Articles | Volume 19, issue 2
28 Jan 2022
Research article | 28 Jan 2022
Spatially varying relevance of hydrometeorological hazards for vegetation productivity extremes
Josephin Kroll et al.
No articles found.
Ralf Loritz, Maoya Bassiouni, Anke Hildebrandt, Sibylle K. Hassler, and Erwin Zehe
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 4757–4771,Short summary
In this study, we combine a deep-learning approach that predicts sap flow with a hydrological model to improve soil moisture and transpiration estimates at the catchment scale. Our results highlight that hybrid-model approaches, combining machine learning with physically based models, are a promising way to improve our ability to make hydrological predictions.
Bahar Bahrami, Anke Hildebrandt, Stephan Thober, Corinna Rebmann, Rico Fischer, Luis Samaniego, Oldrich Rakovec, and Rohini Kumar
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 6957–6984,Short summary
Leaf area index (LAI) and gross primary productivity (GPP) are crucial components to carbon cycle, and are closely linked to water cycle in many ways. We develop a Parsimonious Canopy Model (PCM) to simulate GPP and LAI at stand scale, and show its applicability over a diverse range of deciduous broad-leaved forest biomes. With its modular structure, the PCM is able to adapt with existing data requirements, and run in either a stand-alone mode or as an interface linked to hydrologic models.
Xin Yu, René Orth, Markus Reichstein, Michael Bahn, Anne Klosterhalfen, Alexander Knohl, Franziska Koebsch, Mirco Migliavacca, Martina Mund, Jacob A. Nelson, Benjamin D. Stocker, Sophia Walther, and Ana Bastos
Biogeosciences, 19, 4315–4329,Short summary
Identifying drought legacy effects is challenging because they are superimposed on variability driven by climate conditions in the recovery period. We develop a residual-based approach to quantify legacies on gross primary productivity (GPP) from eddy covariance data. The GPP reduction due to legacy effects is comparable to the concurrent effects at two sites in Germany, which reveals the importance of legacy effects. Our novel methodology can be used to quantify drought legacies elsewhere.
Sophia Walther, Simon Besnard, Jacob Allen Nelson, Tarek Sebastian El-Madany, Mirco Migliavacca, Ulrich Weber, Nuno Carvalhais, Sofia Lorena Ermida, Christian Brümmer, Frederik Schrader, Anatoly Stanislavovich Prokushkin, Alexey Vasilevich Panov, and Martin Jung
Biogeosciences, 19, 2805–2840,Short summary
Satellite observations help interpret station measurements of local carbon, water, and energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere and are indispensable for simulations of the same in land surface models and their evaluation. We propose generalisable and efficient approaches to systematically ensure high quality and to estimate values in data gaps. We apply them to satellite data of surface reflectance and temperature with different resolutions at the stations.
Philip J. Ward, James Daniell, Melanie Duncan, Anna Dunne, Cédric Hananel, Stefan Hochrainer-Stigler, Annegien Tijssen, Silvia Torresan, Roxana Ciurean, Joel C. Gill, Jana Sillmann, Anaïs Couasnon, Elco Koks, Noemi Padrón-Fumero, Sharon Tatman, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Adewole Adesiyun, Jeroen C. J. H. Aerts, Alexander Alabaster, Bernard Bulder, Carlos Campillo Torres, Andrea Critto, Raúl Hernández-Martín, Marta Machado, Jaroslav Mysiak, Rene Orth, Irene Palomino Antolín, Eva-Cristina Petrescu, Markus Reichstein, Timothy Tiggeloven, Anne F. Van Loon, Hung Vuong Pham, and Marleen C. de Ruiter
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 1487–1497,Short summary
The majority of natural-hazard risk research focuses on single hazards (a flood, a drought, a volcanic eruption, an earthquake, etc.). In the international research and policy community it is recognised that risk management could benefit from a more systemic approach. In this perspective paper, we argue for an approach that addresses multi-hazard, multi-risk management through the lens of sustainability challenges that cut across sectors, regions, and hazards.
Melissa Ruiz-Vásquez, Sungmin O, Alexander Brenning, Randal D. Koster, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Ulrich Weber, Gabriele Arduini, Ana Bastos, Markus Reichstein, and René Orth
Subseasonal forecasts facilitate early warning of extreme events, however, their predictability sources are not fully explored. We find that global temperature forecast errors in many regions are related to climate variables such as solar radiation and precipitation, as well as land surface variables such as soil moisture and evaporative fraction. A better representation of these variables in the forecasting and data assimilation systems can support the accuracy of temperature forecasts.
J. Pacheco-Labrador, U. Weber, X. Ma, M. D. Mahecha, N. Carvalhais, C. Wirth, A. Huth, F. J. Bohn, G. Kraemer, U. Heiden, FunDivEUROPE members, and M. Migliavacca
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLVI-1-W1-2021, 49–55,
Swamini Khurana, Falk Heße, Anke Hildebrandt, and Martin Thullner
Biogeosciences, 19, 665–688,Short summary
In this study, we concluded that the residence times of solutes and the Damköhler number (Da) of the biogeochemical reactions in the domain are governing factors for evaluating the impact of spatial heterogeneity of the domain on chemical (such as carbon and nitrogen compounds) removal. We thus proposed a relationship to scale this impact governed by Da. This relationship may be applied in larger domains, thereby resulting in more accurate modelling outcomes of nutrient removal in groundwater.
Sinikka Paulus, Tarek S. El-Madany, René Orth, Anke Hildebrandt, Thomas Wutzler, Arnaud Carrara, Gerardo Moreno, Oscar Perez-Priego, Olaf Kolle, Markus Reichstein, and Mirco Migliavacca
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for HESSShort summary
In this study, we analyze small inputs of water to ecosystems such as fog, dew, and adsorption of vapor. To measure them, we use a scaling system and later test our attribution of different water fluxes to weight changes. We found that they occur frequently during one year in a summer-dry ecosystem. Each season, a different flux seems dominant, but they all mainly occur during the night. Therefore, they could be important for the biosphere because rain is unevenly distributed over the year.
Ana Bastos, René Orth, Markus Reichstein, Philippe Ciais, Nicolas Viovy, Sönke Zaehle, Peter Anthoni, Almut Arneth, Pierre Gentine, Emilie Joetzjer, Sebastian Lienert, Tammas Loughran, Patrick C. McGuire, Sungmin O, Julia Pongratz, and Stephen Sitch
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 1015–1035,Short summary
Temperate biomes in Europe are not prone to recurrent dry and hot conditions in summer. However, these conditions may become more frequent in the coming decades. Because stress conditions can leave legacies for many years, this may result in reduced ecosystem resilience under recurrent stress. We assess vegetation vulnerability to the hot and dry summers in 2018 and 2019 in Europe and find the important role of inter-annual legacy effects from 2018 in modulating the impacts of the 2019 event.
Friedrich Boeing, Oldrich Rakovech, Rohini Kumar, Luis Samaniego, Martin Schrön, Anke Hildebrandt, Corinna Rebmann, Stephan Thober, Sebastian Müller, Steffen Zacharias, Heye Bogena, Katrin Schneider, Ralf Kiese, and Andreas Marx
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for HESSShort summary
In this paper, we deliver an evaluation of the second generation operational German Drought Monitor (www.ufz.de/duerremonitor) with a state-of-the-art compilation of observed soil moisture data from 40 locations and four different measurement methods in Germany. We show that the expressed stakeholder needs for higher resolution drought information at the one-kilometer scale can be met and that SM dynamics could be moderately improved compared to observations.
Rafael Poyatos, Víctor Granda, Víctor Flo, Mark A. Adams, Balázs Adorján, David Aguadé, Marcos P. M. Aidar, Scott Allen, M. Susana Alvarado-Barrientos, Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira, Luiza Maria Aparecido, M. Altaf Arain, Ismael Aranda, Heidi Asbjornsen, Robert Baxter, Eric Beamesderfer, Z. Carter Berry, Daniel Berveiller, Bethany Blakely, Johnny Boggs, Gil Bohrer, Paul V. Bolstad, Damien Bonal, Rosvel Bracho, Patricia Brito, Jason Brodeur, Fernando Casanoves, Jérôme Chave, Hui Chen, Cesar Cisneros, Kenneth Clark, Edoardo Cremonese, Hongzhong Dang, Jorge S. David, Teresa S. David, Nicolas Delpierre, Ankur R. Desai, Frederic C. Do, Michal Dohnal, Jean-Christophe Domec, Sebinasi Dzikiti, Colin Edgar, Rebekka Eichstaedt, Tarek S. El-Madany, Jan Elbers, Cleiton B. Eller, Eugénie S. Euskirchen, Brent Ewers, Patrick Fonti, Alicia Forner, David I. Forrester, Helber C. Freitas, Marta Galvagno, Omar Garcia-Tejera, Chandra Prasad Ghimire, Teresa E. Gimeno, John Grace, André Granier, Anne Griebel, Yan Guangyu, Mark B. Gush, Paul J. Hanson, Niles J. Hasselquist, Ingo Heinrich, Virginia Hernandez-Santana, Valentine Herrmann, Teemu Hölttä, Friso Holwerda, James Irvine, Supat Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Paul G. Jarvis, Hubert Jochheim, Carlos A. Joly, Julia Kaplick, Hyun Seok Kim, Leif Klemedtsson, Heather Kropp, Fredrik Lagergren, Patrick Lane, Petra Lang, Andrei Lapenas, Víctor Lechuga, Minsu Lee, Christoph Leuschner, Jean-Marc Limousin, Juan Carlos Linares, Maj-Lena Linderson, Anders Lindroth, Pilar Llorens, Álvaro López-Bernal, Michael M. Loranty, Dietmar Lüttschwager, Cate Macinnis-Ng, Isabelle Maréchaux, Timothy A. Martin, Ashley Matheny, Nate McDowell, Sean McMahon, Patrick Meir, Ilona Mészáros, Mirco Migliavacca, Patrick Mitchell, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Georgianne W. Moore, Ryogo Nakada, Furong Niu, Rachael H. Nolan, Richard Norby, Kimberly Novick, Walter Oberhuber, Nikolaus Obojes, A. Christopher Oishi, Rafael S. Oliveira, Ram Oren, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Teemu Paljakka, Oscar Perez-Priego, Pablo L. Peri, Richard L. Peters, Sebastian Pfautsch, William T. Pockman, Yakir Preisler, Katherine Rascher, George Robinson, Humberto Rocha, Alain Rocheteau, Alexander Röll, Bruno H. P. Rosado, Lucy Rowland, Alexey V. Rubtsov, Santiago Sabaté, Yann Salmon, Roberto L. Salomón, Elisenda Sánchez-Costa, Karina V. R. Schäfer, Bernhard Schuldt, Alexandr Shashkin, Clément Stahl, Marko Stojanović, Juan Carlos Suárez, Ge Sun, Justyna Szatniewska, Fyodor Tatarinov, Miroslav Tesař, Frank M. Thomas, Pantana Tor-ngern, Josef Urban, Fernando Valladares, Christiaan van der Tol, Ilja van Meerveld, Andrej Varlagin, Holm Voigt, Jeffrey Warren, Christiane Werner, Willy Werner, Gerhard Wieser, Lisa Wingate, Stan Wullschleger, Koong Yi, Roman Zweifel, Kathy Steppe, Maurizio Mencuccini, and Jordi Martínez-Vilalta
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2607–2649,Short summary
Transpiration is a key component of global water balance, but it is poorly constrained from available observations. We present SAPFLUXNET, the first global database of tree-level transpiration from sap flow measurements, containing 202 datasets and covering a wide range of ecological conditions. SAPFLUXNET and its accompanying R software package
sapfluxnetrwill facilitate new data syntheses on the ecological factors driving water use and drought responses of trees and forests.
Christopher Krich, Mirco Migliavacca, Diego G. Miralles, Guido Kraemer, Tarek S. El-Madany, Markus Reichstein, Jakob Runge, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 18, 2379–2404,Short summary
Ecosystems and the atmosphere interact with each other. These interactions determine e.g. the water and carbon fluxes and thus are crucial to understand climate change effects. We analysed the interactions for many ecosystems across the globe, showing that very different ecosystems can have similar interactions with the atmosphere. Meteorological conditions seem to be the strongest interaction-shaping factor. This means that common principles can be identified to describe ecosystem behaviour.
Daniel E. Pabon-Moreno, Talie Musavi, Mirco Migliavacca, Markus Reichstein, Christine Römermann, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 17, 3991–4006,Short summary
Ecosystem CO2 uptake changes in time depending on climate conditions. In this study, we analyze how different climate variables affect the timing when CO2 uptake is at a maximum (DOYGPPmax). We found that the joint effects of radiation, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit are the most relevant controlling factors of DOYGPPmax and that if they increase, DOYGPPmax will happen earlier. These results help us to better understand how CO2 uptake could be affected by climate change.
Ali Fallah, Sungmin O, and Rene Orth
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3725–3735,Short summary
We find that simulated runoff values are highly dependent on the accuracy of precipitation inputs. In contrast, simulated evapotranspiration is generally much less influenced in our comparatively wet study region. We also find that the impact of precipitation uncertainty on simulated runoff increases towards wetter regions, while the opposite is observed in the case of evapotranspiration.
Thomas Wutzler, Oscar Perez-Priego, Kendalynn Morris, Tarek S. El-Madany, and Mirco Migliavacca
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 239–254,Short summary
Continuous data of soil CO2 efflux can improve model prediction of climate warming, and automated data are becoming increasingly available. However, aggregating chamber-based data to plot scale pose challenges. Therefore, we showed, using 1 year of half-hourly data, how using the lognormal assumption tackles several challenges. We propose that plot-scale SO2 efflux observations should be reported together with lognormally based uncertainties and enter model constraining frameworks at log scale.
René Orth, Georgia Destouni, Martin Jung, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 17, 2647–2656,Short summary
Drought duration is a key control of the large-scale biospheric drought response. Thereby, the vegetation responds linearly to drought duration at large spatial scales. The slope of the linear relationship between the vegetation drought response and drought duration is steeper in drier climates.
Barbara Marcolla, Mirco Migliavacca, Christian Rödenbeck, and Alessandro Cescatti
Biogeosciences, 17, 2365–2379,Short summary
This work investigates the sensitivity of terrestrial CO2 fluxes to climate drivers. We observed that CO2 flux is mostly controlled by temperature during the growing season and by radiation off season. We also observe that radiation importance is increasing over time while sensitivity to temperature is decreasing in Eurasia. Ultimately this analysis shows that ecosystem response to climate is changing, with potential repercussions for future terrestrial sink and land role in climate mitigation.
Martin Jung, Christopher Schwalm, Mirco Migliavacca, Sophia Walther, Gustau Camps-Valls, Sujan Koirala, Peter Anthoni, Simon Besnard, Paul Bodesheim, Nuno Carvalhais, Frédéric Chevallier, Fabian Gans, Daniel S. Goll, Vanessa Haverd, Philipp Köhler, Kazuhito Ichii, Atul K. Jain, Junzhi Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Jacob A. Nelson, Michael O'Sullivan, Martijn Pallandt, Dario Papale, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Christian Rödenbeck, Stephen Sitch, Gianluca Tramontana, Anthony Walker, Ulrich Weber, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 17, 1343–1365,Short summary
We test the approach of producing global gridded carbon fluxes based on combining machine learning with local measurements, remote sensing and climate data. We show that we can reproduce seasonal variations in carbon assimilated by plants via photosynthesis and in ecosystem net carbon balance. The ecosystem’s mean carbon balance and carbon flux trends require cautious interpretation. The analysis paves the way for future improvements of the data-driven assessment of carbon fluxes.
Christopher Krich, Jakob Runge, Diego G. Miralles, Mirco Migliavacca, Oscar Perez-Priego, Tarek El-Madany, Arnaud Carrara, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 17, 1033–1061,Short summary
Causal inference promises new insight into biosphere–atmosphere interactions using time series only. To understand the behaviour of a specific method on such data, we used artificial and observation-based data. The observed structures are very interpretable and reveal certain ecosystem-specific behaviour, as only a few relevant links remain, in contrast to pure correlation techniques. Thus, causal inference allows to us gain well-constrained insights into processes and interactions.
Javier Pacheco-Labrador, Tarek S. El-Madany, M. Pilar Martin, Rosario Gonzalez-Cascon, Arnaud Carrara, Gerardo Moreno, Oscar Perez-Priego, Tiana Hammer, Heiko Moossen, Kathrin Henkel, Olaf Kolle, David Martini, Vicente Burchard, Christiaan van der Tol, Karl Segl, Markus Reichstein, and Mirco Migliavacca
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The new generation of sensors on-board satellites have the potential to provide richer information about the function of vegetation than before. This information, nowadays missing, is fundamental to improve our understanding and prediction of carbon and water cycles, and therefore to anticipate effects and responses to Climate Change. In this manuscript we propose a method to exploit the data provided by these satellites to successfully obtain this information key to face Climate Change.
Johanna C. Metzger, Jens Schumacher, Markus Lange, and Anke Hildebrandt
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 23, 4433–4452,Short summary
Variation in stemflow (rain water running down the stem) enhances the formation of flow hot spots at the forest floor. Investigating drivers based on detailed measurements, we find that forest structure affects stemflow, both for individual trees and small communities. Densely packed forest patches received more stemflow, due to a higher proportion of woody structure and canopy morphology adjustments, which increase the potential for flow path generation connecting crowns and soil.
Paul C. Stoy, Tarek S. El-Madany, Joshua B. Fisher, Pierre Gentine, Tobias Gerken, Stephen P. Good, Anne Klosterhalfen, Shuguang Liu, Diego G. Miralles, Oscar Perez-Priego, Angela J. Rigden, Todd H. Skaggs, Georg Wohlfahrt, Ray G. Anderson, A. Miriam J. Coenders-Gerrits, Martin Jung, Wouter H. Maes, Ivan Mammarella, Matthias Mauder, Mirco Migliavacca, Jacob A. Nelson, Rafael Poyatos, Markus Reichstein, Russell L. Scott, and Sebastian Wolf
Biogeosciences, 16, 3747–3775,Short summary
Key findings are the nearly optimal response of T to atmospheric water vapor pressure deficits across methods and scales. Additionally, the notion that T / ET intermittently approaches 1, which is a basis for many partitioning methods, does not hold for certain methods and ecosystems. To better constrain estimates of E and T from combined ET measurements, we propose a combination of independent measurement techniques to better constrain E and T at the ecosystem scale.
Vicente Burchard-Levine, Héctor Nieto, David Riaño, Mirco Migliavacca, Tarek S. El-Madany, Oscar Perez-Priego, Arnaud Carrara, and M. Pilar Martín
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Models are increasingly being used to understand surface water fluxes, which are of high use to manage crop irrigation, and to understand the earth system´s response to environmental change. However, often these models have higher uncertainty in complex ecosystems with multiple layers of vegetation. This manuscript adapts and analyzes a well known model to better simulate water fluxes for a savanna-like ecosystem and to understand the influence that vegetation has on their predictions.
Richard K. F. Nair, Kendalynn A. Morris, Martin Hertel, Yunpeng Luo, Gerardo Moreno, Markus Reichstein, Marion Schrumpf, and Mirco Migliavacca
Biogeosciences, 16, 1883–1901,Short summary
We investigated how nutrient availability affects seasonal timing of root growth and death in a Spanish savanna, adapted to a long summer drought. We found that nitrogen (N) additions led to more root biomass but number of roots was higher with N and phosphorus together. These effects were strongly affected by the time of year. In autumn root growth occurred after leaf production. This has implications for how we understand biomass production and carbon uptake in these systems.
Biagio Di Mauro, Roberto Garzonio, Micol Rossini, Gianluca Filippa, Paolo Pogliotti, Marta Galvagno, Umberto Morra di Cella, Mirco Migliavacca, Giovanni Baccolo, Massimiliano Clemenza, Barbara Delmonte, Valter Maggi, Marie Dumont, François Tuzet, Matthieu Lafaysse, Samuel Morin, Edoardo Cremonese, and Roberto Colombo
The Cryosphere, 13, 1147–1165,Short summary
The snow albedo reduction due to dust from arid regions alters the melting dynamics of the snowpack, resulting in earlier snowmelt. We estimate up to 38 days of anticipated snow disappearance for a season that was characterized by a strong dust deposition event. This process has a series of further impacts. For example, earlier snowmelts may alter the hydrological cycle in the Alps, induce higher sensitivity to late summer drought, and finally impact vegetation and animal phenology.
Boaz Hilman, Jan Muhr, Susan E. Trumbore, Norbert Kunert, Mariah S. Carbone, Päivi Yuval, S. Joseph Wright, Gerardo Moreno, Oscar Pérez-Priego, Mirco Migliavacca, Arnaud Carrara, José M. Grünzweig, Yagil Osem, Tal Weiner, and Alon Angert
Biogeosciences, 16, 177–191,Short summary
Combined measurement of CO2 / O2 fluxes in tree stems suggested that on average 41 % of the respired CO2 was not emitted locally to the atmosphere. This finding strengthens the recognition that CO2 efflux from tree stems is not an accurate measure of respiration. The CO2 / O2 fluxes did not vary as expected if CO2 dissolution in the xylem sap was the main driver for the CO2 retention. We suggest the examination of refixation of respired CO2 as a possible mechanism for CO2 retention.
Thomas Wutzler, Antje Lucas-Moffat, Mirco Migliavacca, Jürgen Knauer, Kerstin Sickel, Ladislav Šigut, Olaf Menzer, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 15, 5015–5030,Short summary
Net fluxes of carbon dioxide at the ecosystem level measured by eddy covariance are a main source for understanding biosphere–atmosphere interactions. However, there is a need for more usable and extensible tools for post-processing steps of the half-hourly flux data. Therefore, we developed the REddyProc package, providing data filtering, gap filling, and flux partitioning. The extensible functions are compatible with state-of-the-art tools but allow easier integration in extended analysis.
Jacob A. Nelson, Nuno Carvalhais, Mirco Migliavacca, Markus Reichstein, and Martin Jung
Biogeosciences, 15, 2433–2447,Short summary
Plants have typical daily carbon uptake and water loss cycles. However, these cycles may change under periods of duress, such as water limitation. Here we identify two types of patterns in response to water limitations: a tendency to lose more water in the morning than afternoon and a decoupling of the carbon and water cycles. The findings show differences in responses by trees and grasses and suggest that morning shifts may be more efficient at gaining carbon per unit water used.
Jannis von Buttlar, Jakob Zscheischler, Anja Rammig, Sebastian Sippel, Markus Reichstein, Alexander Knohl, Martin Jung, Olaf Menzer, M. Altaf Arain, Nina Buchmann, Alessandro Cescatti, Damiano Gianelle, Gerard Kiely, Beverly E. Law, Vincenzo Magliulo, Hank Margolis, Harry McCaughey, Lutz Merbold, Mirco Migliavacca, Leonardo Montagnani, Walter Oechel, Marian Pavelka, Matthias Peichl, Serge Rambal, Antonio Raschi, Russell L. Scott, Francesco P. Vaccari, Eva van Gorsel, Andrej Varlagin, Georg Wohlfahrt, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 15, 1293–1318,Short summary
Our work systematically quantifies extreme heat and drought event impacts on gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration globally across a wide range of ecosystems. We show that heat extremes typically increased mainly respiration whereas drought decreased both fluxes. Combined heat and drought extremes had opposing effects offsetting each other for respiration, but there were also strong reductions in GPP and hence the strongest reductions in the ecosystems carbon sink capacity.
Iulia Ilie, Peter Dittrich, Nuno Carvalhais, Martin Jung, Andreas Heinemeyer, Mirco Migliavacca, James I. L. Morison, Sebastian Sippel, Jens-Arne Subke, Matthew Wilkinson, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3519–3545,Short summary
Accurate representation of land-atmosphere carbon fluxes is essential for future climate projections, although some of the responses of CO2 fluxes to climate often remain uncertain. The increase in available data allows for new approaches in their modelling. We automatically developed models for ecosystem and soil carbon respiration using a machine learning approach. When compared with established respiration models, we found that they are better in prediction as well as offering new insights.
Miguel D. Mahecha, Fabian Gans, Sebastian Sippel, Jonathan F. Donges, Thomas Kaminski, Stefan Metzger, Mirco Migliavacca, Dario Papale, Anja Rammig, and Jakob Zscheischler
Biogeosciences, 14, 4255–4277,Short summary
We investigate the likelihood of ecological in situ networks to detect and monitor the impact of extreme events in the terrestrial biosphere.
Jakob Zscheischler, Rene Orth, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Biogeosciences, 14, 3309–3320,Short summary
We use newly established methods to compute bivariate return periods of temperature and precipitation and relate those to crop yield variability in Europe. Most often, crop yields are lower when it is hot and dry and higher when it is cold and wet. The variability in crop yields along a specific climate gradient can be captured well by return periods aligned with these gradients. This study provides new possibilities for investigating the relationship between crop yield variability and climate.
Jaap Schellekens, Emanuel Dutra, Alberto Martínez-de la Torre, Gianpaolo Balsamo, Albert van Dijk, Frederiek Sperna Weiland, Marie Minvielle, Jean-Christophe Calvet, Bertrand Decharme, Stephanie Eisner, Gabriel Fink, Martina Flörke, Stefanie Peßenteiner, Rens van Beek, Jan Polcher, Hylke Beck, René Orth, Ben Calton, Sophia Burke, Wouter Dorigo, and Graham P. Weedon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 9, 389–413,Short summary
The dataset combines the results of 10 global models that describe the global continental water cycle. The data can be used as input for water resources studies, flood frequency studies etc. at different scales from continental to medium-scale catchments. We compared the results with earth observation data and conclude that most uncertainties are found in snow-dominated regions and tropical rainforest and monsoon regions.
Nicolas Dalla Valle, Karin Potthast, Stefanie Meyer, Beate Michalzik, Anke Hildebrandt, and Thomas Wutzler
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Dual permeability models are an important tool to simulate water movement in soils and can be used to assess the risk of groundwater contamination by pesticides or the risk of flooding after strong precipitation events. However, their application is often hampered by the large amount of data they require. We developed a method to run this kind of models based on mostly just soil water content measurements, which will hopefully increase their usage and improve environmental risk assessment.
Hylke E. Beck, Albert I. J. M. van Dijk, Ad de Roo, Emanuel Dutra, Gabriel Fink, Rene Orth, and Jaap Schellekens
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2881–2903,Short summary
Runoff measurements for 966 catchments around the globe were used to assess the quality of the daily runoff estimates of 10 hydrological models run as part of tier-1 of the eartH2Observe project. We found pronounced inter-model performance differences, underscoring the importance of hydrological model uncertainty.
Sebastian Sippel, Jakob Zscheischler, Miguel D. Mahecha, Rene Orth, Markus Reichstein, Martha Vogel, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Earth Syst. Dynam., 8, 387–403,Short summary
The present study (1) evaluates land–atmosphere coupling in the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble against an ensemble of benchmarking datasets and (2) refines the model ensemble using a land–atmosphere coupling diagnostic as constraint. Our study demonstrates that a considerable fraction of coupled climate models overemphasize warm-season
moisture-limitedclimate regimes in midlatitude regions. This leads to biases in daily-scale temperature extremes, which are alleviated in a constrained ensemble.
Rene Orth, Emanuel Dutra, Isabel F. Trigo, and Gianpaolo Balsamo
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2483–2495,Short summary
State-of-the-art land surface models (LSMs) rely on poorly constrained parameters. To enhance LSM configuration, new satellite-based Earth observations are essential. This is because multiple observational datasets allow us to assess and validate the representation of coupled processes in LSMs. The resulting improved LSM configuration is beneficial for coupled weather forecasts, and hence valuable to society.
Mathias Hauser, René Orth, and Sonia I. Seneviratne
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1665–1677,Short summary
Water in the soil can influence temperature and precipitation of the atmosphere. However, the atmosphere also alters the soil moisture content. Climate model simulations prescribing soil moisture are a means to decouple these relationships. We find that the atmospheric response depends strongly on the method used to fix the soil moisture, as well as on the employed soil moisture data set.
Anke Hildebrandt, Axel Kleidon, and Marcel Bechmann
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3441–3454,Short summary
This theoretical paper describes the energy fluxes and dissipation along the flow paths involved in root water uptake, an approach that is rarely taken. We show that this provides useful additional insights for understanding the biotic and abiotic impediments to root water uptake. This approach shall be applied to explore efficient water uptake strategies and help locate the limiting processes in the complex soil–plant–atmosphere system.
B. Di Mauro, F. Fava, P. Frattini, A. Camia, R. Colombo, and M. Migliavacca
Nonlin. Processes Geophys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
In this paper, we analyse the probability distribution of wildfires burned area at European scale. We evaluate the performance of a land surface model using power law scaling as a benchmark. Our analysis suggests that only high latitude biomes are described by a power law distribution, and we relate this feature with the less impact of antrhopogenic activity. The benchmarking analysis showed that some refinements are needed in the model structure for reproducing emerging properties of wildfires
O. Perez-Priego, J. Guan, M. Rossini, F. Fava, T. Wutzler, G. Moreno, N. Carvalhais, A. Carrara, O. Kolle, T. Julitta, M. Schrumpf, M. Reichstein, and M. Migliavacca
Biogeosciences, 12, 6351–6367,Short summary
Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and photochemical reflectance index revealed controls of climate and nutrient availability on photosynthesis (gross primary production, GPP). Meteo-driven models (MMs) were unable to describe nutrient-induced effects on GPP. Important implications can be derived from these results, and uncertainties in the prediction of global GPP still remain when MMs do not account for plant nutrient availability.
L. Wingate, J. Ogée, E. Cremonese, G. Filippa, T. Mizunuma, M. Migliavacca, C. Moisy, M. Wilkinson, C. Moureaux, G. Wohlfahrt, A. Hammerle, L. Hörtnagl, C. Gimeno, A. Porcar-Castell, M. Galvagno, T. Nakaji, J. Morison, O. Kolle, A. Knohl, W. Kutsch, P. Kolari, E. Nikinmaa, A. Ibrom, B. Gielen, W. Eugster, M. Balzarolo, D. Papale, K. Klumpp, B. Köstner, T. Grünwald, R. Joffre, J.-M. Ourcival, M. Hellstrom, A. Lindroth, C. George, B. Longdoz, B. Genty, J. Levula, B. Heinesch, M. Sprintsin, D. Yakir, T. Manise, D. Guyon, H. Ahrends, A. Plaza-Aguilar, J. H. Guan, and J. Grace
Biogeosciences, 12, 5995–6015,Short summary
The timing of plant development stages and their response to climate and management were investigated using a network of digital cameras installed across different European ecosystems. Using the relative red, green and blue content of images we showed that the green signal could be used to estimate the length of the growing season in broadleaf forests. We also developed a model that predicted the seasonal variations of camera RGB signals and how they relate to leaf pigment content and area well.
S. Hashimoto, N. Carvalhais, A. Ito, M. Migliavacca, K. Nishina, and M. Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 12, 4121–4132,
M. Guderle and A. Hildebrandt
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 409–425,Short summary
This paper is the result of a numerical study to test the application of water balance methods for estimating evapotranspiration and water extraction profiles based on measured soil water content data. The advantage of the tested methods is that they do not rely on a priori information of any root distribution parameters. Our research shows the potential of water balance methods for derivation of water extraction profiles, but their application may be challenging in realistic conditions.
M. Forkel, N. Carvalhais, S. Schaphoff, W. v. Bloh, M. Migliavacca, M. Thurner, and K. Thonicke
Biogeosciences, 11, 7025–7050,
M. Bechmann, C. Schneider, A. Carminati, D. Vetterlein, S. Attinger, and A. Hildebrandt
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 4189–4206,
R. Orth and S. I. Seneviratne
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3895–3911,
Related subject area
Biogeophysics: EcohydrologyConsistent responses of vegetation gas exchange to elevated atmospheric CO2 emerge from heuristic and optimization modelsPioneer biocrust communities prevent soil erosion in temperate forests after disturbancesModelling temporal variability of in situ soil water and vegetation isotopes reveals ecohydrological couplings in a riparian willow plotToward estimation of seasonal water dynamics of winter wheat from ground-based L-band radiometry: a concept studyTechnical note: Common ambiguities in plant hydraulicsTemporal dynamics of tree xylem water isotopes: in situ monitoring and modelingReviews and syntheses: Gaining insights into evapotranspiration partitioning with novel isotopic monitoring methodsWhat determines the sign of the evapotranspiration response to afforestation in European summer?Predicting evapotranspiration from drone-based thermography – a method comparison in a tropical oil palm plantationPatterns of plant rehydration and growth following pulses of soil moisture availabilityClimatic traits on daily clearness and cloudiness indicesEstimates of tree root water uptake from soil moisture profile dynamicsCauses and consequences of pronounced variation in the isotope composition of plant xylem waterRisk of crop failure due to compound dry and hot extremes estimated with nested copulasCanal blocking optimization in restoration of drained peatlandsLarge-scale biospheric drought response intensifies linearly with drought duration in arid regionsGlobal biosphere–climate interaction: a causal appraisal of observations and models over multiple temporal scalesExamining the evidence for decoupling between photosynthesis and transpiration during heat extremesIdeas and perspectives: Tracing terrestrial ecosystem water fluxes using hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes – challenges and opportunities from an interdisciplinary perspectiveDoes predictability of fluxes vary between FLUXNET sites?Community-specific hydraulic conductance potential of soil water decomposed for two Alpine grasslands by small-scale lysimetryIdeas and perspectives: how coupled is the vegetation to the boundary layer?Crop water stress maps for an entire growing season from visible and thermal UAV imageryMODIS vegetation products as proxies of photosynthetic potential along a gradient of meteorologically and biologically driven ecosystem productivityProximate and ultimate controls on carbon and nutrient dynamics of small agricultural catchmentsTranspiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm ageDoes EO NDVI seasonal metrics capture variations in species composition and biomass due to grazing in semi-arid grassland savannas?Assessing vegetation structure and ANPP dynamics in a grassland–shrubland Chihuahuan ecotone using NDVI–rainfall relationshipsOn the use of the post-closure methods uncertainty band to evaluate the performance of land surface models against eddy covariance flux dataDistribution and biophysical processes of beaded streams in Arctic permafrost landscapesContinental-scale impacts of intra-seasonal rainfall variability on simulated ecosystem responses in AfricaDew formation on the surface of biological soil crusts in central European sand ecosystemsNonlinear controls on evapotranspiration in arctic coastal wetlandsOrganic carbon efflux from a deciduous forest catchment in KoreaA simple ecohydrological model captures essentials of seasonal leaf dynamics in semi-arid tropical grasslands
Stefano Manzoni, Simone Fatichi, Xue Feng, Gabriel G. Katul, Danielle Way, and Giulia Vico
Biogeosciences, 19, 4387–4414,Short summary
Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) causes leaves to close their stomata (through which water evaporates) but also promotes leaf growth. Even if individual leaves save water, how much will be consumed by a whole plant with possibly more leaves? Using different mathematical models, we show that plant stands that are not very dense and can grow more leaves will benefit from higher CO2 by photosynthesizing more while adjusting their stomata to consume similar amounts of water.
Corinna Gall, Martin Nebel, Dietmar Quandt, Thomas Scholten, and Steffen Seitz
Biogeosciences, 19, 3225–3245,Short summary
Soil erosion is one of the most serious environmental challenges of our time, which also applies to forests when forest soil is disturbed. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) can play a key role as erosion control. In this study, we combined soil erosion measurements with vegetation surveys in disturbed forest areas. We found that soil erosion was reduced primarily by pioneer bryophyte-dominated biocrusts and that bryophytes contributed more to soil erosion mitigation than vascular plants.
Aaron Smith, Doerthe Tetzlaff, Jessica Landgraf, Maren Dubbert, and Chris Soulsby
Biogeosciences, 19, 2465–2485,Short summary
This research utilizes high-spatiotemporal-resolution soil and vegetation measurements, including water stable isotopes, within an ecohydrological model to partition water flux dynamics and identify flow paths and durations. Results showed high vegetation water use and high spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation water source and vegetation isotopes. The evaluation of these dynamics further revealed relatively fast flow paths through both shallow soil and vegetation.
Thomas Jagdhuber, François Jonard, Anke Fluhrer, David Chaparro, Martin J. Baur, Thomas Meyer, and María Piles
Biogeosciences, 19, 2273–2294,Short summary
This is a concept study of water dynamics across winter wheat starting from ground-based L-band radiometry in combination with on-site measurements of soil and atmosphere. We research the feasibility of estimating water potentials and seasonal flux rates of water (water uptake from soil and transpiration rates into the atmosphere) within the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SPAS) of a winter wheat field. The main finding is that L-band radiometry can be integrated into field-based SPAS assessment.
Yujie Wang and Christian Frankenberg
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Plant hydraulics is often misrepresented in topical research. We highlight the commonly seen ambiguities and/or mistakes, with equations and figures to help visualize the potential biases. We recommend careful thinking when using or modifying existing plant hydraulic terms, methods, and models.
Stefan Seeger and Markus Weiler
Biogeosciences, 18, 4603–4627,Short summary
We developed a setup for fully automated in situ measurements of stable water isotopes in soil and the stems of fully grown trees. We used this setup in a 12-week field campaign to monitor the propagation of a labelling pulse from the soil up to a stem height of 8 m. We could observe trees shifting their main water uptake depths multiple times, depending on water availability. The gained knowledge about the temporal dynamics can help to improve water uptake models and future study designs.
Youri Rothfuss, Maria Quade, Nicolas Brüggemann, Alexander Graf, Harry Vereecken, and Maren Dubbert
Biogeosciences, 18, 3701–3732,Short summary
The partitioning of evapotranspiration into evaporation from soil and transpiration from plants is crucial for a wide range of parties, from farmers to policymakers. In this work, we focus on a particular partitioning method, based on the stable isotopic analysis of water. In particular, we aim at highlighting the challenges that this method is currently facing and, in light of recent methodological developments, propose ways forward for the isotopic-partitioning community.
Marcus Breil, Edouard L. Davin, and Diana Rechid
Biogeosciences, 18, 1499–1510,Short summary
The physical processes behind varying evapotranspiration rates in forests and grasslands in Europe are investigated in a regional model study with idealized afforestation scenarios. The results show that the evapotranspiration response to afforestation depends on the interplay of two counteracting factors: the transpiration facilitating characteristics of a forest and the reduced saturation deficits of forests caused by an increased surface roughness and associated lower surface temperatures.
Florian Ellsäßer, Christian Stiegler, Alexander Röll, Tania June, Hendrayanto, Alexander Knohl, and Dirk Hölscher
Biogeosciences, 18, 861–872,Short summary
Recording land surface temperatures using drones offers new options to predict evapotranspiration based on energy balance models. This study compares predictions from three energy balance models with the eddy covariance method. A model II Deming regression indicates interchangeability for latent heat flux estimates from certain modeling methods and eddy covariance measurements. This complements the available methods for evapotranspiration studies by fine grain and spatially explicit assessments.
Andrew F. Feldman, Daniel J. Short Gianotti, Alexandra G. Konings, Pierre Gentine, and Dara Entekhabi
Biogeosciences, 18, 831–847,Short summary
We quantify global plant water uptake durations after rainfall using satellite-based plant water content measurements. In wetter regions, plant water uptake occurs within a day due to rapid coupling between soil and plant water content. Drylands show multi-day plant water uptake after rain pulses, providing widespread evidence for slow rehydration responses and pulse-driven growth responses. Our results suggest that drylands are sensitive to projected shifts in rainfall intensity and frequency.
Estefanía Muñoz and Andrés Ochoa
Biogeosciences, 18, 573–584,Short summary
We inspect for climatic traits in the shape of the PDF of the clear-day (c) and the clearness (k) indices at 37 FLUXNET sites for the SW and the PAR spectral bands. We identified three types of PDF, unimodal with low dispersion, unimodal with high dispersion and bimodal, with no difference in the PDF type between c and k at each site. We found that latitude, global climate zone and Köppen climate type have a weak relation and the Holdridge life zone a stronger relation with c and k PDF types.
Conrad Jackisch, Samuel Knoblauch, Theresa Blume, Erwin Zehe, and Sibylle K. Hassler
Biogeosciences, 17, 5787–5808,Short summary
We developed software to calculate the root water uptake (RWU) of beech tree roots from soil moisture dynamics. We present our approach and compare RWU to measured sap flow in the tree stem. The study relates to two sites that are similar in topography and weather but with contrasting soils. While sap flow is very similar between the two sites, the RWU is different. This suggests that soil characteristics have substantial influence. Our easy-to-implement RWU estimate may help further studies.
Hannes P. T. De Deurwaerder, Marco D. Visser, Matteo Detto, Pascal Boeckx, Félicien Meunier, Kathrin Kuehnhammer, Ruth-Kristina Magh, John D. Marshall, Lixin Wang, Liangju Zhao, and Hans Verbeeck
Biogeosciences, 17, 4853–4870,Short summary
The depths at which plants take up water is challenging to observe directly. To do so, scientists have relied on measuring the isotopic composition of xylem water as this provides information on the water’s source. Our work shows that this isotopic composition changes throughout the day, which complicates the interpretation of the water’s source and has been currently overlooked. We build a model to help understand the origin of these composition changes and their consequences for science.
Andreia Filipa Silva Ribeiro, Ana Russo, Célia Marina Gouveia, Patrícia Páscoa, and Jakob Zscheischler
Biogeosciences, 17, 4815–4830,Short summary
This study investigates the impacts of compound dry and hot extremes on crop yields, namely wheat and barley, over two regions in Spain dominated by rainfed agriculture. We provide estimates of the conditional probability of crop loss under compound dry and hot conditions, which could be an important tool for responsible authorities to mitigate the impacts magnified by the interactions between the different hazards.
Iñaki Urzainki, Ari Laurén, Marjo Palviainen, Kersti Haahti, Arif Budiman, Imam Basuki, Michael Netzer, and Hannu Hökkä
Biogeosciences, 17, 4769–4784,Short summary
Drained peatlands (peat areas where ditches have been excavated to enhance plant production) are one of the main sources of carbon dioxide emissions globally. Blocking these ditches by building dams is a common strategy to restore the self-sustaining peat ecosystem and mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. Where should these dams be located in order to maximize the benefits? Our work tackles this question by making use of the available data, hydrological modeling and numerical optimization methods.
René Orth, Georgia Destouni, Martin Jung, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 17, 2647–2656,Short summary
Drought duration is a key control of the large-scale biospheric drought response. Thereby, the vegetation responds linearly to drought duration at large spatial scales. The slope of the linear relationship between the vegetation drought response and drought duration is steeper in drier climates.
Jeroen Claessen, Annalisa Molini, Brecht Martens, Matteo Detto, Matthias Demuzere, and Diego G. Miralles
Biogeosciences, 16, 4851–4874,Short summary
Bidirectional interactions between vegetation and climate are unraveled over short (monthly) and long (inter-annual) temporal scales. Analyses use a novel causal inference method based on wavelet theory. The performance of climate models at representing these interactions is benchmarked against satellite data. Climate models can reproduce the overall climate controls on vegetation at all temporal scales, while their performance at representing biophysical feedbacks on climate is less adequate.
Martin G. De Kauwe, Belinda E. Medlyn, Andrew J. Pitman, John E. Drake, Anna Ukkola, Anne Griebel, Elise Pendall, Suzanne Prober, and Michael Roderick
Biogeosciences, 16, 903–916,Short summary
Recent experimental evidence suggests that during heat extremes, trees may reduce photosynthesis to near zero but increase transpiration. Using eddy covariance data and examining the 3 days leading up to a temperature extreme, we found evidence of reduced photosynthesis and sustained or increased latent heat fluxes at Australian wooded flux sites. However, when focusing on heatwaves, we were unable to disentangle photosynthetic decoupling from the effect of increasing vapour pressure deficit.
Daniele Penna, Luisa Hopp, Francesca Scandellari, Scott T. Allen, Paolo Benettin, Matthias Beyer, Josie Geris, Julian Klaus, John D. Marshall, Luitgard Schwendenmann, Till H. M. Volkmann, Jana von Freyberg, Anam Amin, Natalie Ceperley, Michael Engel, Jay Frentress, Yamuna Giambastiani, Jeff J. McDonnell, Giulia Zuecco, Pilar Llorens, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Todd E. Dawson, and James W. Kirchner
Biogeosciences, 15, 6399–6415,Short summary
Understanding how water flows through ecosystems is needed to provide society and policymakers with the scientific background to manage water resources sustainably. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water are a powerful tool for tracking water fluxes, although the heterogeneity of natural systems and practical methodological issues still limit their full application. Here, we examine the challenges in this research field and highlight new perspectives based on interdisciplinary research.
Ned Haughton, Gab Abramowitz, Martin G. De Kauwe, and Andy J. Pitman
Biogeosciences, 15, 4495–4513,Short summary
This project explores predictability in energy, water, and carbon fluxes in the free-use Tier 1 of the FLUXNET 2015 dataset using a uniqueness metric based on comparison of locally and globally trained models. While there is broad spread in predictability between sites, we found strikingly few strong patterns. Nevertheless, these results can contribute to the standardisation of site selection for land surface model evaluation and help pinpoint regions that are ripe for further FLUXNET research.
Georg Frenck, Georg Leitinger, Nikolaus Obojes, Magdalena Hofmann, Christian Newesely, Mario Deutschmann, Ulrike Tappeiner, and Erich Tasser
Biogeosciences, 15, 1065–1078,Short summary
For central Europe in addition to rising temperatures, an increasing variability in precipitation is predicted. In a replicated mesocosm experiment we compared evapotranspiration and the biomass productivity of two differently drought-adapted vegetation communities during two irrigation regimes (with and without drought periods). Significant differences between the different communities were found in the response to variations in the water supply and biomass production.
Martin G. De Kauwe, Belinda E. Medlyn, Jürgen Knauer, and Christopher A. Williams
Biogeosciences, 14, 4435–4453,Short summary
Understanding the sensitivity of transpiration to stomatal conductance is critical to simulating the water cycle. This sensitivity is a function of the degree of coupling between the vegetation and the atmosphere. We combined an extensive literature summary with estimates of coupling derived from FLUXNET data. We found notable departures from the values previously reported. These data form a model benchmarking metric to test existing coupling assumptions.
Helene Hoffmann, Rasmus Jensen, Anton Thomsen, Hector Nieto, Jesper Rasmussen, and Thomas Friborg
Biogeosciences, 13, 6545–6563,Short summary
This study investigates whether the UAV (drone) based WDI can determine crop water stress from fields with open canopies (land surface consisting of both soil and canopy) and from fields where canopies are starting to senesce. This utility could solve issues that arise when applying the commonly used CWSI stress index. The WDI succeeded in providing accurate, high-resolution estimates of crop water stress at different growth stages of barley.
Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Alfredo Huete, Kevin Davies, James Cleverly, Jason Beringer, Derek Eamus, Eva van Gorsel, Lindsay B. Hutley, and Wayne S. Meyer
Biogeosciences, 13, 5587–5608,Short summary
We re-evaluated the connection between satellite greenness products and C-flux tower data in four Australian ecosystems. We identify key mechanisms driving the carbon cycle, and provide an ecological basis for the interpretation of vegetation indices. We found relationships between productivity and greenness to be non-significant in meteorologically driven evergreen forests and sites where climate and vegetation phenology were asynchronous, and highly correlated in phenology-driven ecosystems.
Zahra Thomas, Benjamin W. Abbott, Olivier Troccaz, Jacques Baudry, and Gilles Pinay
Biogeosciences, 13, 1863–1875,Short summary
Direct human impact on a catchment (fertilizer input, soil disturbance, urbanization) is asymmetrically linked with inherent catchment properties (geology, soil, topography), which together determine catchment vulnerability to human activity. To quantify the influence of physical, hydrologic, and anthropogenic controls on surface water quality, we used a 5-year high-frequency water chemistry data set from three contrasting headwater catchments in western France.
A. Röll, F. Niu, A. Meijide, A. Hardanto, Hendrayanto, A. Knohl, and D. Hölscher
Biogeosciences, 12, 5619–5633,Short summary
The study provides first insight into eco-hydrological consequences of the continuing oil palm expansion in the tropics. Stand transpiration rates of some studied oil palm stands compared to or even exceeded values reported for tropical forests, indicating high water use of oil palms under certain conditions. Oil palm landscapes show some spatial variations in (evapo)transpiration rates, e.g. due to varying plantation age, but the day-to-day variability of oil palm transpiration is rather low.
J. L. Olsen, S. Miehe, P. Ceccato, and R. Fensholt
Biogeosciences, 12, 4407–4419,Short summary
Limitations of satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for monitoring vegetation trends are investigated using observations from the Widou Thiengoly test site in northern Senegal. NDVI do not reflect the large differences found in biomass production and species composition between grazed and ungrazed plots. This is problematic for vegetation trend analysis in the context of drastically increasing numbers of Sahelian livestock in recent decades.
M. Moreno-de las Heras, R. Díaz-Sierra, L. Turnbull, and J. Wainwright
Biogeosciences, 12, 2907–2925,Short summary
Exploration of NDVI-rainfall relationships provided ready biophysically based criteria to study the spatial distribution and dynamics of ANPP for herbaceous and shrub vegetation across a grassland-shrubland Chihuahuan ecotone (Sevilleta NWR, New Mexico). Overall our results suggest that shrub encroachment has not been particularly active for 2000-2013 in the area, although future reductions in summer precipitation and/or increases in winter rainfall may intensify the shrub-encroachment process.
J. Ingwersen, K. Imukova, P. Högy, and T. Streck
Biogeosciences, 12, 2311–2326,Short summary
The energy balance of eddy covariance (EC) flux data is normally not closed. Therefore, EC flux data are usually post-closed, i.e. the measured turbulent fluxes are adjusted so as to close the energy balance. We propose to use in model evaluation the post-closure method uncertainty band (PUB) to account for the uncertainty in EC data originating from lacking energy balance closure. Working with only a single post-closing method might result in severe misinterpretations in model-data comparison.
C. D. Arp, M. S. Whitman, B. M. Jones, G. Grosse, B. V. Gaglioti, and K. C. Heim
Biogeosciences, 12, 29–47,Short summary
Beaded streams have deep elliptical pools connected by narrow runs that we show are common landforms in the continuous permafrost zone. These fluvial systems often initiate from lakes and occur predictably in headwater portions of moderately sloping watersheds. Snow capture along stream courses reduces ice thickness allowing thawed sediment to persist under most pools. Interpool thermal variability and hydrologic regimes provide important aquatic habitat and connectivity in Arctic landscapes.
K. Guan, S. P. Good, K. K. Caylor, H. Sato, E. F. Wood, and H. Li
Biogeosciences, 11, 6939–6954,Short summary
Climate change is expected to modify the way that rainfall arrives, namely the frequency and intensity of rainfall events and rainy season length. Yet, the quantification of the impact of these possible rainfall changes across large biomes is lacking. Our study fills this gap by developing a new modeling framework, applying it to continental Africa. We show that African ecosystems are highly sensitive to these rainfall variabilities, with esp. large sensitivity to changes in rainy season length.
T. Fischer, M. Veste, O. Bens, and R. F. Hüttl
Biogeosciences, 9, 4621–4628,
A. K. Liljedahl, L. D. Hinzman, Y. Harazono, D. Zona, C. E. Tweedie, R. D. Hollister, R. Engstrom, and W. C. Oechel
Biogeosciences, 8, 3375–3389,
S. J. Kim, J. Kim, and K. Kim
Biogeosciences, 7, 1323–1334,
P. Choler, W. Sea, P. Briggs, M. Raupach, and R. Leuning
Biogeosciences, 7, 907–920,
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Plant growth relies on having access to energy (solar radiation) and water (soil moisture). This energy and water availability is impacted by weather extremes, like heat waves and droughts, which will occur more frequently in response to climate change. In this context, we analysed global satellite data to detect in which regions extreme plant growth is controlled by energy or water. We find that extreme plant growth is associated with temperature- or soil-moisture-related extremes.
Plant growth relies on having access to energy (solar radiation) and water (soil moisture). This...