, Joshua Moss, Joseph R. Roscioli, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jesse H. Kroll, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15117–15129,Short summary
Aromatic hydrocarbons contribute significantly to the production of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Here later-generation low-volatility oxygenated products from toluene and 1,2,4-TMB oxidation by OH are detected in the gas and particle phases. We show that these products, previously identified as highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs), are formed in more than one pathway with differing numbers of reaction steps with OH. They also make up a significant fraction of SOA.
Matthew M. Coggon, Christopher Y. Lim, Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Bin Yuan, Jessica B. Gilman, David H. Hagan, Vanessa Selimovic, Kyle J. Zarzana, Steven S. Brown, James M. Roberts, Markus Müller, Robert Yokelson, Armin Wisthaler, Jordan E. Krechmer, Jose L. Jimenez, Christopher Cappa, Jesse H. Kroll, Joost de Gouw, and Carsten Warneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14875–14899,Short summary
Wildfire emissions significantly contribute to adverse air quality; however, the chemical processes that lead to hazardous pollutants, such as ozone, are not fully understood. In this study, we describe laboratory experiments where we simulate the atmospheric chemistry of smoke emitted from a range of biomass fuels. We show that certain understudied compounds, such as furans and phenolic compounds, are significant contributors to pollutants formed as a result of typical atmospheric oxidation.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Ilana B. Pollack, Jakob Lindaas, J. Robert Roscioli, Michael Agnese, Wade Permar, Lu Hu, and Emily V. Fischer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3717–3742,Short summary
A closed-path infrared absorption spectrometer was outfitted with the option for active continuous passivation for measuring large, rapid gradients in atmospheric NH3 from a research aircraft. In-flight and ground observations show utility in passivant addition for recovering instrument time response when sampling surfaces are contaminated and cannot be cleaned in a timely manner and for maintaining rapid time response in an NH3-rich and humid environment over a several-week-long field campaign.
Benjamin L. Deming, Demetrios Pagonis, Xiaoxi Liu, Douglas A. Day, Ranajit Talukdar, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joost A. de Gouw, Jose L. Jimenez, and Paul J. Ziemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3453–3461,Short summary
Losses or measurement delays of gas-phase compounds sampled through tubing are important to atmospheric science. Here we characterize 14 tubing materials by measuring the effects on step changes in organic compound concentration. We find that polymeric tubings exhibit absorptive partitioning behaviour while glass and metal tubings show adsorptive partitioning. Adsorptive materials impart complex humidity, concentration, and VOC–VOC interaction dependencies that absorptive tubings do not.
Xiaoxi Liu, Benjamin Deming, Demetrios Pagonis, Douglas A. Day, Brett B. Palm, Ranajit Talukdar, James M. Roberts, Patrick R. Veres, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joel A. Thornton, Joost A. de Gouw, Paul J. Ziemann, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3137–3149,Short summary
Delays or losses of gases in sampling tubing and instrumental surfaces due to surface interactions can lead to inaccurate quantification. By sampling with several chemical ionization mass spectrometers and six tubing materials, we quantify delays of semivolatile organic compounds and small polar gases. Delay times generally increase with decreasing volatility or increasing polarity and also depend on materials. The method and results will inform inlet material selection and instrumental design.
Matthieu Riva, Pekka Rantala, Jordan E. Krechmer, Otso Peräkylä, Yanjun Zhang, Liine Heikkinen, Olga Garmash, Chao Yan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2403–2421,Short summary
The impact of aerosol particles on climate and air quality remains poorly understood due to multiple factors. One of the current limitations is the incomplete understanding of the contribution of oxygenated species, formed from the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to aerosol formation. Taking advantage of recent mass spectrometric developments, we have evaluated and compared the capability of multiple state-of-the-art mass spectrometers to detect a wide variety of oxygenated VOCs.
Conner Daube, Stephen Conley, Ian C. Faloona, Claudia Arndt, Tara I. Yacovitch, Joseph R. Roscioli, and Scott C. Herndon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2085–2095,Short summary
This study describes aircraft measurements of methane from dairy farms in central California. A small deliberate release of a tracer gas is done on the ground and measured from the air and the ratio of methane to tracer used to quantify emissions. Farm-scale methane emissions are determined as well as the fraction of those emissions coming from animal activity versus liquid manure management. These findings were within the uncertainty of two established methods.
Daniel C. Anderson, Jessica Pavelec, Conner Daube, Scott C. Herndon, Walter B. Knighton, Brian M. Lerner, J. Robert Roscioli, Tara I. Yacovitch, and Ezra C. Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2845–2860,Short summary
San Antonio is one of the largest cities in the United States and is in non-attainment of the 8 h ozone standard. Using the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, we made observations of ozone and its precursors at three sites in the San Antonio region to determine the main drivers of its production. We found that compounds produced by plants were the dominant organic compound for ozone production and that to limit ozone production at the study site, emissions of nitrogen oxides should be reduced.
Andrew T. Lambe, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Jason R. Casar, Anthony J. Carrasquillo, Jonathan D. Raff, Jose L. Jimenez, and Douglas R. Worsnop
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 299–311,Short summary
This paper is an evaluation of methods used to generate OH radicals under conditions with high concentrations of NO and NO2 to simulate oxidation chemistry in polluted urban atmospheres over equivalent atmospheric timescales of ~ 1 day.
Mary E. Whelan, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Teresa E. Gimeno, Richard Wehr, Georg Wohlfahrt, Yuting Wang, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Timothy W. Hilton, Sauveur Belviso, Philippe Peylin, Róisín Commane, Wu Sun, Huilin Chen, Le Kuai, Ivan Mammarella, Kadmiel Maseyk, Max Berkelhammer, King-Fai Li, Dan Yakir, Andrew Zumkehr, Yoko Katayama, Jérôme Ogée, Felix M. Spielmann, Florian Kitz, Bharat Rastogi, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Julia Marshall, Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Lisa Wingate, Laura K. Meredith, Wei He, Rüdiger Bunk, Thomas Launois, Timo Vesala, Johan A. Schmidt, Cédric G. Fichot, Ulli Seibt, Scott Saleska, Eric S. Saltzman, Stephen A. Montzka, Joseph A. Berry, and J. Elliott Campbell
Biogeosciences, 15, 3625–3657,Short summary
Measurements of the trace gas carbonyl sulfide (OCS) are helpful in quantifying photosynthesis at previously unknowable temporal and spatial scales. While CO2 is both consumed and produced within ecosystems, OCS is mostly produced in the oceans or from specific industries, and destroyed in plant leaves in proportion to CO2. This review summarizes the advancements we have made in the understanding of OCS exchange and applications to vital ecosystem water and carbon cycle questions.
Miguel Zavala, Luisa T. Molina, Pablo Maiz, Israel Monsivais, Judith C. Chow, John G. Watson, Jose Luis Munguia, Beatriz Cardenas, Edward C. Fortner, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, Charles E. Kolb, and Walter B. Knighton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6023–6037,Short summary
Black carbon, organic carbon, and co-pollutant emissions and energy efficiency from two traditional brick kilns and one MK2 kiln in Mexico were quantified using tracer ratio and sampling probe techniques. Both techniques captured similar temporal profiles of the kiln emissions and produced comparable emission factors; the MK2 generated lower emissions and higher energy efficiency. This study contributes to the limited database of brick production emissions useful for assessing their impact.
Abigail R. Koss, Kanako Sekimoto, Jessica B. Gilman, Vanessa Selimovic, Matthew M. Coggon, Kyle J. Zarzana, Bin Yuan, Brian M. Lerner, Steven S. Brown, Jose L. Jimenez, Jordan Krechmer, James M. Roberts, Carsten Warneke, Robert J. Yokelson, and Joost de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3299–3319,Short summary
Non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) were detected by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF) during an extensive laboratory characterization of wildfire emissions. Identifications for PTR-ToF ion masses are proposed and supported by a combination of techniques. Overall excellent agreement with other instrumentation is shown. Scalable emission factors and ratios are reported for many newly reported reactive species. An analysis of chemical characteristics is presented.
Miguel Zavala, Luisa T. Molina, Tara I. Yacovitch, Edward C. Fortner, Joseph R. Roscioli, Cody Floerchinger, Scott C. Herndon, Charles E. Kolb, Walter B. Knighton, Victor Hugo Paramo, Sergio Zirath, José Antonio Mejía, and Aron Jazcilevich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15293–15305,Short summary
Emission factors of black carbon and other chemically speciated particulate matter and gaseous pollutants were measured in real-world driving conditions for 20 diesel vehicles with multiple emission technologies in Mexico City using a mobile laboratory and a remote sensing technique. The results demonstrated the need to use locally obtained emissions data for diesel vehicles, especially in the developing world, to reduce uncertainty and improve the effectiveness of mitigation measures.
Demetrios Pagonis, Jordan E. Krechmer, Joost de Gouw, Jose L. Jimenez, and Paul J. Ziemann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4687–4696,Short summary
Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate gas-wall partitioning of atmospheric organic compounds in Teflon tubing and inside an instrument used to monitor concentrations. Rapid partitioning caused time delays in instrument response that vary with tubing length and diameter, flow rate, and compound volatility. Tubing delay times of seconds to hours were described using a model that also included effects of instrument surfaces. The results can enable better design of air sampling systems.
Jakob Lindaas, Delphine K. Farmer, Ilana B. Pollack, Andrew Abeleira, Frank Flocke, Rob Roscioli, Scott Herndon, and Emily V. Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10691–10707,Short summary
Wildfire smoke is becoming increasingly important for air quality in the US. We used measurements taken during the summer 2015 near Denver, CO, to provide a case study of how wildfire smoke can impact air quality, specifically ozone, which is harmful to humans. Wildfire smoke during this time period was associated with about 15 % more ozone than we would expect under normal conditions. This smoke came from fires in the Pacific Northwest and likely impacted much of the central and western US.
Xuan Zhang, Jordan E. Krechmer, Michael Groessl, Wen Xu, Stephan Graf, Michael Cubison, John T. Jayne, Jose L. Jimenez, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Manjula R. Canagaratna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12945–12959,Short summary
We develop a novel two-dimensional space to probe the molecular composition of atmospheric organic aerosols.
Luke D. Schiferl, Colette L. Heald, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Cathy Clerbaux, Pierre-François Coheur, John B. Nowak, J. Andrew Neuman, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, and Scott J. Eilerman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12305–12328,Short summary
This study combines new observations and a simulation to assess the interannual variability of atmospheric ammonia concentrations over the United States. The model generally underrepresents the observed variability. Nearly two-thirds of the simulated variability is caused by meteorology, twice that caused by regulations on fossil fuel combustion emissions. Adding ammonia emissions variability does not substantially improve the simulation and has little impact on summer particle concentrations.
Kennedy T. Vu, Justin H. Dingle, Roya Bahreini, Patrick J. Reddy, Eric C. Apel, Teresa L. Campos, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Alan Fried, Scott C. Herndon, Alan J. Hills, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Greg Huey, Lisa Kaser, Denise D. Montzka, John B. Nowak, Sally E. Pusede, Dirk Richter, Joseph R. Roscioli, Glen W. Sachse, Stephen Shertz, Meghan Stell, David Tanner, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, James Walega, Peter Weibring, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Gabriele Pfister, and Frank Flocke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12039–12058,Short summary
In this manuscript, we report on airborne measurements of non-refractory composition and optical extinction along with relevant trace gases during a unique surface mesoscale circulation event, namely the Denver Cyclone, in Colorado, USA, during in July–August 2014. The focus of this paper is to investigate how meteorological conditions associated with the Denver Cyclone impacted air quality of the Colorado Front Range.
Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Karsten Baumann, Lina Hacker, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Allen H. Goldstein, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580,Short summary
IEPOX-SOA is biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol under anthropogenic influence, which has been shown to comprise a substantial fraction of OA globally. We investigated the lifetime of ambient IEPOX-SOA in the SE US and Amazonia, with an oxidation flow reactor and thermodenuder coupled with MS-based instrumentation. The low volatility and long lifetime of IEPOX-SOA against OH radicals' oxidation (> 2 weeks) was observed, which can help to constrain OA impact on air quality and climate.
Justin H. Dingle, Kennedy Vu, Roya Bahreini, Eric C. Apel, Teresa L. Campos, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Scott Herndon, Alan J. Hills, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Greg Huey, Lisa Kaser, Denise D. Montzka, John B. Nowak, Mike Reeves, Dirk Richter, Joseph R. Roscioli, Stephen Shertz, Meghan Stell, David Tanner, Geoff Tyndall, James Walega, Petter Weibring, and Andrew Weinheimer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11207–11217,Short summary
The focus of this paper was to use gas-phase tracers and aerosol composition to characterize the influence of the different sources on optical extinction (RH = 22 %) and summertime visibility in the Colorado Front Range. Our analysis indicates that aerosol nitrate contributed significantly to optical extinction in agriculturally influenced air masses, while in other plumes, organics could explain most of the observed variability in optical extinction.
Jordan E. Krechmer, Michael Groessl, Xuan Zhang, Heikki Junninen, Paola Massoli, Andrew T. Lambe, Joel R. Kimmel, Michael J. Cubison, Stephan Graf, Ying-Hsuan Lin, Sri H. Budisulistiorini, Haofei Zhang, Jason D. Surratt, Richard Knochenmuss, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jose-Luis Jimenez, and Manjula R. Canagaratna
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3245–3262,
E. A. Marais, D. J. Jacob, J. L. Jimenez, P. Campuzano-Jost, D. A. Day, W. Hu, J. Krechmer, L. Zhu, P. S. Kim, C. C. Miller, J. A. Fisher, K. Travis, K. Yu, T. F. Hanisco, G. M. Wolfe, H. L. Arkinson, H. O. T. Pye, K. D. Froyd, J. Liao, and V. F. McNeill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1603–1618,Short summary
Isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a dominant aerosol component in the southeast US, but models routinely underestimate isoprene SOA with traditional schemes based on chamber studies operated under conditions not representative of isoprene-emitting forests. We develop a new irreversible uptake mechanism to reproduce isoprene SOA yields (3.3 %) and composition, and find a factor of 2 co-benefit of SO2 emission controls on reducing sulfate and organic aerosol in the southeast US.
J. R. Roscioli, T. I. Yacovitch, C. Floerchinger, A. L. Mitchell, D. S. Tkacik, R. Subramanian, D. M. Martinez, T. L. Vaughn, L. Williams, D. Zimmerle, A. L. Robinson, S. C. Herndon, and A. J. Marchese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2017–2035,Short summary
This report presents an overview and detailed description of the measurement methods, analysis approach, and example data from a 10-week EDF-sponsored field campaign measuring methane emissions from natural gas gathering and processing facilities across the US. The dual-tracer ratio method was employed to quantify methane release rates and identify emission sources at a wide variety of facilities, using downwind measurements of CH4, C2H6, CO2, and CO with N2O and C2H2 as tracers.
L. K. Meredith, R. Commane, J. W. Munger, A. Dunn, J. Tang, S. C. Wofsy, and R. G. Prinn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2787–2805,
A. L. Ganesan, A. Chatterjee, R. G. Prinn, C. M. Harth, P. K. Salameh, A. J. Manning, B. D. Hall, J. Mühle, L. K. Meredith, R. F. Weiss, S. O'Doherty, and D. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10633–10644,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Air - Land ExchangeAtmospheric deposition of reactive nitrogen to a deciduous forest in the southern Appalachian MountainsTropical cyclones facilitate recovery of forest leaf area from dry spells in East AsiaLichen species across Alaska produce highly active and stable ice nucleatorsMinor contributions of daytime monoterpenes are major contributors to atmospheric reactivityUsing atmospheric observations to quantify annual biogenic carbon dioxide fluxes on the Alaska North SlopeForest–atmosphere exchange of reactive nitrogen in a remote region – Part II: Modeling annual budgetsGrowth and actual leaf temperature modulate CO2 responsiveness of monoterpene emissions from holm oak in opposite waysMulti-year observations reveal a larger than expected autumn respiration signal across northeast EurasiaReviews and syntheses: VOC emissions from soil cover in boreal and temperate natural ecosystems of the Northern HemisphereInternal tree cycling and atmospheric archiving of mercury: examination with concentration and stable isotope analysesContrasting drought legacy effects on gross primary productivity in a mixed versus pure beech forestSynergy between TROPOMI sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and MODIS spectral reflectance for understanding the dynamics of gross primary productivity at integrated carbon observatory system (ICOS) ecosystem flux sitesCO2 and CH4 exchanges between moist moss tundra and atmosphere on Kapp Linné, SvalbardRecent extreme drought events in the Amazon rainforest: assessment of different precipitation and evapotranspiration datasets and drought indicatorsVariability and uncertainty in flux-site-scale net ecosystem exchange simulations based on machine learning and remote sensing: a systematic evaluationUpdate of a biogeochemical model with process-based algorithms to predict ammonia volatilization from fertilized cultivated uplands and rice paddy fieldsMassive warming-induced carbon loss from subalpine grassland soils in an altitudinal transplantation experimentClimatic variation drives loss and restructuring of carbon and nitrogen in boreal forest wildfireGaps in network infrastructure limit our understanding of biogenic methane emissions for the United StatesChanges of the aerodynamic characteristics of a flux site after an extensive windthrowCarbon sequestration potential of street tree plantings in HelsinkiTechnical note: Incorporating expert domain knowledge into causal structure discovery workflowsSensitivity of biomass burning emissions estimates to land surface informationA convolutional neural network for spatial downscaling of satellite-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIFnet)Influence of plant ecophysiology on ozone dry deposition: comparing between multiplicative and photosynthesis-based dry deposition schemes and their responses to rising CO2 levelModeling the interinfluence of fertilizer-induced NH3 emission, nitrogen deposition, and aerosol radiative effects using modified CESM2Physiological and climate controls on foliar mercury uptake by European tree speciesRadiation, soil water content, and temperature effects on carbon cycling in an alpine swamp meadow of the northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan PlateauRepresentativeness assessment of the pan-Arctic eddy covariance site network and optimized future enhancementsForest–atmosphere exchange of reactive nitrogen in a remote region – Part I: Measuring temporal dynamicsIdeas and perspectives: Emerging contours of a dynamic exogenous kerogen cycleOn the impact of canopy model complexity on simulated carbon, water, and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence fluxesMercury accumulation in leaves of different plant types – the significance of tissue age and specific leaf areaIsolation of subpollen particles (SPPs) of birch: SPPs are potential carriers of ice nucleating macromoleculesChoosing an optimal β factor for relaxed eddy accumulation applications across vegetated and non-vegetated surfacesBioaerosols in the Amazon rain forest: temporal variations and vertical profiles of Eukarya, Bacteria, and ArchaeaIce nucleation by viruses and their potential for cloud glaciationCarbon dioxide fluxes and carbon balance of an agricultural grassland in southern FinlandSun-induced fluorescence and near-infrared reflectance of vegetation track the seasonal dynamics of gross primary production over AfricaMeasurement and modelling of the dynamics of NH3 surface–atmosphere exchange over the Amazonian rainforestIsoprene and monoterpene emissions from alder, aspen and spruce short-rotation forest plantations in the United KingdomWinter atmospheric nutrient and pollutant deposition on Western Sayan Mountain lakes (Siberia)Methane efflux from an American bison herdTechnical note: Inexpensive modification of Exetainers for the reliable storage of trace-level hydrogen and carbon monoxide gas samplesA climate-dependent global model of ammonia emissions from chicken farmingCalculating canopy stomatal conductance from eddy covariance measurements, in light of the energy budget closure problemDecoupling of a Douglas fir canopy: a look into the subcanopy with continuous vertical temperature profilesVariations in diurnal and seasonal net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange in a semiarid sandy grassland ecosystem in China's Horqin Sandy LandBiogenic volatile organic compound ambient mixing ratios and emission rates in the Alaskan Arctic tundraSurfaces of silver birch (Betula pendula) are sources of biological ice nuclei: in vivo and in situ investigations
John T. Walker, Xi Chen, Zhiyong Wu, Donna Schwede, Ryan Daly, Aleksandra Djurkovic, A. Christopher Oishi, Eric Edgerton, Jesse Bash, Jennifer Knoepp, Melissa Puchalski, John Iiames, and Chelcy F. Miniat
Biogeosciences, 20, 971–995,Short summary
Better estimates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are needed to accurately assess ecosystem risk and impacts from deposition of nutrients and acidity. Using measurements and modeling, we estimate total N deposition of 6.7 kg N ha−1 yr−1 at a forest site in the southern Appalachian Mountains, a region sensitive to atmospheric deposition. Reductions in deposition of reduced forms of N (ammonia and ammonium) will be needed to meet the lowest estimates of N critical loads for the region.
Yi-Ying Chen and Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Biogeosciences, 20, 349–363,Short summary
Tropical cyclones are typically assumed to be associated with ecosystem damage. This study challenges this assumption and suggests that instead of reducing leaf area, cyclones in East Asia may increase leaf area by alleviating water stress.
Rosemary J. Eufemio, Ingrid de Almeida Ribeiro, Valeria Molinero, Mischa Bonn, Todd L. Sformo, Gary A. Laursen, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, and Konrad Meister
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Lichens, the dominant vegetation in the Arctic, contain ice nucleators (INs) that enable freezing close to 0 °C. Yet the abundance, diversity, and function of lichen INs is unknown. Our screening of lichens across Alaska reveal that most species have potent INs. We find that lichens contain two IN populations which retain activity under environmentally relevant conditions. The ubiquity and stability of lichen INs suggests that they may have considerable impacts on local atmospheric patterns.
Deborah F. McGlynn, Graham Frazier, Laura E. R. Barry, Manuel T. Lerdau, Sally E. Pusede, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Biogeosciences, 20, 45–55,Short summary
Using a custom-made gas chromatography flame ionization detector, 2 years of speciated hourly biogenic volatile organic compound data were collected in a forest in central Virginia. We identify diurnal and seasonal variability in the data, which is shown to impact atmospheric oxidant budgets. A comparison with emission models identified discrepancies with implications for model outcomes. We suggest increased monitoring of speciated biogenic volatile organic compounds to improve modeled results.
Luke D. Schiferl, Jennifer D. Watts, Erik J. L. Larson, Kyle A. Arndt, Sébastien C. Biraud, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Jordan P. Goodrich, John M. Henderson, Aram Kalhori, Kathryn McKain, Marikate E. Mountain, J. William Munger, Walter C. Oechel, Colm Sweeney, Yonghong Yi, Donatella Zona, and Róisín Commane
Biogeosciences, 19, 5953–5972,Short summary
As the Arctic rapidly warms, vast stores of thawing permafrost could release carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. We combined observations of atmospheric CO2 concentrations from aircraft and a tower with observed CO2 fluxes from tundra ecosystems and found that the Alaskan North Slope in not a consistent source nor sink of CO2. Our study shows the importance of using both site-level and atmospheric measurements to constrain regional net CO2 fluxes and improve biogenic processes in models.
Pascal Wintjen, Frederik Schrader, Martijn Schaap, Burkhard Beudert, Richard Kranenburg, and Christian Brümmer
Biogeosciences, 19, 5287–5311,Short summary
For the first time, we compared four methods for estimating the annual dry deposition of total reactive nitrogen into a low-polluted forest ecosystem. In our analysis, we used 2.5 years of flux measurements, an in situ modeling approach, a large-scale chemical transport model (CTM), and canopy budget models. Annual nitrogen dry deposition budgets ranged between 4.3 and 6.7 kg N ha−1 a−1, depending on the applied method.
Michael Staudt, Juliane Daussy, Joseph Ingabire, and Nafissa Dehimeche
Biogeosciences, 19, 4945–4963,Short summary
We studied the short- and long-term effects of CO2 as a function of temperature on monoterpene emissions from holm oak. Similarly to isoprene, emissions decreased non-linearly with increasing CO2, with no differences among compounds and chemotypes. The CO2 response was modulated by actual leaf and growth temperature but not by growth CO2. Estimates of annual monoterpene release under double CO2 suggest that CO2 inhibition does not offset the increase in emissions due to expected warming.
Brendan Byrne, Junjie Liu, Yonghong Yi, Abhishek Chatterjee, Sourish Basu, Rui Cheng, Russell Doughty, Frédéric Chevallier, Kevin W. Bowman, Nicholas C. Parazoo, David Crisp, Xing Li, Jingfeng Xiao, Stephen Sitch, Bertrand Guenet, Feng Deng, Matthew S. Johnson, Sajeev Philip, Patrick C. McGuire, and Charles E. Miller
Biogeosciences, 19, 4779–4799,Short summary
Plants draw CO2 from the atmosphere during the growing season, while respiration releases CO2 to the atmosphere throughout the year, driving seasonal variations in atmospheric CO2 that can be observed by satellites, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2). Using OCO-2 XCO2 data and space-based constraints on plant growth, we show that permafrost-rich northeast Eurasia has a strong seasonal release of CO2 during the autumn, hinting at an unexpectedly large respiration signal from soils.
Valery A. Isidorov and Andrej A. Zaitsev
Biogeosciences, 19, 4715–4746,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a critical role in earth-system processes: they are
main playersin the formation of tropospheric O3 and secondary aerosols, which have a significant impact on climate, human health and crops. A complex mixture of VOCs, formed as a result of physicochemical and biological processes, is released into the atmosphere from the forest floor. This review presents data on the composition of VOCs and contribution of various processes to their emissions.
David S. McLagan, Harald Biester, Tomas Navrátil, Stephan M. Kraemer, and Lorenz Schwab
Biogeosciences, 19, 4415–4429,Short summary
Spruce and larch trees are effective archiving species for historical atmospheric mercury using growth rings of bole wood. Mercury stable isotope analysis proved an effective tool to characterise industrial mercury signals and assess mercury uptake pathways (leaf uptake for both wood and bark) and mercury cycling within the trees. These data detail important information for understanding the mercury biogeochemical cycle particularly in forest systems.
Xin Yu, René Orth, Markus Reichstein, Michael Bahn, Anne Klosterhalfen, Alexander Knohl, Franziska Koebsch, Mirco Migliavacca, Martina Mund, Jacob A. Nelson, Benjamin D. Stocker, Sophia Walther, and Ana Bastos
Biogeosciences, 19, 4315–4329,Short summary
Identifying drought legacy effects is challenging because they are superimposed on variability driven by climate conditions in the recovery period. We develop a residual-based approach to quantify legacies on gross primary productivity (GPP) from eddy covariance data. The GPP reduction due to legacy effects is comparable to the concurrent effects at two sites in Germany, which reveals the importance of legacy effects. Our novel methodology can be used to quantify drought legacies elsewhere.
Hamadou Balde, Gabriel Hmimina, Yves Goulas, Gwendal Latouche, and Kamel Soudani
This study focuses on the relationship between Sun Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) and ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP), across the ICOS European flux tower network. It shows that SIF, coupled with reflectance observations, explained over 80 % of the GPP variability across diverse ecosystems, but fails to bring new information compared to reflectance alone at coarse spatial scales (~5 km). These findings have applications in agriculture, and ecophysiological studies.
Anders Lindroth, Norbert Pirk, Ingibjörg S. Jónsdóttir, Christian Stiegler, Leif Klemedtsson, and Mats B. Nilsson
Biogeosciences, 19, 3921–3934,Short summary
We measured the fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane between a moist moss tundra and the atmosphere on Svalbard in order to better understand how such ecosystems are affecting the climate and vice versa. We found that the system was a small sink of carbon dioxide and a small source of methane. These fluxes are small in comparison with other tundra ecosystems in the high Arctic. Analysis of temperature sensitivity showed that respiration was more sensitive than photosynthesis above about 6 ℃.
Phillip Papastefanou, Christian S. Zang, Zlatan Angelov, Aline Anderson de Castro, Juan Carlos Jimenez, Luiz Felipe Campos De Rezende, Romina C. Ruscica, Boris Sakschewski, Anna A. Sörensson, Kirsten Thonicke, Carolina Vera, Nicolas Viovy, Celso Von Randow, and Anja Rammig
Biogeosciences, 19, 3843–3861,Short summary
The Amazon rainforest has been hit by multiple severe drought events. In this study, we assess the severity and spatial extent of the extreme drought years 2005, 2010 and 2015/16 in the Amazon. Using nine different precipitation datasets and three drought indicators we find large differences in drought stress across the Amazon region. We conclude that future studies should use multiple rainfall datasets and drought indicators when estimating the impact of drought stress in the Amazon region.
Haiyang Shi, Geping Luo, Olaf Hellwich, Mingjuan Xie, Chen Zhang, Yu Zhang, Yuangang Wang, Xiuliang Yuan, Xiaofei Ma, Wenqiang Zhang, Alishir Kurban, Philippe De Maeyer, and Tim Van de Voorde
Biogeosciences, 19, 3739–3756,Short summary
A number of studies have been conducted by using machine learning approaches to simulate carbon fluxes. We performed a meta-analysis of these net ecosystem exchange (NEE) simulations. Random forests and support vector machines performed better than other algorithms. Models with larger timescales had a lower accuracy. For different plant functional types (PFTs), there were significant differences in the predictors used and their effects on model accuracy.
Siqi Li, Wei Zhang, Xunhua Zheng, Yong Li, Shenghui Han, Rui Wang, Kai Wang, Zhisheng Yao, Chunyan Liu, and Chong Zhang
Biogeosciences, 19, 3001–3019,Short summary
The CNMM–DNDC model was modified to simulate ammonia volatilization (AV) from croplands. AV from cultivated uplands followed the first-order kinetics, which was jointly regulated by the factors of soil properties and meteorological conditions. AV simulation from rice paddy fields was improved by incorporating Jayaweera–Mikkelsen mechanisms. The modified model performed well in simulating the observed cumulative AV measured from 63 fertilization events in China.
Matthias Volk, Matthias Suter, Anne-Lena Wahl, and Seraina Bassin
Biogeosciences, 19, 2921–2937,Short summary
Because soils are an important sink for greenhouse gasses, we subjected sub-alpine grassland to a six-level climate change treatment. Two independent methods showed that at warming > 1.5 °C the grassland ecosystem lost ca. 14 % or ca. 1 kg C m−2 in 5 years. This shrinking of the terrestrial C sink implies a substantial positive feedback to the atmospheric greenhouse effect. It is likely that this dramatic C loss is a transient effect before a new, climate-adjusted steady state is reached.
Johan A. Eckdahl, Jeppe A. Kristensen, and Daniel B. Metcalfe
Biogeosciences, 19, 2487–2506,Short summary
This study found climate to be a driving force for increasing per area emissions of greenhouse gases and removal of important nutrients from high-latitude forests due to wildfire. It used detailed direct measurements over a large area to uncover patterns and mechanisms of restructuring of forest carbon and nitrogen pools that are extrapolatable to larger regions. It also takes a step forward in filling gaps in global knowledge of northern forest response to climate-change-strengthened wildfires.
Sparkle L. Malone, Youmi Oh, Kyle A. Arndt, George Burba, Roisin Commane, Alexandra R. Contosta, Jordan P. Goodrich, Henry W. Loescher, Gregory Starr, and Ruth K. Varner
Biogeosciences, 19, 2507–2522,Short summary
To understand the CH4 flux potential of natural ecosystems and agricultural lands in the United States of America, a multi-scale CH4 observation network focused on CH4 flux rates, processes, and scaling methods is required. This can be achieved with a network of ground-based observations that are distributed based on climatic regions and land cover.
Bruna R. F. Oliveira, Jan J. Keizer, and Thomas Foken
Biogeosciences, 19, 2235–2243,Short summary
This study analyzes the impacts of this windthrow on the aerodynamic characteristics of zero-plane displacement and roughness length and, ultimately, their implications for the turbulent fluxes. The turbulent fluxes were only affected to a minor degree by the windthrow, but the footprint area of the flux tower changed markedly so that the target area of the measurements had to be redetermined.
Minttu Havu, Liisa Kulmala, Pasi Kolari, Timo Vesala, Anu Riikonen, and Leena Järvi
Biogeosciences, 19, 2121–2143,Short summary
The carbon sequestration potential of two street tree species and the soil beneath them was quantified with the urban land surface model SUEWS and the soil carbon model Yasso. The street tree plantings turned into a modest sink of carbon from the atmosphere after 14 years. Overall, the results indicate the importance of soil in urban carbon sequestration estimations, as soil respiration exceeded the carbon uptake in the early phase, due to the high initial carbon loss from the soil.
Jarmo Mäkelä, Laila Melkas, Ivan Mammarella, Tuomo Nieminen, Suyog Chandramouli, Rafael Savvides, and Kai Puolamäki
Biogeosciences, 19, 2095–2099,Short summary
Causal structure discovery algorithms have been making headway into Earth system sciences, and they can be used to increase our understanding on biosphere–atmosphere interactions. In this paper we present a procedure on how to utilize prior knowledge of the domain experts together with these algorithms in order to find more robust causal structure models. We also demonstrate how to avoid pitfalls such as over-fitting and concept drift during this process.
Makoto Saito, Tomohiro Shiraishi, Ryuichi Hirata, Yosuke Niwa, Kazuyuki Saito, Martin Steinbacher, Doug Worthy, and Tsuneo Matsunaga
Biogeosciences, 19, 2059–2078,Short summary
This study tested combinations of two sources of AGB data and two sources of LCC data and used the same burned area satellite data to estimate BB CO emissions. Our analysis showed large discrepancies in annual mean CO emissions and explicit differences in the simulated CO concentrations among the BB emissions estimates. This study has confirmed that BB emissions estimates are sensitive to the land surface information on which they are based.
Johannes Gensheimer, Alexander J. Turner, Philipp Köhler, Christian Frankenberg, and Jia Chen
Biogeosciences, 19, 1777–1793,Short summary
We develop a convolutional neural network, named SIFnet, that increases the spatial resolution of SIF from TROPOMI by a factor of 10 to a spatial resolution of 0.005°. SIFnet utilizes coarse SIF observations, together with a broad range of high-resolution auxiliary data. The insights gained from interpretable machine learning techniques allow us to make quantitative claims about the relationships between SIF and other common parameters related to photosynthesis.
Shihan Sun, Amos P. K. Tai, David H. Y. Yung, Anthony Y. H. Wong, Jason A. Ducker, and Christopher D. Holmes
Biogeosciences, 19, 1753–1776,Short summary
We developed and used a terrestrial biosphere model to compare and evaluate widely used empirical dry deposition schemes with different stomatal approaches and found that using photosynthesis-based stomatal approaches can reduce biases in modeled dry deposition velocities in current chemical transport models. Our study shows systematic errors in current dry deposition schemes and the importance of representing plant ecophysiological processes in models under a changing climate.
Ka Ming Fung, Maria Val Martin, and Amos P. K. Tai
Biogeosciences, 19, 1635–1655,Short summary
Fertilizer-induced ammonia detrimentally affects the environment by not only directly damaging ecosystems but also indirectly altering climate and soil fertility. To quantify these secondary impacts, we enabled CESM to simulate ammonia emission, chemical evolution, and deposition as a continuous cycle. If synthetic fertilizer use is to soar by 30 % from today's level, we showed that the counteracting impacts will increase the global ammonia emission by 3.3 Tg N per year.
Lena Wohlgemuth, Pasi Rautio, Bernd Ahrends, Alexander Russ, Lars Vesterdal, Peter Waldner, Volkmar Timmermann, Nadine Eickenscheidt, Alfred Fürst, Martin Greve, Peter Roskams, Anne Thimonier, Manuel Nicolas, Anna Kowalska, Morten Ingerslev, Päivi Merilä, Sue Benham, Carmen Iacoban, Günter Hoch, Christine Alewell, and Martin Jiskra
Biogeosciences, 19, 1335–1353,Short summary
Gaseous mercury is present in the atmosphere all over the globe. During the growing season, plants take up mercury from the air in a similar way as CO2. We investigated which factors impact this vegetational mercury uptake by analyzing a large dataset of leaf mercury uptake rates of trees in Europe. As a result, we conclude that mercury uptake is foremost controlled by tree-intrinsic traits like physiological activity but also by climatic factors like dry conditions in the air and in soils.
Junqi Wei, Xiaoyan Li, Lei Liu, Torben Røjle Christensen, Zhiyun Jiang, Yujun Ma, Xiuchen Wu, Hongyun Yao, and Efrén López-Blanco
Biogeosciences, 19, 861–875,Short summary
Although water availability has been linked to the response of ecosystem carbon (C) sink–source to climate warming, the mechanisms by which C uptake responds to soil moisture remain unclear. We explored how soil water and other environmental drivers modulate net C uptake in an alpine swamp meadow. Results reveal that nearly saturated soil conditions during warm seasons can help to maintain lower ecosystem respiration and therefore enhance the C sequestration capacity in this alpine swamp meadow.
Martijn M. T. A. Pallandt, Jitendra Kumar, Marguerite Mauritz, Edward A. G. Schuur, Anna-Maria Virkkala, Gerardo Celis, Forrest M. Hoffman, and Mathias Göckede
Biogeosciences, 19, 559–583,Short summary
Thawing of Arctic permafrost soils could trigger the release of vast amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, thus enhancing climate change. Our study investigated how well the current network of eddy covariance sites to monitor greenhouse gas exchange at local scales captures pan-Arctic flux patterns. We identified large coverage gaps, e.g., in Siberia, but also demonstrated that a targeted addition of relatively few sites can significantly improve network performance.
Pascal Wintjen, Frederik Schrader, Martijn Schaap, Burkhard Beudert, and Christian Brümmer
Biogeosciences, 19, 389–413,Short summary
Fluxes of total reactive nitrogen (∑Nr) over a low polluted forest were analyzed with regard to their temporal dynamics. Mostly deposition was observed with median fluxes ranging from −15 to −5 ng N m−2 s−1, corresponding to a range of deposition velocities from 0.2 to 0.5 cm s−1. While seasonally changing contributions of NH3 and NOx to the ∑Nr signal were found, we estimate an annual total N deposition (dry+wet) of 12.2 and 10.9 kg N ha−1 a−1 in the 2 years of observation.
Thomas M. Blattmann
Biogeosciences, 19, 359–373,Short summary
This work enunciates the possibility of kerogen oxidation contributing to atmospheric CO2 increase in the wake of glacial episodes. This hypothesis is substantiated by several lines of independent evidence synthesized in this contribution. The author hypothesizes that the deglaciation of kerogen-rich lithologies in western Canada contributed to the characteristic deglacial increase in atmospheric CO2.
Yujie Wang and Christian Frankenberg
Biogeosciences, 19, 29–45,Short summary
Modeling vegetation canopy is important in predicting whether the land remains a carbon sink to mitigate climate change in the near future. Vegetation canopy model complexity, however, impacts the model-predicted carbon and water fluxes as well as canopy fluorescence, even if the same suite of model inputs is used. Given the biases caused by canopy model complexity, we recommend not misusing parameters inverted using different models or assumptions.
Håkan Pleijel, Jenny Klingberg, Michelle Nerentorp, Malin C. Broberg, Brigitte Nyirambangutse, John Munthe, and Göran Wallin
Biogeosciences, 18, 6313–6328,Short summary
Mercury is a problematic metal in the environment. It is crucial to understand the Hg circulation in ecosystems. We explored the mercury concentration in foliage from a diverse set of plants, locations and sampling periods to study the accumulation of Hg in leaves–needles over time. Mercury was always higher in older tissue: in broadleaved trees, conifers and wheat. Specific leaf area, the leaf area per unit leaf mass, turned out to be critical for Hg accumulation in leaves–needles.
Julia Burkart, Jürgen Gratzl, Teresa M. Seifried, Paul Bieber, and Hinrich Grothe
Biogeosciences, 18, 5751–5765,Short summary
Extracts of birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleation active and thus impact cloud formation and climate. In this study we develop an extraction method to separate subpollen particles from ice nucleating macromolecules. Our results thereby illustrate that ice nucleating macromolecules can be washed off the subpollen particles and that the ice activity is linked to the presence of proteins.
Teresa Vogl, Amy Hrdina, and Christoph K. Thomas
Biogeosciences, 18, 5097–5115,Short summary
The relaxed eddy accumulation technique is a method used for measuring fluxes of chemical species in the atmosphere. It relies on a proportionality factor, β, which can be determined using different methods. Also, different techniques for sampling can be used by only drawing air into the measurement system when vertical wind velocity exceeds a certain threshold. We compare different ways to obtain β and different threshold techniques to direct flux measurements for three different sites.
Maria Prass, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Paulo Artaxo, Florian Ditas, Wolfgang Elbert, Jan-David Förster, Marco Aurélio Franco, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Thomas Klimach, Leslie Ann Kremper, Eckhard Thines, David Walter, Jens Weber, Bettina Weber, Bernhard M. Fuchs, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Biogeosciences, 18, 4873–4887,Short summary
Bioaerosols in the atmosphere over the Amazon rain forest were analyzed by molecular biological staining and microscopy. Eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal aerosols were quantified in time series and altitude profiles which exhibited clear differences in number concentrations and vertical distributions. Our results provide insights into the sources and dispersion of different Amazonian bioaerosol types as a basis for a better understanding of biosphere–atmosphere interactions.
Michael P. Adams, Nina S. Atanasova, Svetlana Sofieva, Janne Ravantti, Aino Heikkinen, Zoé Brasseur, Jonathan Duplissy, Dennis H. Bamford, and Benjamin J. Murray
Biogeosciences, 18, 4431–4444,Short summary
The formation of ice in clouds is critically important for the planet's climate. Hence, we need to know which aerosol types nucleate ice and how effectively they do so. Here we show that virus particles, with a range of architectures, nucleate ice when immersed in supercooled water. However, we also show that they only make a minor contribution to the ice-nucleating particle population in the terrestrial atmosphere, but we cannot rule them out as being important in the marine environment.
Laura Heimsch, Annalea Lohila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Henriikka Vekuri, Jussi Heinonsalo, Olli Nevalainen, Mika Korkiakoski, Jari Liski, Tuomas Laurila, and Liisa Kulmala
Biogeosciences, 18, 3467–3483,Short summary
CO2 and H2O fluxes were measured at a newly established eddy covariance site in southern Finland for 2 years from 2018 to 2020. This agricultural grassland site focuses on the conversion from intensive towards more sustainable agricultural management. The first summer experienced prolonged dry periods, and notably larger fluxes were observed in the second summer. The field acted as a net carbon sink during both study years.
Anteneh Getachew Mengistu, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Gerbrand Koren, Maurits L. Kooreman, K. Folkert Boersma, Torbern Tagesson, Jonas Ardö, Yann Nouvellon, and Wouter Peters
Biogeosciences, 18, 2843–2857,Short summary
In this study, we assess the usefulness of Sun-Induced Fluorescence of Terrestrial Ecosystems Retrieval (SIFTER) data from the GOME-2A instrument and near-infrared reflectance of vegetation (NIRv) from MODIS to capture the seasonality and magnitudes of gross primary production (GPP) derived from six eddy-covariance flux towers in Africa in the overlap years between 2007–2014. We also test the robustness of sun-induced fluoresence and NIRv to compare the seasonality of GPP for the major biomes.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Matthias Sörgel, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Biogeosciences, 18, 2809–2825,Short summary
The exchange of the gas ammonia between the atmosphere and the surface is an important biogeochemical process, but little is known of this exchange for certain ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest. This study took measurements of ammonia exchange over an Amazon rainforest site and subsequently modelled the observed deposition and emission patterns. We observed emissions of ammonia from the rainforest, which can be simulated accurately by using a canopy resistance modelling approach.
Gemma Purser, Julia Drewer, Mathew R. Heal, Robert A. S. Sircus, Lara K. Dunn, and James I. L. Morison
Biogeosciences, 18, 2487–2510,Short summary
Short-rotation forest plantations could help reduce greenhouse gases but can emit biogenic volatile organic compounds. Emissions were measured at a plantation trial in Scotland. Standardised emissions of isoprene from foliage were higher from hybrid aspen than from Sitka spruce and low from Italian alder. Emissions of total monoterpene were lower. The forest floor was only a small source. Model estimates suggest an SRF expansion of 0.7 Mha could increase total UK emissions between < 1 %–35 %.
Daniel Diaz-de-Quijano, Aleksander Vladimirovich Ageev, Elena Anatolevna Ivanova, and Olesia Valerevna Anishchenko
Biogeosciences, 18, 1601–1618,Short summary
Winter atmospheric nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) depositions were measured for the first time in the Western Sayan Mountains (Siberia). The low and very low atmospheric N and P depositions could be responsible for the observed lake phytoplankton N–P colimitation. We hypothesize that slight imbalances in the nutrient deposition, as expected in the context of global change (climate, forest fires and anthropogenic nitrogen emissions), could have important effects on the ecology of these lakes.
Paul C. Stoy, Adam A. Cook, John E. Dore, Natascha Kljun, William Kleindl, E. N. Jack Brookshire, and Tobias Gerken
Biogeosciences, 18, 961–975,Short summary
The reintroduction of American bison creates multiple environmental benefits. Ruminants like bison also emit methane – a potent greenhouse gas – to the atmosphere, which has not been measured to date in a field setting. We measured methane efflux from an American bison herd during winter using eddy covariance. Automated cameras were used to approximate their location to calculate per-animal flux. From the measurements, bison do not emit more methane than the cattle they often replace.
Philipp A. Nauer, Eleonora Chiri, Thanavit Jirapanjawat, Chris Greening, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 18, 729–737,Short summary
Hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are atmospheric trace gases cycled via microbial metabolisms. We observed strong H2 and CO contamination from rubber septa used to seal common gas sample storage vials. Here we propose a simple and inexpensive modification of such vials to allow reliable storage of H2, CO and methane trace-gas samples for timescales of weeks to months, thus enabling extensive field campaigns to investigate H2 and CO biogeochemistry in remote areas.
Jize Jiang, David S. Stevenson, Aimable Uwizeye, Giuseppe Tempio, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 18, 135–158,Short summary
Ammonia is a key water and air pollutant and impacts human health and climate change. Ammonia emissions mainly originate from agriculture. We find that chicken agriculture contributes to large ammonia emissions, especially in hot and wet regions. These emissions can be greatly affected by the local environment, i.e. temperature and humidity, and also by human management. We develop a model that suggests ammonia emissions from chicken farming are likely to increase under a warming climate.
Richard Wehr and Scott R. Saleska
Biogeosciences, 18, 13–24,Short summary
Water and carbon exchange between plants and the atmosphere is governed by stomata: adjustable pores in the surfaces of leaves. The combined gas conductance of all the stomata in a canopy has long been estimated using an equation that is shown here to be systematically incorrect because it relies on measurements that are generally inadequate. An alternative approach is shown to be more accurate in all probable scenarios and to imply different responses of stomatal conductance to the environment.
Bart Schilperoort, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, César Jiménez Rodríguez, Christiaan van der Tol, Bas van de Wiel, and Hubert Savenije
Biogeosciences, 17, 6423–6439,Short summary
With distributed temperature sensing (DTS) we measured a vertical temperature profile in a forest, from the forest floor to above the treetops. Using this temperature profile we can see which parts of the forest canopy are colder (thus more dense) or warmer (and less dense) and study the effect this has on the suppression of turbulent mixing. This can be used to improve our knowledge of the interaction between the atmosphere and forests and improve carbon dioxide flux measurements over forests.
Yayi Niu, Yuqiang Li, Hanbo Yun, Xuyang Wang, Xiangwen Gong, Yulong Duan, and Jing Liu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6309–6326,Short summary
We report the results from continuous year-round CO2 observations from a sandy grassland in the Horqin Sandy Land using the eddy covariance technique. To quantify the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variation in net ecosystem CO2 exchange, gross primary productivity, and ecosystem respiration and to identify the different scales of environmental factors and the underlying mechanisms, we also explored how the annual precipitation affects the net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its components.
Hélène Angot, Katelyn McErlean, Lu Hu, Dylan B. Millet, Jacques Hueber, Kaixin Cui, Jacob Moss, Catherine Wielgasz, Tyler Milligan, Damien Ketcherside, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, and Detlev Helmig
Biogeosciences, 17, 6219–6236,Short summary
We report biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) ambient levels and emission rates from key vegetation species in the Alaskan arctic tundra, providing a new data set to further constrain isoprene chemistry under low NOx conditions in models. We add to the growing body of evidence that climate-induced changes in the vegetation composition will significantly affect the BVOC emission potential of the tundra, with implications for atmospheric oxidation processes and climate feedbacks.
Teresa M. Seifried, Paul Bieber, Laura Felgitsch, Julian Vlasich, Florian Reyzek, David G. Schmale III, and Hinrich Grothe
Biogeosciences, 17, 5655–5667,
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We evaluated a new diffusive soil probe integrated with high-resolution gas analyzers to measure soil gases in real time at a centimeter scale. Using columns with simple silica and soil, we captured changes in carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrous oxide (N2O) with its isotopes to distinguish potential nutrient sources and microbial metabolism. This approach will advance the use of soil gases as important signals to understand and monitor soil fertility and health.
We evaluated a new diffusive soil probe integrated with high-resolution gas analyzers to measure...