Articles | Volume 10, issue 5
Research article 06 May 2013
Research article | 06 May 2013
Soil respiration on an aging managed heathland: identifying an appropriate empirical model for predictive purposes
G. R. Kopittke et al.
No articles found.
Carrie L. Thomas, Boris Jansen, E. Emiel van Loon, and Guido L. B. Wiesenberg
Revised manuscript accepted for SOILShort summary
Plant organs, such as leaves, contain a variety of chemicals that are eventually deposited into soil and can be useful for studying organic carbon cycling. We performed a systematic review of available data of one type of plant-derived chemical, n-alkanes, to determine patterns of degradation or preservation from the source plant to the soil. We found that while there was degradation in the amount of n-alkanes from plant to soil, some aspects of the chemical signature were preserved.
L. C. Andresen, S. Bode, A. Tietema, P. Boeckx, and T. Rütting
SOIL, 1, 341–349,
S. Vicca, M. Bahn, M. Estiarte, E. E. van Loon, R. Vargas, G. Alberti, P. Ambus, M. A. Arain, C. Beier, L. P. Bentley, W. Borken, N. Buchmann, S. L. Collins, G. de Dato, J. S. Dukes, C. Escolar, P. Fay, G. Guidolotti, P. J. Hanson, A. Kahmen, G. Kröel-Dulay, T. Ladreiter-Knauss, K. S. Larsen, E. Lellei-Kovacs, E. Lebrija-Trejos, F. T. Maestre, S. Marhan, M. Marshall, P. Meir, Y. Miao, J. Muhr, P. A. Niklaus, R. Ogaya, J. Peñuelas, C. Poll, L. E. Rustad, K. Savage, A. Schindlbacher, I. K. Schmidt, A. R. Smith, E. D. Sotta, V. Suseela, A. Tietema, N. van Gestel, O. van Straaten, S. Wan, U. Weber, and I. A. Janssens
Biogeosciences, 11, 2991–3013,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Modelling, TerrestrialEstimated effect of the permafrost carbon feedback on the zero emissions commitment to climate changeAn improved process-oriented hydro-biogeochemical model for simulating dynamic fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide in alpine ecosystems with seasonally frozen soilsA novel representation of biological nitrogen fixation and competitive dynamics between nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing plants in a land model (GFDL LM4.1-BNF)Organic phosphorus cycling may control grassland responses to nitrogen deposition: a long-term field manipulation and modelling studyA triple tree-ring constraint for tree growth and physiology in a global land surface modelSimulating shrubs and their energy and carbon dioxide fluxes in Canada's Low Arctic with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme Including Biogeochemical Cycles (CLASSIC)Competing effects of nitrogen deposition and ozone exposure on northern hemispheric terrestrial carbon uptake and storage, 1850–2099Theoretical insights from upscaling Michaelis-Menten microbial dynamics in biogeochemical models: a dimensionless approachCarbonyl sulfide: comparing a mechanistic representation of the vegetation uptake in a land surface model and the leaf relative uptake approachOptimal model complexity for terrestrial carbon cycle predictionCO2 physiological effect can cause rainfall decrease as strong as large-scale deforestation in the AmazonPlant phenology evaluation of CRESCENDO land surface models – Part 1: Start and end of the growing seasonUnderstanding the effect of fire on vegetation composition and gross primary production in a semi-arid shrubland ecosystem using the Ecosystem Demography (EDv2.2) modelImpacts of fertilization on grassland productivity and water quality across the European Alps under current and warming climate: insights from a mechanistic modelThe climate benefit of carbon sequestrationExtending a land-surface model with Sphagnum moss to simulate responses of a northern temperate bog to whole ecosystem warming and elevated CO2Improving the representation of high-latitude vegetation distribution in dynamic global vegetation modelsRobust processing of airborne laser scans to plant area density profilesInvestigating the sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration to recent snow cover changes in Alaska using a satellite-based permafrost carbon modelHysteretic temperature sensitivity of wetland CH4 fluxes explained by substrate availability and microbial activityModelling the habitat preference of two key Sphagnum species in a poor fen as controlled by capitulum water contentEvaluating two soil carbon models within the global land surface model JSBACH using surface and spaceborne observations of atmospheric CO2Assessing impacts of selective logging on water, energy, and carbon budgets and ecosystem dynamics in Amazon forests using the Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem SimulatorMicrobial dormancy and its impacts on northern temperate and boreal terrestrial ecosystem carbon budgetHistorical CO2 emissions from land use and land cover change and their uncertaintyA Bayesian approach to evaluation of soil biogeochemical modelsRainfall intensification increases the contribution of rewetting pulses to soil heterotrophic respirationWide discrepancies in the magnitude and direction of modeled solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence in response to light conditionsModeling biological nitrogen fixation in global natural terrestrial ecosystemsThe impact of a simple representation of non-structural carbohydrates on the simulated response of tropical forests to droughtBenchmarking and parameter sensitivity of physiological and vegetation dynamics using the Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) at Barro Colorado Island, PanamaModelling nitrification inhibitor effects on N2O emissions after fall- and spring-applied slurry by reducing nitrifier NH4+ oxidation rateDRIFTS band areas as measured pool size proxy to reduce parameter uncertainty in soil organic matter modelsWintertime grassland dynamics may influence belowground biomass under climate change: a model analysisLow sensitivity of gross primary production to elevated CO2 in a mature eucalypt woodlandMetabolic tradeoffs and heterogeneity in microbial responses to temperature determine the fate of litter carbon in simulations of a warmer worldCompetition alters predicted forest carbon cycle responses to nitrogen availability and elevated CO2: simulations using an explicitly competitive, game-theoretic vegetation demographic modelThe importance of physiological, structural and trait responses to drought stress in driving spatial and temporal variation in GPP across Amazon forestsModelling the response of net primary productivity of the Zambezi teak forests to climate change along a rainfall gradient in ZambiaThree decades of simulated global terrestrial carbon fluxes from a data assimilation system confronted with different periods of observationsUsing a modified DNDC biogeochemical model to optimize field management of a multi-crop (cotton, wheat, and maize) system: a site-scale case study in northern ChinaDecadal fates and impacts of nitrogen additions on temperate forest carbon storage: a data–model comparisonGlobal NO and HONO emissions of biological soil crusts estimated by a process-based non-vascular vegetation modelEstimating the soil N2O emission intensity of croplands in northwest EuropeUnifying soil organic matter formation and persistence frameworks: the MEMS modelEvaluating the simulated mean soil carbon transit times by Earth system models using observationsModeling anaerobic soil organic carbon decomposition in Arctic polygon tundra: insights into soil geochemical influences on carbon mineralizationNeglecting plant–microbe symbioses leads to underestimation of modeled climate impactsA simple time-stepping scheme to simulate leaf area index, phenology, and gross primary production across deciduous broadleaf forests in the eastern United StatesQuantifying global N2O emissions from natural ecosystem soils using trait-based biogeochemistry models
Andrew H. MacDougall
Biogeosciences, 18, 4937–4952,Short summary
Permafrost soils hold about twice as much carbon as the atmosphere. As the Earth warms the organic matter in these soils will decay, releasing CO2 and CH4. It is expected that these soils will continue to release carbon to the atmosphere long after man-made emissions of greenhouse gases cease. Here we use a method employing hundreds of slightly varying model versions to estimate how much warming permafrost carbon will cause after human emissions of CO2 end.
Wei Zhang, Zhisheng Yao, Siqi Li, Xunhua Zheng, Han Zhang, Lei Ma, Kai Wang, Rui Wang, Chunyan Liu, Shenghui Han, Jia Deng, and Yong Li
Biogeosciences, 18, 4211–4225,Short summary
The hydro-biogeochemical model Catchment Nutrient Management Model – DeNitrification-DeComposition (CNMM-DNDC) is improved by incorporating a soil thermal module to simulate the soil thermal regime in the presence of freeze–thaw cycles. The modified model is validated at a seasonally frozen catchment with typical alpine ecosystems (wetland, meadow and forest). The simulated aggregate emissions of methane and nitrous oxide are highest for the wetland, which is dominated by the methane emissions.
Sian Kou-Giesbrecht, Sergey Malyshev, Isabel Martínez Cano, Stephen W. Pacala, Elena Shevliakova, Thomas A. Bytnerowicz, and Duncan N. L. Menge
Biogeosciences, 18, 4143–4183,Short summary
Representing biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is an important challenge for land models. We present a novel representation of BNF and updated nitrogen cycling in a land model. It includes a representation of asymbiotic BNF by soil microbes and the competitive dynamics between nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing plants. It improves estimations of major carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes and their temporal dynamics in comparison to previous representations of BNF in land models.
Christopher R. Taylor, Victoria Janes-Bassett, Gareth K. Phoenix, Ben Keane, Iain P. Hartley, and Jessica A. C. Davies
Biogeosciences, 18, 4021–4037,Short summary
We used experimental data to model two phosphorus-limited grasslands and investigated their response to nitrogen (N) deposition. Greater uptake of organic P facilitated a positive response to N deposition, stimulating growth and soil carbon storage. Where organic P access was less, N deposition exacerbated P demand and reduced plant C input to the soil. This caused more C to be released into the atmosphere than is taken in, reducing the climate-mitigation capacity of the modelled grassland.
Jonathan Barichivich, Philippe Peylin, Thomas Launois, Valerie Daux, Camille Risi, Jina Jeong, and Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Biogeosciences, 18, 3781–3803,Short summary
The width and the chemical signals of tree rings have the potential to test and improve the physiological responses simulated by global land surface models, which are at the core of future climate projections. Here, we demonstrate the novel use of tree-ring width and carbon and oxygen stable isotopes to evaluate the representation of tree growth and physiology in a global land surface model at temporal scales beyond experimentation and direct observation.
Gesa Meyer, Elyn R. Humphreys, Joe R. Melton, Alex J. Cannon, and Peter M. Lafleur
Biogeosciences, 18, 3263–3283,Short summary
Shrub and sedge plant functional types (PFTs) were incorporated in the land surface component of the Canadian Earth System Model to improve representation of Arctic tundra ecosystems. Evaluated against 14 years of non-winter measurements, the magnitude and seasonality of carbon dioxide and energy fluxes at a Canadian dwarf-shrub tundra site were better captured by the shrub PFTs than by previously used grass and tree PFTs. Model simulations showed the tundra site to be an annual net CO2 source.
Martina Franz and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 18, 3219–3241,Short summary
The combined effects of ozone and nitrogen deposition on the terrestrial carbon uptake and storage has been unclear. Our simulations, from 1850 to 2099, show that ozone-related damage considerably reduced gross primary production and carbon storage in the past. The growth-stimulating effect induced by nitrogen deposition is offset until the 2050s. Accounting for nitrogen deposition without considering ozone effects might lead to an overestimation of terrestrial carbon uptake and storage.
Chris H. Wilson and Stefan Gerber
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
To better mitigate against climate change, it is imperative that ecosystem scientists understand how microbes decompose organic carbon in the soil, and thereby release it as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. A major challenge is the high variability across ecosystems in microbial biomass, and in the environmental factors like temperature that drive their activity. In this paper, we use math to better understand this how this variability impacts carbon dioxide release over large scales.
Fabienne Maignan, Camille Abadie, Marine Remaud, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Róisín Commane, Richard Wehr, J. Elliott Campbell, Sauveur Belviso, Stephen A. Montzka, Nina Raoult, Ulli Seibt, Yoichi P. Shiga, Nicolas Vuichard, Mary E. Whelan, and Philippe Peylin
Biogeosciences, 18, 2917–2955,Short summary
The assimilation of carbonyl sulfide (COS) by continental vegetation has been proposed as a proxy for gross primary production (GPP). Using a land surface and a transport model, we compare a mechanistic representation of the plant COS uptake (Berry et al., 2013) to the classical leaf relative uptake (LRU) approach linking GPP and vegetation COS fluxes. We show that at high temporal resolutions a mechanistic approach is mandatory, but at large scales the LRU approach compares similarly.
Caroline A. Famiglietti, T. Luke Smallman, Paul A. Levine, Sophie Flack-Prain, Gregory R. Quetin, Victoria Meyer, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Stephanie G. Stettz, Yan Yang, Damien Bonal, A. Anthony Bloom, Mathew Williams, and Alexandra G. Konings
Biogeosciences, 18, 2727–2754,Short summary
Model uncertainty dominates the spread in terrestrial carbon cycle predictions. Efforts to reduce it typically involve adding processes, thereby increasing model complexity. However, if and how model performance scales with complexity is unclear. Using a suite of 16 structurally distinct carbon cycle models, we find that increased complexity only improves skill if parameters are adequately informed. Otherwise, it can degrade skill, and an intermediate-complexity model is optimal.
Gilvan Sampaio, Marília H. Shimizu, Carlos A. Guimarães-Júnior, Felipe Alexandre, Marcelo Guatura, Manoel Cardoso, Tomas F. Domingues, Anja Rammig, Celso von Randow, Luiz F. C. Rezende, and David M. Lapola
Biogeosciences, 18, 2511–2525,Short summary
The impact of large-scale deforestation and the physiological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on Amazon rainfall are systematically compared in this study. Our results are remarkable in showing that the two disturbances cause equivalent rainfall decrease, though through different causal mechanisms. These results highlight the importance of not only curbing regional deforestation but also reducing global CO2 emissions to avoid climatic changes in the Amazon.
Daniele Peano, Deborah Hemming, Stefano Materia, Christine Delire, Yuanchao Fan, Emilie Joetzjer, Hanna Lee, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Taejin Park, Philippe Peylin, David Wårlind, Andy Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 18, 2405–2428,Short summary
Global climate models are the scientist’s tools used for studying past, present, and future climate conditions. This work examines the ability of a group of our tools in reproducing and capturing the right timing and length of the season when plants show their green leaves. This season, indeed, is fundamental for CO2 exchanges between land, atmosphere, and climate. This work shows that discrepancies compared to observations remain, demanding further polishing of these tools.
Karun Pandit, Hamid Dashti, Andrew T. Hudak, Nancy F. Glenn, Alejandro N. Flores, and Douglas J. Shinneman
Biogeosciences, 18, 2027–2045,Short summary
A dynamic global vegetation model, Ecosystem Demography (EDv2.2), is used to understand spatiotemporal dynamics of a semi-arid shrub ecosystem under alternative fire regimes. Multi-decadal point simulations suggest shrub dominance for a non-fire scenario and a contrasting phase of shrub and C3 grass growth for a fire scenario. Regional gross primary productivity (GPP) simulations indicate moderate agreement with MODIS GPP and a GPP reduction in fire-affected areas before showing some recovery.
Martina Botter, Matthias Zeeman, Paolo Burlando, and Simone Fatichi
Biogeosciences, 18, 1917–1939,
Carlos A. Sierra, Susan E. Crow, Martin Heimann, Holger Metzler, and Ernst-Detlef Schulze
Biogeosciences, 18, 1029–1048,Short summary
The climate benefit of carbon sequestration (CBS) is a metric developed to quantify avoided warming by two separate processes: the amount of carbon drawdown from the atmosphere and the time this carbon is stored in a reservoir. This metric can be useful for quantifying the role of forests and soils for climate change mitigation and to better quantify the benefits of carbon removals by sinks.
Xiaoying Shi, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Peter E. Thornton, Xiaofeng Xu, Fengming Yuan, Richard J. Norby, Anthony P. Walker, Jeffrey M. Warren, Jiafu Mao, Paul J. Hanson, Lin Meng, David Weston, and Natalie A. Griffiths
Biogeosciences, 18, 467–486,Short summary
The Sphagnum mosses are the important species of a wetland ecosystem. To better represent the peatland ecosystem, we introduced the moss species to the land model component (ELM) of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) by developing water content dynamics and nonvascular photosynthetic processes for moss. We tested the model against field observations and used the model to make projections of the site's carbon cycle under warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration scenarios.
Peter Horvath, Hui Tang, Rune Halvorsen, Frode Stordal, Lena Merete Tallaksen, Terje Koren Berntsen, and Anders Bryn
Biogeosciences, 18, 95–112,Short summary
We evaluated the performance of three methods for representing vegetation cover. Remote sensing provided the best match to a reference dataset, closely followed by distribution modelling (DM), whereas the dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) in CLM4.5BGCDV deviated strongly from the reference. Sensitivity tests show that use of threshold values for predictors identified by DM may improve DGVM performance. The results highlight the potential of using DM in the development of DGVMs.
Johan Arnqvist, Julia Freier, and Ebba Dellwik
Biogeosciences, 17, 5939–5952,Short summary
Data generated by airborne laser scans enable the characterization of surface vegetation for any application that might need it, such as forest management, modeling for numerical weather prediction, or wind energy estimation. In this work we present a new algorithm for calculating the vegetation density using data from airborne laser scans. The new routine is more robust than earlier methods, and an implementation in popular programming languages accompanies the article to support new users.
Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Jennifer D. Watts, Susan M. Natali, Donatella Zona, Junjie Liu, Masahito Ueyama, Hideki Kobayashi, Walter Oechel, and Charles E. Miller
Biogeosciences, 17, 5861–5882,Short summary
We developed a 1 km satellite-data-driven permafrost carbon model to evaluate soil respiration sensitivity to recent snow cover changes in Alaska. Results show earlier snowmelt enhances growing-season soil respiration and reduces annual carbon uptake, while early cold-season soil respiration is linked to the number of snow-free days after the land surface freezes. Our results also show nonnegligible influences of subgrid variability in surface conditions on model-simulated CO2 seasonal cycles.
Kuang-Yu Chang, William J. Riley, Patrick M. Crill, Robert F. Grant, and Scott R. Saleska
Biogeosciences, 17, 5849–5860,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is a strong greenhouse gas that can accelerate climate change and offset mitigation efforts. A key assumption embedded in many large-scale climate models is that ecosystem CH4 emissions can be estimated by fixed temperature relations. Here, we demonstrate that CH4 emissions cannot be parameterized by emergent temperature response alone due to variability driven by microbial and abiotic interactions. We also provide mechanistic understanding for observed CH4 emission hysteresis.
Jinnan Gong, Nigel Roulet, Steve Frolking, Heli Peltola, Anna M. Laine, Nicola Kokkonen, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 17, 5693–5719,Short summary
In this study, which combined a field and lab experiment with modelling, we developed a process-based model for simulating dynamics within peatland moss communities. The model is useful because Sphagnum mosses are key engineers in peatlands; their response to changes in climate via altered hydrology controls the feedback of peatland biogeochemistry to climate. Our work showed that moss capitulum traits related to water retention are the mechanism controlling moss layer dynamics in peatlands.
Tea Thum, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Aki Tsuruta, Tuula Aalto, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Jari Liski, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Tiina Markkanen, Julia Pongratz, Yukio Yoshida, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 17, 5721–5743,Short summary
Global vegetation models are important tools in estimating the impacts of global climate change. The fate of soil carbon is of the upmost importance as its emissions will enhance the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. To evaluate the skill of global vegetation models to model the soil carbon and its responses to environmental factors, it is important to use different data sources. We evaluated two different soil carbon models by using atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.
Maoyi Huang, Yi Xu, Marcos Longo, Michael Keller, Ryan G. Knox, Charles D. Koven, and Rosie A. Fisher
Biogeosciences, 17, 4999–5023,Short summary
The Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) is enhanced to mimic the ecological, biophysical, and biogeochemical processes following a logging event. The model can specify the timing and aerial extent of logging events; determine the survivorship of cohorts in the disturbed forest; and modifying the biomass, coarse woody debris, and litter pools. This study lays the foundation to simulate land use change and forest degradation in FATES as part of an Earth system model.
Junrong Zha and Qianla Zhuang
Biogeosciences, 17, 4591–4610,Short summary
This study incorporated microbial dormancy into a detailed microbe-based biogeochemistry model to examine the fate of Arctic carbon budgets under changing climate conditions. Compared with the model without microbial dormancy, the new model estimated a much higher carbon accumulation in the region during the last and current century. This study highlights the importance of the representation of microbial dormancy in earth system models to adequately quantify the carbon dynamics in the Arctic.
Thomas Gasser, Léa Crepin, Yann Quilcaille, Richard A. Houghton, Philippe Ciais, and Michael Obersteiner
Biogeosciences, 17, 4075–4101,Short summary
We combine several lines of evidence to provide a robust estimate of historical CO2 emissions from land use change. Our novel approach leads to reduced uncertainty and identifies key remaining sources of uncertainty and discrepancy. We also quantify the carbon removal by natural ecosystems that would have occurred if these ecosystems had not been destroyed (mostly via deforestation). Over the last decade, this foregone carbon sink amounted to about 50 % of the actual emissions.
Hua W. Xie, Adriana L. Romero-Olivares, Michele Guindani, and Steven D. Allison
Biogeosciences, 17, 4043–4057,Short summary
Soil biogeochemical models (SBMs) are needed to predict future soil CO2 emissions levels, but we presently lack statistically rigorous frameworks for assessing the predictive utility of SBMs. In this study, we demonstrate one possible approach to evaluating SBMs by comparing the fits of two models to soil CO2 respiration data with recently developed Bayesian statistical goodness-of-fit metrics. Our results demonstrate that our approach is a viable one for continued development and refinement.
Stefano Manzoni, Arjun Chakrawal, Thomas Fischer, Joshua P. Schimel, Amilcare Porporato, and Giulia Vico
Biogeosciences, 17, 4007–4023,Short summary
Carbon dioxide is produced by soil microbes through respiration, which is particularly fast when soils are moistened by rain. Will respiration increase with future more intense rains and longer dry spells? With a mathematical model, we show that wetter conditions increase respiration. In contrast, if rainfall totals stay the same, but rain comes all at once after long dry spells, the average respiration will not change, but the contribution of the respiration bursts after rain will increase.
Nicholas C. Parazoo, Troy Magney, Alex Norton, Brett Raczka, Cédric Bacour, Fabienne Maignan, Ian Baker, Yongguang Zhang, Bo Qiu, Mingjie Shi, Natasha MacBean, Dave R. Bowling, Sean P. Burns, Peter D. Blanken, Jochen Stutz, Katja Grossmann, and Christian Frankenberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 3733–3755,Short summary
Satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) provide a global measure of photosynthetic change. This enables scientists to better track carbon cycle responses to environmental change and tune biochemical processes in vegetation models for an improved simulation of future change. We use tower-instrumented SIF measurements and controlled model experiments to assess the state of the art in terrestrial biosphere SIF modeling and find a wide range of sensitivities to light.
Tong Yu and Qianlai Zhuang
Biogeosciences, 17, 3643–3657,Short summary
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) plays an important role in the global nitrogen cycle. However, the fixation rate has usually been measured or estimated at a particular observational site. This study develops a BNF model considering the symbiotic relationship between legume plants and bacteria. The model is extensively calibrated with site-level observational data and then extrapolated to the global terrestrial ecosystems to quantify the fixation rate in the 1990s.
Simon Jones, Lucy Rowland, Peter Cox, Deborah Hemming, Andy Wiltshire, Karina Williams, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Junjie Liu, Antonio C. L. da Costa, Patrick Meir, Maurizio Mencuccini, and Anna B. Harper
Biogeosciences, 17, 3589–3612,Short summary
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are an important set of molecules that help plants to grow and respire when photosynthesis is restricted by extreme climate events. In this paper we present a simple model of NSC storage and assess the effect that it has on simulations of vegetation at the ecosystem scale. Our model has the potential to significantly change predictions of plant behaviour in global vegetation models, which would have large implications for predictions of the future climate.
Charles D. Koven, Ryan G. Knox, Rosie A. Fisher, Jeffrey Q. Chambers, Bradley O. Christoffersen, Stuart J. Davies, Matteo Detto, Michael C. Dietze, Boris Faybishenko, Jennifer Holm, Maoyi Huang, Marlies Kovenock, Lara M. Kueppers, Gregory Lemieux, Elias Massoud, Nathan G. McDowell, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Jessica F. Needham, Richard J. Norby, Thomas Powell, Alistair Rogers, Shawn P. Serbin, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Abigail L. S. Swann, Charuleka Varadharajan, Anthony P. Walker, S. Joseph Wright, and Chonggang Xu
Biogeosciences, 17, 3017–3044,Short summary
Tropical forests play a crucial role in governing climate feedbacks, and are incredibly diverse ecosystems, yet most Earth system models do not take into account the diversity of plant traits in these forests and how this diversity may govern feedbacks. We present an approach to represent diverse competing plant types within Earth system models, test this approach at a tropical forest site, and explore how the representation of disturbance and competition governs traits of the forest community.
Robert F. Grant, Sisi Lin, and Guillermo Hernandez-Ramirez
Biogeosciences, 17, 2021–2039,Short summary
Nitrification inhibitors (NI) have been shown to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N20), a potent greenhouse gas, from fertilizer and manure applied to agricultural fields. However difficulties in measuring N20 emissions limit our ability to estimate these reductions. Here we propose and test a mathematical model that may allow us to estimate these reductions under diverse site conditions. These estimates will be useful in determining emission factors for NI-amended fertilizer and manure.
Moritz Laub, Michael Scott Demyan, Yvonne Funkuin Nkwain, Sergey Blagodatsky, Thomas Kätterer, Hans-Peter Piepho, and Georg Cadisch
Biogeosciences, 17, 1393–1413,Short summary
Loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere represents a global challenge. We tested an innovative way to reduce the high uncertainty related to turnover of carbon stored in soils. With the use of infrared spectra of soils from model bare fallow systems, we were able to better assess the current state of soil carbon and predict its behavior in overdecadal time spans. In agreement with recent studies, carbon turnover seems faster than earlier assumed, with potential for high loss under mismanagement.
Genki Katata, Rüdiger Grote, Matthias Mauder, Matthias J. Zeeman, and Masakazu Ota
Biogeosciences, 17, 1071–1085,Short summary
In this paper, we demonstrate that high physiological activity levels during the extremely warm winter are allocated into the below-ground biomass and only to a minor extent used for additional plant growth during early spring. This process is so far largely unaccounted for in scenario analysis using global terrestrial biosphere models, and it may lead to carbon accumulation in the soil and/or carbon loss from the soil as a response to global warming.
Jinyan Yang, Belinda E. Medlyn, Martin G. De Kauwe, Remko A. Duursma, Mingkai Jiang, Dushan Kumarathunge, Kristine Y. Crous, Teresa E. Gimeno, Agnieszka Wujeska-Klause, and David S. Ellsworth
Biogeosciences, 17, 265–279,Short summary
This study addressed a major knowledge gap in the response of forest productivity to elevated CO2. We first quantified forest productivity of an evergreen forest under both ambient and elevated CO2, using a model constrained by in situ measurements. The simulation showed the canopy productivity response to elevated CO2 to be smaller than that at the leaf scale due to different limiting processes. This finding provides a key reference for the understanding of CO2 impacts on forest ecosystems.
Grace Pold, Seeta A. Sistla, and Kristen M. DeAngelis
Biogeosciences, 16, 4875–4888,Short summary
The litter decomposition model DEMENT was run under ambient temperatures and with 5 °C; of warming. We found that the loss of litter carbon to the atmosphere as CO2 was exacerbated by warming when the microbes in the model differed in their temperature responses, compared to when all microbes responded identically to warming. Our results therefore indicate that predicted changes in litter carbon stocks are sensitive to heterogeneity in key parameters of soil decomposer physiology.
Ensheng Weng, Ray Dybzinski, Caroline E. Farrior, and Stephen W. Pacala
Biogeosciences, 16, 4577–4599,Short summary
Our study illustrates that the competition processes for light and soil resources in a game-theoretic vegetation demographic model can substantially change the prediction of the contribution of ecosystems to the global carbon cycle. The model that tracks the competitive allocation strategies can generate significantly different ecosystem-level predictions than those with fixed allocation strategies.
Sophie Flack-Prain, Patrick Meir, Yadvinder Malhi, Thomas Luke Smallman, and Mathew Williams
Biogeosciences, 16, 4463–4484,Short summary
Across the Amazon rainforest, trees take in carbon through photosynthesis. However, photosynthesis across the basin is threatened by predicted shifts in rainfall patterns. To unpick how changes in rainfall affect photosynthesis, we use a model which combines climate data with our knowledge of photosynthesis and other plant processes. We find that stomatal constraints are less important, and instead shifts in leaf surface area and leaf properties drive changes in photosynthesis with rainfall.
Justine Ngoma, Maarten C. Braakhekke, Bart Kruijt, Eddy Moors, Iwan Supit, James H. Speer, Royd Vinya, and Rik Leemans
Biogeosciences, 16, 3853–3867,Short summary
The Zambezi teak forests are a source of raw material for the timber industry. Through application of the LPJ-GUESS vegetation model, we determined the forests' response to climate change at the wetter Kabompo, drier Sesheke, and intermediate Namwala sites in Zambia. While increased CO2 concentration enhances forests' productivity at Kabompo and Namwala, the decreased rainfall will reduce forests' productivity at Sesheke by the year 2099, resulting in reduced raw material for saw millers.
Karel Castro-Morales, Gregor Schürmann, Christoph Köstler, Christian Rödenbeck, Martin Heimann, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 16, 3009–3032,Short summary
To obtain nearly 30 years of global terrestrial carbon fluxes, we simultaneously incorporated in a land surface model three different time periods of two observational data sets: absorbed photosynthetic active radiation and atmospheric CO2 concentrations. One decade of data is enough to improve the modeled long-term trends and seasonal amplitudes of the assimilated variables, particularly in boreal regions. This model has the potential to provide short-term predictions of land carbon fluxes.
Wei Zhang, Chunyan Liu, Xunhua Zheng, Kai Wang, Feng Cui, Rui Wang, Siqi Li, Zhisheng Yao, and Jiang Zhu
Biogeosciences, 16, 2905–2922,Short summary
A biogeochemical process model-based approach for screening the best management practices (BMPs) of a three-crop system was proposed. The BMPs are the management alternatives with the lowest negative impact potentials that still satisfy all given constraints. Three BMP alternatives with overlapping uncertainties of simulated NIPs were screened from 6000 scenarios using the modified DNDC95 model, which could sustain crop yields, enlarge SOC stock, mitigate GHG, and reduce other nitrogen losses.
Susan J. Cheng, Peter G. Hess, William R. Wieder, R. Quinn Thomas, Knute J. Nadelhoffer, Julius Vira, Danica L. Lombardozzi, Per Gundersen, Ivan J. Fernandez, Patrick Schleppi, Marie-Cécile Gruselle, Filip Moldan, and Christine L. Goodale
Biogeosciences, 16, 2771–2793,Short summary
Nitrogen deposition and fertilizer can change how much carbon is stored in plants and soils. Understanding how much added nitrogen is recovered in plants or soils is critical to estimating the size of the future land carbon sink. We compared how nitrogen additions are recovered in modeled soil and plant stocks against data from long-term nitrogen addition experiments. We found that the model simulates recovery of added nitrogen into soils through a different process than found in the field.
Philipp Porada, Alexandra Tamm, Jose Raggio, Yafang Cheng, Axel Kleidon, Ulrich Pöschl, and Bettina Weber
Biogeosciences, 16, 2003–2031,Short summary
The trace gases NO and HONO are crucial for atmospheric chemistry. It has been suggested that biological soil crusts in drylands contribute substantially to global NO and HONO emissions, based on empirical upscaling of laboratory and field observations. Here we apply an alternative, process-based modeling approach to predict these emissions. We find that biological soil crusts emit globally significant amounts of NO and HONO, which also vary depending on the type of biological soil crust.
Vasileios Myrgiotis, Mathew Williams, Robert M. Rees, and Cairistiona F. E. Topp
Biogeosciences, 16, 1641–1655,Short summary
This study focuses on a northwestern European cropland region and shows that the type of crop growing on a soil has notable effects on the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O – a greenhouse gas) from that soil. It was found that N2O emissions from soils under oilseed cultivation are significantly higher than soils under cereal cultivation. This variation is mostly explained by the fact that oilseeds require more nitrogen (fertiliser) than cereals, especially at early crop growth stages.
Andy D. Robertson, Keith Paustian, Stephen Ogle, Matthew D. Wallenstein, Emanuele Lugato, and M. Francesca Cotrufo
Biogeosciences, 16, 1225–1248,Short summary
Predicting how soils respond to varying environmental conditions or land-use change is essential if we aim to promote sustainable management practices and help mitigate climate change. Here, we present a new ecosystem-scale soil model (MEMS v1) that is built upon recent, novel findings and can be run using very few inputs. The model accurately predicted soil carbon stocks for more than 8000 sites across Europe, ranging from cold, wet forests in sandy soils to hot, dry grasslands in clays.
Jing Wang, Jianyang Xia, Xuhui Zhou, Kun Huang, Jian Zhou, Yuanyuan Huang, Lifen Jiang, Xia Xu, Junyi Liang, Ying-Ping Wang, Xiaoli Cheng, and Yiqi Luo
Biogeosciences, 16, 917–926,Short summary
Soil is critical in mitigating climate change mainly because soil carbon turns over much slower in soils than vegetation and the atmosphere. However, Earth system models (ESMs) have large uncertainty in simulating carbon dynamics due to their biased estimation of soil carbon transit time (τsoil). Here, the τsoil estimates from 12 ESMs that participated in CMIP5 were evaluated by a database of measured τsoil. We detected a large spatial variation in measured τsoil across the globe.
Jianqiu Zheng, Peter E. Thornton, Scott L. Painter, Baohua Gu, Stan D. Wullschleger, and David E. Graham
Biogeosciences, 16, 663–680,Short summary
Arctic warming exposes soil carbon to increased degradation, increasing CO2 and CH4 emissions. Models underrepresent anaerobic decomposition that predominates wet soils. We simulated microbial growth, pH regulation, and anaerobic carbon decomposition in a new model, parameterized and validated with prior soil incubation data. The model accurately simulated CO2 production and strong influences of water content, pH, methanogen biomass, and competing electron acceptors on CH4 production.
Mingjie Shi, Joshua B. Fisher, Richard P. Phillips, and Edward R. Brzostek
Biogeosciences, 16, 457–465,Short summary
The ability of plants to slow climate change by taking up carbon hinges in part on there being ample soil nitrogen. We used a model that accounts for the carbon cost to plants of supporting nitrogen-acquiring microbes to explore how nitrogen limitation affects climate. Our model predicted that nitrogen limitation will enhance temperature and decrease precipitation; thus, our results suggest that carbon spent to support nitrogen-acquiring microbes is a critical component of the Earth's climate.
Qinchuan Xin, Yongjiu Dai, and Xiaoping Liu
Biogeosciences, 16, 467–484,Short summary
Terrestrial biosphere models that simulate both leaf dynamics and canopy photosynthesis are required to understand vegetation–climate interactions. A time-stepping scheme is proposed to simulate leaf area index, phenology, and gross primary production via climate variables. The method performs well on simulating deciduous broadleaf forests across the eastern United States; it provides a simplified and improved version of the growing production day model for use in land surface modeling.
Tong Yu and Qianlai Zhuang
Biogeosciences, 16, 207–222,
Bahn, M., Reichstein, M., Davidson, E. A., Grünzweig, J., Jung, M., Carbone, M. S., Epron, D., Misson, L., Nouvellon, Y., Roupsard, O., Savage, K., Trumbore, S. E., Gimeno, C., Curiel Yuste, J., Tang, J., Vargas, R., and Janssens, I. A.: Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes, Biogeosciences, 7, 2147–2157, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-2147-2010, 2010a.
Bahn, M., Janssens, I. A., Reichstein, M., Smith, P., and Trumbore, S. E.: Soil respiration across scales: towards an integration of patterns and processes, New Phytol., 186, 292–296, 2010b.
Bernhardt, E. S., Barber, J. J., Pippen, J. S., Taneva, L., Andrews, J. A., and Schlesinger, W. H.: Long-term Effects of Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) on Soil Respiration, Biogeochemistry, 77, 91–116, 2006.
Blöschl, G. and Sivapalan, M.: Scale issues in hydrological modelling: A review, Hydrol. Process., 9, 251–290, 1995.
Burnham, K. P. and Anderson, D. R.: Model Selection and Multi-Model Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach, Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 2002.
Byrd, R., Lu, P., Nocedal, J., and Zhu, C.: A Limited Memory Algorithm for Bound Constrained Optimization, Siam J. Sci. Comput., 16, 1190–1208, 1995.
Campbell, D. T. and Stanley, J. C.: Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research, Rand McNally, Chicago, Illinois, 1966.
Caquet, B., De Grandcourt, A., Thongo M'bou, A., Epron, D., Kinana, A., Saint André, L., and Nouvellon, Y.: Soil carbon balance in a tropical grassland: Estimation of soil respiration and its partitioning using a semi-empirical model, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 158–159, 71–79, 2012.
Chemidlin Prévost-Bouré, N., Ngao, J., Berveiller, D., Bonal, D., Damesin, C., Dufrêne, E., Lata, J., Le Dantec, V., Longdoz, B., Ponton, S., Soudani, K., and Epron, D.: Root exclusion through trenching does not affect the isotopic composition of soil CO2 efflux, Plant Soil, 319, 1–13, 2009.
Chen, X., Post, W., Norby, R., and Classen, A.: Modeling soil respiration and variations in source components using a multi-factor global climate change experiment, Climatic Change, 107, 459–480, 2011.
Clark, K. L., Gholz, H. L., and Castro, M. S.: Carbon Dynamics along a Chronosequence of Slash Pine Plantations in North Florida, Ecol. Appl., 14, 1154–1171, 2004.
Clay, G. D., Worrall, F., and Rose, R.: Carbon budgets of an upland blanket bog managed by prescribed fire, J. Geophys. Res., 115, G04037, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JG001331, 2010.
Davidson, E. A. and Janssens, I. A.: Temperature sensitivity of soil carbon decomposition and feedbacks to climate change, Nature, 440, 165–173, 2006.
Davidson, E. A., Janssens, I. A., and Luo, Y.: On the variability of respiration in terrestrial ecosystems: moving beyond Q10, Glob. Change Biol., 12, 154–164, 2006.
Davison, A. C. and Hinkley, D. V.: Bootstrap Methods and their Application, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997.
Díaz-Pinés, E., Schindlbacher, A., Pfeffer, M., Jandl, R., Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S., and Rubio, A.: Root trenching: a useful tool to estimate autotrophic soil respiration? A case study in an Austrian mountain forest, Eur. J. Forest Res., 129, 101–109, 2010.
Dieleman, W. I. J. and Janssens, I. A.: Can publication bias affect ecological research? A case study on soil respiration under elevated CO2, New Phytol., 190, 517–521, 2011.
Dieleman, W. I. J., Vicca, S., Dijkstra, F. A., Hagedorn, F., Hovenden, M. J., Larsen, K. S., Morgan, J. A., Volder, A., Beier, C., Dukes, J. S., King, J., Leuzinger, S., Linder, S., Luo, Y., Oren, R., De Angelis, P., Tingey, D., Hoosbeek, M. R., and Janssens, I. A.: Simple additive effects are rare: a quantitative review of plant biomass and soil process responses to combined manipulations of CO2 and temperature, Glob. Change Biol., 18, 2681–2693, 2012.
Diemont, W. H. and Heil, G. W.: Some long-term observations on cyclical and serial processes in Dutch heathlands, Biol. Conserv., 30, 283–290, 1984.
Emmett, B. A., Beier, C., Estiarte, M., Tietema, A., Kristensen, H. L., Williams, D., Peñuelas, J., Schmidt, I., and Sowerby, A.: The Response of Soil Processes to Climate Change: Results from Manipulation Studies of Shrublands Across an Environmental Gradient, Ecosystems, 7, 625–637, 2004.
Filley, T. R., Boutton, T. W., Liao, J. D., Jastrow, J. D., and Gamblin, D. E.: Chemical changes to nonaggregated particulate soil organic matter following grassland-to-woodland transition in a subtropical savanna, J. Geophys. Res., 113, G03009, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JG000564, 2008.
Gimingham, C. H.: Age-Related Interactions between Calluna vulgaris and Phytophagous Insects, Oikos, 44, 12–16, 1985.
Gomez-Casanovas, N., Matamala, R., Cook, D. R., and Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.: Net ecosystem exchange modifies the relationship between the autotrophic and heterotrophic components of soil respiration with abiotic factors in prairie grasslands, Glob. Change Biol., 18, 2532–2545, 2012.
Graham, S. L., Millard, P., Hunt, J. E., Rogers, G. N. D., and Whitehead, D.: Roots affect the response of heterotrophic soil respiration to temperature in tussock grass microcosms, Ann. Bot., 110, 253–258, 2012.
Hanson, P. J., Edwards, N. T., Garten, C. T., and Andrews, J. A.: Separating root and soil microbial contributions to soil respiration: A review of methods and observations, Biogeochemistry, 48, 115–146, 2000.
Heinemeyer, A., Di Bene, C., Lloyd, A. R., Tortorella, D., Baxter, R., Huntley, B., Gelsomino, A., and Ineson, P.: Soil respiration: implications of the plant-soil continuum and respiration chamber collar-insertion depth on measurement and modelling of soil CO, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 62, 82–94, 2011.
Horwath, W. R., Pregitzer, K. S., and Paul, E. A.: 14C Allocation in tree–soil systems, Tree Physiol., 14, 1163–1176, 1994.
IPCC: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007.
Janssens, I. A., Lankreijer, H., Matteucci, G., Kowalski, A. S., Buchmann, N., Epron, D., Pilegaard, K., Kutsch, W., Longdoz, B., Grunwald, T., Montagnani, L., Dore, S., Rebmann, C., Moors, E. J., Grelle, A., Rannik, U., Morgenstern, K., Oltchev, S., Clement, R., Gudmundsson, J., Minerbi, S., Berbigier, P., Ibrom, A., Moncrieff, J., Aubinet, M., Bernhofer, C., Jensen, N. O., Vesala, T., Granier, A., Schulze, E. D., Lindroth, A., Dolman, A. J., Jarvis, P. G., Ceulemans, R., and Valentini, R.: Productivity overshadows temperature in determining soil and ecosystem respiration across European forests, Glob. Change Biol., 7, 269–278, 2001.
Jassal, R. S. and Black, T. A.: Estimating heterotrophic and autotrophic soil respiration using small-area trenched plot technique: Theory and practice, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 140, 193–202, 2006.
Jensen, K. D., Beier, C., Michelsen, A., and Emmett, B. A.: Effects of experimental drought on microbial processes in two temperate heathlands at contrasting water conditions, Appl. Soil Ecol., 24, 165–176, 2003.
Jonasson, S., Michelsen, A., Schmidt, I. K., Nielsen, E. V., and Callaghan, T. V.: Microbial Biomass C, N and P in Two Arctic Soils and Responses to Addition of NPK Fertilizer and Sugar: Implications for Plant Nutrient Uptake, Oecologia, 106, 507–515, 1996.
Jørgensen, S. E. and Bendoricchio, G.: Concepts of Modelling, in: Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling, Third, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2001.
Kalbitz, K., Schmerwitz, J., Schwesig, D., and Matzner, E.: Biodegradation of soil-derived dissolved organic matter as related to its properties, Geoderma, 113, 273–291, 2003.
Keenan, T. F., Davidson, E., Moffat, A. M., Munger, W., and Richardson, A. D.: Using model-data fusion to interpret past trends, and quantify uncertainties in future projections, of terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling, Glob. Change Biol., 18, 2555–2569, 2012.
Khomik, M., Arain, M. A., Liaw, K., and McCaughey, J. H.: Debut of a flexible model for simulating soil respiration–soil temperature relationship: Gamma model, J. Geophys. Res., 114, G03004, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JG000851, 2009.
Kirschbaum, M. U. F.: The temperature dependence of organic-matter decomposition – still a topic of debate, Soil Biol. Biochem., 38, 2510–2518, 2006.
Kopittke, G. R., Tietema, A., van Loon, E. E., and Kalbitz, K.: The age of managed heathland communities: implications for carbon storage?, Plant Soil, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-012-1558-z, 2012.
Kutsch, W. L. and Kappen, L.: Aspects of Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in Soils of the Bornhöved Lake District. II. Modelling the Influence of Temperature Increase on Soil Respiration and Organic Carbon Content in Arable Soils under Different Managements, Biogeochemistry, 39, 207–224, 1997.
Kutsch, W., Persson, T., Schrumpf, M., Moyano, F., Mund, M., Andersson, S., and Schulze, E.: Heterotrophic soil respiration and soil carbon dynamics in the deciduous Hainich forest obtained by three approaches, Biogeochemistry, 100, 167–183, 2010.
Kuzyakov, Y. and Gavrichkova, O.: REVIEW: Time lag between photosynthesis and carbon dioxide efflux from soil: a review of mechanisms and controls, Glob. Change Biol., 16, 3386–3406, 2010.
Larsen, K. S., Ibrom, A., Beier, C., Jonasson, S., and Michelsen, A.: Ecosystem Respiration Depends Strongly on Photosynthesis in a Temperate Health, Biogeochemistry, 85, 201–213, 2007.
Loidi, J., Biurrun, I., Campos, J. A., Garciá-Mijangos, I., and Herrera, M.: A biogeographical analysis of the European Atlantic lowland heathlands, J. Veg. Sci., 21, 832–842, 2010.
Matzner, E. and Borken, W.: Do freeze-thaw events enhance C and N losses from soils of different ecosystems? A review, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 59, 274–284, 2008.
McCullagh, P. and Nelder, J. A.: Generalized Linear Models, Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, Florida, 1989.
Metcalfe, D. B., Fisher, R. A., and Wardle, D. A.: Plant communities as drivers of soil respiration: pathways, mechanisms, and significance for global change, Biogeosciences, 8, 2047–2061, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-8-2047-2011, 2011.
Nash, J. E. and Sutcliffe, J. V.: River flow forecasting through conceptual models part I: A discussion of principles, J. Hydrol., 10, 282–290, 1970.
Novara, A., Armstrong, A., Gristina, L., Semple, K. T., and Quinton, J. N.: Effects of soil compaction, rain exposure and their interaction on soil carbon dioxide emission, Earth Surf. Proc. Land., 37, 994–999, 2012.
Pedersen, A. R.: HMR: Flux estimation with static chamber data, R package version 0.3.1, 2011.
Pedersen, A. R., Petersen, S. O., and Schelde, K.: A comprehensive approach to soil-atmosphere trace-gas flux estimation with static chambers, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 61, 888–902, 2010.
Peichl, M., Carton, O., and Kiely, G.: Management and climate effects on carbon dioxide and energy exchanges in a maritime grassland, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 158, 132–146, 2012.
Perez-Quezada, J. F., Bown, H. E., Fuentes, J. P., Alfaro, F. A., and Franck, N.: Effects of afforestation on soil respiration in an arid shrubland in Chile, J. Arid Environ., 83, 45–53, 2012.
Pinheiro, J. C. and Bates, D. M.: Mixed-Effects Models in S and S-Plus, Springer, New York, NY, 2000.
Qian, S. S., Cuffney, T. F., Alameddine, I., McMahon, G., and Reckhow, K. H.: On the application of multilevel modeling in environmental and ecological studies, Ecology, 91, 355–361, 2010.
R Development Core Team: R: A language and environment for statistical computing, 2008.
Raich, J. W. and Schlesinger, W. H.: The Global Carbon Dioxide Flux in Soil Respiration and its Relationship to Vegetation and Climate, Tellus B, 44, 81–99, 1992.
Reichstein, M. and Beer, C.: Soil respiration across scales: The importance of a model-data integration framework for data interpretation, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 171, 344–354, 2008.
Reichstein, M., Rey, A., Freibauer, A., Tenhunen, J., Valentini, R., Banza, J., Casals, P., Cheng, Y. F., Grunzweig, J. M., Irvine, J., Joffre, R., Law, B. E., Loustau, D., Miglietta, F., Oechel, W., Ourcival, J. M., Pereira, J. S., Peressotti, A., Ponti, F., Qi, Y., Rambal, S., Rayment, M., Romanya, J., Rossi, F., Tedeschi, V., Tirone, G., Xu, M., and Yakir, D.: Modeling temporal and large-scale spatial variability of soil respiration from soil water availability, temperature and vegetation productivity indices, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 17, 1104–1119, 2003.
Rustad, L. E., Huntington, T. G., and Boone, R. D.: Controls on soil respiration: Implications for climate change, Biogeochemistry, 48, 1–6, 2000.
Rustad, L. E., Campbell, J. L., Marion, G. M., Norby, R. J., Mitchell, M. J., Hartley, A. E., Cornelissen, J. H. C., Gurevitch, J., and GCTE-NEWS: A meta-analysis of the response of soil respiration, net nitrogen mineralization, and aboveground plant growth to experimental ecosystem warming, Oecologia, 126, 543–562, 2001.
Ryan, M. G. and Law, B. E.: Interpreting, measuring, and modeling soil respiration, Biogeochemistry, 73, 3–27, 2005.
Saiz, G., Byrne, K. A., Butterbach-Bahl, K., Kiese, R., Blujdea, V., and Farrell, E. P.: Stand age-related effects on soil respiration in a first rotation Sitka spruce chronosequence in central Ireland, Glob. Change Biol., 12, 1007–1020, 2006.
Schaap, M. G., de Lange, L., and Heimovaara, T. J.: TDR calibration of organic forest floor media, Soil Technol., 11, 205–217, 1997.
Schindlbacher, A., Wunderlich, S., Borken, W., Kitzler, B., Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S., and Jandl, R.: Soil respiration under climate change: prolonged summer drought offsets soil warming effects, Glob. Change Biol., 18, 2270–2279, 2012.
Schlesinger, W. H. and Andrews, J. A.: Soil respiration and the global carbon cycle, Biogeochemistry, 48, 7–20, 2000.
Selsted, M. B., van der Linden, L., Ibrom, A., Michelsen, A., Larsen, K. S., Pedersen, J. K., Mikkelsen, T. N., Pilegaard, K., Beier, C., and Ambus, P.: Soil respiration is stimulated by elevated CO2 and reduced by summer drought: three years of measurements in a multifactor ecosystem manipulation experiment in a temperate heathland (CLIMAITE), Glob. Change Biol., 18, 1216–1230, 2012.
Sierra, C. A., Harmon, M. E., Thomann, E., Perakis, S. S., and Loescher, H. W.: Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability, Biogeosciences, 8, 951–961, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-8-951-2011, 2011.
Sowerby, A., Emmett, B. A., Tietema, A., and Beier, C.: Contrasting effects of repeated summer drought on soil carbon efflux in hydric and mesic heathland soils, Glob. Change Biol., 14, 2388–2404, 2008.
Subke, J. and Bahn, M.: On the "temperature sensitivity" of soil respiration: Can we use the immeasurable to predict the unknown?, Soil Biol. Biochem., 42, 1653–1656, 2010.
Sulkava, P. and Huhta, V.: Effects of hard frost and freeze-thaw cycles on decomposer communities and N mineralisation in boreal forest soil, Appl. Soil Ecol., 22, 225–239, 2003.
Suseela, V., Conant, R. T., Wallenstein, M. D., and Dukes, J. S.: Effects of soil moisture on the temperature sensitivity of heterotrophic respiration vary seasonally in an old-field climate change experiment, Glob. Change Biol., 18, 336–348, 2012.
Trumbore, S.: Carbon respired by terrestrial ecosystems – recent progress and challenges, Glob. Change Biol., 12, 141–153, 2006.
van Meeteren, M. J. M., Tietema, A., van Loon, E. E., and Verstraten, J. M.: Microbial dynamics and litter decomposition under a changed climate in a Dutch heathland, Appl. Soil Ecol., 38, 119–127, 2008.
Vargas, R., Carbone, M., Reichstein, M., and Baldocchi, D.: Frontiers and challenges in soil respiration research: from measurements to model-data integration, Biogeochemistry, 102, 1–13, 2011.
Wang, B., Jiang, Y., Wei, X., Zhao, G., Guo, H., and Bai, X.: Effects of forest type, stand age, and altitude on soil respiration in subtropical forests of China, Scand. J. For. Res., 26, 40–47, 2011.
Webb, N. R.: The traditional management of European heathlands, J. Appl. Ecol., 35, 987–990, 1998.
Webster, K. L., Creed, I. F., Skowronski, M. D., and Kaheil, Y. H.: Comparison of the Performance of Statistical Models that Predict Soil Respiration from Forests, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 73, 1157–1167, 2009.
Wessel, W. W., Tietema, A., Beier, C., Emmett, B. A., Peñuelas, J., and Riis-Nielsen, T.: A Qualitative Ecosystem Assessment for Different Shrublands in Western Europe under Impact of Climate Change, Ecosystems, 7, 662–671, 2004.
Wiens, J. A.: Spatial Scaling in Ecology, Funct. Ecol., 3, 385–397, 1989.
Willmott, C. J., Robeson, S. M., and Matsuura, K.: A refined index of model performance, Int. J. Climatol., 32, 2088–2094, 2012.
Xiang, W. and Freeman, C.: Annual variation of temperature sensitivity of soil organic carbon decomposition in North peatlands: implications for thermal responses of carbon cycling to global warming, Environ. Geol., 58, 499–508, 2009.