Articles | Volume 19, issue 2
24 Jan 2022
Research article | 24 Jan 2022
A robust initialization method for accurate soil organic carbon simulations
Eva Kanari et al.
No articles found.
Amicie A. Delahaie, Pierre Barré, François Baudin, Dominique Arrouays, Antonio Bispo, Line Boulonne, Claire Chenu, Claudy Jolivet, Manuel P. Martin, Céline Ratié, Nicolas P. A. Saby, Florence Savignac, and Lauric Cécillon
We characterized organic matter in French soils by analyzing the samples of the French RMQS using Rock-Eval thermal analysis. This study demonstrates that thermal analysis is appropriate to characterize large set of samples (~2000) and provides interpretation references for Rock-Eval parameter values. It shows that organic matter in managed soils is on average more oxidized and more thermally stable and that some Rock-Eval parameters are good proxies of organic matter biogeochemical stability.
Elisa Bruni, Bertrand Guenet, Yuanyuan Huang, Hugues Clivot, Iñigo Virto, Roberta Farina, Thomas Kätterer, Philippe Ciais, Manuel Martin, and Claire Chenu
Biogeosciences, 18, 3981–4004,Short summary
Increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks is beneficial for climate change mitigation and food security. One way to enhance SOC stocks is to increase carbon input to the soil. We estimate the amount of carbon input required to reach a 4 % annual increase in SOC stocks in 14 long-term agricultural experiments around Europe. We found that annual carbon input should increase by 43 % under current temperature conditions, by 54 % for a 1 °C warming scenario and by 120 % for a 5 °C warming scenario.
Lauric Cécillon, François Baudin, Claire Chenu, Bent T. Christensen, Uwe Franko, Sabine Houot, Eva Kanari, Thomas Kätterer, Ines Merbach, Folkert van Oort, Christopher Poeplau, Juan Carlos Quezada, Florence Savignac, Laure N. Soucémarianadin, and Pierre Barré
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3879–3898,Short summary
Partitioning soil organic carbon (SOC) into fractions that are stable or active on a century scale is key for more accurate models of the carbon cycle. Here, we describe the second version of a machine-learning model, named PARTYsoc, which reliably predicts the proportion of the centennially stable SOC fraction at its northwestern European validation sites with Cambisols and Luvisols, the two dominant soil groups in this region, fostering modelling works of SOC dynamics.
Mathieu Chassé, Suzanne Lutfalla, Lauric Cécillon, François Baudin, Samuel Abiven, Claire Chenu, and Pierre Barré
Biogeosciences, 18, 1703–1718,Short summary
Evolution of organic carbon content in soils could be a major driver of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations over the next century. Understanding factors controlling carbon persistence in soil is a challenge. Our study of unique long-term bare-fallow samples, depleted in labile organic carbon, helps improve the separation, evaluation and characterization of carbon pools with distinct residence time in soils and gives insight into the mechanisms explaining soil organic carbon persistence.
Katharina Hildegard Elisabeth Meurer, Claire Chenu, Elsa Coucheney, Anke Marianne Herrmann, Thomas Keller, Thomas Kätterer, David Nimblad Svensson, and Nicholas Jarvis
Biogeosciences, 17, 5025–5042,Short summary
We present a simple model that describes, for the first time, the dynamic two-way interactions between soil organic matter and soil physical properties (porosity, pore size distribution, bulk density and layer thickness). The model was able to accurately reproduce the changes in soil organic carbon, soil bulk density and surface elevation observed during 63 years in a field trial, as well as soil water retention curves measured at the end of the experimental period.
Suzanne Lutfalla, Pierre Barré, Sylvain Bernard, Corentin Le Guillou, Julien Alléon, and Claire Chenu
Biogeosciences, 16, 1401–1410,Short summary
Soils store large amounts of carbon in soil organic matter, which comes from plant debris and roots. The mechanisms protecting it from biodegradation are not fully understood. Here, we carry out a size-fractionation of soil sampled on different dates in a field experiment. Using carbon and nitrogen content and spectroscopy and microscopy we conclude that organic matter enriched in nitrogen is preferentially protected from biodegradation and that clay minerals have differing protective abilities.
Lauric Cécillon, François Baudin, Claire Chenu, Sabine Houot, Romain Jolivet, Thomas Kätterer, Suzanne Lutfalla, Andy Macdonald, Folkert van Oort, Alain F. Plante, Florence Savignac, Laure N. Soucémarianadin, and Pierre Barré
Biogeosciences, 15, 2835–2849,
Pierre Barré, Denis A. Angers, Isabelle Basile-Doelsch, Antonio Bispo, Lauric Cécillon, Claire Chenu, Tiphaine Chevallier, Delphine Derrien, Thomas K. Eglin, and Sylvain Pellerin
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
Soil C storage is currently discussed at a high political level. This paper discusses whether the concept of soil C saturation deficit can be appropriate to determine quantitatively the soil C storage potential and contribute to answer operational questions raised by policy makers. After a review of the literature, we conclude that for practical and conceptual reasons, the C saturation deficit is not appropriate for assessing quantitatively the soil total OC storage potential.
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Modelling, TerrestrialPeatlands and their carbon dynamics in northern high latitudes from 1990 to 2300: a process-based biogeochemistry model analysisImproved representation of phosphorus exchange on soil mineral surfaces reduces estimates of phosphorus limitation in temperate forest ecosystemsA coupled ground heat flux–surface energy balance model of evaporation using thermal remote sensing observationsEffect of land use legacy on the future carbon sink for the conterminous U.S.Modeling nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soil incubation experiments using CoupModelLocal-scale evaluation of the simulated interactions between energy, water and vegetation in ISBA, ORCHIDEE and a diagnostic modelImplementation and initial calibration of carbon-13 soil organic matter decomposition in the Yasso modelThe carbon budget of the managed grasslands of Great Britain – informed by earth observationsAccounting for non-rainfall moisture and temperature improves litter decay model performance in a fog-dominated dryland systemIdeas and perspectives: Allocation of carbon from net primary production in models is inconsistent with observations of the age of respired carbonExploring the role of bedrock representation on plant transpiration response during dry periods at four forested sites in EuropeEffects of climate change in European croplands and grasslands: productivity, greenhouse gas balance and soil carbon storageAssimilation of passive microwave vegetation optical depth in LDAS-Monde: a case study over the continental USAGlobal modelling of soil carbonyl sulfide exchangesAssessing the impacts of agricultural managements on soil carbon stocks, nitrogen loss, and crop production – a modelling study in eastern AfricaThe effects of varying drought-heat signatures on terrestrial carbon dynamics and vegetation compositionResolving temperature limitation on spring productivity in an evergreen conifer forest using a model–data fusion frameworkEvaluation of carbonyl sulfide biosphere exchange in the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB4)Model simulations of arctic biogeochemistry and permafrost extent are highly sensitive to the implemented snow scheme in LPJ-GUESSTheoretical insights from upscaling Michaelis–Menten microbial dynamics in biogeochemical models: a dimensionless approachEstimated effect of the permafrost carbon feedback on the zero emissions commitment to climate changeAn improved process-oriented hydro-biogeochemical model for simulating dynamic fluxes of methane and nitrous oxide in alpine ecosystems with seasonally frozen soilsA novel representation of biological nitrogen fixation and competitive dynamics between nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing plants in a land model (GFDL LM4.1-BNF)Organic phosphorus cycling may control grassland responses to nitrogen deposition: a long-term field manipulation and modelling studyA triple tree-ring constraint for tree growth and physiology in a global land surface modelSimulating shrubs and their energy and carbon dioxide fluxes in Canada's Low Arctic with the Canadian Land Surface Scheme Including Biogeochemical Cycles (CLASSIC)Competing effects of nitrogen deposition and ozone exposure on northern hemispheric terrestrial carbon uptake and storage, 1850–2099Carbonyl sulfide: comparing a mechanistic representation of the vegetation uptake in a land surface model and the leaf relative uptake approachOptimal model complexity for terrestrial carbon cycle predictionCO2 physiological effect can cause rainfall decrease as strong as large-scale deforestation in the AmazonPlant phenology evaluation of CRESCENDO land surface models – Part 1: Start and end of the growing seasonUnderstanding the effect of fire on vegetation composition and gross primary production in a semi-arid shrubland ecosystem using the Ecosystem Demography (EDv2.2) modelImpacts of fertilization on grassland productivity and water quality across the European Alps under current and warming climate: insights from a mechanistic modelThe climate benefit of carbon sequestrationExtending a land-surface model with Sphagnum moss to simulate responses of a northern temperate bog to whole ecosystem warming and elevated CO2Improving the representation of high-latitude vegetation distribution in dynamic global vegetation modelsRobust processing of airborne laser scans to plant area density profilesInvestigating the sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration to recent snow cover changes in Alaska using a satellite-based permafrost carbon modelHysteretic temperature sensitivity of wetland CH4 fluxes explained by substrate availability and microbial activityModelling the habitat preference of two key Sphagnum species in a poor fen as controlled by capitulum water contentEvaluating two soil carbon models within the global land surface model JSBACH using surface and spaceborne observations of atmospheric CO2Assessing impacts of selective logging on water, energy, and carbon budgets and ecosystem dynamics in Amazon forests using the Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem SimulatorMicrobial dormancy and its impacts on northern temperate and boreal terrestrial ecosystem carbon budgetHistorical CO2 emissions from land use and land cover change and their uncertaintyA Bayesian approach to evaluation of soil biogeochemical modelsRainfall intensification increases the contribution of rewetting pulses to soil heterotrophic respirationWide discrepancies in the magnitude and direction of modeled solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence in response to light conditionsModeling biological nitrogen fixation in global natural terrestrial ecosystemsThe impact of a simple representation of non-structural carbohydrates on the simulated response of tropical forests to droughtBenchmarking and parameter sensitivity of physiological and vegetation dynamics using the Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) at Barro Colorado Island, Panama
Bailu Zhao and Qianlai Zhuang
Biogeosciences, 20, 251–270,Short summary
In this study, we use a process-based model to simulate the northern peatland's C dynamics in response to future climate change during 1990–2300. Northern peatlands are projected to be a C source under all climate scenarios except for the mildest one before 2100 and C sources under all scenarios afterwards. We find northern peatlands are a C sink until pan-Arctic annual temperature reaches −2.09 to −2.89 °C. This study emphasizes the vulnerability of northern peatlands to climate change.
Lin Yu, Silvia Caldararu, Bernhard Ahrens, Thomas Wutzler, Marion Schrumpf, Julian Helfenstein, Chiara Pistocchi, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 20, 57–73,Short summary
In this study, we addressed a key weakness in current ecosystem models regarding the phosphorus exchange in the soil and developed a new scheme to describe this process. We showed that the new scheme improved the model performance for plant productivity, soil organic carbon, and soil phosphorus content at five beech forest sites in Germany. We claim that this new model could be used as a better tool to study ecosystems under future climate change, particularly phosphorus-limited systems.
Bimal K. Bhattacharya, Kaniska Mallick, Devansh Desai, Ganapati S. Bhat, Ross Morrison, Jamie R. Clevery, William Woodgate, Jason Beringer, Kerry Cawse-Nicholson, Siyan Ma, Joseph Verfaillie, and Dennis Baldocchi
Biogeosciences, 19, 5521–5551,Short summary
Evaporation retrieval in heterogeneous ecosystems is challenging due to empirical estimation of ground heat flux and complex parameterizations of conductances. We developed a parameter-sparse coupled ground heat flux-evaporation model and tested it across different limits of water stress and vegetation fraction in the Northern/Southern Hemisphere. The model performed particularly well in the savannas and showed good potential for evaporative stress monitoring from thermal infrared satellites.
Benjamin Seth Felzer
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
The future of the terrestrial carbon sink depends upon the legacy of past land use, which determines the stand age of the forest and nutrient levels in the soil, both of which affect vegetation growth. This study uses a modeling approach to determine the effects of land use legacy in the conterminous U.S. from 1750 to 2099. Not accounting for land legacy results in a low carbon sink and high biomass, while water variables are not as highly affected.
Jie Zhang, Wenxin Zhang, Per-Erik Jansson, and Søren O. Petersen
Biogeosciences, 19, 4811–4832,Short summary
In this study, we relied on a properly controlled laboratory experiment to test the model’s capability of simulating the dominant microbial processes and the emissions of one greenhouse gas (nitrous oxide, N2O) from agricultural soils. This study reveals important processes and parameters that regulate N2O emissions in the investigated model framework and also suggests future steps of model development, which have implications on the broader communities of ecosystem modelers.
Jan De Pue, José Miguel Barrios, Liyang Liu, Philippe Ciais, Alirio Arboleda, Rafiq Hamdi, Manuela Balzarolo, Fabienne Maignan, and Françoise Gellens-Meulenberghs
Biogeosciences, 19, 4361–4386,Short summary
The functioning of ecosystems involves numerous biophysical processes which interact with each other. Land surface models (LSMs) are used to describe these processes and form an essential component of climate models. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of three LSMs and their interactions with soil moisture and vegetation. Though we found room for improvement in the simulation of soil moisture and drought stress, the main cause of errors was related to the simulated growth of vegetation.
Jarmo Mäkelä, Laura Arppe, Hannu Fritze, Jussi Heinonsalo, Kristiina Karhu, Jari Liski, Markku Oinonen, Petra Straková, and Toni Viskari
Biogeosciences, 19, 4305–4313,Short summary
Soils account for the largest share of carbon found in terrestrial ecosystems, and accurate depiction of soil carbon decomposition is essential in understanding how permanent these carbon storages are. We present a straightforward way to include carbon isotope concentrations into soil decomposition and carbon storages for the Yasso model, which enables the model to use 13C as a natural tracer to track changes in the underlying soil organic matter decomposition.
Vasileios Myrgiotis, Thomas Luke Smallman, and Mathew Williams
Biogeosciences, 19, 4147–4170,Short summary
This study shows that livestock grazing and grass cutting can determine whether a grassland is adding (source) or removing (sink) carbon (C) to/from the atmosphere. The annual C balance of 1855 managed grassland fields in Great Britain was quantified for 2017–2018 using process modelling and earth observation data. The examined fields were, on average, small C sinks, but the summer drought of 2018 led to a 9-fold increase in the number of fields that became C sources in 2018 compared to 2017.
J. Robert Logan, Kathe E. Todd-Brown, Kathryn M. Jacobson, Peter J. Jacobson, Roland Vogt, and Sarah E. Evans
Biogeosciences, 19, 4129–4146,Short summary
Understanding how plants decompose is important for understanding where the atmospheric CO2 they absorb ends up after they die. In forests, decomposition is controlled by rain but not in deserts. We performed a 2.5-year study in one of the driest places on earth (the Namib desert in southern Africa) and found that fog and dew, not rainfall, closely controlled how quickly plants decompose. We also created a model to help predict decomposition in drylands with lots of fog and/or dew.
Carlos A. Sierra, Verónika Ceballos-Núñez, Henrik Hartmann, David Herrera-Ramírez, and Holger Metzler
Biogeosciences, 19, 3727–3738,Short summary
Empirical work that estimates the age of respired CO2 from vegetation tissue shows that it may take from years to decades to respire previously produced photosynthates. However, many ecosystem models represent respiration processes in a form that cannot reproduce these observations. In this contribution, we attempt to provide compelling evidence, based on recent research, with the aim to promote a change in the predominant paradigm implemented in ecosystem models.
César Dionisio Jiménez-Rodríguez, Mauro Sulis, and Stanislaus Schymanski
Biogeosciences, 19, 3395–3423,Short summary
Vegetation relies on soil water reservoirs during dry periods. However, when this source is depleted, the plants may access water stored deeper in the rocks. This rock moisture contribution is usually omitted in large-scale models, which affects modeled plant water use during dry periods. Our study illustrates that including this additional source of water in the Community Land Model improves the model's ability to reproduce observed plant water use at seasonally dry sites.
Marco Carozzi, Raphaël Martin, Katja Klumpp, and Raia Silvia Massad
Biogeosciences, 19, 3021–3050,Short summary
Crop and grassland production indicates a strong reduction due to the shortening of the length of the growing cycle associated with rising temperatures. Greenhouse gas emissions will increase exponentially over the century, often exceeding the CO2 accumulation of agro-ecosystems. Water demand will double in the next few decades, whereas the benefits in terms of yield will not fill the gap of C losses due to climate perturbation. Climate change will have a regionally distributed effect in the EU.
Anthony Mucia, Bertrand Bonan, Clément Albergel, Yongjun Zheng, and Jean-Christophe Calvet
Biogeosciences, 19, 2557–2581,Short summary
For the first time, microwave vegetation optical depth data are assimilated in a land surface model in order to analyze leaf area index and root zone soil moisture. The advantage of microwave products is the higher observation frequency. A large variety of independent datasets are used to verify the added value of the assimilation. It is shown that the assimilation is able to improve the representation of soil moisture, vegetation conditions, and terrestrial water and carbon fluxes.
Camille Abadie, Fabienne Maignan, Marine Remaud, Jérôme Ogée, J. Elliott Campbell, Mary E. Whelan, Florian Kitz, Felix M. Spielmann, Georg Wohlfahrt, Richard Wehr, Wu Sun, Nina Raoult, Ulli Seibt, Didier Hauglustaine, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Sauveur Belviso, David Montagne, and Philippe Peylin
Biogeosciences, 19, 2427–2463,Short summary
A better constraint of the components of the carbonyl sulfide (COS) global budget is needed to exploit its potential as a proxy of gross primary productivity. In this study, we compare two representations of oxic soil COS fluxes, and we develop an approach to represent anoxic soil COS fluxes in a land surface model. We show the importance of atmospheric COS concentration variations on oxic soil COS fluxes and provide new estimates for oxic and anoxic soil contributions to the COS global budget.
Jianyong Ma, Sam S. Rabin, Peter Anthoni, Anita D. Bayer, Sylvia S. Nyawira, Stefan Olin, Longlong Xia, and Almut Arneth
Biogeosciences, 19, 2145–2169,Short summary
Improved agricultural management plays a vital role in protecting soils from degradation in eastern Africa. We simulated the impacts of seven management practices on soil carbon pools, nitrogen loss, and crop yield under different climate scenarios in this region. This study highlights the possibilities of conservation agriculture when targeting long-term environmental sustainability and food security in crop ecosystems, particularly for those with poor soil conditions in tropical climates.
Elisabeth Tschumi, Sebastian Lienert, Karin van der Wiel, Fortunat Joos, and Jakob Zscheischler
Biogeosciences, 19, 1979–1993,Short summary
Droughts and heatwaves are expected to occur more often in the future, but their effects on land vegetation and the carbon cycle are poorly understood. We use six climate scenarios with differing extreme occurrences and a vegetation model to analyse these effects. Tree coverage and associated plant productivity increase under a climate with no extremes. Frequent co-occurring droughts and heatwaves decrease plant productivity more than the combined effects of single droughts or heatwaves.
Stephanie G. Stettz, Nicholas C. Parazoo, A. Anthony Bloom, Peter D. Blanken, David R. Bowling, Sean P. Burns, Cédric Bacour, Fabienne Maignan, Brett Raczka, Alexander J. Norton, Ian Baker, Mathew Williams, Mingjie Shi, Yongguang Zhang, and Bo Qiu
Biogeosciences, 19, 541–558,Short summary
Uncertainty in the response of photosynthesis to temperature poses a major challenge to predicting the response of forests to climate change. In this paper, we study how photosynthesis in a mountainous evergreen forest is limited by temperature. This study highlights that cold temperature is a key factor that controls spring photosynthesis. Including the cold-temperature limitation in an ecosystem model improved its ability to simulate spring photosynthesis.
Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Ara Cho, Jin Ma, Aleya Kaushik, Katherine D. Haynes, Ian Baker, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Mathijs Groenink, Wouter Peters, John B. Miller, Joseph A. Berry, Jerome Ogée, Laura K. Meredith, Wu Sun, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Huilin Chen, Felix M. Spielmann, Georg Wohlfahrt, Max Berkelhammer, Mary E. Whelan, Kadmiel Maseyk, Ulli Seibt, Roisin Commane, Richard Wehr, and Maarten Krol
Biogeosciences, 18, 6547–6565,Short summary
The gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) can be used to estimate photosynthesis. To adopt this approach on regional and global scales, we need biosphere models that can simulate COS exchange. So far, such models have not been evaluated against observations. We evaluate the COS biosphere exchange of the SiB4 model against COS flux observations. We find that the model is capable of simulating key processes in COS biosphere exchange. Still, we give recommendations for further improvement of the model.
Alexandra Pongracz, David Wårlind, Paul A. Miller, and Frans-Jan W. Parmentier
Biogeosciences, 18, 5767–5787,Short summary
This study shows that the introduction of a multi-layer snow scheme in the LPJ-GUESS DGVM improved simulations of high-latitude soil temperature dynamics and permafrost extent compared to observations. In addition, these improvements led to shifts in carbon fluxes that contrasted within and outside of the permafrost region. Our results show that a realistic snow scheme is essential to accurately simulate snow–soil–vegetation relationships and carbon–climate feedbacks.
Chris H. Wilson and Stefan Gerber
Biogeosciences, 18, 5669–5679,Short summary
To better mitigate against climate change, it is imperative that ecosystem scientists understand how microbes decompose organic carbon in the soil and thereby release it as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. A major challenge is the high variability across ecosystems in microbial biomass and in the environmental factors like temperature that drive their activity. In this paper, we use math to better understand how this variability impacts carbon dioxide release over large scales.
Andrew H. MacDougall
Biogeosciences, 18, 4937–4952,Short summary
Permafrost soils hold about twice as much carbon as the atmosphere. As the Earth warms the organic matter in these soils will decay, releasing CO2 and CH4. It is expected that these soils will continue to release carbon to the atmosphere long after man-made emissions of greenhouse gases cease. Here we use a method employing hundreds of slightly varying model versions to estimate how much warming permafrost carbon will cause after human emissions of CO2 end.
Wei Zhang, Zhisheng Yao, Siqi Li, Xunhua Zheng, Han Zhang, Lei Ma, Kai Wang, Rui Wang, Chunyan Liu, Shenghui Han, Jia Deng, and Yong Li
Biogeosciences, 18, 4211–4225,Short summary
The hydro-biogeochemical model Catchment Nutrient Management Model – DeNitrification-DeComposition (CNMM-DNDC) is improved by incorporating a soil thermal module to simulate the soil thermal regime in the presence of freeze–thaw cycles. The modified model is validated at a seasonally frozen catchment with typical alpine ecosystems (wetland, meadow and forest). The simulated aggregate emissions of methane and nitrous oxide are highest for the wetland, which is dominated by the methane emissions.
Sian Kou-Giesbrecht, Sergey Malyshev, Isabel Martínez Cano, Stephen W. Pacala, Elena Shevliakova, Thomas A. Bytnerowicz, and Duncan N. L. Menge
Biogeosciences, 18, 4143–4183,Short summary
Representing biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is an important challenge for land models. We present a novel representation of BNF and updated nitrogen cycling in a land model. It includes a representation of asymbiotic BNF by soil microbes and the competitive dynamics between nitrogen-fixing and non-fixing plants. It improves estimations of major carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes and their temporal dynamics in comparison to previous representations of BNF in land models.
Christopher R. Taylor, Victoria Janes-Bassett, Gareth K. Phoenix, Ben Keane, Iain P. Hartley, and Jessica A. C. Davies
Biogeosciences, 18, 4021–4037,Short summary
We used experimental data to model two phosphorus-limited grasslands and investigated their response to nitrogen (N) deposition. Greater uptake of organic P facilitated a positive response to N deposition, stimulating growth and soil carbon storage. Where organic P access was less, N deposition exacerbated P demand and reduced plant C input to the soil. This caused more C to be released into the atmosphere than is taken in, reducing the climate-mitigation capacity of the modelled grassland.
Jonathan Barichivich, Philippe Peylin, Thomas Launois, Valerie Daux, Camille Risi, Jina Jeong, and Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Biogeosciences, 18, 3781–3803,Short summary
The width and the chemical signals of tree rings have the potential to test and improve the physiological responses simulated by global land surface models, which are at the core of future climate projections. Here, we demonstrate the novel use of tree-ring width and carbon and oxygen stable isotopes to evaluate the representation of tree growth and physiology in a global land surface model at temporal scales beyond experimentation and direct observation.
Gesa Meyer, Elyn R. Humphreys, Joe R. Melton, Alex J. Cannon, and Peter M. Lafleur
Biogeosciences, 18, 3263–3283,Short summary
Shrub and sedge plant functional types (PFTs) were incorporated in the land surface component of the Canadian Earth System Model to improve representation of Arctic tundra ecosystems. Evaluated against 14 years of non-winter measurements, the magnitude and seasonality of carbon dioxide and energy fluxes at a Canadian dwarf-shrub tundra site were better captured by the shrub PFTs than by previously used grass and tree PFTs. Model simulations showed the tundra site to be an annual net CO2 source.
Martina Franz and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 18, 3219–3241,Short summary
The combined effects of ozone and nitrogen deposition on the terrestrial carbon uptake and storage has been unclear. Our simulations, from 1850 to 2099, show that ozone-related damage considerably reduced gross primary production and carbon storage in the past. The growth-stimulating effect induced by nitrogen deposition is offset until the 2050s. Accounting for nitrogen deposition without considering ozone effects might lead to an overestimation of terrestrial carbon uptake and storage.
Fabienne Maignan, Camille Abadie, Marine Remaud, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Róisín Commane, Richard Wehr, J. Elliott Campbell, Sauveur Belviso, Stephen A. Montzka, Nina Raoult, Ulli Seibt, Yoichi P. Shiga, Nicolas Vuichard, Mary E. Whelan, and Philippe Peylin
Biogeosciences, 18, 2917–2955,Short summary
The assimilation of carbonyl sulfide (COS) by continental vegetation has been proposed as a proxy for gross primary production (GPP). Using a land surface and a transport model, we compare a mechanistic representation of the plant COS uptake (Berry et al., 2013) to the classical leaf relative uptake (LRU) approach linking GPP and vegetation COS fluxes. We show that at high temporal resolutions a mechanistic approach is mandatory, but at large scales the LRU approach compares similarly.
Caroline A. Famiglietti, T. Luke Smallman, Paul A. Levine, Sophie Flack-Prain, Gregory R. Quetin, Victoria Meyer, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Stephanie G. Stettz, Yan Yang, Damien Bonal, A. Anthony Bloom, Mathew Williams, and Alexandra G. Konings
Biogeosciences, 18, 2727–2754,Short summary
Model uncertainty dominates the spread in terrestrial carbon cycle predictions. Efforts to reduce it typically involve adding processes, thereby increasing model complexity. However, if and how model performance scales with complexity is unclear. Using a suite of 16 structurally distinct carbon cycle models, we find that increased complexity only improves skill if parameters are adequately informed. Otherwise, it can degrade skill, and an intermediate-complexity model is optimal.
Gilvan Sampaio, Marília H. Shimizu, Carlos A. Guimarães-Júnior, Felipe Alexandre, Marcelo Guatura, Manoel Cardoso, Tomas F. Domingues, Anja Rammig, Celso von Randow, Luiz F. C. Rezende, and David M. Lapola
Biogeosciences, 18, 2511–2525,Short summary
The impact of large-scale deforestation and the physiological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on Amazon rainfall are systematically compared in this study. Our results are remarkable in showing that the two disturbances cause equivalent rainfall decrease, though through different causal mechanisms. These results highlight the importance of not only curbing regional deforestation but also reducing global CO2 emissions to avoid climatic changes in the Amazon.
Daniele Peano, Deborah Hemming, Stefano Materia, Christine Delire, Yuanchao Fan, Emilie Joetzjer, Hanna Lee, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Taejin Park, Philippe Peylin, David Wårlind, Andy Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 18, 2405–2428,Short summary
Global climate models are the scientist’s tools used for studying past, present, and future climate conditions. This work examines the ability of a group of our tools in reproducing and capturing the right timing and length of the season when plants show their green leaves. This season, indeed, is fundamental for CO2 exchanges between land, atmosphere, and climate. This work shows that discrepancies compared to observations remain, demanding further polishing of these tools.
Karun Pandit, Hamid Dashti, Andrew T. Hudak, Nancy F. Glenn, Alejandro N. Flores, and Douglas J. Shinneman
Biogeosciences, 18, 2027–2045,Short summary
A dynamic global vegetation model, Ecosystem Demography (EDv2.2), is used to understand spatiotemporal dynamics of a semi-arid shrub ecosystem under alternative fire regimes. Multi-decadal point simulations suggest shrub dominance for a non-fire scenario and a contrasting phase of shrub and C3 grass growth for a fire scenario. Regional gross primary productivity (GPP) simulations indicate moderate agreement with MODIS GPP and a GPP reduction in fire-affected areas before showing some recovery.
Martina Botter, Matthias Zeeman, Paolo Burlando, and Simone Fatichi
Biogeosciences, 18, 1917–1939,
Carlos A. Sierra, Susan E. Crow, Martin Heimann, Holger Metzler, and Ernst-Detlef Schulze
Biogeosciences, 18, 1029–1048,Short summary
The climate benefit of carbon sequestration (CBS) is a metric developed to quantify avoided warming by two separate processes: the amount of carbon drawdown from the atmosphere and the time this carbon is stored in a reservoir. This metric can be useful for quantifying the role of forests and soils for climate change mitigation and to better quantify the benefits of carbon removals by sinks.
Xiaoying Shi, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Peter E. Thornton, Xiaofeng Xu, Fengming Yuan, Richard J. Norby, Anthony P. Walker, Jeffrey M. Warren, Jiafu Mao, Paul J. Hanson, Lin Meng, David Weston, and Natalie A. Griffiths
Biogeosciences, 18, 467–486,Short summary
The Sphagnum mosses are the important species of a wetland ecosystem. To better represent the peatland ecosystem, we introduced the moss species to the land model component (ELM) of the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) by developing water content dynamics and nonvascular photosynthetic processes for moss. We tested the model against field observations and used the model to make projections of the site's carbon cycle under warming and atmospheric CO2 concentration scenarios.
Peter Horvath, Hui Tang, Rune Halvorsen, Frode Stordal, Lena Merete Tallaksen, Terje Koren Berntsen, and Anders Bryn
Biogeosciences, 18, 95–112,Short summary
We evaluated the performance of three methods for representing vegetation cover. Remote sensing provided the best match to a reference dataset, closely followed by distribution modelling (DM), whereas the dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) in CLM4.5BGCDV deviated strongly from the reference. Sensitivity tests show that use of threshold values for predictors identified by DM may improve DGVM performance. The results highlight the potential of using DM in the development of DGVMs.
Johan Arnqvist, Julia Freier, and Ebba Dellwik
Biogeosciences, 17, 5939–5952,Short summary
Data generated by airborne laser scans enable the characterization of surface vegetation for any application that might need it, such as forest management, modeling for numerical weather prediction, or wind energy estimation. In this work we present a new algorithm for calculating the vegetation density using data from airborne laser scans. The new routine is more robust than earlier methods, and an implementation in popular programming languages accompanies the article to support new users.
Yonghong Yi, John S. Kimball, Jennifer D. Watts, Susan M. Natali, Donatella Zona, Junjie Liu, Masahito Ueyama, Hideki Kobayashi, Walter Oechel, and Charles E. Miller
Biogeosciences, 17, 5861–5882,Short summary
We developed a 1 km satellite-data-driven permafrost carbon model to evaluate soil respiration sensitivity to recent snow cover changes in Alaska. Results show earlier snowmelt enhances growing-season soil respiration and reduces annual carbon uptake, while early cold-season soil respiration is linked to the number of snow-free days after the land surface freezes. Our results also show nonnegligible influences of subgrid variability in surface conditions on model-simulated CO2 seasonal cycles.
Kuang-Yu Chang, William J. Riley, Patrick M. Crill, Robert F. Grant, and Scott R. Saleska
Biogeosciences, 17, 5849–5860,Short summary
Methane (CH4) is a strong greenhouse gas that can accelerate climate change and offset mitigation efforts. A key assumption embedded in many large-scale climate models is that ecosystem CH4 emissions can be estimated by fixed temperature relations. Here, we demonstrate that CH4 emissions cannot be parameterized by emergent temperature response alone due to variability driven by microbial and abiotic interactions. We also provide mechanistic understanding for observed CH4 emission hysteresis.
Jinnan Gong, Nigel Roulet, Steve Frolking, Heli Peltola, Anna M. Laine, Nicola Kokkonen, and Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
Biogeosciences, 17, 5693–5719,Short summary
In this study, which combined a field and lab experiment with modelling, we developed a process-based model for simulating dynamics within peatland moss communities. The model is useful because Sphagnum mosses are key engineers in peatlands; their response to changes in climate via altered hydrology controls the feedback of peatland biogeochemistry to climate. Our work showed that moss capitulum traits related to water retention are the mechanism controlling moss layer dynamics in peatlands.
Tea Thum, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Aki Tsuruta, Tuula Aalto, Edward J. Dlugokencky, Jari Liski, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Tiina Markkanen, Julia Pongratz, Yukio Yoshida, and Sönke Zaehle
Biogeosciences, 17, 5721–5743,Short summary
Global vegetation models are important tools in estimating the impacts of global climate change. The fate of soil carbon is of the upmost importance as its emissions will enhance the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. To evaluate the skill of global vegetation models to model the soil carbon and its responses to environmental factors, it is important to use different data sources. We evaluated two different soil carbon models by using atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.
Maoyi Huang, Yi Xu, Marcos Longo, Michael Keller, Ryan G. Knox, Charles D. Koven, and Rosie A. Fisher
Biogeosciences, 17, 4999–5023,Short summary
The Functionally Assembled Terrestrial Ecosystem Simulator (FATES) is enhanced to mimic the ecological, biophysical, and biogeochemical processes following a logging event. The model can specify the timing and aerial extent of logging events; determine the survivorship of cohorts in the disturbed forest; and modifying the biomass, coarse woody debris, and litter pools. This study lays the foundation to simulate land use change and forest degradation in FATES as part of an Earth system model.
Junrong Zha and Qianla Zhuang
Biogeosciences, 17, 4591–4610,Short summary
This study incorporated microbial dormancy into a detailed microbe-based biogeochemistry model to examine the fate of Arctic carbon budgets under changing climate conditions. Compared with the model without microbial dormancy, the new model estimated a much higher carbon accumulation in the region during the last and current century. This study highlights the importance of the representation of microbial dormancy in earth system models to adequately quantify the carbon dynamics in the Arctic.
Thomas Gasser, Léa Crepin, Yann Quilcaille, Richard A. Houghton, Philippe Ciais, and Michael Obersteiner
Biogeosciences, 17, 4075–4101,Short summary
We combine several lines of evidence to provide a robust estimate of historical CO2 emissions from land use change. Our novel approach leads to reduced uncertainty and identifies key remaining sources of uncertainty and discrepancy. We also quantify the carbon removal by natural ecosystems that would have occurred if these ecosystems had not been destroyed (mostly via deforestation). Over the last decade, this foregone carbon sink amounted to about 50 % of the actual emissions.
Hua W. Xie, Adriana L. Romero-Olivares, Michele Guindani, and Steven D. Allison
Biogeosciences, 17, 4043–4057,Short summary
Soil biogeochemical models (SBMs) are needed to predict future soil CO2 emissions levels, but we presently lack statistically rigorous frameworks for assessing the predictive utility of SBMs. In this study, we demonstrate one possible approach to evaluating SBMs by comparing the fits of two models to soil CO2 respiration data with recently developed Bayesian statistical goodness-of-fit metrics. Our results demonstrate that our approach is a viable one for continued development and refinement.
Stefano Manzoni, Arjun Chakrawal, Thomas Fischer, Joshua P. Schimel, Amilcare Porporato, and Giulia Vico
Biogeosciences, 17, 4007–4023,Short summary
Carbon dioxide is produced by soil microbes through respiration, which is particularly fast when soils are moistened by rain. Will respiration increase with future more intense rains and longer dry spells? With a mathematical model, we show that wetter conditions increase respiration. In contrast, if rainfall totals stay the same, but rain comes all at once after long dry spells, the average respiration will not change, but the contribution of the respiration bursts after rain will increase.
Nicholas C. Parazoo, Troy Magney, Alex Norton, Brett Raczka, Cédric Bacour, Fabienne Maignan, Ian Baker, Yongguang Zhang, Bo Qiu, Mingjie Shi, Natasha MacBean, Dave R. Bowling, Sean P. Burns, Peter D. Blanken, Jochen Stutz, Katja Grossmann, and Christian Frankenberg
Biogeosciences, 17, 3733–3755,Short summary
Satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) provide a global measure of photosynthetic change. This enables scientists to better track carbon cycle responses to environmental change and tune biochemical processes in vegetation models for an improved simulation of future change. We use tower-instrumented SIF measurements and controlled model experiments to assess the state of the art in terrestrial biosphere SIF modeling and find a wide range of sensitivities to light.
Tong Yu and Qianlai Zhuang
Biogeosciences, 17, 3643–3657,Short summary
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) plays an important role in the global nitrogen cycle. However, the fixation rate has usually been measured or estimated at a particular observational site. This study develops a BNF model considering the symbiotic relationship between legume plants and bacteria. The model is extensively calibrated with site-level observational data and then extrapolated to the global terrestrial ecosystems to quantify the fixation rate in the 1990s.
Simon Jones, Lucy Rowland, Peter Cox, Deborah Hemming, Andy Wiltshire, Karina Williams, Nicholas C. Parazoo, Junjie Liu, Antonio C. L. da Costa, Patrick Meir, Maurizio Mencuccini, and Anna B. Harper
Biogeosciences, 17, 3589–3612,Short summary
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are an important set of molecules that help plants to grow and respire when photosynthesis is restricted by extreme climate events. In this paper we present a simple model of NSC storage and assess the effect that it has on simulations of vegetation at the ecosystem scale. Our model has the potential to significantly change predictions of plant behaviour in global vegetation models, which would have large implications for predictions of the future climate.
Charles D. Koven, Ryan G. Knox, Rosie A. Fisher, Jeffrey Q. Chambers, Bradley O. Christoffersen, Stuart J. Davies, Matteo Detto, Michael C. Dietze, Boris Faybishenko, Jennifer Holm, Maoyi Huang, Marlies Kovenock, Lara M. Kueppers, Gregory Lemieux, Elias Massoud, Nathan G. McDowell, Helene C. Muller-Landau, Jessica F. Needham, Richard J. Norby, Thomas Powell, Alistair Rogers, Shawn P. Serbin, Jacquelyn K. Shuman, Abigail L. S. Swann, Charuleka Varadharajan, Anthony P. Walker, S. Joseph Wright, and Chonggang Xu
Biogeosciences, 17, 3017–3044,Short summary
Tropical forests play a crucial role in governing climate feedbacks, and are incredibly diverse ecosystems, yet most Earth system models do not take into account the diversity of plant traits in these forests and how this diversity may govern feedbacks. We present an approach to represent diverse competing plant types within Earth system models, test this approach at a tropical forest site, and explore how the representation of disturbance and competition governs traits of the forest community.
Amelung, W., Bossio, D., de Vries, W., Kögel-Knabner, I., Lehmann, J., Amundson, R., Bol, R., Collins, C., Lal, R., Leifeld, J., Minasny, B., Pan, G., Paustian, K., Rumpel, C., Sanderman, J., van Groenigen, J. W., Mooney, S., van Wesemael, B., Wander, M., and Chabbi, A.: Towards a global-scale soil climate mitigation strategy, Nat. Commun., 11, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18887-7, 2020.
Andriulo, A. E., Mary, B., and Guerif, J.: Modelling soil carbon dynamics with various cropping sequences on the rolling pampas, Agronomie, 19, 365–377, 1999.
Aphalo, P. J.: Learn R as you learnt your mother tongue, Leanpub [code], available at: https://leanpub.com/learnr (last access: 19 January 2022), 2016.
Bailey, V. L., Bond-Lamberty, B., DeAngelis, K., Grandy, A. S., Hawkes, C. V., Heckman, K., Lajtha, K., Phillips, R. P., Sulman, B. N., Todd-Brown, K. E. O., and Wallenstein, M. D.: Soil carbon cycling proxies: Understanding their critical role in predicting climate change feedbacks, Glob. Chang. Biol., 24, 895–905, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13926, 2018.
Baldock, J. A., Hawke, B., Sanderman, J., and Macdonald, L. M.: Predicting contents of carbon and its component fractions in Australian soils from diffuse reflectance mid-infrared spectra, Soil Res., 51, 577–595, https://doi.org/10.1071/SR13077, 2013.
Balesdent, J. and Arrouays, D.: Usage des terres et stockage de carbone dans les sols du territoire français. Une estimation des flux nets pour la période 1900–1999, Comptes rendus l'Académie d'Agriculture Fr., 85, 265–277, 1999.
Balesdent, J., Basile-Doelsch, I., Chadoeuf, J., Cornu, S., Derrien, D., Fekiacova, Z., and Hatté, C.: Atmosphere–soil carbon transfer as a function of soil depth, Nature, 559, 599–602, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0328-3, 2018.
Barré, P., Montagnier, C., Chenu, C., Abbadie, L., and Velde, B.: Clay minerals as a soil potassium reservoir: Observation and quantification through X-ray diffraction, Plant Soil, 302, 213–220, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-007-9471-6, 2008.
Barré, P., Eglin, T., Christensen, B. T., Ciais, P., Houot, S., Kätterer, T., van Oort, F., Peylin, P., Poulton, P. R., Romanenkov, V., and Chenu, C.: Quantifying and isolating stable soil organic carbon using long-term bare fallow experiments, Biogeosciences, 7, 3839–3850, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-7-3839-2010, 2010.
Barré, P., Plante, A. F., Cécillon, L., Lutfalla, S., Baudin, F., Bernard, S., Christensen, B. T., Eglin, T., Fernandez, J. M., Houot, S., Kätterer, T., Le Guillou, C., Macdonald, A., van Oort, F., and Chenu, C.: The energetic and chemical signatures of persistent soil organic matter, Biogeochemistry, 130, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-016-0246-0, 2016.
Barthès, B. G., Brunet, D., Hien, E., Enjalric, F., Conche, S., Freschet, G. T., d'Annunzio, R., and Toucet-Louri, J.: Determining the distributions of soil carbon and nitrogen in particle size fractions using near-infrared reflectance spectrum of bulk soil samples, Soil Biol. Biochem., 40, 1533–1537, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.12.023, 2008.
Baudin, F., Disnar, J. R., Aboussou, A., and Savignac, F.: Guidelines for Rock-Eval analysis of recent marine sediments, Org. Geochem., 86, 71–80, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2015.06.009, 2015.
Behar, F., Beaumont, V., and De B. Penteado, H. L.: Rock-Eval 6 Technology: Performances and Developments, Oil Gas Sci. Technol., 56, 111–134, https://doi.org/10.2516/ogst:2001013, 2001.
Bolinder, M. A., Janzen, H. H., Gregorich, E. G., Angers, D. A., and VandenBygaart, A. J.: An approach for estimating net primary productivity and annual carbon inputs to soil for common agricultural crops in Canada, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 118, 29–42, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2006.05.013, 2007.
Bruun, S. and Jensen, L. S.: Initialisation of the soil organic matter pools of the Daisy model, Ecol. Modell., 153, 291–295, 2002.
Cagnarini, C., Renella, G., Mayer, J., Hirte, J., Schulin, R., Costerousse, B., Della Marta, A., Orlandini, S., and Menichetti, L.: Multi-objective calibration of RothC using measured carbon stocks and auxiliary data of a long-term experiment in Switzerland, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 70, 819–832, https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12802, 2019.
Cécillon, L.: A dual response, Nat. Geosci., 14, 262–263, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-021-00749-6, 2021a.
Cécillon, L.: lauric-cecillon/PARTYsoc: Second version of the PARTYSOC statistical model, Zenodo [code], https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4446138, 2021b.
Cécillon, L., Baudin, F., Chenu, C., Houot, S., Jolivet, R., Kätterer, T., Lutfalla, S., Macdonald, A., van Oort, F., Plante, A. F., Savignac, F., Soucémarianadin, L. N., and Barré, P.: A model based on Rock-Eval thermal analysis to quantify the size of the centennially persistent organic carbon pool in temperate soils, Biogeosciences, 15, 2835–2849, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-2835-2018, 2018.
Cécillon, L., Baudin, F., Chenu, C., Christensen, B. T., Franko, U., Houot, S., Kanari, E., Kätterer, T., Merbach, I., van Oort, F., Poeplau, C., Quezada, J. C., Savignac, F., Soucémarianadin, L. N., and Barré, P.: Partitioning soil organic carbon into its centennially stable and active fractions with machine-learning models based on Rock-Eval® thermal analysis (PARTYSOCv2.0 and PARTYSOCv2.0EU), Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 3879–3898, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-14-3879-2021, 2021.
Chassé, M., Luftalla, S., Cécillon, L., Baudin, F., Abiven, S., Chenu, C., and Barré, P.: Long-term bare fallow soil fractions reveal thermo-chemical properties controlling soil organic carbon dynamics, Biogeosciences, 18, 1703–1718, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-1703-2021, 2021.
Clivot, H., Mouny, J. C., Duparque, A., Dinh, J. L., Denoroy, P., Houot, S., Vertès, F., Trochard, R., Bouthier, A., Sagot, S., and Mary, B.: Modeling soil organic carbon evolution in long-term arable experiments with AMG model, Environ. Model. Softw., 118, 99–113, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2019.04.004, 2019.
Coleman, K., Jenkinson, D. S., Crocker, G. J., Grace, P. R., Klír, J., Körschens, M., Poulton, P. R., and Richter, D. D.: Simulating trends in soil organic carbon in long-term experiments using RothC-26.3, Geoderma, 81, 29–44, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(97)00079-7, 1997.
Colomb, B., Debaeke, P., Jouany, C., and Nolot, J. M.: Phosphorus management in low input stockless cropping systems: Crop and soil responses to contrasting P regimes in a 36-year experiment in southern France, Eur. J. Agron., 26, 154–165, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2006.09.004, 2007.
Cotrufo, M. F., Ranalli, M. G., Haddix, M. L., Six, J., and Lugato, E.: Soil carbon storage informed by particulate and mineral-associated organic matter, Nat. Geosci., 12, 989–994, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0484-6, 2019.
Crowther, T. W., van den Hoogen, J., Wan, J., Mayes, M. A., Keiser, A. D., Mo, L., Averill, C., and Maynard, D. S.: The global soil community and its influence on biogeochemistry, Science, 365, eaav0550, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aav0550, 2019.
Dangal, S. R. S., Schwalm, C., Cavigelli, M. A., Gollany, H. T., Jin, V. L., and Sanderman, J.: Improving soil carbon estimates by linking conceptual pools against measurable carbon fractions in the DAYCENT Model Version 4.5, ESSOAR, https://doi.org/10.1002/essoar.10507190.1, 2021.
Dignac, M.-F., Derrien, D., Barré, P., Barot, S., Cécillon, L., Chenu, C., Chevallier, T., Freschet, G. T., Garnier, P., Guenet, B., Hedde, M., Klumpp, K., Lashermes, G., Maron, P.-A., Nunan, N., Roumet, C., and Basile-Doelsch, I.: Increasing soil carbon storage: mechanisms, effects of agricultural practices and proxies. A review, Agron. Sustain. Dev., 37, 14, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-017-0421-2, 2017.
Dimassi, B., Mary, B., Wylleman, R., Labreuche, J. Ô., Couture, D., Piraux, F., and Cohan, J. P.: Long-term effect of contrasted tillage and crop management on soil carbon dynamics during 41 years, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 188, 134–146, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2014.02.014, 2014.
Disnar, J. R., Guillet, B., Keravis, D., Di-Giovanni, C., and Sebag, D.: Soil organic matter (SOM) characterization by Rock-Eval pyrolysis: Scope and limitations, Org. Geochem., 34, 327–343, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0146-6380(02)00239-5, 2003.
Erb, K. H., Luyssaert, S., Meyfroidt, P., Pongratz, J., Don, A., Kloster, S., Kuemmerle, T., Fetzel, T., Fuchs, R., Herold, M., Haberl, H., Jones, C. D., Marín-Spiotta, E., McCallum, I., Robertson, E., Seufert, V., Fritz, S., Valade, A., Wiltshire, A., and Dolman, A. J.: Land management: data availability and process understanding for global change studies, Glob. Chang. Biol., 23, 512–533, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13443, 2017.
FAO: Recarbonization of global soils: a dynamic response to offset global emissions, FAO, Rome, Italy, 8 pp., available at: https://www.fao.org/documents/card/en/c/e4839d17-c6aa-44ca-85cc-b4a6de25c143/ (last access: 19 January 2022), 2019.
FAO: Technical specifications and country guidelines for Global Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Potential Map (GSOCseq), FAO, Rome, Italy, 48 pp., available at: https://www.fao.org/3/cb0353en/CB0353EN.pdf (last access: 19 January 2022), 2020.
Farina, R., Sándor, R., Abdalla, M., Álvaro-Fuentes, J., Bechini, L., Bolinder, M. A., Brilli, L., Chenu, C., Clivot, H., De Antoni Migliorati, M., Di Bene, C., Dorich, C. D., Ehrhardt, F., Ferchaud, F., Fitton, N., Francaviglia, R., Franko, U., Giltrap, D. L., Grant, B. B., Guenet, B., Harrison, M. T., Kirschbaum, M. U. F., Kuka, K., Kulmala, L., Liski, J., McGrath, M. J., Meier, E., Menichetti, L., Moyano, F., Nendel, C., Recous, S., Reibold, N., Shepherd, A., Smith, W. N., Smith, P., Soussana, J. F., Stella, T., Taghizadeh-Toosi, A., Tsutskikh, E., and Bellocchi, G.: Ensemble modelling, uncertainty and robust predictions of organic carbon in long-term bare-fallow soils, Glob. Chang. Biol., 27, 904–928, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15441, 2021.
Fuchs, R., Herold, M., Verburg, P. H., Clevers, J. G. P. W., and Eberle, J.: Gross changes in reconstructions of historic land cover/use for Europe between 1900 and 2010, Glob. Chang. Biol., 21, 299–313, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12714, 2015.
Gregorich, E. G., Gillespie, A. W., Beare, M. H., Curtin, D., Sanei, H., and Yanni, S. F.: Evaluating biodegradability of soil organic matter by its thermal stability and chemical composition, Soil Biol. Biochem., 91, 182–191, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.08.032, 2015.
He, Y., Trumbore, S. E., Torn, M. S., Harden, J. W., Vaugh, L. J. S., Allison, S. D., and Randerson, J. T.: Radiocarbon constraints imply reduced carbon uptake by soils during the 21st century, Science, 353, 1419–1424, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad4273, 2016.
Hemingway, J. D., Rothman, D. H., Grant, K. E., Rosengard, S. Z., Eglinton, T. I., Derry, L. A., and Galy, V. V.: Mineral protection regulates long-term global preservation of natural organic carbon, Nature, 570, 228–231, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1280-6, 2019.
Hénin, S. and Dupuis, M.: Essai de bilan de la matière organique du sol, in: Ann. Agron. 11, Dunod (impr. de Chaix), Paris, 17–29, 1945.
Herbst, M., Welp, G., Macdonald, A., Jate, M., Hädicke, A., Scherer, H., Gaiser, T., Herrmann, F., Amelung, W., and Vanderborght, J.: Correspondence of measured soil carbon fractions and RothC pools for equilibrium and non-equilibrium states, Geoderma, 314, 37–46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.10.047, 2018.
IPCC: Climate Change and Land: an IPCC special report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems, edited by: Shukla, P. R., Skea, J., Calvo Buendia, E., Masson-Delmotte, V., Pörtner, H.-O., Roberts, D. C., Zhai, P., Slade, R., Connors, S., van Diemen, R., Ferrat, M., Haughey, E., Luz, S., Neogi, S., Pathak, M., Petzold, J., Portugal Pereira, J., Vyas, P., Huntley, E., Kissick, K., Belkacemi, M., and Malley, J., The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/srccl/ (last access: 19 January 2022), 2019.
Jobbagy, E. G. and Jackson, R. B.: The vertical distribution of Soil Organic Carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation, Ecol. Appl., 10, 423–436, 2000.
Khedim, N., Cécillon, L., Poulenard, J., Barré, P., Baudin, F., Marta, S., Rabatel, A., Dentant, C., Cauvy-Fraunié, S., Anthelme, F., Gielly, L., Ambrosini, R., Franzetti, A., Azzoni, R. S., Caccianiga, M. S., Compostella, C., Clague, J., Tielidze, L., Messager, E., Choler, P., and Ficetola, G. F.: Topsoil organic matter build-up in glacier forelands around the world, Glob. Change Biol., 27, 1662–1677, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15496, 2021.
Lee, J., Viscarra Rossel, R. A., Zhang, M., Luo, Z., and Wang, Y.-P.: Assessing the response of soil carbon in Australia to changing inputs and climate using a consistent modelling framework, Biogeosciences, 18, 5185–5202, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-18-5185-2021, 2021.
Lehmann, J., Hansel, C. M., Kaiser, C., Kleber, M., Maher, K., Manzoni, S., Nunan, N., Reichstein, M., Schimel, J. P., Torn, M. S., Wieder, W. R., and Kögel-Knabner, I.: Persistence of soil organic carbon caused by functional complexity, Nat. Geosci., 13, 529–534, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-020-0612-3, 2020.
Leifeld, J., Reiser, R., and Oberholzer, H. R.: Consequences of conventional versus organic farming on soil carbon: Results from a 27-year field experiment, Agron. J., 101, 1204–1218, https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2009.0002, 2009a.
Leifeld, J., Zimmermann, M., Fuhrer, J., and Conen, F.: Storage and turnover of carbon in grassland soils along an elevation gradient in the Swiss Alps, Glob. Change Biol., 15, 668–679, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01782.x, 2009b.
Levavasseur, F., Mary, B., Christensen, B. T., Duparque, A., Ferchaud, F., Kätterer, T., Lagrange, H., Montenach, D., Resseguier, C., and Houot, S.: The simple AMG model accurately simulates organic carbon storage in soils after repeated application of exogenous organic matter, Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst., 117, 215–229, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-020-10065-x, 2020.
Lubet, E., Plénet, D., and Juste, C.: Effet à long terme de la monoculture sur le rendement en grain du maïs (Zea mays L) en conditions non irriguées, Agronomie, 13, 673–683, https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:19930801, 1993.
Lugato, E., Lavallee, J. M., Haddix, M. L., Panagos, P., and Cotrufo, M. F.: Different climate sensitivity of particulate and mineral-associated soil organic matter, Nat. Geosci., 14, 295–300, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-021-00744-x, 2021.
Luo, Y., Ahlström, A., Allison, S. D., Batjes, N. H., Brovkin, V., Carvalhais, N., Chappell, A., Ciais, P., Davidson, E. A., Finzi, A., Georgiou, K., Guenet, B., Hararuk, O., Harden, J. W., He, Y., Hopkins, F., Jiang, L., Koven, C., Jackson, Robert, B., Jones, C. D., Lara, M. J., Liang, J., McGuire, A. D., Parton, W., Peng, C., Randerson, J. T., Salazar, A., Sierra, C. A., Smith, M. J., Tian, H., Todd-Brown, K. E. O., Torn, M., Van Groenigen, K. J., Wang, Y. P., West, T. O., Wei, Y., Wieder, W. R., Xu, X., Xu, X., and Zhou, T.: Towards more realistic projections of soil carbon dynamics by Earth system models, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 30, 40–56, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GB005239, 2016.
Luo, Z., Wang, E., Fillery, I. R. P., Macdonald, L. M., Huth, N., and Baldock, J.: Modelling soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics using measurable and conceptual soil organic matter pools in APSIM, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 186, 94–104, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2014.01.019, 2014.
Manzoni, S. and Porporato, A.: Soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization: Theory and models across scales, Soil Biol. Biochem., 41, 1355–1379, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.02.031, 2009.
Martin, M., Dimassi, B., Millet, F., Picaud, C., Bounoua, E.-M., Bardy, M., Bispo, A., Boulonne, L., Bouthier, A., Duparque, A., Eglin, T., Guenet, B., Huard, F., Mary, B., Mathias, E., Mignolet, C., Robert, C., Saby, N., Sagot, S., Schott, C., and Toutain, B. R.: Méthodes de comptabilisation du stockage de carbone organique des sols sous l'effet des pratiques culturales (CSopra), ADEME, available at: https://librairie.ademe.fr/produire-autrement/ (last access: 19 January 2022), 2019.
Mary, B., Clivot, H., Blaszczyk, N., Labreuche, J., and Ferchaud, F.: Soil carbon storage and mineralization rates are affected by carbon inputs rather than physical disturbance: Evidence from a 47-year tillage experiment, Agr. Ecosyst. Environ., 299, 106972, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2020.106972, 2020.
Messiga, A. J., Ziadi, N., Plénet, D., Parent, L. E., and Morel, C.: Long-term changes in soil phosphorus status related to P budgets under maize monoculture and mineral P fertilization, Soil Use Manag., 26, 354–364, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2010.00287.x, 2010.
Morel, C., Ziadi, N., Messiga, A., Bélanger, G., Denoroy, P., Jeangros, B., Jouany, C., Fardeau, J. C., Mollier, A., Parent, L. E., Proix, N., Rabeharisoa, L., and Sinaj, S.: Modeling of phosphorus dynamics in contrasting agroecosystems using long-term field experiments, Can. J. Soil Sci., 94, 377–387, https://doi.org/10.4141/CJSS2013-024, 2014.
Nave, L., Johnson, K., Ingen, C. van, Agarwal, D., Humphrey, M., and Beekwilder, N.: International Soil Carbon Network (ISCN) Database V3-1, International Soil Carbon Network, https://doi.org/10.17040/ISCN/1305039, 2015.
Nemo, K., Coleman, K., Dondini, M., Goulding, K., Hastings, A., Jones, M. B., Leifeld, J., Osborne, B., Saunders, M., Scott, T., Teh, Y. A., and Smith, P.: Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) Equilibrium and Model Initialisation Methods: an Application to the Rothamsted Carbon (RothC) Model, Environ. Model. Assess., 22, 215–229, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10666-016-9536-0, 2016.
Noirot-Cosson, P. E., Vaudour, E., Gilliot, J. M., Gabrielle, B., and Houot, S.: Modelling the long-term effect of urban waste compost applications on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in temperate cropland, Soil Biol. Biochem., 94, 138–153, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2015.11.014, 2016.
Oberholzer, H. R., Leifeld, J., and Mayer, J.: Changes in soil carbon and crop yield over 60 years in the Zurich Organic Fertilization Experiment, following land-use change from grassland to cropland, J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci., 177, 696–704, https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201300385, 2014.
Obriot, F.: Epandage de produits résiduaires organiques et fonctionnement biologique des sols: De la quantification des impacts sur les cycles carbone et azote à l'évaluation multicritère de la pratique à l'échelle de la parcelle (PhD), AgroParisTech, 456 pp., available at: https://hal.inrae.fr/tel-02801385 (last access: 19 January 2022), 2016.
Otto, S. A., Kadin, M., Casini, M., Torres, M. A., and Blenckner, T.: A quantitative framework for selecting and validating food web indicators, Ecol. Indic., 84, 619–631, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.05.045, 2018.
Poeplau, C., Don, A., Vesterdal, L., Leifeld, J., Van Wesemael, B., Schumacher, J., and Gensior, A.: Temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon after land-use change in the temperate zone – carbon response functions as a model approach, Glob. Change Biol., 17, 2415–2427, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02408.x, 2011.
Poeplau, C., Don, A., Dondini, M., Leifeld, J., Nemo, R., Schumacher, J., Senapati, N., and Wiesmeier, M.: Reproducibility of a soil organic carbon fractionation method to derive RothC carbon pools, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 64, 735–746, https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12088, 2013.
Poeplau, C., Don, A., Six, J., Kaiser, M., Benbi, D., Chenu, C., Cotrufo, M. F., Derrien, D., Gioacchini, P., Grand, S., Gregorich, E., Griepentrog, M., Gunina, A., Haddix, M., Kuzyakov, Y., Kühnel, A., Macdonald, L. M., Soong, J., Trigalet, S., Vermeire, M. L., Rovira, P., van Wesemael, B., Wiesmeier, M., Yeasmin, S., Yevdokimov, I., and Nieder, R.: Isolating organic carbon fractions with varying turnover rates in temperate agricultural soils – A comprehensive method comparison, Soil Biol. Biochem., 125, 10–26, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.06.025, 2018.
Poeplau, C., Barré, P., Cécillon, L., Baudin, F., and Sigurdsson, B. D.: Changes in the Rock-Eval signature of soil organic carbon upon extreme soil warming and chemical oxidation – A comparison, Geoderma, 337, 181–190, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.09.025, 2019.
R Core Team: R: A language and environment for statistical computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, available at: https://www.R-project.org/ (last access: 19 January 2022), 2017.
Rumpel, C., Amiraslani, F., Koutika, L. S., Smith, P., Whitehead, D., and Wollenberg, E.: Put more carbon in soils to meet Paris climate pledges, Nature, 564, 32–34, https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-018-07587-4, 2018.
Saffih-Hdadi, K. and Mary, B.: Modeling consequences of straw residues export on soil organic carbon, Soil Biol. Biochem., 40, 594–607, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.08.022, 2008.
Sanderman, J., Baldock, J. A., Dangal, S. R. S., Ludwig, S., Potter, S., Rivard, C., and Savage, K.: Soil organic carbon fractions in the Great Plains of the United States: an application of mid-infrared spectroscopy, Biogeochemistry, 156, 97–114, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-021-00755-1, 2021.
Schrumpf, M., Schulze, E. D., Kaiser, K., and Schumacher, J.: How accurately can soil organic carbon stocks and stock changes be quantified by soil inventories?, Biogeosciences, 8, 1193–1212, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-8-1193-2011, 2011.
Shi, Z., Crowell, S., Luo, Y., and Moore, B.: Model structures amplify uncertainty in predicted soil carbon responses to climate change, Nat. Commun., 9, 2171, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-04526-9, 2018.
Skjemstad, J. O., Spouncer, L. R., Cowie, B., and Swift, R. S.: Calibration of the Rothamsted organic carbon turnover model (RothC ver. 26.3), using measurable soil organic carbon pools, Aust. J. Soil Res., 42, 79–88, https://doi.org/10.1071/SR03013, 2004.
Smith, J. U., Smith, P., and Addiscot, T.: Quantitative methods to evaluate and compare soil organic matter (SOM) models, in: Evaluation of Soil Organic Matter Models Using existing Long-Term Datasets, edited by: Powlson, D. S., Smith, J. U., and Smith, P., Springer Berlin, Heidelberg, 181–199, 1996.
Smith, P. and Falloon, P. D.: Modelling refractory soil organic matter, Biol. Fertil. Soils, 30, 388–398, https://doi.org/10.1007/s003740050019, 2000.
Taghizadeh-Toosi, A., Cong, W. F., Eriksen, J., Mayer, J., Olesen, J. E., Keel, S. G., Glendining, M., Kätterer, T., and Christensen, B. T.: Visiting dark sides of model simulation of carbon stocks in European temperate agricultural soils: allometric function and model initialization, Plant Soil, 450, 255–272, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-020-04500-9, 2020.
Todd-Brown, K. E. O., Randerson, J. T., Hopkins, F., Arora, V., Hajima, T., Jones, C., Shevliakova, E., Tjiputra, J., Volodin, E., Wu, T., Zhang, Q., and Allison, S. D.: Changes in soil organic carbon storage predicted by Earth system models during the 21st century, Biogeosciences, 11, 2341–2356, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-11-2341-2014, 2014.
UN General Assembly: UN General Assembly, Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 21 October 2015, A/RES/70/1, General assembly seventieth session, New York, available at: https://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E (last access: 19 January 2022), 2015.
Vermeulen, S., Bossio, D., Lehmann, J., Luu, P., Paustian, K., Webb, C., Augé, F., Bacudo, I., Baedeker, T., Havemann, T., Jones, C., King, R., Reddy, M., Sunga, I., Von Unger, M., and Warnken, M.: A global agenda for collective action on soil carbon, Nat. Sustain., 2, 2–4, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-018-0212-z, 2019.
Vertès, F., Simon, J.-C., Laurent, F., and Besnard, A.: Prairies et qualité de l'eau. Evaluation des risques de lixiviation d'azote et optimisation des pratiques, Fourrag., 192, 423–440, 2007.
Viscarra Rossel, R. A., Lee, J., Behrens, T., Luo, Z., Baldock, J., and Richards, A.: Continental-scale soil carbon composition and vulnerability modulated by regional environmental controls, Nat. Geosci., 12, 547–552, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0373-z, 2019.
Wallach, D.: Evaluating Crop Models, in: Working with Dynamic Crop Models Evaluation, Analysis, Parameterization, and Applications, edited by: Wallach, D., Makowski, D., and Jones, J. W., Elsevier, Amsterdam, 11–54, 2006.
Wickham, H.: Reshaping Data with the reshape Package, J. Stat. Softw., 21, 1–20, https://doi.org/10.18637/jss.v021.i12, 2007.
Wickham, H.: ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis, Springer-Verlag, New York, ISBN 978-3-319-24277-4, 2016.
Wiesmeier, M., Urbanski, L., Hobley, E., Lang, B., von Lützow, M., Marin-Spiotta, E., van Wesemael, B., Rabot, E., Ließ, M., Garcia-Franco, N., Wollschläger, U., Vogel, H. J., and Kögel-Knabner, I.: Soil organic carbon storage as a key function of soils – A review of drivers and indicators at various scales, Geoderma, 333, 149–162, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2018.07.026, 2019.
Wutzler, T. and Reichstein, M.: Soils apart from equilibrium – Consequences for soil carbon balance modelling, Biogeosciences, 4, 125–136, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-4-125-2007, 2007.
Zimmermann, M., Leifeld, J., Schmidt, M. W. I., Smith, P., and Fuhrer, J.: Measured soil organic matter fractions can be related to pools in the RothC model, Eur. J. Soil Sci., 58, 658–667, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.2006.00855.x, 2007a.
Zimmermann, M., Leifeld, J., and Fuhrer, J.: Quantifying soil organic carbon fractions by infrared-spectroscopy, Soil Biol. Biochem., 39, 224–231, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2006.07.010, 2007b.
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is crucial for climate regulation, soil quality, and food security. Predicting its evolution over the next decades is key for appropriate land management policies. However, SOC projections lack accuracy. Here we show for the first time that PARTYSOC, an approach combining thermal analysis and machine learning optimizes the accuracy of SOC model simulations at independent sites. This method can be applied at large scales, improving SOC projections on a continental scale.
Soil organic carbon (SOC) is crucial for climate regulation, soil quality, and food security....