Articles | Volume 11, issue 6
Biogeosciences, 11, 1461–1478, 2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
19 Mar 2014
Research article | 19 Mar 2014
Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease
R. Zhang et al.
T. R. Duhl, R. Zhang, A. Guenther, S. H. Chung, M. T. Salam, J. M. House, R. C. Flagan, E. L. Avol, F. D. Gilliland, B. K. Lamb, T. M. VanReken, Y. Zhang, and E. Salathé
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Detlev Helmig, Alex Guenther, Jacques Hueber, Ryan Daly, Wei Wang, Jeong-Hoo Park, Anssi Liikanen, and Arnaud P. Praplan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5439–5454,Short summary
This research demonstrates a new method for determination of the chemical reactivity of volatile organic compounds that are emitted from the leaves and needles of trees. These measurements allow elucidating if and how much of these emissions and their associated reactivity are captured and quantified by currently applicable chemical analysis methods.
Lucía Caudillo, Mihnea Surdu, Brandon Lopez, Mingyi Wang, Markus Thoma, Steffen Bräkling, Angela Buchholz, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Martin Heinritzi, Antonio Amorim, David M. Bell, Zoé Brasseur, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Xu-Cheng He, Houssni Lamkaddam, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Antti Onnela, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Birte Rörup, Wiebke Scholz, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El Haddad, Neil M. Donahue, Alexander L. Vogel, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In this study, we present an intercomparison study of four different techniques for measuring the chemical composition of nanoparticles. The intercomparison was performed based on the observed chemical composition, calculated volatility, and analysis of the thermograms. We found that the methods generally agree on the most important compounds that are found in the nanoparticles. However, they do see different parts of the organic spectrum. We suggest potential explanations for these differences.
Deanna C. Myers, Saewung Kim, Steven Sjostedt, Alex B. Guenther, Roger Seco, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Julio Tota, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10061–10076,Short summary
We present the first measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid from the Amazon basin and evaluate the efficacy of existing sulfuric acid parameterizations in this understudied region. Sulfuric acid is produced during the daytime and nighttime, though current proxies underestimate nighttime production. These results illustrate the need for better parameterizations of sulfuric acid and its precursors that are informed by measurements across a broad range of locations.
Yuxuan Wang, Nan Lin, Wei Li, Alex Guenther, Joey C. Y. Lam, Amos P. K. Tai, Mark J. Potosnak, and Roger Seco
Drought can impose large changes on biogenic isoprene emissions. In-situ field observations of isoprene emissions under droughts are confined by spatial coverage, thus providing limited constraints. We derived a drought stress factor based on satellite formaldehyde data for MEGAN2.1 in GEOS-Chem model using water stress and temperature. This factor reduces the overestimation of isoprene emissions under severe droughts and improves the simulated ozone and organic aerosol responses to droughts.
Elizabeth Renee Klovenski, Yuxuan Wang, Susanne Elizabeth Bauer, Kostas Tsigaridis, Greg Faluvegi, Igor Aleinov, Nancy Y. Kiang, Alex Guenther, Xiaoyan Jiang, Wei Li, and Nan Lin
Severe drought stresses vegetation and causes reduced emission of isoprene. We study the impact of including a new isoprene drought stress (yd) parameterization into NASA GISS ModelE called (DroughtStress_ModelE), which is specifically tuned for ModelE. Inclusion of yd leads to better simulated isoprene emissions at the MOFLUX site during the severe drought of 2012, reduced overestimation of OMI satellite ΩHCHO (formaldehyde column) and improved simulated O3 (ozone) during drought.
Lucía Caudillo, Birte Rörup, Martin Heinritzi, Guillaume Marie, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Antonio Amorim, Farnoush Ataei, Rima Baalbaki, Barbara Bertozzi, Zoé Brasseur, Randall Chiu, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Xu-Cheng He, Victoria Hofbauer, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Brandon Lopez, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Dario Massabò, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Antti Onnela, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Meredith Schervish, Wiebke Scholz, Benjamin Schulze, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Mihnea Surdu, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Steffen Vogt, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Wang Yonghong, Wu Yusheng, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Kristina Höhler, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Neil M. Donahue, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17099–17114,Short summary
We performed experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN at low temperatures to simulate new particle formation in the upper free troposphere (at −30 ºC and −50 ºC). We measured the particle and gas phase and found that most of the compounds present in the gas phase are detected as well in the particle phase. The major compounds in the particles are C8–10 and C18–20. Specifically, we showed that C5 and C15 compounds are detected in a mixed system with isoprene and α-pinene at −30 ºC, 20 % RH.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14275–14291,Short summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid–base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span 4 orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in ambient conditions. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Weimeng Kong, Stavros Amanatidis, Huajun Mai, Changhyuk Kim, Benjamin C. Schulze, Yuanlong Huang, Gregory S. Lewis, Susanne V. Hering, John H. Seinfeld, and Richard C. Flagan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5429–5445,Short summary
We present the design, modeling, and experimental characterization of the nano-scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (nSEMS), a recently developed instrument that probes particle physical properties in the 1.5–25 nm range. The nSEMS has proven to be extremely powerful in examining atmospheric nucleation and the subsequent growth of nanoparticles in the CERN CLOUD experiment, which provides a valuable asset to study atmospheric nanoparticles and to evaluate their impact on climate.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Gracie Wong, Anne Mielnik, Sanjeevi Nagalingam, Nicole Jenna Gross, Alex B. Guenther, Taehyoung Lee, Taehyun Park, Jihee Ban, Seokwon Kang, Jin-Soo Park, Joonyoung Ahn, Danbi Kim, Hyunjae Kim, Jinsoo Choi, Beom-Keun Seo, Jong-Ho Kim, Jeong-Ho Kim, Soo Bog Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11505–11518,Short summary
We present experimental proofs illustrating the emission of an unexplored volatile organic compound, tentatively assigned as ketene, in an industrial facility in South Korea. The emission of such a compound has rarely been reported, but our experimental data show that the emission rate is substantial. It potentially has tremendous implications for regional air quality and public health, as it is highly reactive and toxic at the same time.
Stavros Amanatidis, Yuanlong Huang, Buddhi Pushpawela, Benjamin C. Schulze, Christopher M. Kenseth, Ryan X. Ward, John H. Seinfeld, Susanne V. Hering, and Richard C. Flagan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4507–4516,Short summary
We assess the performance of a highly portable mobility analyzer, the Spider DMA, in measuring ambient aerosol particle size distributions, with specific attention to its moderate sizing resolution (R=3). Long-term field testing showed excellent correlation with a conventional mobility analyzer (R=10) over the 17–500 nm range, suggesting that moderate resolution may be sufficient to obtain key properties of ambient size distributions, enabling smaller instruments and better counting statistics.
Beata Opacka, Jean-François Müller, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Maite Bauwens, Katerina Sindelarova, Jana Markova, and Alex B. Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8413–8436,Short summary
Isoprene is mainly emitted from plants, and about 80 % of its global emissions occur in the tropics. Current isoprene inventories are usually based on modelled vegetation maps, but high pressure on land use over the last decades has led to severe losses, especially in tropical forests, that are not considered by models. We provide a study on the present-day impact of spaceborne land cover changes on isoprene emissions and the first inventory based on high-resolution Landsat tree cover dataset.
Dianne Sanchez, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Alex Guenther, John Mak, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, Don Blake, Scott Herndon, Daun Jeong, John T. Sullivan, Thomas Mcgee, Rokjin Park, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6331–6345,Short summary
We present observations of total reactive gases in a suburban forest observatory in the Seoul metropolitan area. The quantitative comparison with speciated trace gas observations illustrated significant underestimation in atmospheric reactivity from the speciated trace gas observational dataset. We present scientific discussion about potential causes.
Dana L. McGuffin, Yuanlong Huang, Richard C. Flagan, Tuukka Petäjä, B. Erik Ydstie, and Peter J. Adams
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 1821–1839,Short summary
Atmospheric particle formation, emissions, and growth process rates are significant sources of uncertainty in predicting climate change. We aim to reduce that uncertainty by using measurements from several ground-based sites across Europe. We developed an estimation technique to adapt the governing process rates so model–measurement bias decays. The estimation framework developed has potential to improve model predictions while providing insight into the underlying atmospheric particle physics.
Hui Wang, Qizhong Wu, Alex B. Guenther, Xiaochun Yang, Lanning Wang, Tang Xiao, Jie Li, Jinming Feng, Qi Xu, and Huaqiong Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4825–4848,Short summary
We assessed the influence of the greening trend on BVOC emission in China. The comparison among different scenarios showed that vegetation changes resulting from land cover management are the main driver of BVOC emission change in China. Climate variability contributed significantly to interannual variations but not much to the long-term trend during the study period.
Chen Dayan, Erick Fredj, Pawel K. Misztal, Maor Gabay, Alex B. Guenther, and Eran Tas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12741–12759,Short summary
We studied the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds from both marine and terrestrial ecosystems in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin, a global warming hot spot. We focused on isoprene and dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which are well recognized for their effect on climate and strong impact on photochemical pollution by the former. We found high emissions of isoprene and a strong decadal decrease in the emission of DMS which can both be attributed to the strong increase in seawater temperature.
Archit Mehra, Jordan E. Krechmer, Andrew Lambe, Chinmoy Sarkar, Leah Williams, Farzaneh Khalaj, Alex Guenther, John Jayne, Hugh Coe, Douglas Worsnop, Celia Faiola, and Manjula Canagaratna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10953–10965,Short summary
Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plants are important for tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Real plant emissions are much more diverse than the few proxies widely used for studies of plant SOA. Here we present the first study of SOA from Californian sage plants and the oxygenated monoterpenes representing their major emissions. We identify SOA products and show the importance of the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules and oligomers.
Alexander B. MacDonald, Ali Hossein Mardi, Hossein Dadashazar, Mojtaba Azadi Aghdam, Ewan Crosbie, Haflidi H. Jonsson, Richard C. Flagan, John H. Seinfeld, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7645–7665,Short summary
Understanding how humans affect Earth's climate requires understanding of how particles in the air affect the number concentration of droplets in a cloud (Nd). We use the air-equivalent mass concentration of different chemical species contained in cloud water to predict Nd. In this study we found that the prediction of Nd is (1) best described by total sulfate; (2) improved when considering up to five species; and (3) dependent on factors like turbulence, smoke presence, and in-cloud height.
Dominik Stolzenburg, Mario Simon, Ananth Ranjithkumar, Andreas Kürten, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Hamish Gordon, Sebastian Ehrhart, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Pichelstorfer, Tuomo Nieminen, Xu-Cheng He, Sophia Brilke, Mao Xiao, António Amorim, Rima Baalbaki, Andrea Baccarini, Lisa Beck, Steffen Bräkling, Lucía Caudillo Murillo, Dexian Chen, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, António Dias, Josef Dommen, Jonathan Duplissy, Imad El Haddad, Lukas Fischer, Loic Gonzalez Carracedo, Martin Heinritzi, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan Ping Lee, Markus Leiminger, Zijun Li, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Tatjana Müller, Wei Nie, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Matti P. Rissanen, Birte Rörup, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Jiali Shen, Mikko Sipilä, Gerhard Steiner, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, Daniela Wimmer, Peter J. Wlasits, Yusheng Wu, Qing Ye, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Jos Lelieveld, Rainer Volkamer, Jasper Kirkby, and Paul M. Winkler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7359–7372,Short summary
Sulfuric acid is a major atmospheric vapour for aerosol formation. If new particles grow fast enough, they can act as cloud droplet seeds or affect air quality. In a controlled laboratory set-up, we demonstrate that van der Waals forces enhance growth from sulfuric acid. We disentangle the effects of ammonia, ions and particle hydration, presenting a complete picture of sulfuric acid growth from molecular clusters onwards. In a climate model, we show its influence on the global aerosol budget.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Alex B. Guenther, Jeong-Hoo Park, Roger Seco, Eliane Alves, Sarah Batalha, Raoni Santana, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Julio Tóta, and Oscar Vega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7179–7191,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are important components of the atmosphere due to their contribution to atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we report major BVOCs, e.g. isoprene and total monoterpene flux measurements with a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) using the eddy covariance (EC) method at a primary rainforest in eastern Amazonia. We used the measured data to evaluate the MEGAN2.1 model for the emission site.
Sam J. Silva, Colette L. Heald, and Alex B. Guenther
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 2569–2585,Short summary
Simulating the influence of the biosphere on atmospheric chemistry has traditionally been computationally intensive. We describe a surrogate canopy physics model parameterized using a statistical learning technique and specifically designed for use in large-scale chemical transport models. Our surrogate model reproduces a more detailed model to within 10 % without a large computational demand, improving the process representation of biosphere–atmosphere exchange.
Daun Jeong, Roger Seco, Dasa Gu, Youngro Lee, Benjamin A. Nault, Christoph J. Knote, Tom Mcgee, John T. Sullivan, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Donald R. Blake, Dianne Sanchez, Alex B. Guenther, David Tanner, L. Gregory Huey, Russell Long, Bruce E. Anderson, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Hye-jung Shin, Scott C. Herndon, Youngjae Lee, Danbi Kim, Joonyoung Ahn, and Saewung Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12779–12795,
Emma L. D'Ambro, Siegfried Schobesberger, Cassandra J. Gaston, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Ben H. Lee, Jiumeng Liu, Alla Zelenyuk, David Bell, Christopher D. Cappa, Taylor Helgestad, Ziyue Li, Alex Guenther, Jian Wang, Matthew Wise, Ryan Caylor, Jason D. Surratt, Theran Riedel, Noora Hyttinen, Vili-Taneli Salo, Galib Hasan, Theo Kurtén, John E. Shilling, and Joel A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11253–11265,Short summary
Isoprene is the most abundantly emitted reactive organic gas globally, and thus it is important to understand its fate and role in aerosol formation and growth. A major product of its oxidation is an epoxydiol, IEPOX, which can be efficiently taken up by acidic aerosol to generate substantial amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). We present chamber experiments exploring the properties of IEPOX SOA and reconcile discrepancies between field, laboratory, and model studies of this process.
Karena A. McKinney, Daniel Wang, Jianhuai Ye, Jean-Baptiste de Fouchier, Patricia C. Guimarães, Carla E. Batista, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Eliane G. Alves, Dasa Gu, Alex B. Guenther, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3123–3135,Short summary
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions influence air quality and particulate distributions, particularly in major source regions such as the Amazon. A sampler for collecting VOCs from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is described. Field tests of its performance and an initial example data set collected in the Amazon are also presented. The low cost, ease of use, and maneuverability of UAVs give this method the potential to significantly advance knowledge of the spatial distribution of VOCs.
Moshe Shechner, Alex Guenther, Robert Rhew, Asher Wishkerman, Qian Li, Donald Blake, Gil Lerner, and Eran Tas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7667–7690,Short summary
Along with other recent studies, our findings point to strong emission of a suite of volatile halogenated organic compounds (VHOCs) from saline soils and salt lakes. Some emitted VHOCs were not known to be emitted from terrestrial sources, and our observations point to apparent new common controls for the emission of several VHOCs. These findings are an important milestone toward a more complete understanding of the effect of VHOCs on atmospheric ozone concentrations and oxidation capacity.
Rebecca H. Schwantes, Sophia M. Charan, Kelvin H. Bates, Yuanlong Huang, Tran B. Nguyen, Huajun Mai, Weimeng Kong, Richard C. Flagan, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7255–7278,Short summary
Oxidation of isoprene, the dominant non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emitted into the atmosphere, is a significant source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Here formation of SOA from isoprene oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH) under high-NO conditions is measured. This work improves our understanding of isoprene SOA formation by demonstrating that low-volatility compounds formed under high-NO conditions produce significantly more aerosol than previously thought.
Fernando Santos, Karla Longo, Alex Guenther, Saewung Kim, Dasa Gu, Dave Oram, Grant Forster, James Lee, James Hopkins, Joel Brito, and Saulo Freitas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12715–12734,Short summary
We investigated the impact of biomass burning on the chemical composition of trace gases in the Amazon. The findings corroborate the influence of biomass burning activity not only on direct emissions of particulate matter but also on the oxidative capacity to produce secondary organic aerosol. The scientists plan to use this information to improve the numerical model simulation with a better representativeness of the chemical processes, which can impact on global climate prediction.
Anna L. Hodshire, Brett B. Palm, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Qijing Bian, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Eben S. Cross, Douglas A. Day, Suzane S. de Sá, Alex B. Guenther, Armin Hansel, James F. Hunter, Werner Jud, Thomas Karl, Saewung Kim, Jesse H. Kroll, Jeong-Hoo Park, Zhe Peng, Roger Seco, James N. Smith, Jose L. Jimenez, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12433–12460,Short summary
We investigate the nucleation and growth processes that shape the aerosol size distribution inside oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) that sampled ambient air from Colorado and the Amazon rainforest. Results indicate that organics are important for both nucleation and growth, vapor uptake was limited to accumulation-mode particles, fragmentation reactions were important to limit particle growth at higher OH exposures, and an H2SO4-organics nucleation mechanism captured new particle formation well.
Eliane G. Alves, Julio Tóta, Andrew Turnipseed, Alex B. Guenther, José Oscar W. Vega Bustillos, Raoni A. Santana, Glauber G. Cirino, Julia V. Tavares, Aline P. Lopes, Bruce W. Nelson, Rodrigo A. de Souza, Dasa Gu, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, David K. Adams, Jin Wu, Scott Saleska, and Antonio O. Manzi
Biogeosciences, 15, 4019–4032,Short summary
This study shows that leaf quantity and leaf age have an important effect on seasonal changes in isoprene emissions and that these could play an even more important role in regulating ecosystem isoprene fluxes than light and temperature at seasonal timescales in tropical forests. These results bring novelty and new insight for future research because in the past leaf phenology was not considered as an important factor that controls biological processes in the tropics.
Chunxiang Ye, Xianliang Zhou, Dennis Pu, Jochen Stutz, James Festa, Max Spolaor, Catalina Tsai, Christopher Cantrell, Roy L. Mauldin III, Andrew Weinheimer, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Eric C. Apel, Alex Guenther, Lisa Kaser, Bin Yuan, Thomas Karl, Julie Haggerty, Samuel Hall, Kirk Ullmann, James Smith, and John Ortega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9107–9120,Short summary
Substantial levels of HONO existed during the day throughout the troposphere over the southeastern US during NOMADSS 2013. Particulate nitrate photolysis appeared to be the major volume HONO source, while NOx was an important HONO precursor only in industrial and urban plumes. HONO was not a significant OH radical precursor in the rural troposphere away from the ground surface; however, its production from particulate nitrate photolysis was an important renoxification pathway.
Maite Bauwens, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Bert Van Schaeybroeck, Lesley De Cruz, Rozemien De Troch, Olivier Giot, Rafiq Hamdi, Piet Termonia, Quentin Laffineur, Crist Amelynck, Niels Schoon, Bernard Heinesch, Thomas Holst, Almut Arneth, Reinhart Ceulemans, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, and Alex Guenther
Biogeosciences, 15, 3673–3690,Short summary
Biogenic isoprene fluxes are simulated over Europe with the MEGAN–MOHYCAN model for the recent past and end-of-century climate at high spatiotemporal resolution (0.1°, 3 min). Due to climate change, fluxes increased by 40 % over 1979–2014. Climate scenarios for 2070–2099 suggest an increase by 83 % due to climate, and an even stronger increase when the potential impact of CO2 fertilization is considered (up to 141 %). Accounting for CO2 inhibition cancels out a large part of these increases.
Nan Li, Qingyang He, Jim Greenberg, Alex Guenther, Jingyi Li, Junji Cao, Jun Wang, Hong Liao, Qiyuan Wang, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7489–7507,Short summary
O3 pollution has been increasing in most Chinese cities in recent years. Our study reveals that the synergistic impact of individual source contributions to O3 formation should be considered in the formation of air pollution control strategies, especially for big cities in the vicinity of forests.
Jingqiu Mao, Annmarie Carlton, Ronald C. Cohen, William H. Brune, Steven S. Brown, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jose L. Jimenez, Havala O. T. Pye, Nga Lee Ng, Lu Xu, V. Faye McNeill, Kostas Tsigaridis, Brian C. McDonald, Carsten Warneke, Alex Guenther, Matthew J. Alvarado, Joost de Gouw, Loretta J. Mickley, Eric M. Leibensperger, Rohit Mathur, Christopher G. Nolte, Robert W. Portmann, Nadine Unger, Mika Tosca, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2615–2651,Short summary
This paper is aimed at discussing progress in evaluating, diagnosing, and improving air quality and climate modeling using comparisons to SAS observations as a guide to thinking about improvements to mechanisms and parameterizations in models.
Andreas Kürten, Chenxi Li, Federico Bianchi, Joachim Curtius, António Dias, Neil M. Donahue, Jonathan Duplissy, Richard C. Flagan, Jani Hakala, Tuija Jokinen, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Ari Laaksonen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Vladimir Makhmutov, Antti Onnela, Matti P. Rissanen, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Penglin Ye, and Peter H. McMurry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 845–863,Short summary
A recent laboratory study (CLOUD) showed that new particles nucleate efficiently from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine (DMA). The reanalysis of previously published data reveals that the nucleation rates are even faster than previously assumed, i.e., nucleation can proceed at rates that are compatible with collision-controlled new particle formation for atmospheric conditions. This indicates that sulfuric acid–DMA nucleation is likely an important source of particles in the boundary layer.
Brett B. Palm, Suzane S. de Sá, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Joel Brito, Florian Wurm, Paulo Artaxo, Ryan Thalman, Jian Wang, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Allen H. Goldstein, Yingjun Liu, Stephen R. Springston, Rodrigo Souza, Matt K. Newburn, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 467–493,Short summary
Ambient air was oxidized by OH or O3 in an oxidation flow reactor during both wet and dry seasons in the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated how much biogenic, urban, and biomass burning sources contributed to the ambient concentrations of SOA precursor gases and how their contributions changed diurnally and seasonally. SOA yields and hygroscopicity of organic aerosol in the oxidation flow reactor were also studied.
Robert Wagner, Chao Yan, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jonathan Duplissy, Tuomo Nieminen, Juha Kangasluoma, Lauri R. Ahonen, Lubna Dada, Jenni Kontkanen, Hanna E. Manninen, Antonio Dias, Antonio Amorim, Paulus S. Bauer, Anton Bergen, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Xuemeng Chen, Danielle C. Draper, Lukas Fischer, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Jani Hakala, Liine Heikkinen, Martin Heinritzi, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R. Hoyle, Jasper Kirkby, Andreas Kürten, Alexander N. Kvashnin, Tiia Laurila, Michael J. Lawler, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Roy L. Mauldin III, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Felix Piel, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti P. Rissanen, Nina Sarnela, Simon Schallhart, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Jasmin Tröstl, Yrjö Viisanen, Alexander L. Vogel, Andrea C. Wagner, Mao Xiao, Penglin Ye, Urs Baltensperger, Joachim Curtius, Neil M. Donahue, Richard C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, James N. Smith, António Tomé, Paul M. Winkler, Douglas Worsnop, Mikael Ehn, Mikko Sipilä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15181–15197,
Robert C. Rhew, Malte Julian Deventer, Andrew A. Turnipseed, Carsten Warneke, John Ortega, Steve Shen, Luis Martinez, Abigail Koss, Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, James N. Smith, Alex B. Guenther, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13417–13438,Short summary
Alkenes emanate from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can contribute to atmospheric ozone production. This study measured
lightalkene (ethene, propene and butene) fluxes from a ponderosa pine forest using a novel relaxed eddy accumulation method, revealing much larger emissions than previously estimated and accounting for a significant fraction of OH reactivity. Emissions have a diurnal cycle related to sunlight and temperature, and the forest canopy appears to be the source.
Min Huang, Gregory R. Carmichael, James H. Crawford, Armin Wisthaler, Xiwu Zhan, Christopher R. Hain, Pius Lee, and Alex B. Guenther
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3085–3104,Short summary
Various sensitivity simulations during two airborne campaigns were performed to assess the impact of different initialization methods and model resolutions on NUWRF-modeled weather states, heat fluxes, and the follow-on MEGAN isoprene emission calculations. Proper land initialization is shown to be important to the coupled weather modeling and the follow-on emission modeling, which is also critical to accurately representing other processes in air quality modeling and data assimilation.
Benjamin C. Schulze, Henry W. Wallace, James H. Flynn, Barry L. Lefer, Matt H. Erickson, B. Tom Jobson, Sebastien Dusanter, Stephen M. Griffith, Robert F. Hansen, Philip S. Stevens, Timothy VanReken, and Robert J. Griffin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1805–1828,Short summary
The atmospheric chemistry associated with mixing of anthropogenic and natural species was simulated to understand how shade provided by a forest canopy impacts reactions, product distribution, and subsequent phase distribution of the products. This is important to understand, as forested areas downwind of urban areas will be impacted by this phenomenon. It was found that fast transport from below the canopy led to increases in secondary organic aerosol from nitrate radicals above the canopy.
Kerneels Jaars, Pieter G. van Zyl, Johan P. Beukes, Heidi Hellén, Ville Vakkari, Micky Josipovic, Andrew D. Venter, Matti Räsänen, Leandra Knoetze, Dirk P. Cilliers, Stefan J. Siebert, Markku Kulmala, Janne Rinne, Alex Guenther, Lauri Laakso, and Hannele Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15665–15688,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) – important in tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation – were measured at a savannah grassland in South Africa. Results presented are the most extensive for this type of landscape. Compared to other parts of the world, monoterpene levels were similar, while very low isoprene levels led to significantly lower total BVOC levels. BVOC levels were an order of magnitude lower compared to anthropogenic VOC levels measured at Welgegund.
Kirsti Ashworth, Serena H. Chung, Karena A. McKinney, Ying Liu, J. William Munger, Scot T. Martin, and Allison L. Steiner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15461–15484,
Natasha Hodas, Andreas Zuend, Katherine Schilling, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, Richard C. Flagan, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12767–12792,Short summary
Discontinuities in apparent hygroscopicity below and above water saturation have been observed for organic and mixed organic-inorganic aerosol particles in both laboratory studies and in the ambient atmosphere. This work explores the extent to which such discontinuities are influenced by organic component molecular mass and viscosity, non-ideal thermodynamic interactions between aerosol components, and the combination of these factors.
Ivan Kourtchev, Ricardo H. M. Godoi, Sarah Connors, James G. Levine, Alex T. Archibald, Ana F. L. Godoi, Sarah L. Paralovo, Cybelli G. G. Barbosa, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Antonio O. Manzi, Roger Seco, Steve Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex Guenther, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Scot T. Martin, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11899–11913,
Weiwei Hu, Brett B. Palm, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jordan E. Krechmer, Zhe Peng, Suzane S. de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Karsten Baumann, Lina Hacker, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Abigail R. Koss, Joost A. de Gouw, Allen H. Goldstein, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, William H. Brune, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11563–11580,Short summary
IEPOX-SOA is biogenically derived secondary organic aerosol under anthropogenic influence, which has been shown to comprise a substantial fraction of OA globally. We investigated the lifetime of ambient IEPOX-SOA in the SE US and Amazonia, with an oxidation flow reactor and thermodenuder coupled with MS-based instrumentation. The low volatility and long lifetime of IEPOX-SOA against OH radicals' oxidation (> 2 weeks) was observed, which can help to constrain OA impact on air quality and climate.
Maite Bauwens, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Isabelle De Smedt, Michel Van Roozendael, Guido R. van der Werf, Christine Wiedinmyer, Johannes W. Kaiser, Katerina Sindelarova, and Alex Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10133–10158,Short summary
Relying on a 9-year record of satellite observations of formaldehyde, we use inverse techniques to derive global top–down hydrocarbon fluxes over 2005–2013, infer seasonal and interannual variability, and detect emission trends. Our results suggest changes in fire seasonal patterns, a stronger contribution of agricultural burning, overestimated isoprene flux rates in the tropics, overly decreased isoprene emissions due to soil moisture stress in arid areas, and enhanced isoprene trends.
Pawel K. Misztal, Jeremy C. Avise, Thomas Karl, Klaus Scott, Haflidi H. Jonsson, Alex B. Guenther, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9611–9628,Short summary
In this study, for the first time regional BVOC models are compared with direct regional measurements of fluxes from aircraft, allowing assessment of model accuracy at scales relevant to air quality modeling. We directly assess modeled isoprene emission inventories which are important for regional air quality simulations of ozone and secondary particle concentrations.
Albert Rivas-Ubach, Yina Liu, Jordi Sardans, Malak M. Tfaily, Young-Mo Kim, Eric Bourrianne, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Josep Peñuelas, and Alex Guenther
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Alessandro Franchin, Andy Downard, Juha Kangasluoma, Tuomo Nieminen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Gerhard Steiner, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuukka Petäjä, Richard C. Flagan, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2709–2720,Short summary
High transmission efficiency is key for classifying and counting atmospheric aerosol below 10 nm. We developed a new high-transmission inlet for the Caltech nano-radial DMA (nRDMA) and successfully deployed the nRDMA, equipped with the new inlet, in chamber measurements, using a particle size magnifier (PSM) and a booster CPC as a counter. With this setup, we were able to measure size distributions of ions between 1.3 and 6 nm in mobility diameter.
Kathryn M. Emmerson, Ian E. Galbally, Alex B. Guenther, Clare Paton-Walsh, Elise-Andree Guerette, Martin E. Cope, Melita D. Keywood, Sarah J. Lawson, Suzie B. Molloy, Erin Dunne, Marcus Thatcher, Thomas Karl, and Simin D. Maleknia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6997–7011,Short summary
We have tested how a model using a global inventory of plant-based emissions compares with four sets of measurements made in southeast Australia. This region is known for its eucalypt species, which dominate the summertime global inventory. The Australian part of the inventory has been produced using measurements made on eucalypt saplings. The model could not match the measurements, and the inventory needs to be improved by taking measurements of a wider range of Australian plant types and ages.
Chun Zhao, Maoyi Huang, Jerome D. Fast, Larry K. Berg, Yun Qian, Alex Guenther, Dasa Gu, Manish Shrivastava, Ying Liu, Stacy Walters, Gabriele Pfister, Jiming Jin, John E. Shilling, and Carsten Warneke
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1959–1976,Short summary
In this study, the latest version of MEGAN is coupled within CLM4 in WRF-Chem. In this implementation, MEGAN shares a consistent vegetation map with CLM4. This improved modeling framework is used to investigate the impact of two land surface schemes on BVOCs and examine the sensitivity of BVOCs to vegetation distributions in California. This study indicates that more effort is needed to obtain the most appropriate and accurate land cover data sets for climate and air quality models.
Natalie S. Wagenbrenner, Jason M. Forthofer, Brian K. Lamb, Kyle S. Shannon, and Bret W. Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5229–5241,Short summary
We investigated the ability of WindNinja to improve wind predictions in complex terrain. Predictions are compared with surface observations from a tall, isolated mountain. Results show that WindNinja is capable of capturing important local-scale flow features induced by mechanical and thermal effects of the underlying terrain and incorporating those terrain-driven flow features into coarse-scale weather forecasts in order to improve near-surface wind predictions in complex terrain.
Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Leonid Nichman, Thomas B. Kristensen, Claudia Fuchs, Christopher R. Hoyle, Niko Höppel, Joel C. Corbin, Jill Craven, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Imad El Haddad, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Tuija Jokinen, Peter Kallinger, Jasper Kirkby, Alexei Kiselev, Karl-Heinz Naumann, Tuukka Petäjä, Tamara Pinterich, Andre S. H. Prevot, Harald Saathoff, Thea Schiebel, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Jay G. Slowik, Jasmin Tröstl, Annele Virtanen, Paul Vochezer, Steffen Vogt, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Paul M. Winkler, Chao Yan, Urs Baltensperger, Neil M. Donahue, Rick C. Flagan, Martin Gallagher, Armin Hansel, Markku Kulmala, Frank Stratmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Ottmar Möhler, Thomas Leisner, and Martin Schnaiter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4423–4438,
Eliane G. Alves, Kolby Jardine, Julio Tota, Angela Jardine, Ana Maria Yãnez-Serrano, Thomas Karl, Julia Tavares, Bruce Nelson, Dasa Gu, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Scot Martin, Paulo Artaxo, Antonio Manzi, and Alex Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3903–3925,Short summary
For a long time, it was thought that tropical rainforests are evergreen forests and the processes involved in these ecosystems do not change all year long. However, some satellite retrievals have suggested that ecophysiological processes may present seasonal variations mainly due to variation in light and leaf phenology in Amazonia. These in situ measurements are the first showing of a seasonal trend of volatile organic compound emissions, correlating with light and leaf phenology in Amazonia.
Leonid Nichman, Claudia Fuchs, Emma Järvinen, Karoliina Ignatius, Niko Florian Höppel, Antonio Dias, Martin Heinritzi, Mario Simon, Jasmin Tröstl, Andrea Christine Wagner, Robert Wagner, Christina Williamson, Chao Yan, Paul James Connolly, James Robert Dorsey, Jonathan Duplissy, Sebastian Ehrhart, Carla Frege, Hamish Gordon, Christopher Robert Hoyle, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, Gerhard Steiner, Neil McPherson Donahue, Richard Flagan, Martin William Gallagher, Jasper Kirkby, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Martin Schnaiter, Frank Stratmann, and António Tomé
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3651–3664,Short summary
Processes in the atmosphere are often governed by the physical and chemical properties of small cloud particles. Ice, water, and mixed clouds, as well as viscous aerosols, were formed under controlled conditions at the CLOUD-CERN facility. The experimental results show a link between cloud particle properties and their unique optical fingerprints. The classification map presented here allows easier discrimination between various particles such as viscous organic aerosol, salt, ice, and liquid.
J. Kim, L. Ahlm, T. Yli-Juuti, M. Lawler, H. Keskinen, J. Tröstl, S. Schobesberger, J. Duplissy, A. Amorim, F. Bianchi, N. M. Donahue, R. C. Flagan, J. Hakala, M. Heinritzi, T. Jokinen, A. Kürten, A. Laaksonen, K. Lehtipalo, P. Miettinen, T. Petäjä, M. P. Rissanen, L. Rondo, K. Sengupta, M. Simon, A. Tomé, C. Williamson, D. Wimmer, P. M. Winkler, S. Ehrhart, P. Ye, J. Kirkby, J. Curtius, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, K. E. J. Lehtinen, J. N. Smith, I. Riipinen, and A. Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 293–304,Short summary
The hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was measured in the presence of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid-dimethylamine, and sulfuric acid-organics derived from α-pinene oxidation during CLOUD7 at CERN in 2012. The hygroscopicity parameter κ decreased with increasing particle size, indicating decreasing acidity of particles.
K. Ashworth, S. H. Chung, R. J. Griffin, J. Chen, R. Forkel, A. M. Bryan, and A. L. Steiner
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3765–3784,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds released from forests into the atmosphere play a key role in governing atmospheric concentrations of trace gases and aerosol particles. We describe the development of a 1-D model that simulates the processes occurring within and above the forest canopy that regulate the transfer of these compounds and their products. We evaluate model performance by comparison of modelled concentrations against measurements from a field campaign at a northern Michigan forest site.
R. Gonzalez-Abraham, S. H. Chung, J. Avise, B. Lamb, E. P. Salathé Jr., C. G. Nolte, D. Loughlin, A. Guenther, C. Wiedinmyer, T. Duhl, Y. Zhang, and D. G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12645–12665,
T. Stavrakou, J.-F. Müller, M. Bauwens, I. De Smedt, M. Van Roozendael, M. De Mazière, C. Vigouroux, F. Hendrick, M. George, C. Clerbaux, P.-F. Coheur, and A. Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11861–11884,Short summary
Formaldehyde columns from two space sensors, GOME-2 and OMI, constrain by inverse modeling the global emissions of HCHO precursors in 2010. The resulting biogenic and pyrogenic fluxes from both optimizations show a very good degree of consistency. The isoprene fluxes are reduced globally by ca. 10%, and emissions from fires decrease by ca. 35%, compared to the prior. Anthropogenic emissions are weakly constrained except over China. Sensitivity inversions show robustness of the inferred fluxes.
F. Xiong, K. M. McAvey, K. A. Pratt, C. J. Groff, M. A. Hostetler, M. A. Lipton, T. K. Starn, J. V. Seeley, S. B. Bertman, A. P. Teng, J. D. Crounse, T. B. Nguyen, P. O. Wennberg, P. K. Misztal, A. H. Goldstein, A. B. Guenther, A. R. Koss, K. F. Olson, J. A. de Gouw, K. Baumann, E. S. Edgerton, P. A. Feiner, L. Zhang, D. O. Miller, W. H. Brune, and P. B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11257–11272,Short summary
Hydroxynitrates from isoprene oxidation were quantified both in the laboratory and through field studies. The yield of hydroxynitrates 9(+4/-3)% derived from chamber experiments was applied in a zero-dimensional model to simulate the production and loss of isoprene hydroxynitrates in an ambient environment during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS). NOx was determined to be the limiting factor for the formation of isoprene hydroxynitrates during SOAS.
A. Kürten, S. Münch, L. Rondo, F. Bianchi, J. Duplissy, T. Jokinen, H. Junninen, N. Sarnela, S. Schobesberger, M. Simon, M. Sipilä, J. Almeida, A. Amorim, J. Dommen, N. M. Donahue, E. M. Dunne, R. C. Flagan, A. Franchin, J. Kirkby, A. Kupc, V. Makhmutov, T. Petäjä, A. P. Praplan, F. Riccobono, G. Steiner, A. Tomé, G. Tsagkogeorgas, P. E. Wagner, D. Wimmer, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, D. R. Worsnop, and J. Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10701–10721,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is an important atmospheric process. At cold temperatures in the upper troposphere the binary (H2SO4-H2O) and ternary (H2SO4-H2O-NH3) system are thought to be important for NPF. Sulfuric acid monomer (H2SO4) and sulfuric acid dimer ((H2SO4)2) concentrations were measured between 208 and 248K for these systems and dimer evaporation rates were derived. These data will help to better understand and predict binary and ternary nucleation at low temperatures.
L. Zhou, R. Gierens, A. Sogachev, D. Mogensen, J. Ortega, J. N. Smith, P. C. Harley, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, A. Turnipseed, A. Rusanen, S. Smolander, A. B. Guenther, M. Kulmala, T. Karl, and M. Boy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8643–8656,
G. Wohlfahrt, C. Amelynck, C. Ammann, A. Arneth, I. Bamberger, A. H. Goldstein, L. Gu, A. Guenther, A. Hansel, B. Heinesch, T. Holst, L. Hörtnagl, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, A. Neftel, K. McKinney, J. W. Munger, S. G. Pallardy, G. W. Schade, R. Seco, and N. Schoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7413–7427,Short summary
Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates. Here we present micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight sites in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial methanol exchange.
S. Kim, S.-Y. Kim, M. Lee, H. Shim, G. M. Wolfe, A. B. Guenther, A. He, Y. Hong, and J. Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4357–4371,
X. Zhang, R. H. Schwantes, R. C. McVay, H. Lignell, M. M. Coggon, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4197–4214,Short summary
We present an experimental protocol to constrain the nature of organic vapor--wall deposition in Teflon chambers and develop an empirical model to predict the wall-induced deposition rate of intermediate/semi/non-volatility organic vapors in chambers.
B. W. Butler, N. S. Wagenbrenner, J. M. Forthofer, B. K. Lamb, K. S. Shannon, D. Finn, R. M. Eckman, K. Clawson, L. Bradshaw, P. Sopko, S. Beard, D. Jimenez, C. Wold, and M. Vosburgh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3785–3801,Short summary
Interest in numerical wind models continues to increase, especially for models that can simulate winds at relatively high spatial resolution (~100m). However, limited observational data exist for evaluation of model predictive performance. This study presents high-resolution surface wind data sets collected from an isolated mountain and a steep river canyon. The data are available to the public at http://www.firemodels.org/index.php/windninja-introduction/windninja-publications.
C. L. Faiola, M. Wen, and T. M. VanReken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3629–3646,
C. L. Faiola, B. T. Jobson, and T. M. VanReken
Biogeosciences, 12, 527–547,Short summary
Environmental stresses can have large impacts on the emissions of volatile organic compounds from plants, affecting both the amount and the composition of emissions. In this work we demonstrate the variety of responses among five coniferous trees species to one stress-simulated herbivory. The observed responses would lead to significant changes to the atmospheric chemistry in forested regions, highlighting the continued need for improved understanding of biosphere-atmosphere relationships.
F. L. Herron-Thorpe, G. H. Mount, L. K. Emmons, B. K. Lamb, D. A. Jaffe, N. L. Wigder, S. H. Chung, R. Zhang, M. D. Woelfle, and J. K. Vaughan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12533–12551,Short summary
Wildfire season simulations from an air quality forecast system for the Pacific Northwest were compared to surface monitor observations across the region and NASA Earth Observing System satellite retrievals of plume top, nitrogen dioxide, aerosol optical depth, and carbon monoxide. This study discusses why the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model predictions under-predicted secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production for events when fire emissions were transported large distances.
Y. You, V. P. Kanawade, J. A. de Gouw, A. B. Guenther, S. Madronich, M. R. Sierra-Hernández, M. Lawler, J. N. Smith, S. Takahama, G. Ruggeri, A. Koss, K. Olson, K. Baumann, R. J. Weber, A. Nenes, H. Guo, E. S. Edgerton, L. Porcelli, W. H. Brune, A. H. Goldstein, and S.-H. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12181–12194,Short summary
Amiens play important roles in atmospheric secondary aerosol formation and human health, but the fast response measurements of amines are lacking. Here we show measurements in a southeastern US forest and a moderately polluted midwestern site. Our results show that gas to particle conversion is an important process that controls ambient amine concentrations and that biomass burning is an important source of amines.
C. S. Brauer, T. A. Blake, A. B. Guenther, S. W. Sharpe, R. L. Sams, and T. J. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3839–3847,
P. K. Misztal, T. Karl, R. Weber, H. H. Jonsson, A. B. Guenther, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10631–10647,
S. Smolander, Q. He, D. Mogensen, L. Zhou, J. Bäck, T. Ruuskanen, S. Noe, A. Guenther, H. Aaltonen, M. Kulmala, and M. Boy
Biogeosciences, 11, 5425–5443,
K. Sindelarova, C. Granier, I. Bouarar, A. Guenther, S. Tilmes, T. Stavrakou, J.-F. Müller, U. Kuhn, P. Stefani, and W. Knorr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9317–9341,
R. J. Park, S. K. Hong, H.-A. Kwon, S. Kim, A. Guenther, J.-H. Woo, and C. P. Loughner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7929–7940,
E. A. Marais, D. J. Jacob, A. Guenther, K. Chance, T. P. Kurosu, J. G. Murphy, C. E. Reeves, and H. O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7693–7703,
J. P. Greenberg, J. Peñuelas, A. Guenther, R. Seco, A. Turnipseed, X. Jiang, I. Filella, M. Estiarte, J. Sardans, R. Ogaya, J. Llusia, and F. Rapparini
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2263–2271,
K. Jaars, J. P. Beukes, P. G. van Zyl, A. D. Venter, M. Josipovic, J. J. Pienaar, V. Vakkari, H. Aaltonen, H. Laakso, M. Kulmala, P. Tiitta, A. Guenther, H. Hellén, L. Laakso, and H. Hakola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7075–7089,
J. Ortega, A. Turnipseed, A. B. Guenther, T. G. Karl, D. A. Day, D. Gochis, J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, P. J. DeMott, Y. Tobo, E. G. Patton, A. Hodzic, Y. Y. Cui, P. C. Harley, R. S. Hornbrook, E. C. Apel, R. K. Monson, A. S. D. Eller, J. P. Greenberg, M. C. Barth, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, J. L. Jimenez, A. C. Aiken, M. K. Dubey, C. Geron, J. Offenberg, M. G. Ryan, P. J. Fornwalt, S. C. Pryor, F. N. Keutsch, J. P. DiGangi, A. W. H. Chan, A. H. Goldstein, G. M. Wolfe, S. Kim, L. Kaser, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Hansel, C. A. Cantrell, R. L. Mauldin, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6345–6367,
M. Liu, K. Rajagopalan, S. H. Chung, X. Jiang, J. Harrison, T. Nergui, A. Guenther, C. Miller, J. Reyes, C. Tague, J. Choate, E. P. Salathé, C. O. Stöckle, and J. C. Adam
Biogeosciences, 11, 2601–2622,
C. L. Loza, J. S. Craven, L. D. Yee, M. M. Coggon, R. H. Schwantes, M. Shiraiwa, X. Zhang, K. A. Schilling, N. L. Ng, M. R. Canagaratna, P. J. Ziemann, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1423–1439,
K. C. Barsanti, A. G. Carlton, and S. H. Chung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12073–12088,
L. Kaser, T. Karl, A. Guenther, M. Graus, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Turnipseed, L. Fischer, P. Harley, M. Madronich, D. Gochis, F. N. Keutsch, and A. Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11935–11947,
S. Situ, A. Guenther, X. Wang, X. Jiang, A. Turnipseed, Z. Wu, J. Bai, and X. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11803–11817,
L. D. Yee, J. S. Craven, C. L. Loza, K. A. Schilling, N. L. Ng, M. R. Canagaratna, P. J. Ziemann, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11121–11140,
N. Unger, K. Harper, Y. Zheng, N. Y. Kiang, I. Aleinov, A. Arneth, G. Schurgers, C. Amelynck, A. Goldstein, A. Guenther, B. Heinesch, C. N. Hewitt, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, B. Langford, K. A. McKinney, P. Misztal, M. Potosnak, J. Rinne, S. Pressley, N. Schoon, and D. Serça
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10243–10269,
J. E. Mak, L. Su, A. Guenther, and T. Karl
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2703–2712,
L. D. Yee, K. E. Kautzman, C. L. Loza, K. A. Schilling, M. M. Coggon, P. S. Chhabra, M. N. Chan, A. W. H. Chan, S. P. Hersey, J. D. Crounse, P. O. Wennberg, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8019–8043,
X. Tie, F. Geng, A. Guenther, J. Cao, J. Greenberg, R. Zhang, E. Apel, G. Li, A. Weinheimer, J. Chen, and C. Cai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5655–5669,
T. R. Duhl, R. Zhang, A. Guenther, S. H. Chung, M. T. Salam, J. M. House, R. C. Flagan, E. L. Avol, F. D. Gilliland, B. K. Lamb, T. M. VanReken, Y. Zhang, and E. Salathé
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
L. Kaser, T. Karl, R. Schnitzhofer, M. Graus, I. S. Herdlinger-Blatt, J. P. DiGangi, B. Sive, A. Turnipseed, R. S. Hornbrook, W. Zheng, F. M. Flocke, A. Guenther, F. N. Keutsch, E. Apel, and A. Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2893–2906,
T. R. Duhl, D. Gochis, A. Guenther, S. Ferrenberg, and E. Pendall
Biogeosciences, 10, 483–499,
J. S. Craven, L. D. Yee, N. L. Ng, M. R. Canagaratna, C. L. Loza, K. A. Schilling, R. L. N. Yatavelli, J. A. Thornton, P. J. Ziemann, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11795–11817,
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Air - Land ExchangeInternal tree cycling and atmospheric archiving of mercury: examination with concentration and stable isotope analysesContrasting drought legacy effects on gross primary productivity in a mixed versus pure beech forestCO2 and CH4 exchanges between moist moss tundra and atmosphere on Kapp Linné, SvalbardRecent extreme drought events in the Amazon rainforest: assessment of different precipitation and evapotranspiration datasets and drought indicatorsVariability and uncertainty in flux-site-scale net ecosystem exchange simulations based on machine learning and remote sensing: a systematic evaluationUpdate of a biogeochemical model with process-based algorithms to predict ammonia volatilization from fertilized cultivated uplands and rice paddy fieldsMassive warming-induced carbon loss from subalpine grassland soils in an altitudinal transplantation experimentClimatic variation drives loss and restructuring of carbon and nitrogen in boreal forest wildfireGaps in network infrastructure limit our understanding of biogenic methane emissions for the United StatesChanges of the aerodynamic characteristics of a flux site after an extensive windthrowCarbon sequestration potential of street tree plantings in HelsinkiTechnical note: Incorporating expert domain knowledge into causal structure discovery workflowsSensitivity of biomass burning emissions estimates to land surface informationA convolutional neural network for spatial downscaling of satellite-based solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIFnet)Influence of plant ecophysiology on ozone dry deposition: comparing between multiplicative and photosynthesis-based dry deposition schemes and their responses to rising CO2 levelModeling the interinfluence of fertilizer-induced NH3 emission, nitrogen deposition, and aerosol radiative effects using modified CESM2Physiological and climate controls on foliar mercury uptake by European tree speciesMulti-year observations reveal a larger than expected autumn respiration signal across northeast EurasiaReviews and syntheses: VOC emissions from soil cover in boreal and temperate natural ecosystems of the Northern HemisphereRadiation, soil water content, and temperature effects on carbon cycling in an alpine swamp meadow of the northeastern Qinghai–Tibetan PlateauRepresentativeness assessment of the pan-Arctic eddy covariance site network and optimized future enhancementsForest–atmosphere exchange of reactive nitrogen in a remote region – Part I: Measuring temporal dynamicsIdeas and perspectives: Emerging contours of a dynamic exogenous kerogen cycleVersatile soil gas concentration and isotope monitoring: optimization and integration of novel soil gas probes with online trace gas detectionOn the impact of canopy model complexity on simulated carbon, water, and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence fluxesMercury accumulation in leaves of different plant types – the significance of tissue age and specific leaf areaIsolation of subpollen particles (SPPs) of birch: SPPs are potential carriers of ice nucleating macromoleculesChoosing an optimal β factor for relaxed eddy accumulation applications across vegetated and non-vegetated surfacesBioaerosols in the Amazon rain forest: temporal variations and vertical profiles of Eukarya, Bacteria, and ArchaeaIce nucleation by viruses and their potential for cloud glaciationCarbon dioxide fluxes and carbon balance of an agricultural grassland in southern FinlandSun-induced fluorescence and near-infrared reflectance of vegetation track the seasonal dynamics of gross primary production over AfricaMeasurement and modelling of the dynamics of NH3 surface–atmosphere exchange over the Amazonian rainforestIsoprene and monoterpene emissions from alder, aspen and spruce short-rotation forest plantations in the United KingdomWinter atmospheric nutrient and pollutant deposition on Western Sayan Mountain lakes (Siberia)Methane efflux from an American bison herdTechnical note: Inexpensive modification of Exetainers for the reliable storage of trace-level hydrogen and carbon monoxide gas samplesA climate-dependent global model of ammonia emissions from chicken farmingCalculating canopy stomatal conductance from eddy covariance measurements, in light of the energy budget closure problemDecoupling of a Douglas fir canopy: a look into the subcanopy with continuous vertical temperature profilesVariations in diurnal and seasonal net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange in a semiarid sandy grassland ecosystem in China's Horqin Sandy LandBiogenic volatile organic compound ambient mixing ratios and emission rates in the Alaskan Arctic tundraSurfaces of silver birch (Betula pendula) are sources of biological ice nuclei: in vivo and in situ investigationsIdeas and perspectives: enhancing the impact of the FLUXNET network of eddy covariance sitesEvapotranspiration over agroforestry sites in GermanyOH reactivity from the emissions of different tree species: investigating the missing reactivity in a boreal forestVegetation influence and environmental controls on greenhouse gas fluxes from a drained thermokarst lake in the western Canadian ArcticExamining the link between vegetation leaf area and land–atmosphere exchange of water, energy, and carbon fluxes using FLUXNET dataCloudRoots: integration of advanced instrumental techniques and process modelling of sub-hourly and sub-kilometre land–atmosphere interactionsEnvironmental controls on ecosystem-scale cold-season methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in an Arctic tundra ecosystem
David S. McLagan, Harald Biester, Tomas Navrátil, Stephan M. Kraemer, and Lorenz Schwab
Biogeosciences, 19, 4415–4429,Short summary
Spruce and larch trees are effective archiving species for historical atmospheric mercury using growth rings of bole wood. Mercury stable isotope analysis proved an effective tool to characterise industrial mercury signals and assess mercury uptake pathways (leaf uptake for both wood and bark) and mercury cycling within the trees. These data detail important information for understanding the mercury biogeochemical cycle particularly in forest systems.
Xin Yu, René Orth, Markus Reichstein, Michael Bahn, Anne Klosterhalfen, Alexander Knohl, Franziska Koebsch, Mirco Migliavacca, Martina Mund, Jacob A. Nelson, Benjamin D. Stocker, Sophia Walther, and Ana Bastos
Biogeosciences, 19, 4315–4329,Short summary
Identifying drought legacy effects is challenging because they are superimposed on variability driven by climate conditions in the recovery period. We develop a residual-based approach to quantify legacies on gross primary productivity (GPP) from eddy covariance data. The GPP reduction due to legacy effects is comparable to the concurrent effects at two sites in Germany, which reveals the importance of legacy effects. Our novel methodology can be used to quantify drought legacies elsewhere.
Anders Lindroth, Norbert Pirk, Ingibjörg S. Jónsdóttir, Christian Stiegler, Leif Klemedtsson, and Mats B. Nilsson
Biogeosciences, 19, 3921–3934,Short summary
We measured the fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane between a moist moss tundra and the atmosphere on Svalbard in order to better understand how such ecosystems are affecting the climate and vice versa. We found that the system was a small sink of carbon dioxide and a small source of methane. These fluxes are small in comparison with other tundra ecosystems in the high Arctic. Analysis of temperature sensitivity showed that respiration was more sensitive than photosynthesis above about 6 ℃.
Phillip Papastefanou, Christian S. Zang, Zlatan Angelov, Aline Anderson de Castro, Juan Carlos Jimenez, Luiz Felipe Campos De Rezende, Romina C. Ruscica, Boris Sakschewski, Anna A. Sörensson, Kirsten Thonicke, Carolina Vera, Nicolas Viovy, Celso Von Randow, and Anja Rammig
Biogeosciences, 19, 3843–3861,Short summary
The Amazon rainforest has been hit by multiple severe drought events. In this study, we assess the severity and spatial extent of the extreme drought years 2005, 2010 and 2015/16 in the Amazon. Using nine different precipitation datasets and three drought indicators we find large differences in drought stress across the Amazon region. We conclude that future studies should use multiple rainfall datasets and drought indicators when estimating the impact of drought stress in the Amazon region.
Haiyang Shi, Geping Luo, Olaf Hellwich, Mingjuan Xie, Chen Zhang, Yu Zhang, Yuangang Wang, Xiuliang Yuan, Xiaofei Ma, Wenqiang Zhang, Alishir Kurban, Philippe De Maeyer, and Tim Van de Voorde
Biogeosciences, 19, 3739–3756,Short summary
A number of studies have been conducted by using machine learning approaches to simulate carbon fluxes. We performed a meta-analysis of these net ecosystem exchange (NEE) simulations. Random forests and support vector machines performed better than other algorithms. Models with larger timescales had a lower accuracy. For different plant functional types (PFTs), there were significant differences in the predictors used and their effects on model accuracy.
Siqi Li, Wei Zhang, Xunhua Zheng, Yong Li, Shenghui Han, Rui Wang, Kai Wang, Zhisheng Yao, Chunyan Liu, and Chong Zhang
Biogeosciences, 19, 3001–3019,Short summary
The CNMM–DNDC model was modified to simulate ammonia volatilization (AV) from croplands. AV from cultivated uplands followed the first-order kinetics, which was jointly regulated by the factors of soil properties and meteorological conditions. AV simulation from rice paddy fields was improved by incorporating Jayaweera–Mikkelsen mechanisms. The modified model performed well in simulating the observed cumulative AV measured from 63 fertilization events in China.
Matthias Volk, Matthias Suter, Anne-Lena Wahl, and Seraina Bassin
Biogeosciences, 19, 2921–2937,Short summary
Because soils are an important sink for greenhouse gasses, we subjected sub-alpine grassland to a six-level climate change treatment. Two independent methods showed that at warming > 1.5 °C the grassland ecosystem lost ca. 14 % or ca. 1 kg C m−2 in 5 years. This shrinking of the terrestrial C sink implies a substantial positive feedback to the atmospheric greenhouse effect. It is likely that this dramatic C loss is a transient effect before a new, climate-adjusted steady state is reached.
Johan A. Eckdahl, Jeppe A. Kristensen, and Daniel B. Metcalfe
Biogeosciences, 19, 2487–2506,Short summary
This study found climate to be a driving force for increasing per area emissions of greenhouse gases and removal of important nutrients from high-latitude forests due to wildfire. It used detailed direct measurements over a large area to uncover patterns and mechanisms of restructuring of forest carbon and nitrogen pools that are extrapolatable to larger regions. It also takes a step forward in filling gaps in global knowledge of northern forest response to climate-change-strengthened wildfires.
Sparkle L. Malone, Youmi Oh, Kyle A. Arndt, George Burba, Roisin Commane, Alexandra R. Contosta, Jordan P. Goodrich, Henry W. Loescher, Gregory Starr, and Ruth K. Varner
Biogeosciences, 19, 2507–2522,Short summary
To understand the CH4 flux potential of natural ecosystems and agricultural lands in the United States of America, a multi-scale CH4 observation network focused on CH4 flux rates, processes, and scaling methods is required. This can be achieved with a network of ground-based observations that are distributed based on climatic regions and land cover.
Bruna R. F. Oliveira, Jan J. Keizer, and Thomas Foken
Biogeosciences, 19, 2235–2243,Short summary
This study analyzes the impacts of this windthrow on the aerodynamic characteristics of zero-plane displacement and roughness length and, ultimately, their implications for the turbulent fluxes. The turbulent fluxes were only affected to a minor degree by the windthrow, but the footprint area of the flux tower changed markedly so that the target area of the measurements had to be redetermined.
Minttu Havu, Liisa Kulmala, Pasi Kolari, Timo Vesala, Anu Riikonen, and Leena Järvi
Biogeosciences, 19, 2121–2143,Short summary
The carbon sequestration potential of two street tree species and the soil beneath them was quantified with the urban land surface model SUEWS and the soil carbon model Yasso. The street tree plantings turned into a modest sink of carbon from the atmosphere after 14 years. Overall, the results indicate the importance of soil in urban carbon sequestration estimations, as soil respiration exceeded the carbon uptake in the early phase, due to the high initial carbon loss from the soil.
Jarmo Mäkelä, Laila Melkas, Ivan Mammarella, Tuomo Nieminen, Suyog Chandramouli, Rafael Savvides, and Kai Puolamäki
Biogeosciences, 19, 2095–2099,Short summary
Causal structure discovery algorithms have been making headway into Earth system sciences, and they can be used to increase our understanding on biosphere–atmosphere interactions. In this paper we present a procedure on how to utilize prior knowledge of the domain experts together with these algorithms in order to find more robust causal structure models. We also demonstrate how to avoid pitfalls such as over-fitting and concept drift during this process.
Makoto Saito, Tomohiro Shiraishi, Ryuichi Hirata, Yosuke Niwa, Kazuyuki Saito, Martin Steinbacher, Doug Worthy, and Tsuneo Matsunaga
Biogeosciences, 19, 2059–2078,Short summary
This study tested combinations of two sources of AGB data and two sources of LCC data and used the same burned area satellite data to estimate BB CO emissions. Our analysis showed large discrepancies in annual mean CO emissions and explicit differences in the simulated CO concentrations among the BB emissions estimates. This study has confirmed that BB emissions estimates are sensitive to the land surface information on which they are based.
Johannes Gensheimer, Alexander J. Turner, Philipp Köhler, Christian Frankenberg, and Jia Chen
Biogeosciences, 19, 1777–1793,Short summary
We develop a convolutional neural network, named SIFnet, that increases the spatial resolution of SIF from TROPOMI by a factor of 10 to a spatial resolution of 0.005°. SIFnet utilizes coarse SIF observations, together with a broad range of high-resolution auxiliary data. The insights gained from interpretable machine learning techniques allow us to make quantitative claims about the relationships between SIF and other common parameters related to photosynthesis.
Shihan Sun, Amos P. K. Tai, David H. Y. Yung, Anthony Y. H. Wong, Jason A. Ducker, and Christopher D. Holmes
Biogeosciences, 19, 1753–1776,Short summary
We developed and used a terrestrial biosphere model to compare and evaluate widely used empirical dry deposition schemes with different stomatal approaches and found that using photosynthesis-based stomatal approaches can reduce biases in modeled dry deposition velocities in current chemical transport models. Our study shows systematic errors in current dry deposition schemes and the importance of representing plant ecophysiological processes in models under a changing climate.
Ka Ming Fung, Maria Val Martin, and Amos P. K. Tai
Biogeosciences, 19, 1635–1655,Short summary
Fertilizer-induced ammonia detrimentally affects the environment by not only directly damaging ecosystems but also indirectly altering climate and soil fertility. To quantify these secondary impacts, we enabled CESM to simulate ammonia emission, chemical evolution, and deposition as a continuous cycle. If synthetic fertilizer use is to soar by 30 % from today's level, we showed that the counteracting impacts will increase the global ammonia emission by 3.3 Tg N per year.
Lena Wohlgemuth, Pasi Rautio, Bernd Ahrends, Alexander Russ, Lars Vesterdal, Peter Waldner, Volkmar Timmermann, Nadine Eickenscheidt, Alfred Fürst, Martin Greve, Peter Roskams, Anne Thimonier, Manuel Nicolas, Anna Kowalska, Morten Ingerslev, Päivi Merilä, Sue Benham, Carmen Iacoban, Günter Hoch, Christine Alewell, and Martin Jiskra
Biogeosciences, 19, 1335–1353,Short summary
Gaseous mercury is present in the atmosphere all over the globe. During the growing season, plants take up mercury from the air in a similar way as CO2. We investigated which factors impact this vegetational mercury uptake by analyzing a large dataset of leaf mercury uptake rates of trees in Europe. As a result, we conclude that mercury uptake is foremost controlled by tree-intrinsic traits like physiological activity but also by climatic factors like dry conditions in the air and in soils.
Brendan Byrne, Junjie Liu, Yonghong Yi, Abhishek Chatterjee, Sourish Basu, Rui Cheng, Russell Doughty, Frédéric Chevallier, Kevin W. Bowman, Nicholas C. Parazoo, David Crisp, Xing Li, Jingfeng Xiao, Stephen Sitch, Bertrand Guenet, Feng Deng, Matthew S. Johnson, Sajeev Philip, Patrick C. McGuire, and Charles E. Miller
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Growing season plant growth draws CO2 out of the atmosphere while respiration releases CO2 back to the atmosphere, driving seasonal variations in atmospheric CO2 that can be observed by satellites, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). Using OCO-2 CO2 data with space-based constraints on plant growth, we show that the permafrost-rich northeast Eurasia has a strong seasonal release of CO2 during the autumn, hinting at a unexpectedly large respiration signal from soils.
Valery A. Isidorov and Andrej A. Zaitsev
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Biogenic VOCs play a critical role in earth-system processes: they are the "main players" in the formation of tropospheric O3 and secondary aerosols, which have a significant impact on the climate as well as on human health and crops. A complex mixture of VOCs, formed as a result of physicochemical and biological processes, is released into the atmosphere from the forest floor. This review presents the data on the composition of VOCs and the contribution of various processes to their emission.
Junqi Wei, Xiaoyan Li, Lei Liu, Torben Røjle Christensen, Zhiyun Jiang, Yujun Ma, Xiuchen Wu, Hongyun Yao, and Efrén López-Blanco
Biogeosciences, 19, 861–875,Short summary
Although water availability has been linked to the response of ecosystem carbon (C) sink–source to climate warming, the mechanisms by which C uptake responds to soil moisture remain unclear. We explored how soil water and other environmental drivers modulate net C uptake in an alpine swamp meadow. Results reveal that nearly saturated soil conditions during warm seasons can help to maintain lower ecosystem respiration and therefore enhance the C sequestration capacity in this alpine swamp meadow.
Martijn M. T. A. Pallandt, Jitendra Kumar, Marguerite Mauritz, Edward A. G. Schuur, Anna-Maria Virkkala, Gerardo Celis, Forrest M. Hoffman, and Mathias Göckede
Biogeosciences, 19, 559–583,Short summary
Thawing of Arctic permafrost soils could trigger the release of vast amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, thus enhancing climate change. Our study investigated how well the current network of eddy covariance sites to monitor greenhouse gas exchange at local scales captures pan-Arctic flux patterns. We identified large coverage gaps, e.g., in Siberia, but also demonstrated that a targeted addition of relatively few sites can significantly improve network performance.
Pascal Wintjen, Frederik Schrader, Martijn Schaap, Burkhard Beudert, and Christian Brümmer
Biogeosciences, 19, 389–413,Short summary
Fluxes of total reactive nitrogen (∑Nr) over a low polluted forest were analyzed with regard to their temporal dynamics. Mostly deposition was observed with median fluxes ranging from −15 to −5 ng N m−2 s−1, corresponding to a range of deposition velocities from 0.2 to 0.5 cm s−1. While seasonally changing contributions of NH3 and NOx to the ∑Nr signal were found, we estimate an annual total N deposition (dry+wet) of 12.2 and 10.9 kg N ha−1 a−1 in the 2 years of observation.
Thomas M. Blattmann
Biogeosciences, 19, 359–373,Short summary
This work enunciates the possibility of kerogen oxidation contributing to atmospheric CO2 increase in the wake of glacial episodes. This hypothesis is substantiated by several lines of independent evidence synthesized in this contribution. The author hypothesizes that the deglaciation of kerogen-rich lithologies in western Canada contributed to the characteristic deglacial increase in atmospheric CO2.
Juliana Gil-Loaiza, Joseph R. Roscioli, Joanne H. Shorter, Till H. M. Volkmann, Wei-Ren Ng, Jordan E. Krechmer, and Laura K. Meredith
Biogeosciences, 19, 165–185,Short summary
We evaluated a new diffusive soil probe integrated with high-resolution gas analyzers to measure soil gases in real time at a centimeter scale. Using columns with simple silica and soil, we captured changes in carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrous oxide (N2O) with its isotopes to distinguish potential nutrient sources and microbial metabolism. This approach will advance the use of soil gases as important signals to understand and monitor soil fertility and health.
Yujie Wang and Christian Frankenberg
Biogeosciences, 19, 29–45,Short summary
Modeling vegetation canopy is important in predicting whether the land remains a carbon sink to mitigate climate change in the near future. Vegetation canopy model complexity, however, impacts the model-predicted carbon and water fluxes as well as canopy fluorescence, even if the same suite of model inputs is used. Given the biases caused by canopy model complexity, we recommend not misusing parameters inverted using different models or assumptions.
Håkan Pleijel, Jenny Klingberg, Michelle Nerentorp, Malin C. Broberg, Brigitte Nyirambangutse, John Munthe, and Göran Wallin
Biogeosciences, 18, 6313–6328,Short summary
Mercury is a problematic metal in the environment. It is crucial to understand the Hg circulation in ecosystems. We explored the mercury concentration in foliage from a diverse set of plants, locations and sampling periods to study the accumulation of Hg in leaves–needles over time. Mercury was always higher in older tissue: in broadleaved trees, conifers and wheat. Specific leaf area, the leaf area per unit leaf mass, turned out to be critical for Hg accumulation in leaves–needles.
Julia Burkart, Jürgen Gratzl, Teresa M. Seifried, Paul Bieber, and Hinrich Grothe
Biogeosciences, 18, 5751–5765,Short summary
Extracts of birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleation active and thus impact cloud formation and climate. In this study we develop an extraction method to separate subpollen particles from ice nucleating macromolecules. Our results thereby illustrate that ice nucleating macromolecules can be washed off the subpollen particles and that the ice activity is linked to the presence of proteins.
Teresa Vogl, Amy Hrdina, and Christoph K. Thomas
Biogeosciences, 18, 5097–5115,Short summary
The relaxed eddy accumulation technique is a method used for measuring fluxes of chemical species in the atmosphere. It relies on a proportionality factor, β, which can be determined using different methods. Also, different techniques for sampling can be used by only drawing air into the measurement system when vertical wind velocity exceeds a certain threshold. We compare different ways to obtain β and different threshold techniques to direct flux measurements for three different sites.
Maria Prass, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Paulo Artaxo, Florian Ditas, Wolfgang Elbert, Jan-David Förster, Marco Aurélio Franco, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Thomas Klimach, Leslie Ann Kremper, Eckhard Thines, David Walter, Jens Weber, Bettina Weber, Bernhard M. Fuchs, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Biogeosciences, 18, 4873–4887,Short summary
Bioaerosols in the atmosphere over the Amazon rain forest were analyzed by molecular biological staining and microscopy. Eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal aerosols were quantified in time series and altitude profiles which exhibited clear differences in number concentrations and vertical distributions. Our results provide insights into the sources and dispersion of different Amazonian bioaerosol types as a basis for a better understanding of biosphere–atmosphere interactions.
Michael P. Adams, Nina S. Atanasova, Svetlana Sofieva, Janne Ravantti, Aino Heikkinen, Zoé Brasseur, Jonathan Duplissy, Dennis H. Bamford, and Benjamin J. Murray
Biogeosciences, 18, 4431–4444,Short summary
The formation of ice in clouds is critically important for the planet's climate. Hence, we need to know which aerosol types nucleate ice and how effectively they do so. Here we show that virus particles, with a range of architectures, nucleate ice when immersed in supercooled water. However, we also show that they only make a minor contribution to the ice-nucleating particle population in the terrestrial atmosphere, but we cannot rule them out as being important in the marine environment.
Laura Heimsch, Annalea Lohila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Henriikka Vekuri, Jussi Heinonsalo, Olli Nevalainen, Mika Korkiakoski, Jari Liski, Tuomas Laurila, and Liisa Kulmala
Biogeosciences, 18, 3467–3483,Short summary
CO2 and H2O fluxes were measured at a newly established eddy covariance site in southern Finland for 2 years from 2018 to 2020. This agricultural grassland site focuses on the conversion from intensive towards more sustainable agricultural management. The first summer experienced prolonged dry periods, and notably larger fluxes were observed in the second summer. The field acted as a net carbon sink during both study years.
Anteneh Getachew Mengistu, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Gerbrand Koren, Maurits L. Kooreman, K. Folkert Boersma, Torbern Tagesson, Jonas Ardö, Yann Nouvellon, and Wouter Peters
Biogeosciences, 18, 2843–2857,Short summary
In this study, we assess the usefulness of Sun-Induced Fluorescence of Terrestrial Ecosystems Retrieval (SIFTER) data from the GOME-2A instrument and near-infrared reflectance of vegetation (NIRv) from MODIS to capture the seasonality and magnitudes of gross primary production (GPP) derived from six eddy-covariance flux towers in Africa in the overlap years between 2007–2014. We also test the robustness of sun-induced fluoresence and NIRv to compare the seasonality of GPP for the major biomes.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Matthias Sörgel, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Biogeosciences, 18, 2809–2825,Short summary
The exchange of the gas ammonia between the atmosphere and the surface is an important biogeochemical process, but little is known of this exchange for certain ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest. This study took measurements of ammonia exchange over an Amazon rainforest site and subsequently modelled the observed deposition and emission patterns. We observed emissions of ammonia from the rainforest, which can be simulated accurately by using a canopy resistance modelling approach.
Gemma Purser, Julia Drewer, Mathew R. Heal, Robert A. S. Sircus, Lara K. Dunn, and James I. L. Morison
Biogeosciences, 18, 2487–2510,Short summary
Short-rotation forest plantations could help reduce greenhouse gases but can emit biogenic volatile organic compounds. Emissions were measured at a plantation trial in Scotland. Standardised emissions of isoprene from foliage were higher from hybrid aspen than from Sitka spruce and low from Italian alder. Emissions of total monoterpene were lower. The forest floor was only a small source. Model estimates suggest an SRF expansion of 0.7 Mha could increase total UK emissions between < 1 %–35 %.
Daniel Diaz-de-Quijano, Aleksander Vladimirovich Ageev, Elena Anatolevna Ivanova, and Olesia Valerevna Anishchenko
Biogeosciences, 18, 1601–1618,Short summary
Winter atmospheric nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) depositions were measured for the first time in the Western Sayan Mountains (Siberia). The low and very low atmospheric N and P depositions could be responsible for the observed lake phytoplankton N–P colimitation. We hypothesize that slight imbalances in the nutrient deposition, as expected in the context of global change (climate, forest fires and anthropogenic nitrogen emissions), could have important effects on the ecology of these lakes.
Paul C. Stoy, Adam A. Cook, John E. Dore, Natascha Kljun, William Kleindl, E. N. Jack Brookshire, and Tobias Gerken
Biogeosciences, 18, 961–975,Short summary
The reintroduction of American bison creates multiple environmental benefits. Ruminants like bison also emit methane – a potent greenhouse gas – to the atmosphere, which has not been measured to date in a field setting. We measured methane efflux from an American bison herd during winter using eddy covariance. Automated cameras were used to approximate their location to calculate per-animal flux. From the measurements, bison do not emit more methane than the cattle they often replace.
Philipp A. Nauer, Eleonora Chiri, Thanavit Jirapanjawat, Chris Greening, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 18, 729–737,Short summary
Hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are atmospheric trace gases cycled via microbial metabolisms. We observed strong H2 and CO contamination from rubber septa used to seal common gas sample storage vials. Here we propose a simple and inexpensive modification of such vials to allow reliable storage of H2, CO and methane trace-gas samples for timescales of weeks to months, thus enabling extensive field campaigns to investigate H2 and CO biogeochemistry in remote areas.
Jize Jiang, David S. Stevenson, Aimable Uwizeye, Giuseppe Tempio, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 18, 135–158,Short summary
Ammonia is a key water and air pollutant and impacts human health and climate change. Ammonia emissions mainly originate from agriculture. We find that chicken agriculture contributes to large ammonia emissions, especially in hot and wet regions. These emissions can be greatly affected by the local environment, i.e. temperature and humidity, and also by human management. We develop a model that suggests ammonia emissions from chicken farming are likely to increase under a warming climate.
Richard Wehr and Scott R. Saleska
Biogeosciences, 18, 13–24,Short summary
Water and carbon exchange between plants and the atmosphere is governed by stomata: adjustable pores in the surfaces of leaves. The combined gas conductance of all the stomata in a canopy has long been estimated using an equation that is shown here to be systematically incorrect because it relies on measurements that are generally inadequate. An alternative approach is shown to be more accurate in all probable scenarios and to imply different responses of stomatal conductance to the environment.
Bart Schilperoort, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, César Jiménez Rodríguez, Christiaan van der Tol, Bas van de Wiel, and Hubert Savenije
Biogeosciences, 17, 6423–6439,Short summary
With distributed temperature sensing (DTS) we measured a vertical temperature profile in a forest, from the forest floor to above the treetops. Using this temperature profile we can see which parts of the forest canopy are colder (thus more dense) or warmer (and less dense) and study the effect this has on the suppression of turbulent mixing. This can be used to improve our knowledge of the interaction between the atmosphere and forests and improve carbon dioxide flux measurements over forests.
Yayi Niu, Yuqiang Li, Hanbo Yun, Xuyang Wang, Xiangwen Gong, Yulong Duan, and Jing Liu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6309–6326,Short summary
We report the results from continuous year-round CO2 observations from a sandy grassland in the Horqin Sandy Land using the eddy covariance technique. To quantify the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variation in net ecosystem CO2 exchange, gross primary productivity, and ecosystem respiration and to identify the different scales of environmental factors and the underlying mechanisms, we also explored how the annual precipitation affects the net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its components.
Hélène Angot, Katelyn McErlean, Lu Hu, Dylan B. Millet, Jacques Hueber, Kaixin Cui, Jacob Moss, Catherine Wielgasz, Tyler Milligan, Damien Ketcherside, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, and Detlev Helmig
Biogeosciences, 17, 6219–6236,Short summary
We report biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) ambient levels and emission rates from key vegetation species in the Alaskan arctic tundra, providing a new data set to further constrain isoprene chemistry under low NOx conditions in models. We add to the growing body of evidence that climate-induced changes in the vegetation composition will significantly affect the BVOC emission potential of the tundra, with implications for atmospheric oxidation processes and climate feedbacks.
Teresa M. Seifried, Paul Bieber, Laura Felgitsch, Julian Vlasich, Florian Reyzek, David G. Schmale III, and Hinrich Grothe
Biogeosciences, 17, 5655–5667,
Biogeosciences, 17, 5587–5598,Short summary
FLUXNET is a large, bottom-up, self-coordinated network of sites. It provided ecosystem–atmosphere greenhouse gas fluxes from stations around the world that were used as bases for a large number of publications and studies. Today many applications require recent updates on the data to track more closely the ecosystem responses to climate change and link ground data with satellite programs. For this reason, a new organization of FLUXNET is needed, keeping as its target the FAIR principles.
Christian Markwitz, Alexander Knohl, and Lukas Siebicke
Biogeosciences, 17, 5183–5208,Short summary
Agroforestry has been shown to alter the microclimate and to lead to higher carbon sequestration above ground and in the soil. In this study, we investigated the impact of agroforestry systems on system-scale evapotranspiration (ET) due to concerns about increased water losses to the atmosphere. Results showed small differences in annual sums of ET over agroforestry relative to monoculture systems, indicating that agroforestry in Germany can be a land use alternative to monoculture agriculture.
Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Simon Schallhart, Virpi Tarvainen, Jaana Bäck, and Heidi Hellén
Biogeosciences, 17, 4681–4705,Short summary
In this paper, we study emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from three boreal tree species. Individual compounds are quantified with on-line separation analytical techniques, while the total reactivity of the emissions is measured using a custom-built instrument. On some occasions, in particular when the trees suffer from stress, the total reactivity measured is higher than the sum of the reactivity of individual compounds. This indicates that the threes emit VOCs that remain unknown.
June Skeeter, Andreas Christen, Andrée-Anne Laforce, Elyn Humphreys, and Greg Henry
Biogeosciences, 17, 4421–4441,Short summary
This study investigates carbon fluxes at Illisarvik, an artificial drained thermokarst lake basin (DTLB) in Canada's Northwest Territories. This is the first carbon balance study in a DTLB outside of Alaska. We used neural networks to identify the factors controlling fluxes and to model the effects of the controlling factors. We discuss the role of vegetation heterogeneity in fluxes, especially of methane, and we show how the carbon fluxes differ from Alaskan DTLBs.
Anne J. Hoek van Dijke, Kaniska Mallick, Martin Schlerf, Miriam Machwitz, Martin Herold, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Biogeosciences, 17, 4443–4457,Short summary
We investigated the link between the vegetation leaf area index (LAI) and the land–atmosphere exchange of water, energy, and carbon fluxes. We show that the correlation between the LAI and water and energy fluxes depends on the vegetation type and aridity. For carbon fluxes, however, the correlation with the LAI was strong and independent of vegetation and aridity. This study provides insight into when the vegetation LAI can be used to model or extrapolate land–atmosphere fluxes.
Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Patrizia Ney, Oscar Hartogensis, Hugo de Boer, Kevin van Diepen, Dzhaner Emin, Geiske de Groot, Anne Klosterhalfen, Matthias Langensiepen, Maria Matveeva, Gabriela Miranda-García, Arnold F. Moene, Uwe Rascher, Thomas Röckmann, Getachew Adnew, Nicolas Brüggemann, Youri Rothfuss, and Alexander Graf
Biogeosciences, 17, 4375–4404,Short summary
The CloudRoots field experiment has obtained an open comprehensive observational data set that includes soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to investigate the interactions between a heterogeneous land surface and its overlying atmospheric boundary layer, including the rapid perturbations of clouds in evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate that in order to understand and represent diurnal variability, we need to measure and model processes from the leaf to the landscape scales.
Dean Howard, Yannick Agnan, Detlev Helmig, Yu Yang, and Daniel Obrist
Biogeosciences, 17, 4025–4042,Short summary
The Arctic tundra represents a vast store of carbon that may be broken down by microbial activity into greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. Though microbes are less active in winter, the long duration of the cold season makes this period very important for carbon cycling. We show that, under conditions of warmer winter air temperatures and greater snowfall, deeper soils can remain warm enough to sustain significantly enhanced CH4 emission. This could have large implications for future climates.
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