Articles | Volume 14, issue 6
28 Mar 2017
Research article | 28 Mar 2017
Overestimation of closed-chamber soil CO2 effluxes at low atmospheric turbulence
Andreas Brændholt et al.
No articles found.
Jennifer A. Holm, David M. Medvigy, Benjamin Smith, Jeffrey S. Dukes, Claus Beier, Mikhail Mishurov, Xiangtao Xu, Jeremy W. Lichstein, Craig D. Allen, Klaus S. Larsen, Yiqi Luo, Cari Ficken, William T. Pockman, William R. L. Anderegg, and Anja Rammig
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
Unprecedented climate extremes (UCEs) are expected to have dramatic impacts for ecosystems. We examine extreme droughts with rising CO2 and temperatures using two dynamic vegetation models, to assess ecological processes to measure, and reduce model uncertainties. The models predict strong nonlinear responses to UCEs. Due to different model representations, the models differ in magnitude and trajectory of forest loss. Therefore, we explored specific plant responses that reflect knowledge gaps.
Matthias Mauder, Andreas Ibrom, Luise Wanner, Frederik De Roo, Peter Brugger, Ralf Kiese, and Kim Pilegaard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7835–7850,Short summary
Turbulent flux measurements suffer from a general systematic underestimation. One reason for this bias is non-local transport by large-scale circulations. A recently developed model for this additional transport of sensible and latent energy is evaluated for three different test sites. Different options on how to apply this correction are presented, and the results are evaluated against independent measurements.
Toprak Aslan, Olli Peltola, Andreas Ibrom, Eiko Nemitz, Üllar Rannik, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5089–5106,Short summary
Vertical turbulent fluxes of gases measured by the eddy covariance (EC) technique are subject to high-frequency losses. There are different methods used to describe this low-pass filtering effect and to correct the measured fluxes. In this study, we analysed the systematic uncertainty related to this correction for various attenuation and signal-to-noise ratios. A new and robust transfer function method is finally proposed.
Olli Peltola, Toprak Aslan, Andreas Ibrom, Eiko Nemitz, Üllar Rannik, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5071–5088,Short summary
Gas fluxes measured by the eddy covariance (EC) technique are subject to filtering due to non-ideal instrumentation. For linear first-order systems this filtering causes also a time lag between vertical wind speed and gas signal which is additional to the gas travel time in the sampling line. The effect of this additional time lag on EC fluxes is ignored in current EC data processing routines. Here we show that this oversight biases EC fluxes and hence propose an approach to rectify this bias.
Jan Pisek, Angela Erb, Lauri Korhonen, Tobias Biermann, Arnaud Carrara, Edoardo Cremonese, Matthias Cuntz, Silvano Fares, Giacomo Gerosa, Thomas Grünwald, Niklas Hase, Michal Heliasz, Andreas Ibrom, Alexander Knohl, Johannes Kobler, Bart Kruijt, Holger Lange, Leena Leppänen, Jean-Marc Limousin, Francisco Ramon Lopez Serrano, Denis Loustau, Petr Lukeš, Lars Lundin, Riccardo Marzuoli, Meelis Mölder, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Matthias Peichl, Corinna Rebmann, Eva Rubio, Margarida Santos-Reis, Crystal Schaaf, Marius Schmidt, Guillaume Simioni, Kamel Soudani, and Caroline Vincke
Biogeosciences, 18, 621–635,Short summary
Understory vegetation is the most diverse, least understood component of forests worldwide. Understory communities are important drivers of overstory succession and nutrient cycling. Multi-angle remote sensing enables us to describe surface properties by means that are not possible when using mono-angle data. Evaluated over an extensive set of forest ecosystem experimental sites in Europe, our reported method can deliver good retrievals, especially over different forest types with open canopies.
Virginie Moreaux, Simon Martel, Alexandre Bosc, Delphine Picart, David Achat, Christophe Moisy, Raphael Aussenac, Christophe Chipeaux, Jean-Marc Bonnefond, Soisick Figuères, Pierre Trichet, Rémi Vezy, Vincent Badeau, Bernard Longdoz, André Granier, Olivier Roupsard, Manuel Nicolas, Kim Pilegaard, Giorgio Matteucci, Claudy Jolivet, Andrew T. Black, Olivier Picard, and Denis Loustau
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5973–6009,Short summary
The model GO+ describes the functioning of managed forests based upon biophysical and biogeochemical processes. It accounts for the impacts of forest operations on energy, water and carbon exchanges within the soil–vegetation–atmosphere continuum. It includes versatile descriptions of management operations. Its sensitivity and uncertainty are detailed and predictions are compared with observations about mass and energy exchanges, hydrological data, and tree growth variables from different sites.
Sheng Wang, Monica Garcia, Andreas Ibrom, and Peter Bauer-Gottwein
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 24, 3643–3661,Short summary
Remote sensing only provides snapshots of rapidly changing land surface variables; this limits its application for water resources and ecosystem management. To obtain continuous estimates of surface temperature, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and ecosystem productivity, a simple and operational modelling scheme is presented. We demonstrate it with temporally sparse optical and thermal remote sensing data from an unmanned aerial system at a Danish bioenergy plantation eddy covariance site.
Christopher P. O. Reyer, Ramiro Silveyra Gonzalez, Klara Dolos, Florian Hartig, Ylva Hauf, Matthias Noack, Petra Lasch-Born, Thomas Rötzer, Hans Pretzsch, Henning Meesenburg, Stefan Fleck, Markus Wagner, Andreas Bolte, Tanja G. M. Sanders, Pasi Kolari, Annikki Mäkelä, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Jukka Pumpanen, Alessio Collalti, Carlo Trotta, Giorgio Matteucci, Ettore D'Andrea, Lenka Foltýnová, Jan Krejza, Andreas Ibrom, Kim Pilegaard, Denis Loustau, Jean-Marc Bonnefond, Paul Berbigier, Delphine Picart, Sébastien Lafont, Michael Dietze, David Cameron, Massimo Vieno, Hanqin Tian, Alicia Palacios-Orueta, Victor Cicuendez, Laura Recuero, Klaus Wiese, Matthias Büchner, Stefan Lange, Jan Volkholz, Hyungjun Kim, Joanna A. Horemans, Friedrich Bohn, Jörg Steinkamp, Alexander Chikalanov, Graham P. Weedon, Justin Sheffield, Flurin Babst, Iliusi Vega del Valle, Felicitas Suckow, Simon Martel, Mats Mahnken, Martin Gutsch, and Katja Frieler
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 1295–1320,Short summary
Process-based vegetation models are widely used to predict local and global ecosystem dynamics and climate change impacts. Due to their complexity, they require careful parameterization and evaluation to ensure that projections are accurate and reliable. The PROFOUND Database provides a wide range of empirical data to calibrate and evaluate vegetation models that simulate climate impacts at the forest stand scale to support systematic model intercomparisons and model development in Europe.
Chris R. Flechard, Andreas Ibrom, Ute M. Skiba, Wim de Vries, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Nancy B. Dise, Janne F. J. Korhonen, Nina Buchmann, Arnaud Legout, David Simpson, Maria J. Sanz, Marc Aubinet, Denis Loustau, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Ivan A. Janssens, Mari Pihlatie, Ralf Kiese, Jan Siemens, André-Jean Francez, Jürgen Augustin, Andrej Varlagin, Janusz Olejnik, Radosław Juszczak, Mika Aurela, Daniel Berveiller, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Ulrich Dämmgen, Nicolas Delpierre, Vesna Djuricic, Julia Drewer, Eric Dufrêne, Werner Eugster, Yannick Fauvel, David Fowler, Arnoud Frumau, André Granier, Patrick Gross, Yannick Hamon, Carole Helfter, Arjan Hensen, László Horváth, Barbara Kitzler, Bart Kruijt, Werner L. Kutsch, Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Michal V. Marek, Giorgio Matteucci, Marta Mitosinkova, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Kim Pilegaard, Gabriel Pita, Francisco Sanz, Jan K. Schjoerring, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Y. Sim Tang, Hilde Uggerud, Marek Urbaniak, Netty van Dijk, Timo Vesala, Sonja Vidic, Caroline Vincke, Tamás Weidinger, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Eiko Nemitz, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1583–1620,Short summary
Experimental evidence from a network of 40 monitoring sites in Europe suggests that atmospheric nitrogen deposition to forests and other semi-natural vegetation impacts the carbon sequestration rates in ecosystems, as well as the net greenhouse gas balance including other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Excess nitrogen deposition in polluted areas also leads to other environmental impacts such as nitrogen leaching to groundwater and other pollutant gaseous emissions.
Chris R. Flechard, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Wim de Vries, Andreas Ibrom, Nina Buchmann, Nancy B. Dise, Ivan A. Janssens, Johan Neirynck, Leonardo Montagnani, Andrej Varlagin, Denis Loustau, Arnaud Legout, Klaudia Ziemblińska, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Julia Drewer, Werner Eugster, André-Jean Francez, Radosław Juszczak, Barbara Kitzler, Werner L. Kutsch, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Giorgio Matteucci, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Janusz Olejnik, Maria J. Sanz, Jan Siemens, Timo Vesala, Caroline Vincke, Eiko Nemitz, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Ute M. Skiba, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1621–1654,Short summary
Nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere to unfertilized terrestrial vegetation such as forests can increase carbon dioxide uptake and favour carbon sequestration by ecosystems. However the data from observational networks are difficult to interpret in terms of a carbon-to-nitrogen response, because there are a number of other confounding factors, such as climate, soil physical properties and fertility, and forest age. We propose a model-based method to untangle the different influences.
Anne Sofie Lansø, Thomas Luke Smallman, Jesper Heile Christensen, Mathew Williams, Kim Pilegaard, Lise-Lotte Sørensen, and Camilla Geels
Biogeosciences, 16, 1505–1524,Short summary
Although coastal regions only amount to 7 % of the global oceans, their contribution to the global oceanic surface exchange of CO2 is much greater. In this study, we gain detailed insight into how these coastal marine fluxes compare to CO2 exchange from coastal land regions. Annually, the coastal marine exchanges are smaller than the total uptake of CO2 from the land surfaces within the study area but comparable in size to terrestrial fluxes from individual land cover classes of the region.
Christian Brümmer, Bjarne Lyshede, Dirk Lempio, Jean-Pierre Delorme, Jeremy J. Rüffer, Roland Fuß, Antje M. Moffat, Miriam Hurkuck, Andreas Ibrom, Per Ambus, Heinz Flessa, and Werner L. Kutsch
Biogeosciences, 14, 1365–1381,Short summary
We present a novel chamber design for measuring soil–atmosphere N2O fluxes and compare the performance of a commonly applied gas chromatography (GC) setup with laser-based (QCL) concentration detection. While GC was still a useful method for longer-term investigations, we found that closure times of 10 min and sampling every 5 s is sufficient when using a QCL system. Further, extremely low standard errors (< 2 % of flux value) were observed regardless of linear or exponential flux calculation.
Undine Zöll, Christian Brümmer, Frederik Schrader, Christof Ammann, Andreas Ibrom, Christophe R. Flechard, David D. Nelson, Mark Zahniser, and Werner L. Kutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11283–11299,Short summary
Accurate quantification of atmospheric ammonia concentration and exchange fluxes with the land surface has been a major metrological challenge. We demonstrate the applicability of a novel laser device to identify concentration and flux patterns over a peatland ecosystem influenced by nearby agricultural practices. Results help to strengthen air quality monitoring networks, lead to better understanding of ecosystem functionality and improve parameterizations in air chemistry and transport models.
A. Collalti, S. Marconi, A. Ibrom, C. Trotta, A. Anav, E. D'Andrea, G. Matteucci, L. Montagnani, B. Gielen, I. Mammarella, T. Grünwald, A. Knohl, F. Berninger, Y. Zhao, R. Valentini, and M. Santini
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 479–504,Short summary
This study evaluates the performances of the new version (v.5.1) of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model in simulating gross primary productivity (GPP), against eddy covariance GPP data for 10 FLUXNET forest sites across Europe. The model consistently reproduces both in timing and in magnitude daily and monthly GPP variability across all sites, with the exception of the two Mediterranean sites. Inclusion of forest structure within simulation ameliorate in some cases the model output.
A. Olchev, A. Ibrom, O. Panferov, D. Gushchina, H. Kreilein, V. Popov, P. Propastin, T. June, A. Rauf, G. Gravenhorst, and A. Knohl
Biogeosciences, 12, 6655–6667,Short summary
The time series analysis of the main meteorological parameters and components of CO2 and H2O fluxes showed a high evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary production (GPP) sensitivity of the tropical rainforest to meteorological variations caused by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. Incoming solar radiation is the main governing factor that is responsible for ET and GPP variability. Changes in precipitation due to moderate ENSO events did not have any notable effect on ET and GPP.
L. Wingate, J. Ogée, E. Cremonese, G. Filippa, T. Mizunuma, M. Migliavacca, C. Moisy, M. Wilkinson, C. Moureaux, G. Wohlfahrt, A. Hammerle, L. Hörtnagl, C. Gimeno, A. Porcar-Castell, M. Galvagno, T. Nakaji, J. Morison, O. Kolle, A. Knohl, W. Kutsch, P. Kolari, E. Nikinmaa, A. Ibrom, B. Gielen, W. Eugster, M. Balzarolo, D. Papale, K. Klumpp, B. Köstner, T. Grünwald, R. Joffre, J.-M. Ourcival, M. Hellstrom, A. Lindroth, C. George, B. Longdoz, B. Genty, J. Levula, B. Heinesch, M. Sprintsin, D. Yakir, T. Manise, D. Guyon, H. Ahrends, A. Plaza-Aguilar, J. H. Guan, and J. Grace
Biogeosciences, 12, 5995–6015,Short summary
The timing of plant development stages and their response to climate and management were investigated using a network of digital cameras installed across different European ecosystems. Using the relative red, green and blue content of images we showed that the green signal could be used to estimate the length of the growing season in broadleaf forests. We also developed a model that predicted the seasonal variations of camera RGB signals and how they relate to leaf pigment content and area well.
L. Wang, A. Ibrom, J. F. J. Korhonen, K. F. Arnoud Frumau, J. Wu, M. Pihlatie, and J. K. Schjoerring
Biogeosciences, 10, 999–1011,
G. Lasslop, M. Migliavacca, G. Bohrer, M. Reichstein, M. Bahn, A. Ibrom, C. Jacobs, P. Kolari, D. Papale, T. Vesala, G. Wohlfahrt, and A. Cescatti
Biogeosciences, 9, 5243–5259,
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Brendan Byrne, Junjie Liu, Yonghong Yi, Abhishek Chatterjee, Sourish Basu, Rui Cheng, Russell Doughty, Frédéric Chevallier, Kevin W. Bowman, Nicholas C. Parazoo, David Crisp, Xing Li, Jingfeng Xiao, Stephen Sitch, Bertrand Guenet, Feng Deng, Matthew S. Johnson, Sajeev Philip, Patrick C. McGuire, and Charles E. Miller
Biogeosciences, 19, 4779–4799,Short summary
Plants draw CO2 from the atmosphere during the growing season, while respiration releases CO2 to the atmosphere throughout the year, driving seasonal variations in atmospheric CO2 that can be observed by satellites, such as the Orbiting Carbon Observatory 2 (OCO-2). Using OCO-2 XCO2 data and space-based constraints on plant growth, we show that permafrost-rich northeast Eurasia has a strong seasonal release of CO2 during the autumn, hinting at an unexpectedly large respiration signal from soils.
Valery A. Isidorov and Andrej A. Zaitsev
Biogeosciences, 19, 4715–4746,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a critical role in earth-system processes: they are
main playersin the formation of tropospheric O3 and secondary aerosols, which have a significant impact on climate, human health and crops. A complex mixture of VOCs, formed as a result of physicochemical and biological processes, is released into the atmosphere from the forest floor. This review presents data on the composition of VOCs and contribution of various processes to their emissions.
David S. McLagan, Harald Biester, Tomas Navrátil, Stephan M. Kraemer, and Lorenz Schwab
Biogeosciences, 19, 4415–4429,Short summary
Spruce and larch trees are effective archiving species for historical atmospheric mercury using growth rings of bole wood. Mercury stable isotope analysis proved an effective tool to characterise industrial mercury signals and assess mercury uptake pathways (leaf uptake for both wood and bark) and mercury cycling within the trees. These data detail important information for understanding the mercury biogeochemical cycle particularly in forest systems.
Xin Yu, René Orth, Markus Reichstein, Michael Bahn, Anne Klosterhalfen, Alexander Knohl, Franziska Koebsch, Mirco Migliavacca, Martina Mund, Jacob A. Nelson, Benjamin D. Stocker, Sophia Walther, and Ana Bastos
Biogeosciences, 19, 4315–4329,Short summary
Identifying drought legacy effects is challenging because they are superimposed on variability driven by climate conditions in the recovery period. We develop a residual-based approach to quantify legacies on gross primary productivity (GPP) from eddy covariance data. The GPP reduction due to legacy effects is comparable to the concurrent effects at two sites in Germany, which reveals the importance of legacy effects. Our novel methodology can be used to quantify drought legacies elsewhere.
Anders Lindroth, Norbert Pirk, Ingibjörg S. Jónsdóttir, Christian Stiegler, Leif Klemedtsson, and Mats B. Nilsson
Biogeosciences, 19, 3921–3934,Short summary
We measured the fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane between a moist moss tundra and the atmosphere on Svalbard in order to better understand how such ecosystems are affecting the climate and vice versa. We found that the system was a small sink of carbon dioxide and a small source of methane. These fluxes are small in comparison with other tundra ecosystems in the high Arctic. Analysis of temperature sensitivity showed that respiration was more sensitive than photosynthesis above about 6 ℃.
Phillip Papastefanou, Christian S. Zang, Zlatan Angelov, Aline Anderson de Castro, Juan Carlos Jimenez, Luiz Felipe Campos De Rezende, Romina C. Ruscica, Boris Sakschewski, Anna A. Sörensson, Kirsten Thonicke, Carolina Vera, Nicolas Viovy, Celso Von Randow, and Anja Rammig
Biogeosciences, 19, 3843–3861,Short summary
The Amazon rainforest has been hit by multiple severe drought events. In this study, we assess the severity and spatial extent of the extreme drought years 2005, 2010 and 2015/16 in the Amazon. Using nine different precipitation datasets and three drought indicators we find large differences in drought stress across the Amazon region. We conclude that future studies should use multiple rainfall datasets and drought indicators when estimating the impact of drought stress in the Amazon region.
Haiyang Shi, Geping Luo, Olaf Hellwich, Mingjuan Xie, Chen Zhang, Yu Zhang, Yuangang Wang, Xiuliang Yuan, Xiaofei Ma, Wenqiang Zhang, Alishir Kurban, Philippe De Maeyer, and Tim Van de Voorde
Biogeosciences, 19, 3739–3756,Short summary
A number of studies have been conducted by using machine learning approaches to simulate carbon fluxes. We performed a meta-analysis of these net ecosystem exchange (NEE) simulations. Random forests and support vector machines performed better than other algorithms. Models with larger timescales had a lower accuracy. For different plant functional types (PFTs), there were significant differences in the predictors used and their effects on model accuracy.
Michael Staudt, Juliane Daussy, Joseph Ingabire, and Nafissa Dehimeche
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We studied the short- and long-term effects of CO2 as a function of temperature on monoterpene emissions from holm oak. Similar to isoprene, emissions decreased nonlinearly with increasing CO2, with no differences among compounds and chemotypes. The CO2 response was modulated by actual leaf and growth temperature, but not by growth CO2. Estimates of annual monoterpene release under double CO2 suggest that CO2 inhibition does not offset the increase in emissions due to expected warming.
Siqi Li, Wei Zhang, Xunhua Zheng, Yong Li, Shenghui Han, Rui Wang, Kai Wang, Zhisheng Yao, Chunyan Liu, and Chong Zhang
Biogeosciences, 19, 3001–3019,Short summary
The CNMM–DNDC model was modified to simulate ammonia volatilization (AV) from croplands. AV from cultivated uplands followed the first-order kinetics, which was jointly regulated by the factors of soil properties and meteorological conditions. AV simulation from rice paddy fields was improved by incorporating Jayaweera–Mikkelsen mechanisms. The modified model performed well in simulating the observed cumulative AV measured from 63 fertilization events in China.
Matthias Volk, Matthias Suter, Anne-Lena Wahl, and Seraina Bassin
Biogeosciences, 19, 2921–2937,Short summary
Because soils are an important sink for greenhouse gasses, we subjected sub-alpine grassland to a six-level climate change treatment. Two independent methods showed that at warming > 1.5 °C the grassland ecosystem lost ca. 14 % or ca. 1 kg C m−2 in 5 years. This shrinking of the terrestrial C sink implies a substantial positive feedback to the atmospheric greenhouse effect. It is likely that this dramatic C loss is a transient effect before a new, climate-adjusted steady state is reached.
Johan A. Eckdahl, Jeppe A. Kristensen, and Daniel B. Metcalfe
Biogeosciences, 19, 2487–2506,Short summary
This study found climate to be a driving force for increasing per area emissions of greenhouse gases and removal of important nutrients from high-latitude forests due to wildfire. It used detailed direct measurements over a large area to uncover patterns and mechanisms of restructuring of forest carbon and nitrogen pools that are extrapolatable to larger regions. It also takes a step forward in filling gaps in global knowledge of northern forest response to climate-change-strengthened wildfires.
Sparkle L. Malone, Youmi Oh, Kyle A. Arndt, George Burba, Roisin Commane, Alexandra R. Contosta, Jordan P. Goodrich, Henry W. Loescher, Gregory Starr, and Ruth K. Varner
Biogeosciences, 19, 2507–2522,Short summary
To understand the CH4 flux potential of natural ecosystems and agricultural lands in the United States of America, a multi-scale CH4 observation network focused on CH4 flux rates, processes, and scaling methods is required. This can be achieved with a network of ground-based observations that are distributed based on climatic regions and land cover.
Bruna R. F. Oliveira, Jan J. Keizer, and Thomas Foken
Biogeosciences, 19, 2235–2243,Short summary
This study analyzes the impacts of this windthrow on the aerodynamic characteristics of zero-plane displacement and roughness length and, ultimately, their implications for the turbulent fluxes. The turbulent fluxes were only affected to a minor degree by the windthrow, but the footprint area of the flux tower changed markedly so that the target area of the measurements had to be redetermined.
Minttu Havu, Liisa Kulmala, Pasi Kolari, Timo Vesala, Anu Riikonen, and Leena Järvi
Biogeosciences, 19, 2121–2143,Short summary
The carbon sequestration potential of two street tree species and the soil beneath them was quantified with the urban land surface model SUEWS and the soil carbon model Yasso. The street tree plantings turned into a modest sink of carbon from the atmosphere after 14 years. Overall, the results indicate the importance of soil in urban carbon sequestration estimations, as soil respiration exceeded the carbon uptake in the early phase, due to the high initial carbon loss from the soil.
Jarmo Mäkelä, Laila Melkas, Ivan Mammarella, Tuomo Nieminen, Suyog Chandramouli, Rafael Savvides, and Kai Puolamäki
Biogeosciences, 19, 2095–2099,Short summary
Causal structure discovery algorithms have been making headway into Earth system sciences, and they can be used to increase our understanding on biosphere–atmosphere interactions. In this paper we present a procedure on how to utilize prior knowledge of the domain experts together with these algorithms in order to find more robust causal structure models. We also demonstrate how to avoid pitfalls such as over-fitting and concept drift during this process.
Makoto Saito, Tomohiro Shiraishi, Ryuichi Hirata, Yosuke Niwa, Kazuyuki Saito, Martin Steinbacher, Doug Worthy, and Tsuneo Matsunaga
Biogeosciences, 19, 2059–2078,Short summary
This study tested combinations of two sources of AGB data and two sources of LCC data and used the same burned area satellite data to estimate BB CO emissions. Our analysis showed large discrepancies in annual mean CO emissions and explicit differences in the simulated CO concentrations among the BB emissions estimates. This study has confirmed that BB emissions estimates are sensitive to the land surface information on which they are based.
Johannes Gensheimer, Alexander J. Turner, Philipp Köhler, Christian Frankenberg, and Jia Chen
Biogeosciences, 19, 1777–1793,Short summary
We develop a convolutional neural network, named SIFnet, that increases the spatial resolution of SIF from TROPOMI by a factor of 10 to a spatial resolution of 0.005°. SIFnet utilizes coarse SIF observations, together with a broad range of high-resolution auxiliary data. The insights gained from interpretable machine learning techniques allow us to make quantitative claims about the relationships between SIF and other common parameters related to photosynthesis.
Shihan Sun, Amos P. K. Tai, David H. Y. Yung, Anthony Y. H. Wong, Jason A. Ducker, and Christopher D. Holmes
Biogeosciences, 19, 1753–1776,Short summary
We developed and used a terrestrial biosphere model to compare and evaluate widely used empirical dry deposition schemes with different stomatal approaches and found that using photosynthesis-based stomatal approaches can reduce biases in modeled dry deposition velocities in current chemical transport models. Our study shows systematic errors in current dry deposition schemes and the importance of representing plant ecophysiological processes in models under a changing climate.
Ka Ming Fung, Maria Val Martin, and Amos P. K. Tai
Biogeosciences, 19, 1635–1655,Short summary
Fertilizer-induced ammonia detrimentally affects the environment by not only directly damaging ecosystems but also indirectly altering climate and soil fertility. To quantify these secondary impacts, we enabled CESM to simulate ammonia emission, chemical evolution, and deposition as a continuous cycle. If synthetic fertilizer use is to soar by 30 % from today's level, we showed that the counteracting impacts will increase the global ammonia emission by 3.3 Tg N per year.
Lena Wohlgemuth, Pasi Rautio, Bernd Ahrends, Alexander Russ, Lars Vesterdal, Peter Waldner, Volkmar Timmermann, Nadine Eickenscheidt, Alfred Fürst, Martin Greve, Peter Roskams, Anne Thimonier, Manuel Nicolas, Anna Kowalska, Morten Ingerslev, Päivi Merilä, Sue Benham, Carmen Iacoban, Günter Hoch, Christine Alewell, and Martin Jiskra
Biogeosciences, 19, 1335–1353,Short summary
Gaseous mercury is present in the atmosphere all over the globe. During the growing season, plants take up mercury from the air in a similar way as CO2. We investigated which factors impact this vegetational mercury uptake by analyzing a large dataset of leaf mercury uptake rates of trees in Europe. As a result, we conclude that mercury uptake is foremost controlled by tree-intrinsic traits like physiological activity but also by climatic factors like dry conditions in the air and in soils.
Junqi Wei, Xiaoyan Li, Lei Liu, Torben Røjle Christensen, Zhiyun Jiang, Yujun Ma, Xiuchen Wu, Hongyun Yao, and Efrén López-Blanco
Biogeosciences, 19, 861–875,Short summary
Although water availability has been linked to the response of ecosystem carbon (C) sink–source to climate warming, the mechanisms by which C uptake responds to soil moisture remain unclear. We explored how soil water and other environmental drivers modulate net C uptake in an alpine swamp meadow. Results reveal that nearly saturated soil conditions during warm seasons can help to maintain lower ecosystem respiration and therefore enhance the C sequestration capacity in this alpine swamp meadow.
Martijn M. T. A. Pallandt, Jitendra Kumar, Marguerite Mauritz, Edward A. G. Schuur, Anna-Maria Virkkala, Gerardo Celis, Forrest M. Hoffman, and Mathias Göckede
Biogeosciences, 19, 559–583,Short summary
Thawing of Arctic permafrost soils could trigger the release of vast amounts of carbon to the atmosphere, thus enhancing climate change. Our study investigated how well the current network of eddy covariance sites to monitor greenhouse gas exchange at local scales captures pan-Arctic flux patterns. We identified large coverage gaps, e.g., in Siberia, but also demonstrated that a targeted addition of relatively few sites can significantly improve network performance.
Pascal Wintjen, Frederik Schrader, Martijn Schaap, Burkhard Beudert, and Christian Brümmer
Biogeosciences, 19, 389–413,Short summary
Fluxes of total reactive nitrogen (∑Nr) over a low polluted forest were analyzed with regard to their temporal dynamics. Mostly deposition was observed with median fluxes ranging from −15 to −5 ng N m−2 s−1, corresponding to a range of deposition velocities from 0.2 to 0.5 cm s−1. While seasonally changing contributions of NH3 and NOx to the ∑Nr signal were found, we estimate an annual total N deposition (dry+wet) of 12.2 and 10.9 kg N ha−1 a−1 in the 2 years of observation.
Thomas M. Blattmann
Biogeosciences, 19, 359–373,Short summary
This work enunciates the possibility of kerogen oxidation contributing to atmospheric CO2 increase in the wake of glacial episodes. This hypothesis is substantiated by several lines of independent evidence synthesized in this contribution. The author hypothesizes that the deglaciation of kerogen-rich lithologies in western Canada contributed to the characteristic deglacial increase in atmospheric CO2.
Juliana Gil-Loaiza, Joseph R. Roscioli, Joanne H. Shorter, Till H. M. Volkmann, Wei-Ren Ng, Jordan E. Krechmer, and Laura K. Meredith
Biogeosciences, 19, 165–185,Short summary
We evaluated a new diffusive soil probe integrated with high-resolution gas analyzers to measure soil gases in real time at a centimeter scale. Using columns with simple silica and soil, we captured changes in carbon dioxide (CO2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrous oxide (N2O) with its isotopes to distinguish potential nutrient sources and microbial metabolism. This approach will advance the use of soil gases as important signals to understand and monitor soil fertility and health.
Yujie Wang and Christian Frankenberg
Biogeosciences, 19, 29–45,Short summary
Modeling vegetation canopy is important in predicting whether the land remains a carbon sink to mitigate climate change in the near future. Vegetation canopy model complexity, however, impacts the model-predicted carbon and water fluxes as well as canopy fluorescence, even if the same suite of model inputs is used. Given the biases caused by canopy model complexity, we recommend not misusing parameters inverted using different models or assumptions.
Håkan Pleijel, Jenny Klingberg, Michelle Nerentorp, Malin C. Broberg, Brigitte Nyirambangutse, John Munthe, and Göran Wallin
Biogeosciences, 18, 6313–6328,Short summary
Mercury is a problematic metal in the environment. It is crucial to understand the Hg circulation in ecosystems. We explored the mercury concentration in foliage from a diverse set of plants, locations and sampling periods to study the accumulation of Hg in leaves–needles over time. Mercury was always higher in older tissue: in broadleaved trees, conifers and wheat. Specific leaf area, the leaf area per unit leaf mass, turned out to be critical for Hg accumulation in leaves–needles.
Julia Burkart, Jürgen Gratzl, Teresa M. Seifried, Paul Bieber, and Hinrich Grothe
Biogeosciences, 18, 5751–5765,Short summary
Extracts of birch pollen grains are known to be ice nucleation active and thus impact cloud formation and climate. In this study we develop an extraction method to separate subpollen particles from ice nucleating macromolecules. Our results thereby illustrate that ice nucleating macromolecules can be washed off the subpollen particles and that the ice activity is linked to the presence of proteins.
Teresa Vogl, Amy Hrdina, and Christoph K. Thomas
Biogeosciences, 18, 5097–5115,Short summary
The relaxed eddy accumulation technique is a method used for measuring fluxes of chemical species in the atmosphere. It relies on a proportionality factor, β, which can be determined using different methods. Also, different techniques for sampling can be used by only drawing air into the measurement system when vertical wind velocity exceeds a certain threshold. We compare different ways to obtain β and different threshold techniques to direct flux measurements for three different sites.
Maria Prass, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Paulo Artaxo, Florian Ditas, Wolfgang Elbert, Jan-David Förster, Marco Aurélio Franco, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Thomas Klimach, Leslie Ann Kremper, Eckhard Thines, David Walter, Jens Weber, Bettina Weber, Bernhard M. Fuchs, Ulrich Pöschl, and Christopher Pöhlker
Biogeosciences, 18, 4873–4887,Short summary
Bioaerosols in the atmosphere over the Amazon rain forest were analyzed by molecular biological staining and microscopy. Eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal aerosols were quantified in time series and altitude profiles which exhibited clear differences in number concentrations and vertical distributions. Our results provide insights into the sources and dispersion of different Amazonian bioaerosol types as a basis for a better understanding of biosphere–atmosphere interactions.
Michael P. Adams, Nina S. Atanasova, Svetlana Sofieva, Janne Ravantti, Aino Heikkinen, Zoé Brasseur, Jonathan Duplissy, Dennis H. Bamford, and Benjamin J. Murray
Biogeosciences, 18, 4431–4444,Short summary
The formation of ice in clouds is critically important for the planet's climate. Hence, we need to know which aerosol types nucleate ice and how effectively they do so. Here we show that virus particles, with a range of architectures, nucleate ice when immersed in supercooled water. However, we also show that they only make a minor contribution to the ice-nucleating particle population in the terrestrial atmosphere, but we cannot rule them out as being important in the marine environment.
Laura Heimsch, Annalea Lohila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Henriikka Vekuri, Jussi Heinonsalo, Olli Nevalainen, Mika Korkiakoski, Jari Liski, Tuomas Laurila, and Liisa Kulmala
Biogeosciences, 18, 3467–3483,Short summary
CO2 and H2O fluxes were measured at a newly established eddy covariance site in southern Finland for 2 years from 2018 to 2020. This agricultural grassland site focuses on the conversion from intensive towards more sustainable agricultural management. The first summer experienced prolonged dry periods, and notably larger fluxes were observed in the second summer. The field acted as a net carbon sink during both study years.
Anteneh Getachew Mengistu, Gizaw Mengistu Tsidu, Gerbrand Koren, Maurits L. Kooreman, K. Folkert Boersma, Torbern Tagesson, Jonas Ardö, Yann Nouvellon, and Wouter Peters
Biogeosciences, 18, 2843–2857,Short summary
In this study, we assess the usefulness of Sun-Induced Fluorescence of Terrestrial Ecosystems Retrieval (SIFTER) data from the GOME-2A instrument and near-infrared reflectance of vegetation (NIRv) from MODIS to capture the seasonality and magnitudes of gross primary production (GPP) derived from six eddy-covariance flux towers in Africa in the overlap years between 2007–2014. We also test the robustness of sun-induced fluoresence and NIRv to compare the seasonality of GPP for the major biomes.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Matthias Sörgel, Paulo Artaxo, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Biogeosciences, 18, 2809–2825,Short summary
The exchange of the gas ammonia between the atmosphere and the surface is an important biogeochemical process, but little is known of this exchange for certain ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest. This study took measurements of ammonia exchange over an Amazon rainforest site and subsequently modelled the observed deposition and emission patterns. We observed emissions of ammonia from the rainforest, which can be simulated accurately by using a canopy resistance modelling approach.
Gemma Purser, Julia Drewer, Mathew R. Heal, Robert A. S. Sircus, Lara K. Dunn, and James I. L. Morison
Biogeosciences, 18, 2487–2510,Short summary
Short-rotation forest plantations could help reduce greenhouse gases but can emit biogenic volatile organic compounds. Emissions were measured at a plantation trial in Scotland. Standardised emissions of isoprene from foliage were higher from hybrid aspen than from Sitka spruce and low from Italian alder. Emissions of total monoterpene were lower. The forest floor was only a small source. Model estimates suggest an SRF expansion of 0.7 Mha could increase total UK emissions between < 1 %–35 %.
Daniel Diaz-de-Quijano, Aleksander Vladimirovich Ageev, Elena Anatolevna Ivanova, and Olesia Valerevna Anishchenko
Biogeosciences, 18, 1601–1618,Short summary
Winter atmospheric nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) depositions were measured for the first time in the Western Sayan Mountains (Siberia). The low and very low atmospheric N and P depositions could be responsible for the observed lake phytoplankton N–P colimitation. We hypothesize that slight imbalances in the nutrient deposition, as expected in the context of global change (climate, forest fires and anthropogenic nitrogen emissions), could have important effects on the ecology of these lakes.
Paul C. Stoy, Adam A. Cook, John E. Dore, Natascha Kljun, William Kleindl, E. N. Jack Brookshire, and Tobias Gerken
Biogeosciences, 18, 961–975,Short summary
The reintroduction of American bison creates multiple environmental benefits. Ruminants like bison also emit methane – a potent greenhouse gas – to the atmosphere, which has not been measured to date in a field setting. We measured methane efflux from an American bison herd during winter using eddy covariance. Automated cameras were used to approximate their location to calculate per-animal flux. From the measurements, bison do not emit more methane than the cattle they often replace.
Philipp A. Nauer, Eleonora Chiri, Thanavit Jirapanjawat, Chris Greening, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 18, 729–737,Short summary
Hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are atmospheric trace gases cycled via microbial metabolisms. We observed strong H2 and CO contamination from rubber septa used to seal common gas sample storage vials. Here we propose a simple and inexpensive modification of such vials to allow reliable storage of H2, CO and methane trace-gas samples for timescales of weeks to months, thus enabling extensive field campaigns to investigate H2 and CO biogeochemistry in remote areas.
Jize Jiang, David S. Stevenson, Aimable Uwizeye, Giuseppe Tempio, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 18, 135–158,Short summary
Ammonia is a key water and air pollutant and impacts human health and climate change. Ammonia emissions mainly originate from agriculture. We find that chicken agriculture contributes to large ammonia emissions, especially in hot and wet regions. These emissions can be greatly affected by the local environment, i.e. temperature and humidity, and also by human management. We develop a model that suggests ammonia emissions from chicken farming are likely to increase under a warming climate.
Richard Wehr and Scott R. Saleska
Biogeosciences, 18, 13–24,Short summary
Water and carbon exchange between plants and the atmosphere is governed by stomata: adjustable pores in the surfaces of leaves. The combined gas conductance of all the stomata in a canopy has long been estimated using an equation that is shown here to be systematically incorrect because it relies on measurements that are generally inadequate. An alternative approach is shown to be more accurate in all probable scenarios and to imply different responses of stomatal conductance to the environment.
Bart Schilperoort, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, César Jiménez Rodríguez, Christiaan van der Tol, Bas van de Wiel, and Hubert Savenije
Biogeosciences, 17, 6423–6439,Short summary
With distributed temperature sensing (DTS) we measured a vertical temperature profile in a forest, from the forest floor to above the treetops. Using this temperature profile we can see which parts of the forest canopy are colder (thus more dense) or warmer (and less dense) and study the effect this has on the suppression of turbulent mixing. This can be used to improve our knowledge of the interaction between the atmosphere and forests and improve carbon dioxide flux measurements over forests.
Yayi Niu, Yuqiang Li, Hanbo Yun, Xuyang Wang, Xiangwen Gong, Yulong Duan, and Jing Liu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6309–6326,Short summary
We report the results from continuous year-round CO2 observations from a sandy grassland in the Horqin Sandy Land using the eddy covariance technique. To quantify the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variation in net ecosystem CO2 exchange, gross primary productivity, and ecosystem respiration and to identify the different scales of environmental factors and the underlying mechanisms, we also explored how the annual precipitation affects the net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its components.
Hélène Angot, Katelyn McErlean, Lu Hu, Dylan B. Millet, Jacques Hueber, Kaixin Cui, Jacob Moss, Catherine Wielgasz, Tyler Milligan, Damien Ketcherside, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, and Detlev Helmig
Biogeosciences, 17, 6219–6236,Short summary
We report biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) ambient levels and emission rates from key vegetation species in the Alaskan arctic tundra, providing a new data set to further constrain isoprene chemistry under low NOx conditions in models. We add to the growing body of evidence that climate-induced changes in the vegetation composition will significantly affect the BVOC emission potential of the tundra, with implications for atmospheric oxidation processes and climate feedbacks.
Teresa M. Seifried, Paul Bieber, Laura Felgitsch, Julian Vlasich, Florian Reyzek, David G. Schmale III, and Hinrich Grothe
Biogeosciences, 17, 5655–5667,
Biogeosciences, 17, 5587–5598,Short summary
FLUXNET is a large, bottom-up, self-coordinated network of sites. It provided ecosystem–atmosphere greenhouse gas fluxes from stations around the world that were used as bases for a large number of publications and studies. Today many applications require recent updates on the data to track more closely the ecosystem responses to climate change and link ground data with satellite programs. For this reason, a new organization of FLUXNET is needed, keeping as its target the FAIR principles.
Christian Markwitz, Alexander Knohl, and Lukas Siebicke
Biogeosciences, 17, 5183–5208,Short summary
Agroforestry has been shown to alter the microclimate and to lead to higher carbon sequestration above ground and in the soil. In this study, we investigated the impact of agroforestry systems on system-scale evapotranspiration (ET) due to concerns about increased water losses to the atmosphere. Results showed small differences in annual sums of ET over agroforestry relative to monoculture systems, indicating that agroforestry in Germany can be a land use alternative to monoculture agriculture.
Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Simon Schallhart, Virpi Tarvainen, Jaana Bäck, and Heidi Hellén
Biogeosciences, 17, 4681–4705,Short summary
In this paper, we study emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from three boreal tree species. Individual compounds are quantified with on-line separation analytical techniques, while the total reactivity of the emissions is measured using a custom-built instrument. On some occasions, in particular when the trees suffer from stress, the total reactivity measured is higher than the sum of the reactivity of individual compounds. This indicates that the threes emit VOCs that remain unknown.
June Skeeter, Andreas Christen, Andrée-Anne Laforce, Elyn Humphreys, and Greg Henry
Biogeosciences, 17, 4421–4441,Short summary
This study investigates carbon fluxes at Illisarvik, an artificial drained thermokarst lake basin (DTLB) in Canada's Northwest Territories. This is the first carbon balance study in a DTLB outside of Alaska. We used neural networks to identify the factors controlling fluxes and to model the effects of the controlling factors. We discuss the role of vegetation heterogeneity in fluxes, especially of methane, and we show how the carbon fluxes differ from Alaskan DTLBs.
Anne J. Hoek van Dijke, Kaniska Mallick, Martin Schlerf, Miriam Machwitz, Martin Herold, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Biogeosciences, 17, 4443–4457,Short summary
We investigated the link between the vegetation leaf area index (LAI) and the land–atmosphere exchange of water, energy, and carbon fluxes. We show that the correlation between the LAI and water and energy fluxes depends on the vegetation type and aridity. For carbon fluxes, however, the correlation with the LAI was strong and independent of vegetation and aridity. This study provides insight into when the vegetation LAI can be used to model or extrapolate land–atmosphere fluxes.
Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Patrizia Ney, Oscar Hartogensis, Hugo de Boer, Kevin van Diepen, Dzhaner Emin, Geiske de Groot, Anne Klosterhalfen, Matthias Langensiepen, Maria Matveeva, Gabriela Miranda-García, Arnold F. Moene, Uwe Rascher, Thomas Röckmann, Getachew Adnew, Nicolas Brüggemann, Youri Rothfuss, and Alexander Graf
Biogeosciences, 17, 4375–4404,Short summary
The CloudRoots field experiment has obtained an open comprehensive observational data set that includes soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to investigate the interactions between a heterogeneous land surface and its overlying atmospheric boundary layer, including the rapid perturbations of clouds in evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate that in order to understand and represent diurnal variability, we need to measure and model processes from the leaf to the landscape scales.
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In this study we found that CO2 fluxes from soil measured by the closed-chamber technique were overestimated during low atmospheric turbulence. This resulted in biased courses of CO2 fluxes during a day. We removed CO2 fluxes measured at low turbulence, which gave better flux estimates. We furthermore tested a novel technique that provided good measurement during low turbulence, thereby giving better estimates of CO2 emissions from soils, which is a crucial part of the global carbon cycle.
In this study we found that CO2 fluxes from soil measured by the closed-chamber technique were...