Articles | Volume 9, issue 8
Biogeosciences, 9, 3185–3204, 2012
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP)
Research article 17 Aug 2012
Research article | 17 Aug 2012
An assessment of the carbon balance of Arctic tundra: comparisons among observations, process models, and atmospheric inversions
A. D. McGuire et al.
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Air - Land ExchangeTechnical note: Inexpensive modification of Exetainers for the reliable storage of trace-level hydrogen and carbon monoxide gas samplesA climate-dependent global model of ammonia emissions from chicken farmingCalculating canopy stomatal conductance from eddy covariance measurements, in light of the energy budget closure problemDecoupling of a Douglas fir canopy: a look into the subcanopy with continuous vertical temperature profilesVariations in diurnal and seasonal net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange in a semiarid sandy grassland ecosystem in China's Horqin Sandy LandIsoprene and monoterpene emissions from alder, aspen and spruce short rotation forest plantations in the UKBiogenic volatile organic compound ambient mixing ratios and emission rates in the Alaskan Arctic tundraSurfaces of silver birch (Betula pendula) are sources of biological ice nuclei: in vivo and in situ investigationsIdeas and perspectives: enhancing the impact of the FLUXNET network of eddy covariance sitesEvapotranspiration over agroforestry sites in GermanyOH reactivity from the emissions of different tree species: investigating the missing reactivity in a boreal forestWinter atmospheric nutrients and pollutants deposition on West Sayan mountain lakes (Siberia)Vegetation influence and environmental controls on greenhouse gas fluxes from a drained thermokarst lake in the western Canadian ArcticExamining the link between vegetation leaf area and land–atmosphere exchange of water, energy, and carbon fluxes using FLUXNET dataCloudRoots: integration of advanced instrumental techniques and process modelling of sub-hourly and sub-kilometre land–atmosphere interactionsEnvironmental controls on ecosystem-scale cold-season methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in an Arctic tundra ecosystemDistinguishing between early- and late-covering crops in the land surface model Noah-MP: impact on simulated surface energy fluxes and temperatureA robust data cleaning procedure for eddy covariance flux measurementsScaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approachLeveraging the signature of heterotrophic respiration on atmospheric CO2 for model benchmarkingEstimating causal networks in biosphere–atmosphere interaction with the PCMCI approachMethane efflux from an American bison herdA double peak in the seasonality of California's photosynthesis as observed from spaceNitrogen use efficiency and N2O and NH3 losses attributed to three fertiliser types applied to an intensively managed silage cropBiogenic isoprenoid emissions under drought stress: different responses for isoprene and terpenesInsights from mercury stable isotopes on terrestrial–atmosphere exchange of Hg(0) in the Arctic tundraReviews and syntheses: Turning the challenges of partitioning ecosystem evaporation and transpiration into opportunitiesEl Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event reduces CO2 uptake of an Indonesian oil palm plantationCarbon–water flux coupling under progressive droughtReviews and syntheses: influences of landscape structure and land uses on local to regional climate and air qualityIdentification of secondary fatty alcohols in atmospheric aerosols in temperate forestsModelling land–atmosphere daily exchanges of NO, NH3, and CO2 in a semi-arid grazed ecosystem in SenegalSimulating the atmospheric CO2 concentration across the heterogeneous landscape of Denmark using a coupled atmosphere–biosphere mesoscale model systemEvaluating multi-year, multi-site data on the energy balance closure of eddy-covariance flux measurements at cropland sites in southwestern GermanyInterpreting eddy covariance data from heterogeneous Siberian tundra: land-cover-specific methane fluxes and spatial representativenessGlobal atmospheric CO2 inverse models converging on neutral tropical land exchange, but disagreeing on fossil fuel and atmospheric growth rateAssessing biotic contributions to CO2 fluxes in northern China using the Vegetation, Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM-CHINA) and observations from 2005 to 2009Assessing the dynamics of vegetation productivity in circumpolar regions with different satellite indicators of greenness and photosynthesisReviews and syntheses: Carbon use efficiency from organisms to ecosystems – definitions, theories, and empirical evidenceEddy covariance flux errors due to random and systematic timing errors during data acquisitionSynthetic ozone deposition and stomatal uptake at flux tower sitesIntegrated management of a Swiss cropland is not sufficient to preserve its soil carbon pool in the long termBasic and extensible post-processing of eddy covariance flux data with REddyProcCarbon exchange in an Amazon forest: from hours to yearsSeasonal variations of Quercus pubescens isoprene emissions from an in natura forest under drought stress and sensitivity to future climate change in the Mediterranean areaAn assessment of natural methane fluxes simulated by the CLASS-CTEM modelAmmonia emission measurements of an intensively grazed pastureResource and physiological constraints on global crop production enhancements from atmospheric particulate matter and nitrogen depositionTechnical note: In situ measurement of flux and isotopic composition of CO2 released during oxidative weathering of sedimentary rocksLeaf phenology as one important driver of seasonal changes in isoprene emissions in central Amazonia
Philipp A. Nauer, Eleonora Chiri, Thanavit Jirapanjawat, Chris Greening, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 18, 729–737,Short summary
Hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are atmospheric trace gases cycled via microbial metabolisms. We observed strong H2 and CO contamination from rubber septa used to seal common gas sample storage vials. Here we propose a simple and inexpensive modification of such vials to allow reliable storage of H2, CO and methane trace-gas samples for timescales of weeks to months, thus enabling extensive field campaigns to investigate H2 and CO biogeochemistry in remote areas.
Jize Jiang, David S. Stevenson, Aimable Uwizeye, Giuseppe Tempio, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 18, 135–158,Short summary
Ammonia is a key water and air pollutant and impacts human health and climate change. Ammonia emissions mainly originate from agriculture. We find that chicken agriculture contributes to large ammonia emissions, especially in hot and wet regions. These emissions can be greatly affected by the local environment, i.e. temperature and humidity, and also by human management. We develop a model that suggests ammonia emissions from chicken farming are likely to increase under a warming climate.
Richard Wehr and Scott R. Saleska
Biogeosciences, 18, 13–24,Short summary
Water and carbon exchange between plants and the atmosphere is governed by stomata: adjustable pores in the surfaces of leaves. The combined gas conductance of all the stomata in a canopy has long been estimated using an equation that is shown here to be systematically incorrect because it relies on measurements that are generally inadequate. An alternative approach is shown to be more accurate in all probable scenarios and to imply different responses of stomatal conductance to the environment.
Bart Schilperoort, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, César Jiménez Rodríguez, Christiaan van der Tol, Bas van de Wiel, and Hubert Savenije
Biogeosciences, 17, 6423–6439,Short summary
With distributed temperature sensing (DTS) we measured a vertical temperature profile in a forest, from the forest floor to above the treetops. Using this temperature profile we can see which parts of the forest canopy are colder (thus more dense) or warmer (and less dense) and study the effect this has on the suppression of turbulent mixing. This can be used to improve our knowledge of the interaction between the atmosphere and forests and improve carbon dioxide flux measurements over forests.
Yayi Niu, Yuqiang Li, Hanbo Yun, Xuyang Wang, Xiangwen Gong, Yulong Duan, and Jing Liu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6309–6326,Short summary
We report the results from continuous year-round CO2 observations from a sandy grassland in the Horqin Sandy Land using the eddy covariance technique. To quantify the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variation in net ecosystem CO2 exchange, gross primary productivity, and ecosystem respiration and to identify the different scales of environmental factors and the underlying mechanisms, we also explored how the annual precipitation affects the net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its components.
Gemma Purser, Julia Drewer, Mathew R. Heal, Robert A. S. Sircus, Lara K. Dunn, and James I. L. Morison
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Short-rotation forest plantations could help reduce greenhouse gases, but can emit biogenic volatile organic compounds. Emissions were measured at a plantation trial in Scotland. Standardised emissions of isoprene from foliage were higher from hybrid aspen than from Sitka spruce, and low from Italian alder. Emissions of total monoterpene were lower. The forest floor was only a small source. Model estimates suggest an SRF expansion of 0.7 Mha could increase total UK emissions between < 1 %–35 %.
Hélène Angot, Katelyn McErlean, Lu Hu, Dylan B. Millet, Jacques Hueber, Kaixin Cui, Jacob Moss, Catherine Wielgasz, Tyler Milligan, Damien Ketcherside, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, and Detlev Helmig
Biogeosciences, 17, 6219–6236,Short summary
We report biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) ambient levels and emission rates from key vegetation species in the Alaskan arctic tundra, providing a new data set to further constrain isoprene chemistry under low NOx conditions in models. We add to the growing body of evidence that climate-induced changes in the vegetation composition will significantly affect the BVOC emission potential of the tundra, with implications for atmospheric oxidation processes and climate feedbacks.
Teresa M. Seifried, Paul Bieber, Laura Felgitsch, Julian Vlasich, Florian Reyzek, David G. Schmale III, and Hinrich Grothe
Biogeosciences, 17, 5655–5667,
Biogeosciences, 17, 5587–5598,Short summary
FLUXNET is a large, bottom-up, self-coordinated network of sites. It provided ecosystem–atmosphere greenhouse gas fluxes from stations around the world that were used as bases for a large number of publications and studies. Today many applications require recent updates on the data to track more closely the ecosystem responses to climate change and link ground data with satellite programs. For this reason, a new organization of FLUXNET is needed, keeping as its target the FAIR principles.
Christian Markwitz, Alexander Knohl, and Lukas Siebicke
Biogeosciences, 17, 5183–5208,Short summary
Agroforestry has been shown to alter the microclimate and to lead to higher carbon sequestration above ground and in the soil. In this study, we investigated the impact of agroforestry systems on system-scale evapotranspiration (ET) due to concerns about increased water losses to the atmosphere. Results showed small differences in annual sums of ET over agroforestry relative to monoculture systems, indicating that agroforestry in Germany can be a land use alternative to monoculture agriculture.
Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Simon Schallhart, Virpi Tarvainen, Jaana Bäck, and Heidi Hellén
Biogeosciences, 17, 4681–4705,Short summary
In this paper, we study emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from three boreal tree species. Individual compounds are quantified with on-line separation analytical techniques, while the total reactivity of the emissions is measured using a custom-built instrument. On some occasions, in particular when the trees suffer from stress, the total reactivity measured is higher than the sum of the reactivity of individual compounds. This indicates that the threes emit VOCs that remain unknown.
Daniel Diaz-de-Quijano, Aleksander Vladimirovich Ageev, Elena Anatolevna Ivanova, and Olesia Valerevna Anishchenko
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Winter atmospheric nitrogen and phosphorus depositions were measured for the first time in the West Sayan mountains (Siberia). The low and very low atmospheric N and P depositions could be responsible for the observed lake phytoplankton N-P colimitation. We hypothesize that slight imbalances in the nutrient deposition, as expected in the context of global change (climate, forest fire regime, and anthropogenic nitrogen emissions), could have important effects on the ecology of these lakes.
June Skeeter, Andreas Christen, Andrée-Anne Laforce, Elyn Humphreys, and Greg Henry
Biogeosciences, 17, 4421–4441,Short summary
This study investigates carbon fluxes at Illisarvik, an artificial drained thermokarst lake basin (DTLB) in Canada's Northwest Territories. This is the first carbon balance study in a DTLB outside of Alaska. We used neural networks to identify the factors controlling fluxes and to model the effects of the controlling factors. We discuss the role of vegetation heterogeneity in fluxes, especially of methane, and we show how the carbon fluxes differ from Alaskan DTLBs.
Anne J. Hoek van Dijke, Kaniska Mallick, Martin Schlerf, Miriam Machwitz, Martin Herold, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Biogeosciences, 17, 4443–4457,Short summary
We investigated the link between the vegetation leaf area index (LAI) and the land–atmosphere exchange of water, energy, and carbon fluxes. We show that the correlation between the LAI and water and energy fluxes depends on the vegetation type and aridity. For carbon fluxes, however, the correlation with the LAI was strong and independent of vegetation and aridity. This study provides insight into when the vegetation LAI can be used to model or extrapolate land–atmosphere fluxes.
Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Patrizia Ney, Oscar Hartogensis, Hugo de Boer, Kevin van Diepen, Dzhaner Emin, Geiske de Groot, Anne Klosterhalfen, Matthias Langensiepen, Maria Matveeva, Gabriela Miranda-García, Arnold F. Moene, Uwe Rascher, Thomas Röckmann, Getachew Adnew, Nicolas Brüggemann, Youri Rothfuss, and Alexander Graf
Biogeosciences, 17, 4375–4404,Short summary
The CloudRoots field experiment has obtained an open comprehensive observational data set that includes soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to investigate the interactions between a heterogeneous land surface and its overlying atmospheric boundary layer, including the rapid perturbations of clouds in evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate that in order to understand and represent diurnal variability, we need to measure and model processes from the leaf to the landscape scales.
Dean Howard, Yannick Agnan, Detlev Helmig, Yu Yang, and Daniel Obrist
Biogeosciences, 17, 4025–4042,Short summary
The Arctic tundra represents a vast store of carbon that may be broken down by microbial activity into greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. Though microbes are less active in winter, the long duration of the cold season makes this period very important for carbon cycling. We show that, under conditions of warmer winter air temperatures and greater snowfall, deeper soils can remain warm enough to sustain significantly enhanced CH4 emission. This could have large implications for future climates.
Kristina Bohm, Joachim Ingwersen, Josipa Milovac, and Thilo Streck
Biogeosciences, 17, 2791–2805,
Domenico Vitale, Gerardo Fratini, Massimo Bilancia, Giacomo Nicolini, Simone Sabbatini, and Dario Papale
Biogeosciences, 17, 1367–1391,Short summary
This work describes a data cleaning procedure for the detection of eddy covariance fluxes affected by systematic errors. We believe that the proposed procedure can serve as a basis toward a unified quality control strategy suitable for the centralized data processing pipelines, where the use of completely data-driven and scalable procedures that guarantee high-quality standards and reproducibility of the released products constitutes an essential prerequisite.
Martin Jung, Christopher Schwalm, Mirco Migliavacca, Sophia Walther, Gustau Camps-Valls, Sujan Koirala, Peter Anthoni, Simon Besnard, Paul Bodesheim, Nuno Carvalhais, Frédéric Chevallier, Fabian Gans, Daniel S. Goll, Vanessa Haverd, Philipp Köhler, Kazuhito Ichii, Atul K. Jain, Junzhi Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Jacob A. Nelson, Michael O'Sullivan, Martijn Pallandt, Dario Papale, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Christian Rödenbeck, Stephen Sitch, Gianluca Tramontana, Anthony Walker, Ulrich Weber, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 17, 1343–1365,Short summary
We test the approach of producing global gridded carbon fluxes based on combining machine learning with local measurements, remote sensing and climate data. We show that we can reproduce seasonal variations in carbon assimilated by plants via photosynthesis and in ecosystem net carbon balance. The ecosystem’s mean carbon balance and carbon flux trends require cautious interpretation. The analysis paves the way for future improvements of the data-driven assessment of carbon fluxes.
Samantha J. Basile, Xin Lin, William R. Wieder, Melannie D. Hartman, and Gretchen Keppel-Aleks
Biogeosciences, 17, 1293–1308,Short summary
Soil heterotrophic respiration (HR) is an important component of land–atmosphere carbon exchange but is difficult to observe globally. We analyzed the imprint that this flux leaves on atmospheric CO2 using a set of simulations from HR models with common inputs. Models that represent microbial processes are more variable and have stronger temperature sensitivity than those that do not. Our results show that we can use atmospheric CO2 observations to evaluate and improve models of HR.
Christopher Krich, Jakob Runge, Diego G. Miralles, Mirco Migliavacca, Oscar Perez-Priego, Tarek El-Madany, Arnaud Carrara, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 17, 1033–1061,Short summary
Causal inference promises new insight into biosphere–atmosphere interactions using time series only. To understand the behaviour of a specific method on such data, we used artificial and observation-based data. The observed structures are very interpretable and reveal certain ecosystem-specific behaviour, as only a few relevant links remain, in contrast to pure correlation techniques. Thus, causal inference allows to us gain well-constrained insights into processes and interactions.
Paul C. Stoy, Adam A. Cook, John E. Dore, William Kleindl, E. N. Jack Brookshire, and Tobias Gerken
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
The reintroduction of American bison creates multiple environmental benefits. Ruminants like bison also emit methane – a potent greenhouse gas – to the atmosphere, which has not been measured to date in a field setting. We measured methane efflux from an American bison herd during winter using eddy covariance. Automated cameras were used to approximate their location to calculate per-animal flux. From the measurements, bison do not emit more methane than the cattle they often replace.
Alexander J. Turner, Philipp Köhler, Troy S. Magney, Christian Frankenberg, Inez Fung, and Ronald C. Cohen
Biogeosciences, 17, 405–422,Short summary
We present the highest resolution solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) dataset from satellite measurements, providing previously unobservable phenomena related to plant photosynthesis. We find a strong correspondence between TROPOMI SIF and AmeriFlux GPP. We then observe a double peak in the seasonality of California's photosynthesis, not seen by traditional vegetation indices (e.g., MODIS). This is further corroborated by EOF/PC analysis.
Nicholas Cowan, Peter Levy, Andrea Moring, Ivan Simmons, Colin Bache, Amy Stephens, Joana Marinheiro, Jocelyn Brichet, Ling Song, Amy Pickard, Connie McNeill, Roseanne McDonald, Juliette Maire, Benjamin Loubet, Polina Voylokov, Mark Sutton, and Ute Skiba
Biogeosciences, 16, 4731–4745,Short summary
Commonly used nitrogen fertilisers, ammonium nitrate, urea and urea coated with a urease inhibitor, were applied to experimental plots. Fertilisation with ammonium nitrate supported the largest yields but also resulted in the largest nitrous oxide emissions. Urea was the largest emitter of ammonia. The coated urea did not significantly increase yields; however, ammonia emissions were substantially smaller than urea. The coated urea was the best environmentally but is economically unattractive.
Boris Bonn, Ruth-Kristina Magh, Joseph Rombach, and Jürgen Kreuzwieser
Biogeosciences, 16, 4627–4645,Short summary
The effect of soil water availability (SWA) on emissions of isoprenoids by trees was studied by setting up a parameterization from published data. SWA impact on isoprene emissions can be described by a growth type curve, while monoterpene emissions display a pattern reflecting plants’ stomata opening. Sesquiterpene fluxes tend to increase at the start of severe drought until resources decline. Feedbacks on atmospheric processes such as ozone and aerosol particles are further studied.
Martin Jiskra, Jeroen E. Sonke, Yannick Agnan, Detlev Helmig, and Daniel Obrist
Biogeosciences, 16, 4051–4064,Short summary
The tundra plays a pivotal role in Arctic mercury cycling by storing atmospheric mercury deposition and shuttling it to the Arctic Ocean. We used the isotopic fingerprint of mercury to investigate the processes controlling atmospheric mercury deposition. We found that the uptake of atmospheric mercury by vegetation was the major deposition source. Direct deposition to snow or soils only played a minor role. These results improve our understanding of Arctic mercury cycling.
Paul C. Stoy, Tarek S. El-Madany, Joshua B. Fisher, Pierre Gentine, Tobias Gerken, Stephen P. Good, Anne Klosterhalfen, Shuguang Liu, Diego G. Miralles, Oscar Perez-Priego, Angela J. Rigden, Todd H. Skaggs, Georg Wohlfahrt, Ray G. Anderson, A. Miriam J. Coenders-Gerrits, Martin Jung, Wouter H. Maes, Ivan Mammarella, Matthias Mauder, Mirco Migliavacca, Jacob A. Nelson, Rafael Poyatos, Markus Reichstein, Russell L. Scott, and Sebastian Wolf
Biogeosciences, 16, 3747–3775,Short summary
Key findings are the nearly optimal response of T to atmospheric water vapor pressure deficits across methods and scales. Additionally, the notion that T / ET intermittently approaches 1, which is a basis for many partitioning methods, does not hold for certain methods and ecosystems. To better constrain estimates of E and T from combined ET measurements, we propose a combination of independent measurement techniques to better constrain E and T at the ecosystem scale.
Christian Stiegler, Ana Meijide, Yuanchao Fan, Ashehad Ashween Ali, Tania June, and Alexander Knohl
Biogeosciences, 16, 2873–2890,Short summary
We show the response of a commercial oil palm plantation in Indonesia to the extreme El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event in 2015. Our measurements and model suggest that without human-induced forest fires and related smoke emissions, the observed negative impact on oil palm carbon dioxide greenhouse gas fluxes, carbon accumulation and yield due to ENSO-related drought would have been less pronounced. With respect to climate change we highlight the importance of fire prevention in the area.
Sven Boese, Martin Jung, Nuno Carvalhais, Adriaan J. Teuling, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 16, 2557–2572,Short summary
This study examines how limited water availability during droughts affects water-use efficiency. This metric describes how much carbon an ecosystem can assimilate for each unit of water lost by transpiration. We test how well different water-use efficiency models can capture the dynamics of transpiration decrease due to increased soil-water limitation. Accounting for the interacting effects of radiation and water limitation is necessary to accurately predict transpiration during these periods.
Raia Silvia Massad, Juliette Lathière, Susanna Strada, Mathieu Perrin, Erwan Personne, Marc Stéfanon, Patrick Stella, Sophie Szopa, and Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudré
Biogeosciences, 16, 2369–2408,Short summary
Human activities strongly interfere in the land–atmosphere interactions through changes in land use and land cover changes and land management. The objectives of this review are to synthesize the existing experimental and modelling works that investigate physical, chemical, and biogeochemical interactions between land surface and the atmosphere. Greater consideration of atmospheric chemistry, through land–atmosphere interactions, as a decision parameter for land management is essential.
Yuzo Miyazaki, Divyavani Gowda, Eri Tachibana, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, and Tsutom Hiura
Biogeosciences, 16, 2181–2188,Short summary
Fatty alcohols (FAs) are major components of surface lipids and can act as surface-active atmospheric organic aerosols, influencing the cloud formation. We identified five secondary FAs in atmospheric aerosols at two temperate forest sites and revealed their distinct seasonal variation for the first time. Our results suggest that they originated mostly from plant wax and could be used as useful tracers for primary biological aerosol particles.
Claire Delon, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Dominique Serça, Erwan Personne, Eric Mougin, Marcellin Adon, Valérie Le Dantec, Benjamin Loubet, Rasmus Fensholt, and Torbern Tagesson
Biogeosciences, 16, 2049–2077,Short summary
In the Sahel region during the wet season, CO2 and NO are released to the atmosphere, and NH3 is deposited on the soil. During the dry season, processes are strongly reduced. This paper shows the temporal variation in these soil–atmosphere exchanges of trace gases for 2 years, their sharp increase when the first rains fall onto dry soils, and how microbial processes are involved. We use a modelling approach, which is necessary when continuous measurements are not possible in remote regions.
Anne Sofie Lansø, Thomas Luke Smallman, Jesper Heile Christensen, Mathew Williams, Kim Pilegaard, Lise-Lotte Sørensen, and Camilla Geels
Biogeosciences, 16, 1505–1524,Short summary
Although coastal regions only amount to 7 % of the global oceans, their contribution to the global oceanic surface exchange of CO2 is much greater. In this study, we gain detailed insight into how these coastal marine fluxes compare to CO2 exchange from coastal land regions. Annually, the coastal marine exchanges are smaller than the total uptake of CO2 from the land surfaces within the study area but comparable in size to terrestrial fluxes from individual land cover classes of the region.
Ravshan Eshonkulov, Arne Poyda, Joachim Ingwersen, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Tobias K. D. Weber, Pascal Kremer, Petra Högy, Alim Pulatov, and Thilo Streck
Biogeosciences, 16, 521–540,Short summary
We compared the energy balance closure (EBC) under varying environmental conditions and investigated a wide range of possible reasons for the energy imbalance. As measures for the imbalance, we used ordinary linear regression, the energy balance ratio (EBR), and the energy residual. The EBR was also investigated as a function of buoyancy, friction velocity, and atmospheric stability. Moreover, the relationship between the EBC and flux source area or footprint was also investigated.
Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Mika Aurela, Juha Hatakka, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Juha Mikola, Viktor Ivakhov, Vladimir Kondratyev, and Tuomas Laurila
Biogeosciences, 16, 255–274,Short summary
We analysed ecosystem-scale measurements of methane exchange between Arctic tundra and the atmosphere, taking into account the large variations in vegetation and soil properties. The measurements are spatial averages, but using meteorological and statistical modelling techniques we could estimate methane emissions for different land cover types and quantify how well the measurements correspond to the spatial variability. This provides a more accurate estimate of the regional methane emission.
Benjamin Gaubert, Britton B. Stephens, Sourish Basu, Frédéric Chevallier, Feng Deng, Eric A. Kort, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Christian Rödenbeck, Tazu Saeki, David Schimel, Ingrid Van der Laan-Luijkx, Steven Wofsy, and Yi Yin
Biogeosciences, 16, 117–134,Short summary
We have compared global carbon budgets calculated from numerical inverse models and CO2 observations, and evaluated how these systems reproduce vertical gradients in atmospheric CO2 from aircraft measurements. We found that available models have converged on near-neutral tropical total fluxes for several decades, implying consistent sinks in intact tropical forests, and that assumed fossil fuel emissions and predicted atmospheric growth rates are now the dominant axes of disagreement.
Archana Dayalu, J. William Munger, Steven C. Wofsy, Yuxuan Wang, Thomas Nehrkorn, Yu Zhao, Michael B. McElroy, Chris P. Nielsen, and Kristina Luus
Biogeosciences, 15, 6713–6729,Short summary
Accounting for the vegetation signal is critical for comprehensive CO2 budget assessment in China. We model and evaluate hourly vegetation carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange (mass per unit area per unit time) in northern China from 2005 to 2009. The model is driven by satellite and meteorological data, is linked to ground-level ecosystem observations, and is applicable to other time periods. We find vegetation uptake of CO2 in summer is comparable to emissions from fossil fuels in northern China.
Sophia Walther, Luis Guanter, Birgit Heim, Martin Jung, Gregory Duveiller, Aleksandra Wolanin, and Torsten Sachs
Biogeosciences, 15, 6221–6256,Short summary
We explored the timing of the peak of the short annual growing season in tundra ecosystems as indicated by an extensive suite of satellite indicators of vegetation productivity. Delayed peak greenness compared to peak photosynthesis is consistently found across years and land-cover classes. Plants also experience growth after optimal conditions for assimilation regarding light and temperature have passed. Our results have implications for the modelling of the circumpolar carbon balance.
Stefano Manzoni, Petr Čapek, Philipp Porada, Martin Thurner, Mattias Winterdahl, Christian Beer, Volker Brüchert, Jan Frouz, Anke M. Herrmann, Björn D. Lindahl, Steve W. Lyon, Hana Šantrůčková, Giulia Vico, and Danielle Way
Biogeosciences, 15, 5929–5949,Short summary
Carbon fixed by plants and phytoplankton through photosynthesis is ultimately stored in soils and sediments or released to the atmosphere during decomposition of dead biomass. Carbon-use efficiency is a useful metric to quantify the fate of carbon – higher efficiency means higher storage and lower release to the atmosphere. Here we summarize many definitions of carbon-use efficiency and study how this metric changes from organisms to ecosystems and from terrestrial to aquatic environments.
Gerardo Fratini, Simone Sabbatini, Kevin Ediger, Brad Riensche, George Burba, Giacomo Nicolini, Domenico Vitale, and Dario Papale
Biogeosciences, 15, 5473–5487,Short summary
Using a simulation study and field data, we quantify the biases that can be introduced in fluxes measured by eddy covariance (EC) if the raw high-frequency data are affected by random and systematic timing misalignments. Our study was motivated by the increasingly widespread adoption of fully digital EC systems potentially subject to such timing errors. We found biases as large as 10 %. We further propose a test to evaluate EC data logging systems for their time synchronization capabilities.
Jason A. Ducker, Christopher D. Holmes, Trevor F. Keenan, Silvano Fares, Allen H. Goldstein, Ivan Mammarella, J. William Munger, and Jordan Schnell
Biogeosciences, 15, 5395–5413,Short summary
We have developed an accurate method (SynFlux) to estimate ozone deposition and stomatal uptake across 103 flux tower sites (43 US, 60 Europe), where ozone concentrations and fluxes have not been measured. In all, the SynFlux public dataset provides monthly values of ozone dry deposition for 926 site years across a wide array of ecosystems. The SynFlux dataset will promote further applications to ecosystem, air quality, or climate modeling across the geoscience community.
Carmen Emmel, Annina Winkler, Lukas Hörtnagl, Andrew Revill, Christof Ammann, Petra D'Odorico, Nina Buchmann, and Werner Eugster
Biogeosciences, 15, 5377–5393,Short summary
It is of great interest to know whether croplands act as a net source or sink of atmospheric CO2 and if soil carbon (C) stocks are preserved over long timescales due to the role of C in soil fertility. For a cropland in Switzerland it was found that managing the field under the Swiss framework of the Proof of Ecological Performance (PEP) resulted in soil C losses of 18.0 %. Additional efforts are needed to bring Swiss management practices closer to the goal of preserving soil C in the long term.
Thomas Wutzler, Antje Lucas-Moffat, Mirco Migliavacca, Jürgen Knauer, Kerstin Sickel, Ladislav Šigut, Olaf Menzer, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 15, 5015–5030,Short summary
Net fluxes of carbon dioxide at the ecosystem level measured by eddy covariance are a main source for understanding biosphere–atmosphere interactions. However, there is a need for more usable and extensible tools for post-processing steps of the half-hourly flux data. Therefore, we developed the REddyProc package, providing data filtering, gap filling, and flux partitioning. The extensible functions are compatible with state-of-the-art tools but allow easier integration in extended analysis.
Matthew N. Hayek, Marcos Longo, Jin Wu, Marielle N. Smith, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Raphael Tapajós, Rodrigo da Silva, David R. Fitzjarrald, Plinio B. Camargo, Lucy R. Hutyra, Luciana F. Alves, Bruce Daube, J. William Munger, Kenia T. Wiedemann, Scott R. Saleska, and Steven C. Wofsy
Biogeosciences, 15, 4833–4848,Short summary
We investigated the roles that weather and forest disturbances like drought play in shaping changes in ecosystem photosynthesis and carbon exchange in an Amazon forest. We discovered that weather largely influenced differences between years, but a prior drought, which occurred 3 years before measurements started, likely hampered photosynthesis in the first year. This is the first atmospheric evidence that drought can have legacy impacts on Amazon forest photosynthesis.
Anne-Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Christophe Boissard, Elena Ormeño, Juliette Lathière, Ilja M. Reiter, Henri Wortham, Jean-Philippe Orts, Brice Temime-Roussel, Bertrand Guenet, Svenja Bartsch, Thierry Gauquelin, and Catherine Fernandez
Biogeosciences, 15, 4711–4730,Short summary
From seasonal in situ observations on how a Mediterranean ecosystem responds to drought, a specific isoprene emission (ER, emission rates) algorithm was developed, upon which 2100 projections (IPCC RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios) were made. Emission rates were found to be mainly sensitive to future temperature changes and poorly represented by current empirical emission models. Drought was found to aggravate thermal stress on emission rates.
Vivek K. Arora, Joe R. Melton, and David Plummer
Biogeosciences, 15, 4683–4709,Short summary
Earth system models (ESMs) project future changes in climate in response to changes in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). However, before this can be achieved the natural fluxes of a given GHG must also be modelled. This paper evaluates the natural methane fluxes simulated by the CLASS-CTEM model (which is the land component of the Canadian ESM) against observations to show that the simulated methane emissions from wetlands and fires, and soil uptake of methane are realistic.
Karl Voglmeier, Markus Jocher, Christoph Häni, and Christof Ammann
Biogeosciences, 15, 4593–4608,
Luke D. Schiferl, Colette L. Heald, and David Kelly
Biogeosciences, 15, 4301–4315,Short summary
To understand future food security, it is critical to develop realistic crop models with reliable sensitivity to environmental factors. We find that particulate matter (PM) causes a significant, but smaller, enhancement for global wheat and rice production than estimated without nutrient and physiological limitations imposed by a crop model. In contrast, maize grows near its physiological maximum, with little enhancement from PM. Nitrogen deposition leads to a small increase in crop production.
Guillaume Soulet, Robert G. Hilton, Mark H. Garnett, Mathieu Dellinger, Thomas Croissant, Mateja Ogrič, and Sébastien Klotz
Biogeosciences, 15, 4087–4102,Short summary
Oxidative weathering of sedimentary rocks can release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Here, we designed a chamber-based method to measure these CO2 emissions directly for the first time. The chamber is drilled in the rock and allows us to collect the CO2 to fingerprint its source using carbon isotopes. We tested our method in Draix (France). The measured CO2 fluxes were substantial, with ~20% originating from oxidation of the rock organic matter and ~80% from dissolution of carbonate minerals.
Eliane G. Alves, Julio Tóta, Andrew Turnipseed, Alex B. Guenther, José Oscar W. Vega Bustillos, Raoni A. Santana, Glauber G. Cirino, Julia V. Tavares, Aline P. Lopes, Bruce W. Nelson, Rodrigo A. de Souza, Dasa Gu, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, David K. Adams, Jin Wu, Scott Saleska, and Antonio O. Manzi
Biogeosciences, 15, 4019–4032,Short summary
This study shows that leaf quantity and leaf age have an important effect on seasonal changes in isoprene emissions and that these could play an even more important role in regulating ecosystem isoprene fluxes than light and temperature at seasonal timescales in tropical forests. These results bring novelty and new insight for future research because in the past leaf phenology was not considered as an important factor that controls biological processes in the tropics.
Asner, G. P., Scurlock, M. O., and Hicke, J. A.: Global synthesis of leaf area index observations: Implications for ecological and remote sensing studies, Global Ecol. Biogeogr., 12, 191–205, 2003.
Beck, P. S. A. and Goetz, S. J.: Satellite observations of high northern latitude vegetation productivity changes between 1982 and 2008: ecological variability and regional differences, Environ. Res. Lett., 6, 045501, https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045501, 2011.
Billings, W. D., Loken, J. O., Mortensen, D. A., and Peterson, K. M.: Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide: possible effects on arctic tundra, Oecologia, 58, 286–289, 1983.
Bonan, G. B. and Levis, S.: Quantifying carbon-nitrogen feedbacks in the Community Land Model (CLM4), Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L07401, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL042430, 2010.
Callaghan, T. V., Björn, L. O., Chapin, F. S. III, Chernov, Y., Christensen, T. R., Huntley, B., Ims, R. A., Johansson, M., Jolly, D., Jonasson, S., Matveyeva, N., Oechel, W. C., Panikov, N., Shaver, G. R., Elster, J., Henttonen, H., Jónsdóttir, I. S., Laine, K., Schaphoff, S., Sitch, S., Taulavuori, E., Taulavuori, K., and Zöckler, C.: Arctic tundra and polar desert ecosystems, in: Arctic climate impact assessment (ACIA), 243–352, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2005.
Canadell, J. G., Ciais, P., Gurney, K., Le Quere, C., Piao, S., Raupach, M. R., and Sabine, C. L.: An international effort to quantify regional carbon fluxes, Eos, 92, 81–82, 2011.
Chapin III, F. S., McGuire, A. D., Randerson, J., Pielke Sr., R., Baldocchi, D., Hobbie, S. E., Roulet, N., Eugster, W., Kasischke, E., Rastetter, E. B., Zimov, S. A., Oechel, W. C., and Running, S. W.: Feedbacks from arctic and boreal ecosystems to climate, Global Change Biol., 6, S211–S223, 2000.
Chapin III, F. S., Randerson, J. T., McGuire, A. D., Foley, J. A., and Field, C. B.: Changing feedbacks in the climate-biosphere system, Front. Ecol. Environ., 6, 313–320, https://doi.org/10.1890/080005, 2008.
Cox, P. M.: Description of the "TRIFFID" dynamic global vegetation model, Hadley Centre Technical Note 24, 2001.
Euskirchen, E. S., McGuire, A. D., Kicklighter, D. W., Zhuang, Q., Clein, J. S., Dargaville, R. J., Dye, D. G., Kimball, J. S., McDonald, K. C., Melillo, J. M., Romanovsky, V. E., and Smith, N. V.: Importance of recent shifts in soil thermal dynamics on growing season length, productivity, and carbon sequestration in terrestrial high-latitude ecosystems, Global Change Biol., 12, 731–750, 2006.
Farquhar, G. D., von Caemmerer, S., and Berry, J. A.: A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 species, Planta, 149, 78–90, 1980.
Friedlingstein, P., Cox, P., Betts, R., Bopp, L., von Bloh, W., Brovkin, V., Cadule, P., Doney, S., Eby, M., Fung, I., Bala, G., John, J., Jones, C., Joos, F., Kato, T., Kawamiya, M., Knorr, W., Lindsay, K., Matthews, H. D., Raddatz, T., Rayner, P., Reick, C., Roeckner, E., Schnitzler, K. G., Schnur, R., Strassmann, K., Weaver, A. J., Yoshikawa, C., and Zeng, N.: Climate-carbon cycle feedback analysis: Results from the C4MIP model intercomparison, J. Climate, 19, 3337–3353, 2006.
Goetz, S. J., Epstein, H. E., Alcaraz, D., Beck, P., Bhatt, U., Bunn, A. G., Comiso, J., Jia, G. J., Kaplan, J. O., Lischke, H., Lloyd, A. H., Yu, Q., Walker, D. A.: Recent changes in arctic vegetation: satellite observations and simulation model predictions, in: Eurasian Arctic Land Cover and Land Use in a Changing Climate, edited by: Gutman, G. and Reissell, A., Springer, ISBN 978-90-481-9117-8, 2011.
Gurney, K. R., Baker, D., Rayner, P., Denning, S., Law, R., Bousquet, P., Bruhwiler, L., Chen, Y. H., Ciais, P., Fung, I., Heimann, M., John, J., Maki, T., Maksyutov, S., Peylin, P., Prather, M., Pak, B., and S. Taguchi, S.: Interannual variations in continental-scale net carbon exchange and sensitivity to observing networks estimated from atmospheric CO2 inversions for the period 1980–2005, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 22, GB3025, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GB003082, 2008.
Gurney, K. R: Global atmospheric carbon budget, Biogeosciences, in preparation, 2012.
Haxeltine, A. and Prentice, I. C.: A general model for the light-use efficiency of primary production, Funct. Ecol., 10, 551–561, 1996.
Hayes, D. J., McGuire, A. D., Kicklighter, D. W., Gurney, K. R., Burnside, T. J., and Melillo, J. M.: Is the northern high latitude land-based CO2 sink weakening?, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 25, GB3018, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GB003813, 2011.
Hickler, T., Vohland, K., Feehan, J., Miller, P. A., Smith, B., Costa, L., Giesecke, T., Fronzek, S., Cramer, W., and Sykes, M.: Projecting the future distribution of European potential natural vegetation with a generalized tree-species-based dynamic vegetation model, Global Ecol. Biogeogr., 21, 50–63, 2012.
Hinzman, L. D., Bettez, N. D., Bolton, W. R., Chapin, F. S., Dyurgerov, M. B., Fastie, C. L., Griffith, B., Hollister, R. D., Hope, A., Huntington, H. P., Jensen, A. M., Jia, G. J., Jorgenson, T., Kane, D. L., Klein, D. R., Kofinas, G., Lynch, A. H., Lloyd, A. H., McGuire, A. D., Nelson, F. E., Nolan, M., Oechel, W. C., Osterkamp, T. E., Racine, C. H., Romanovsky, V. E., Stone, R. S., Stow, D. A., Sturm, M., Tweedie, C. E., Vourlitis, G. L., Walker, M. D., Walker, D. A., Webber, P. J., Welker, J. M., Winker, K. S., and Yoshikawa, K.: Evidence and implications of recent climate change in northern Alaska and other Arctic regions, Climatic Change, 72, 251–298, 2005.
Jackowicz-Korczynski, M., Christensen, T. R., Backstrand, K., Crill, P., Friborg, T., Mastepanov, M., and Ström, L.: Annual cycle of methane emission from a subarctic peatland, J. Geophys. Res.-Biogeo., 115, G02009, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JG000913, 2010.
Karlsen, S. R., Høgda, K. A., Wielgolaski, F. E., Tolvanen, A., Tømmervik, H., Poikolainen, J., and Kubin, E.: Growing-season trends in Fennoscandia 1982–2006, determined from satellite and phenology data, Clim. Res., 39, 275–286, 2009.
Kim, Y., Kimball, J. S., Zhang, K., and McDonald, K.C.: Satellite detection of increasing northern hemisphere non-frozen seasons from 1979 to 2008: Implications for regional vegetation growth, Remote Sens. Environ., 12, 472–487, 2012.
Kimball, J. S., Jones, L. A., Zhang, K., Heinsch, F. A., McDonald, K. C., and Oechel, W. C.: A satellite approach to estimate land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for Boreal and Arctic biomes using MODIS and AMSR-E, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 47, 569–587, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2008.2003248, 2009.
Koven, C., Friedlingstein, P., Ciais, P., Khvorostyanov, D., Krinner, G., and Tarnocai, C.: On the formation of high-latitude soil carbon stocks: Effects of cryoturbation and insulation by organic matter in a land surface model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L21501, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040150, 2009.
Koven, C. D., Ringeval, B., Friedlingstein, P., Ciais, P., Cadule, P., Khvorostyanov, D., Krinner, G., and Tarnocai, C.: Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 108, 14769–14774, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1103910108, 2011.
Lawrence, D. M., Oleson, K. W., Flanner, M. G., Thornton, P. E., Swenson, S. C., Lawrence, P. J., Zeng, X., Yang, Z.-L., Levis, S., Sakaguchi, K., Bonan, G. B., and Slater, A. G.: Parameterization improvements and functional and structural advances in version 4 of the Community Land Model, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 3, M03001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011MS000045, 2011.
Levy, P. E., Cannell, M. G. R., and Friend, A. D.: Modelling the impact of future changes in climate, CO2 concentration and land use on natural ecosystems and the terrestrial carbon sink, Global Environ. Chang., 14, 21–30, 2004.
McDonald, K. C., Kimball, J. S., Njoku, E., Zimmermann, R., and Zhao, M.: Variability in springtime thaw in the terrestrial high latitudes: Monitoring a major control on the biospheric assimilation of atmospheric CO2 with spaceborne microwave remote sensing, Earth Interact., 8, 1–23, 2004.
McGuire, A. D., Melillo, J. M., Joyce, L. A., Kicklighter, D. W., Grace, A. L., Moore III, B., and Vörösmarty, C. J.: Interactions between carbon and nitrogen dynamics in estimating net primary productivity for potential vegetation in North America, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 6, 101–124, 1992.
McGuire, A. D., Melillo, J. M., Kicklighter, D. W., Pan, Y., Xiao, X., Helfrich, J., Moore III, B., Vorosmarty, C. J., and Schloss, A. L.: Equilibrium responses of global net primary production and carbon storage to doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide: Sensitivity to changes in vegetation nitrogen concentration, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 11, 173–189, 1997.
McGuire, A. D., Clein, J. S., Melillo, J. M., Kicklighter, D. W., Meier, R. A., Vorosmarty, C. J., and Serreze, M. C.: Modelling carbon responses of tundra ecosystems to historical and projected climate: sensitivity of pan-Arctic carbon storage to temporal and spatial variation in climate, Global Change Biol., 6, S141–S159, 2000.
McGuire, A. D., Anderson, L. G., Christensen, T. R., Dallimore, S., Guo, L., Hayes, D. J., Heimann, M., Lorenson, T. D., Macdonald, R. W., and Roulet, N.: Sensitivity of the carbon cycle in the Arctic to climate change, Ecol. Monogr., 79, 523–555, 2009.
McGuire, A. D., Hayes, D. J., Kicklighter, D. W., Manizza, M., Zhuang, Q., Chen, M., Follows, M. J., Gurney, K. R., McClelland, J. W., Melillo, J. M., Peterson, B. J., and Prinn, R.: An analysis of the carbon balance of the Arctic Basin from 1997 to 2006, Tellus B, 62, 455–474, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00497.x, 2010.
Merbold, L., Kutsch, W. L., Corradi, C., Kolle, O., Rebmann, C., Stoy, P. C., Zimov, S. A., and Schulze, E. D.: Artificial drainage and associated carbon fluxes (CO2 / CH4) in a tundra ecosystem, Global Change Biol., 15, 2599–2614, 2009.
Nemani, R. R., Keeling, C. D., Hashimoto, H., Jolly, W. M., Piper, S. C., Tucker, C. J., Myneni, R. B., and Running, S.W.: Climate-driven increases in global terrestrial net primary production from 1982 to 1999, Science, 300, 1560–1563, 2003.
New, M., Hulme, M., and Jones, P. D.: Representing twentieth-century space-time climate variability, Part I: development of a 1961–90 mean monthly terrestrial climatology, J. Climate, 12, 829–856, 1999.
Oechel, W. C., Hastings, S. J., Vourlitis, G., Jenkins, M., Riechers, G., and Grulke, N.: Recent change of Arctic tundra ecosystems from a net carbon dioxide sink to a source, Nature, 361, 520–523, 1993.
Parmentier, F. J. W., van der Molen, M. K., van Huissteden, J., Karsanaev, S. A., Kononov, A. V., Suzdalov, D. A., Maximov, T. C., and Dolman, A. J.: Longer growing seasons do not increase net carbon uptake in the northeastern Siberian tundra, J. Geophys. Res., 116, G04013, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JG001653, 2011.
Parmesan, C.: Influence of species, latitudes, and methodologies on estimates of phenological response to global warming, Global Change Biol., 13, 1860–1872, 2007.
Petrescu, A. M. R., van Beek, L. P. H., van Huissteden, J., Prigent, C., Sachs, T., Corradi, C. A. R., Parmentier, F. J. W., and Dolman, A. J.: Modeling regional to global CH4 emissions of boreal and arctic wetlands, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 24, GB4009, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GB003610, 2010.
Piao, S., Ciais, P., Friedlingstein, P., Peylin, P., Reichstein, M., Luyssaert, S., Margolis, H., Fang, J., Barr, A., Chen, A., Grelle, A., Hollinger, D. Y., Laurilla, T., Lindroth, A. Richardson, A. D., and Vesala, T.: Net carbon dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming, Nature, 451, 49–52, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06444, 2008.
Piao, S., Wang, X., Ciais, P., Zhu, B., Wang, T., and Liu, J.: Changes in satellite-derived vegetation growth trend in temperate and boreal Eurasia from 1982–2006, Global Change Biol., 17, 3228–3239, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02419.x, 2011.
Ping, C. L., Michaelson, G. J., Jorgenson, M. T., Kimble, J. M., Epstein, H., Romanovsky, V. E., Walker, D. A.: High stocks of soil organic carbon in the North American Arctic region, Nat. Geosci., 1, 615–619, 2008.
Post, E., Forchhammer, M. C., Bret-Harte, S., Callaghan, T. V., Christensen, T. R., Elberling, B., Fox, A. D., Gilg, O., Hik, D. S., Hoye, T. T., Ims, R. A., Jeppesen, E., Klein, D. R., Madsen, J., McGuire, A. D., Rysgaard, S., Schindler, D. E., Stirling, I., Tamstorf, M. P., Tyler, N. J. C., van der Wal, R., Welker, J., Wookey, P. A., and Aastrup, P.: Ecological dynamics across the Arctic associated with recent climate change, Science, 325, 1355–1358, 2009.
Poutou, E., Krinner, G., Genthon, C., and de Noblet-Ducoudre, N.: Role of soil freezing in future boreal climate change, Clim. Dyn., 23, 621–639, 2004.
Qian, H., Renu, J., and Zeng, N.: Enhanced terrestrial carbon uptake in the northern high latitudes in the 21st century from the coupled carbon cycle climate model intercomparison project model projections, Global Change Biol., 16, 641–656, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01989.x, 2010.
Rawlins, M. A., Steele, M., Holland, M. M., Adam, J. C., Cherry, J. E., Francis, J. A., Groisman, P. Y., Hinzman, L. D., Huntington, T. G., Kane, D. L., Kimball, J. S., Kwok, R., Lammers, R. B., Lee, C. M., Lettenmaier, D. P., McDonald, K. C., Podest, E., Pundsack, J. W., Rudels, B., Serreze, M. C., Shiklomanov, A., Skagseth, Ø., Troy, T. J., Vörösmarty, C. J., Wensnahan, M., Wood, E. F., Woodgate, R., Yang, D., Zhang, K., and Zhang, T.: Analysis of the Arctic system for freshwater cycle intensification: Observations and expectations, J. Climate, 23, 5716–5737, https://doi.org/10.1175/2010JCLI3421.1, 2010.
Ringeval, B., de Nobletâ, N., Ducoudré, A. R., Ciais, P., Bousquet, P., Prigent, C., Papa, F., and Rossow, W. B.: An attempt to quantify the impact of changes in wetland extent on methane emissions on the seasonal and interannual time scales, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 24, GB2003, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GB003354, 2010.
Rinne, J., Riutta, T., Pihlatie, M., Aurela, M., Haapanala, S., Tuovinen, J., Tuittila, E., and Versala, T.: Annual cycle of methane emission from a boreal fen measured by the eddy covariance technique, Tellus B, 59, 449–457, 2007.
Rowland, J. C., Jones, C. E., Altmann, G., Bryan, R., Crosby, B. T., Geernaert, G. L., Hinzman, L. D., Kane, D. L., Lawrence, D. M., Mancino, A., Marsh, P., McNamara, J. P., Romanovsky, V. E., Toniolo, H., Travis, J., Trochim, E., and Wilson, C. J.: Arctic landscapes in transition: Responses to thawing permafrost, Eos, 91, 229–230, 2010.
Running, S. W., Nemani, R. R., Heinsch, F. A., Zhao, M., Reeves, M., and Hashimoto, H.: A continuous satellite-derived measure of global terrestrial primary productivity: Future science and applications, Bioscience, 56, 547–560, 2004.
Schaefer, K., Zhang, T., Bruhwiler, L., and Barrett, A. P.: Amount and timing of permafrost carbon release in response to climate warming, Tellus B, 63, 165–180, 2011.
Schneider von Deimling, T., Meinshausen, M., Levermann, A., Huber, V., Frieler, K., Lawrence, D. M., and Brovkin, V.: Estimating the near-surface permafrost-carbon feedback on global warming, Biogeosciences, 9, 649–665, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-9-649-2012, 2012.
Schuur, E., Bockheim, J., Canadell, J., Euskirchen, E., Field, C., Goryachkin, S., Hagemann, S., Kuhry, P., Lafleur, P., and Lee, H.: Vulnerability of permafrost carbon to climate change: Implications for the global carbon cycle, Bioscience, 58, 701–714, 2008.
Schuur, E. A. G., Abbott, B. W., Bowden, W. B., Brovkin, V., Camill, P., Canadell, J. P., Chapin III, F. S., Christensen, T. R., Chanton, J. P., Ciais, P., Crill, P. M., Crosby, B. T., Czimczik, C. I., Grosse, G., Hayes, D. J., Hugelius, G., Jastrow, J. D., Kleinen, T., Koven, C. D., Krinner, G., Kuhry, P., Lawrence, D. M., Natali, S. M., O'Donnell, J. A., Ping, C. L., Rinke, A., Riley, W. J., Romanovsky, V. E., Sannel, A. B. K., Schädel, C., Schaefer, K., Subin, Z. M., Tarnocai, C., Turetsky, M., Walter-Anthony, K. M., Wilson, C. J., and Zimov, S. A.: High risk of permafrost thaw, Nature, 480, 32–33, 2011.
Serreze, M. C., Bromwich, D. H., Clark, M. P., Etringer, A. J., Zhang, T., and ammers, R.: Large-scale hydro-climatology of the terrestrial Arctic drainage system, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8160, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000919, 2003.
Shaver, G. R., Billings, W. D., Chapin, F. S., Giblin, A. E., Nadelhoffer, K. J., Oechel, W. C., and Rastetter, E. B.: Global change and the carbon balance of Arctic ecosystems, Bioscience, 42, 433–441, 1992.
Sitch, S., Smith, B., Prentice, I. C., Arneth, A., Bondeau, A., Cramer, W., Kaplan, J., Levis, S., Lucht, W., Sykes, M., Thonicke, K., and Venevsky, S.: Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ Dynamic Global Vegetation Model, Global Change Biol., 9, 161–185, 2003.
Sitch, S., McGuire, A. D., Kimball, J., Gedney, N., Gamon, J., Engstrom, R., Wolf, A., Zhuang, Q., Clein, J. S., and McDonald, K. C.: Assessing the carbon balance of circumpolar arctic tundra using remote sensing and process modeling, Ecol. Appl., 17, 213–234, 2007.
Sitch, S., Huntingford, C., Gedney, N., Levy, P. E., Lomas, M., Piao, S. L., Betts, R., Ciais, P., Cox, P., and Friedlingstein, P.: Evaluation of the terrestrial carbon cycle, future plant geography and climate-carbon cycle feedbacks using five Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs), Global Change Biol., 14, 2015–2039, 2008.
Smith, B., Prentice, I. C., and Sykes, M. T.: Representation of vegetation dynamics in modelling of terrestrial ecosystems: Comparing two contrasting approaches within European climate space, Global Ecol. Biogeogr., 10, 621–637, 2001.
Sörlin, S. and Danell, K.: 1st IPY Workshop on Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks: Workshop Report, available at: http://www.arcticobserving.org/images/stories/workshop_report/SAON1_report_total.pdf, 2008.
Snow, Water, Ice, and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA) Assessment: Executive Summary, Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) Secretariat. Oslo, Norway, available at: www.amap.no, 16 pp., 2011.
Tarnocai, C., Canadell, J. G., Schuur, E. A. G., Kuhry, P., Mazhitova, G., and Zimov, S.: Soil organic carbon pools in the northern circumpolar permafrost region, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 23, GB2023, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GB003327, 2009.
Thornton, P. E., Lamarque, J. F., Rosenbloom, N. A., and Mahowald, N. M.: Influence of carbon-nitrogen cycle coupling on land model response to CO2 fertilization and climate variability, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 21, GB4018, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GB002868, 2007.
Thornton, P. E., Doney, S. C., Lindsay, K., Moore, J. K., Mahowald, N., Randerson, J. T., Fung, I., Lamarque, J.-F., Feddema, J. J., and Lee, Y.-H.: Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, Biogeosciences, 6, 2099–2120, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-6-2099-2009, 2009.
Vlassova, T. K.: Human Impacts on the Tundra-Taiga Zone Dynamics: The case of the Russian Lesotundra, Ambio Special Report (Tundra-Taiga Treeline Research), 12, 30–36, 2002.
Wania, R., Ross, I., and Prentice, I. C.: Integrating peatlands and permafrost into a dynamic global vegetation model: I. Evaluation and sensitivity of physical land surface processes, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 23, GB3014, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GB003412, 2009a.
Wania, R., Ross, I., and Prentice, I. C.: Integrating peatlands and permafrost into a dynamic global vegetation model: II. Evaluation and sensitivity of vegetation and carbon cycle processes, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 23, GB015, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GB003413, 2009b.
Wania, R., Ross, I., and Prentice, I. C.: Implementation and evaluation of a new methane model within a dynamic global vegetation model: LPJ-WHyMe v1.3.1, Geosci. Model Dev., 3, 565–584, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-3-565-2010, 2010.
Woodward, F. I., Smith, T. M., and Emanuel, W. R.: A global land primary productivity and phytogeography model, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 9, 471–490, 1995.
Woodward, F. I. and Lomas, M. R.: Vegetation dynamics: simulating responses to climate change, Biol. Rev., 79, 643–670, 2004.
Zaehle, S. and Friend. A. D.: Carbon and nitrogen cycle dynamics in the O-CN land surface model: 1. Model description, site-scale evaluation and sensitivity to parameter estimates, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 24, GB1005, https://doi.org/1010.1029/2009GB003521, 2010.
Zhang, K., Kimball, J. S., Hogg, E. H., Zhao, M., Oechel, W. C., Cassano J. J., and Running, S. W.: Satellite-based model detection of recent climate driven changes in northern high latitude vegetation productivity, J. Geophys. Res., 113, G03033, https://doi.org/101029/2007JG000621, 2008.
Zhao, M. and Running, S. W.: Drought-induced reduction in global terrestrial net primary production from 2000–2009, Science, 329, 940–943, 2010.
Zhuang, Q., Romanovsky, V. E., and McGuire, A. D.: Incorporation of a permafrost model into a large-scale ecosystem model: Evaluation of temporal and spatial scaling issues in simulating soil thermal dynamics, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 33649–33670, 2001.
Zhuang, Q., McGuire, A. D., Melillo, J. M., Clein, J. S., Dargaville, R. J., Kicklighter, D. W., Myneni, R. B., Dong, J., Romanovsky, V. E., Harden, J., and Hobbie, J. E.: Carbon cycling in extratropical terrestrial ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere during the 20th century: a modeling analysis of the influences of soil thermal dynamics, Tellus B, 55, 751–776, 2003.
Zhuang, Q., Melillo, J. M., Kicklighter, D. W., Prinn, R. G., McGuire, A. D., Steudler, P. A., Felzer, B. S., and Hu, S.: Methane fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere at northern high latitudes during the past century: A retrospective analysis with a process-based biogeochemistry model, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 18, GB3010, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002239, 2004.
Zhuang, Q., Melillo, J. M., McGuire, A. D., Kicklighter, D. W., Prinn, R. G., Steudler, P. A., Felzer, B. S., and Hu, S.: Net emissions of CH4 and CO2 in Alaska: Implications for the region's greenhouse gas budget, Ecol. Appl., 17, 203–212, 2007.