Articles | Volume 18, issue 5
Research article 05 Mar 2021
Research article | 05 Mar 2021
Winter atmospheric nutrient and pollutant deposition on Western Sayan Mountain lakes (Siberia)
Daniel Diaz-de-Quijano et al.
Related subject area
Biogeochemistry: Air - Land ExchangeMethane efflux from an American bison herdTechnical note: Inexpensive modification of Exetainers for the reliable storage of trace-level hydrogen and carbon monoxide gas samplesA climate-dependent global model of ammonia emissions from chicken farmingCalculating canopy stomatal conductance from eddy covariance measurements, in light of the energy budget closure problemDecoupling of a Douglas fir canopy: a look into the subcanopy with continuous vertical temperature profilesVariations in diurnal and seasonal net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange in a semiarid sandy grassland ecosystem in China's Horqin Sandy LandIsoprene and monoterpene emissions from alder, aspen and spruce short rotation forest plantations in the UKBiogenic volatile organic compound ambient mixing ratios and emission rates in the Alaskan Arctic tundraSurfaces of silver birch (Betula pendula) are sources of biological ice nuclei: in vivo and in situ investigationsIdeas and perspectives: enhancing the impact of the FLUXNET network of eddy covariance sitesEvapotranspiration over agroforestry sites in GermanyOH reactivity from the emissions of different tree species: investigating the missing reactivity in a boreal forestVegetation influence and environmental controls on greenhouse gas fluxes from a drained thermokarst lake in the western Canadian ArcticExamining the link between vegetation leaf area and land–atmosphere exchange of water, energy, and carbon fluxes using FLUXNET dataCloudRoots: integration of advanced instrumental techniques and process modelling of sub-hourly and sub-kilometre land–atmosphere interactionsEnvironmental controls on ecosystem-scale cold-season methane and carbon dioxide fluxes in an Arctic tundra ecosystemDistinguishing between early- and late-covering crops in the land surface model Noah-MP: impact on simulated surface energy fluxes and temperatureA robust data cleaning procedure for eddy covariance flux measurementsScaling carbon fluxes from eddy covariance sites to globe: synthesis and evaluation of the FLUXCOM approachLeveraging the signature of heterotrophic respiration on atmospheric CO2 for model benchmarkingEstimating causal networks in biosphere–atmosphere interaction with the PCMCI approachA double peak in the seasonality of California's photosynthesis as observed from spaceNitrogen use efficiency and N2O and NH3 losses attributed to three fertiliser types applied to an intensively managed silage cropBiogenic isoprenoid emissions under drought stress: different responses for isoprene and terpenesInsights from mercury stable isotopes on terrestrial–atmosphere exchange of Hg(0) in the Arctic tundraReviews and syntheses: Turning the challenges of partitioning ecosystem evaporation and transpiration into opportunitiesEl Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event reduces CO2 uptake of an Indonesian oil palm plantationCarbon–water flux coupling under progressive droughtReviews and syntheses: influences of landscape structure and land uses on local to regional climate and air qualityIdentification of secondary fatty alcohols in atmospheric aerosols in temperate forestsModelling land–atmosphere daily exchanges of NO, NH3, and CO2 in a semi-arid grazed ecosystem in SenegalSimulating the atmospheric CO2 concentration across the heterogeneous landscape of Denmark using a coupled atmosphere–biosphere mesoscale model systemEvaluating multi-year, multi-site data on the energy balance closure of eddy-covariance flux measurements at cropland sites in southwestern GermanyInterpreting eddy covariance data from heterogeneous Siberian tundra: land-cover-specific methane fluxes and spatial representativenessGlobal atmospheric CO2 inverse models converging on neutral tropical land exchange, but disagreeing on fossil fuel and atmospheric growth rateAssessing biotic contributions to CO2 fluxes in northern China using the Vegetation, Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM-CHINA) and observations from 2005 to 2009Assessing the dynamics of vegetation productivity in circumpolar regions with different satellite indicators of greenness and photosynthesisReviews and syntheses: Carbon use efficiency from organisms to ecosystems – definitions, theories, and empirical evidenceEddy covariance flux errors due to random and systematic timing errors during data acquisitionSynthetic ozone deposition and stomatal uptake at flux tower sitesIntegrated management of a Swiss cropland is not sufficient to preserve its soil carbon pool in the long termBasic and extensible post-processing of eddy covariance flux data with REddyProcCarbon exchange in an Amazon forest: from hours to yearsSeasonal variations of Quercus pubescens isoprene emissions from an in natura forest under drought stress and sensitivity to future climate change in the Mediterranean areaAn assessment of natural methane fluxes simulated by the CLASS-CTEM modelAmmonia emission measurements of an intensively grazed pastureResource and physiological constraints on global crop production enhancements from atmospheric particulate matter and nitrogen depositionTechnical note: In situ measurement of flux and isotopic composition of CO2 released during oxidative weathering of sedimentary rocksLeaf phenology as one important driver of seasonal changes in isoprene emissions in central AmazoniaRecent past (1979–2014) and future (2070–2099) isoprene fluxes over Europe simulated with the MEGAN–MOHYCAN model
Paul C. Stoy, Adam A. Cook, John E. Dore, Natascha Kljun, William Kleindl, E. N. Jack Brookshire, and Tobias Gerken
Biogeosciences, 18, 961–975,Short summary
The reintroduction of American bison creates multiple environmental benefits. Ruminants like bison also emit methane – a potent greenhouse gas – to the atmosphere, which has not been measured to date in a field setting. We measured methane efflux from an American bison herd during winter using eddy covariance. Automated cameras were used to approximate their location to calculate per-animal flux. From the measurements, bison do not emit more methane than the cattle they often replace.
Philipp A. Nauer, Eleonora Chiri, Thanavit Jirapanjawat, Chris Greening, and Perran L. M. Cook
Biogeosciences, 18, 729–737,Short summary
Hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) are atmospheric trace gases cycled via microbial metabolisms. We observed strong H2 and CO contamination from rubber septa used to seal common gas sample storage vials. Here we propose a simple and inexpensive modification of such vials to allow reliable storage of H2, CO and methane trace-gas samples for timescales of weeks to months, thus enabling extensive field campaigns to investigate H2 and CO biogeochemistry in remote areas.
Jize Jiang, David S. Stevenson, Aimable Uwizeye, Giuseppe Tempio, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 18, 135–158,Short summary
Ammonia is a key water and air pollutant and impacts human health and climate change. Ammonia emissions mainly originate from agriculture. We find that chicken agriculture contributes to large ammonia emissions, especially in hot and wet regions. These emissions can be greatly affected by the local environment, i.e. temperature and humidity, and also by human management. We develop a model that suggests ammonia emissions from chicken farming are likely to increase under a warming climate.
Richard Wehr and Scott R. Saleska
Biogeosciences, 18, 13–24,Short summary
Water and carbon exchange between plants and the atmosphere is governed by stomata: adjustable pores in the surfaces of leaves. The combined gas conductance of all the stomata in a canopy has long been estimated using an equation that is shown here to be systematically incorrect because it relies on measurements that are generally inadequate. An alternative approach is shown to be more accurate in all probable scenarios and to imply different responses of stomatal conductance to the environment.
Bart Schilperoort, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits, César Jiménez Rodríguez, Christiaan van der Tol, Bas van de Wiel, and Hubert Savenije
Biogeosciences, 17, 6423–6439,Short summary
With distributed temperature sensing (DTS) we measured a vertical temperature profile in a forest, from the forest floor to above the treetops. Using this temperature profile we can see which parts of the forest canopy are colder (thus more dense) or warmer (and less dense) and study the effect this has on the suppression of turbulent mixing. This can be used to improve our knowledge of the interaction between the atmosphere and forests and improve carbon dioxide flux measurements over forests.
Yayi Niu, Yuqiang Li, Hanbo Yun, Xuyang Wang, Xiangwen Gong, Yulong Duan, and Jing Liu
Biogeosciences, 17, 6309–6326,Short summary
We report the results from continuous year-round CO2 observations from a sandy grassland in the Horqin Sandy Land using the eddy covariance technique. To quantify the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variation in net ecosystem CO2 exchange, gross primary productivity, and ecosystem respiration and to identify the different scales of environmental factors and the underlying mechanisms, we also explored how the annual precipitation affects the net ecosystem CO2 exchange and its components.
Gemma Purser, Julia Drewer, Mathew R. Heal, Robert A. S. Sircus, Lara K. Dunn, and James I. L. Morison
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Short-rotation forest plantations could help reduce greenhouse gases, but can emit biogenic volatile organic compounds. Emissions were measured at a plantation trial in Scotland. Standardised emissions of isoprene from foliage were higher from hybrid aspen than from Sitka spruce, and low from Italian alder. Emissions of total monoterpene were lower. The forest floor was only a small source. Model estimates suggest an SRF expansion of 0.7 Mha could increase total UK emissions between < 1 %–35 %.
Hélène Angot, Katelyn McErlean, Lu Hu, Dylan B. Millet, Jacques Hueber, Kaixin Cui, Jacob Moss, Catherine Wielgasz, Tyler Milligan, Damien Ketcherside, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, and Detlev Helmig
Biogeosciences, 17, 6219–6236,Short summary
We report biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) ambient levels and emission rates from key vegetation species in the Alaskan arctic tundra, providing a new data set to further constrain isoprene chemistry under low NOx conditions in models. We add to the growing body of evidence that climate-induced changes in the vegetation composition will significantly affect the BVOC emission potential of the tundra, with implications for atmospheric oxidation processes and climate feedbacks.
Teresa M. Seifried, Paul Bieber, Laura Felgitsch, Julian Vlasich, Florian Reyzek, David G. Schmale III, and Hinrich Grothe
Biogeosciences, 17, 5655–5667,
Biogeosciences, 17, 5587–5598,Short summary
FLUXNET is a large, bottom-up, self-coordinated network of sites. It provided ecosystem–atmosphere greenhouse gas fluxes from stations around the world that were used as bases for a large number of publications and studies. Today many applications require recent updates on the data to track more closely the ecosystem responses to climate change and link ground data with satellite programs. For this reason, a new organization of FLUXNET is needed, keeping as its target the FAIR principles.
Christian Markwitz, Alexander Knohl, and Lukas Siebicke
Biogeosciences, 17, 5183–5208,Short summary
Agroforestry has been shown to alter the microclimate and to lead to higher carbon sequestration above ground and in the soil. In this study, we investigated the impact of agroforestry systems on system-scale evapotranspiration (ET) due to concerns about increased water losses to the atmosphere. Results showed small differences in annual sums of ET over agroforestry relative to monoculture systems, indicating that agroforestry in Germany can be a land use alternative to monoculture agriculture.
Arnaud P. Praplan, Toni Tykkä, Simon Schallhart, Virpi Tarvainen, Jaana Bäck, and Heidi Hellén
Biogeosciences, 17, 4681–4705,Short summary
In this paper, we study emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from three boreal tree species. Individual compounds are quantified with on-line separation analytical techniques, while the total reactivity of the emissions is measured using a custom-built instrument. On some occasions, in particular when the trees suffer from stress, the total reactivity measured is higher than the sum of the reactivity of individual compounds. This indicates that the threes emit VOCs that remain unknown.
June Skeeter, Andreas Christen, Andrée-Anne Laforce, Elyn Humphreys, and Greg Henry
Biogeosciences, 17, 4421–4441,Short summary
This study investigates carbon fluxes at Illisarvik, an artificial drained thermokarst lake basin (DTLB) in Canada's Northwest Territories. This is the first carbon balance study in a DTLB outside of Alaska. We used neural networks to identify the factors controlling fluxes and to model the effects of the controlling factors. We discuss the role of vegetation heterogeneity in fluxes, especially of methane, and we show how the carbon fluxes differ from Alaskan DTLBs.
Anne J. Hoek van Dijke, Kaniska Mallick, Martin Schlerf, Miriam Machwitz, Martin Herold, and Adriaan J. Teuling
Biogeosciences, 17, 4443–4457,Short summary
We investigated the link between the vegetation leaf area index (LAI) and the land–atmosphere exchange of water, energy, and carbon fluxes. We show that the correlation between the LAI and water and energy fluxes depends on the vegetation type and aridity. For carbon fluxes, however, the correlation with the LAI was strong and independent of vegetation and aridity. This study provides insight into when the vegetation LAI can be used to model or extrapolate land–atmosphere fluxes.
Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Patrizia Ney, Oscar Hartogensis, Hugo de Boer, Kevin van Diepen, Dzhaner Emin, Geiske de Groot, Anne Klosterhalfen, Matthias Langensiepen, Maria Matveeva, Gabriela Miranda-García, Arnold F. Moene, Uwe Rascher, Thomas Röckmann, Getachew Adnew, Nicolas Brüggemann, Youri Rothfuss, and Alexander Graf
Biogeosciences, 17, 4375–4404,Short summary
The CloudRoots field experiment has obtained an open comprehensive observational data set that includes soil, plant, and atmospheric variables to investigate the interactions between a heterogeneous land surface and its overlying atmospheric boundary layer, including the rapid perturbations of clouds in evapotranspiration. Our findings demonstrate that in order to understand and represent diurnal variability, we need to measure and model processes from the leaf to the landscape scales.
Dean Howard, Yannick Agnan, Detlev Helmig, Yu Yang, and Daniel Obrist
Biogeosciences, 17, 4025–4042,Short summary
The Arctic tundra represents a vast store of carbon that may be broken down by microbial activity into greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. Though microbes are less active in winter, the long duration of the cold season makes this period very important for carbon cycling. We show that, under conditions of warmer winter air temperatures and greater snowfall, deeper soils can remain warm enough to sustain significantly enhanced CH4 emission. This could have large implications for future climates.
Kristina Bohm, Joachim Ingwersen, Josipa Milovac, and Thilo Streck
Biogeosciences, 17, 2791–2805,
Domenico Vitale, Gerardo Fratini, Massimo Bilancia, Giacomo Nicolini, Simone Sabbatini, and Dario Papale
Biogeosciences, 17, 1367–1391,Short summary
This work describes a data cleaning procedure for the detection of eddy covariance fluxes affected by systematic errors. We believe that the proposed procedure can serve as a basis toward a unified quality control strategy suitable for the centralized data processing pipelines, where the use of completely data-driven and scalable procedures that guarantee high-quality standards and reproducibility of the released products constitutes an essential prerequisite.
Martin Jung, Christopher Schwalm, Mirco Migliavacca, Sophia Walther, Gustau Camps-Valls, Sujan Koirala, Peter Anthoni, Simon Besnard, Paul Bodesheim, Nuno Carvalhais, Frédéric Chevallier, Fabian Gans, Daniel S. Goll, Vanessa Haverd, Philipp Köhler, Kazuhito Ichii, Atul K. Jain, Junzhi Liu, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Jacob A. Nelson, Michael O'Sullivan, Martijn Pallandt, Dario Papale, Wouter Peters, Julia Pongratz, Christian Rödenbeck, Stephen Sitch, Gianluca Tramontana, Anthony Walker, Ulrich Weber, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 17, 1343–1365,Short summary
We test the approach of producing global gridded carbon fluxes based on combining machine learning with local measurements, remote sensing and climate data. We show that we can reproduce seasonal variations in carbon assimilated by plants via photosynthesis and in ecosystem net carbon balance. The ecosystem’s mean carbon balance and carbon flux trends require cautious interpretation. The analysis paves the way for future improvements of the data-driven assessment of carbon fluxes.
Samantha J. Basile, Xin Lin, William R. Wieder, Melannie D. Hartman, and Gretchen Keppel-Aleks
Biogeosciences, 17, 1293–1308,Short summary
Soil heterotrophic respiration (HR) is an important component of land–atmosphere carbon exchange but is difficult to observe globally. We analyzed the imprint that this flux leaves on atmospheric CO2 using a set of simulations from HR models with common inputs. Models that represent microbial processes are more variable and have stronger temperature sensitivity than those that do not. Our results show that we can use atmospheric CO2 observations to evaluate and improve models of HR.
Christopher Krich, Jakob Runge, Diego G. Miralles, Mirco Migliavacca, Oscar Perez-Priego, Tarek El-Madany, Arnaud Carrara, and Miguel D. Mahecha
Biogeosciences, 17, 1033–1061,Short summary
Causal inference promises new insight into biosphere–atmosphere interactions using time series only. To understand the behaviour of a specific method on such data, we used artificial and observation-based data. The observed structures are very interpretable and reveal certain ecosystem-specific behaviour, as only a few relevant links remain, in contrast to pure correlation techniques. Thus, causal inference allows to us gain well-constrained insights into processes and interactions.
Alexander J. Turner, Philipp Köhler, Troy S. Magney, Christian Frankenberg, Inez Fung, and Ronald C. Cohen
Biogeosciences, 17, 405–422,Short summary
We present the highest resolution solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) dataset from satellite measurements, providing previously unobservable phenomena related to plant photosynthesis. We find a strong correspondence between TROPOMI SIF and AmeriFlux GPP. We then observe a double peak in the seasonality of California's photosynthesis, not seen by traditional vegetation indices (e.g., MODIS). This is further corroborated by EOF/PC analysis.
Nicholas Cowan, Peter Levy, Andrea Moring, Ivan Simmons, Colin Bache, Amy Stephens, Joana Marinheiro, Jocelyn Brichet, Ling Song, Amy Pickard, Connie McNeill, Roseanne McDonald, Juliette Maire, Benjamin Loubet, Polina Voylokov, Mark Sutton, and Ute Skiba
Biogeosciences, 16, 4731–4745,Short summary
Commonly used nitrogen fertilisers, ammonium nitrate, urea and urea coated with a urease inhibitor, were applied to experimental plots. Fertilisation with ammonium nitrate supported the largest yields but also resulted in the largest nitrous oxide emissions. Urea was the largest emitter of ammonia. The coated urea did not significantly increase yields; however, ammonia emissions were substantially smaller than urea. The coated urea was the best environmentally but is economically unattractive.
Boris Bonn, Ruth-Kristina Magh, Joseph Rombach, and Jürgen Kreuzwieser
Biogeosciences, 16, 4627–4645,Short summary
The effect of soil water availability (SWA) on emissions of isoprenoids by trees was studied by setting up a parameterization from published data. SWA impact on isoprene emissions can be described by a growth type curve, while monoterpene emissions display a pattern reflecting plants’ stomata opening. Sesquiterpene fluxes tend to increase at the start of severe drought until resources decline. Feedbacks on atmospheric processes such as ozone and aerosol particles are further studied.
Martin Jiskra, Jeroen E. Sonke, Yannick Agnan, Detlev Helmig, and Daniel Obrist
Biogeosciences, 16, 4051–4064,Short summary
The tundra plays a pivotal role in Arctic mercury cycling by storing atmospheric mercury deposition and shuttling it to the Arctic Ocean. We used the isotopic fingerprint of mercury to investigate the processes controlling atmospheric mercury deposition. We found that the uptake of atmospheric mercury by vegetation was the major deposition source. Direct deposition to snow or soils only played a minor role. These results improve our understanding of Arctic mercury cycling.
Paul C. Stoy, Tarek S. El-Madany, Joshua B. Fisher, Pierre Gentine, Tobias Gerken, Stephen P. Good, Anne Klosterhalfen, Shuguang Liu, Diego G. Miralles, Oscar Perez-Priego, Angela J. Rigden, Todd H. Skaggs, Georg Wohlfahrt, Ray G. Anderson, A. Miriam J. Coenders-Gerrits, Martin Jung, Wouter H. Maes, Ivan Mammarella, Matthias Mauder, Mirco Migliavacca, Jacob A. Nelson, Rafael Poyatos, Markus Reichstein, Russell L. Scott, and Sebastian Wolf
Biogeosciences, 16, 3747–3775,Short summary
Key findings are the nearly optimal response of T to atmospheric water vapor pressure deficits across methods and scales. Additionally, the notion that T / ET intermittently approaches 1, which is a basis for many partitioning methods, does not hold for certain methods and ecosystems. To better constrain estimates of E and T from combined ET measurements, we propose a combination of independent measurement techniques to better constrain E and T at the ecosystem scale.
Christian Stiegler, Ana Meijide, Yuanchao Fan, Ashehad Ashween Ali, Tania June, and Alexander Knohl
Biogeosciences, 16, 2873–2890,Short summary
We show the response of a commercial oil palm plantation in Indonesia to the extreme El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event in 2015. Our measurements and model suggest that without human-induced forest fires and related smoke emissions, the observed negative impact on oil palm carbon dioxide greenhouse gas fluxes, carbon accumulation and yield due to ENSO-related drought would have been less pronounced. With respect to climate change we highlight the importance of fire prevention in the area.
Sven Boese, Martin Jung, Nuno Carvalhais, Adriaan J. Teuling, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 16, 2557–2572,Short summary
This study examines how limited water availability during droughts affects water-use efficiency. This metric describes how much carbon an ecosystem can assimilate for each unit of water lost by transpiration. We test how well different water-use efficiency models can capture the dynamics of transpiration decrease due to increased soil-water limitation. Accounting for the interacting effects of radiation and water limitation is necessary to accurately predict transpiration during these periods.
Raia Silvia Massad, Juliette Lathière, Susanna Strada, Mathieu Perrin, Erwan Personne, Marc Stéfanon, Patrick Stella, Sophie Szopa, and Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudré
Biogeosciences, 16, 2369–2408,Short summary
Human activities strongly interfere in the land–atmosphere interactions through changes in land use and land cover changes and land management. The objectives of this review are to synthesize the existing experimental and modelling works that investigate physical, chemical, and biogeochemical interactions between land surface and the atmosphere. Greater consideration of atmospheric chemistry, through land–atmosphere interactions, as a decision parameter for land management is essential.
Yuzo Miyazaki, Divyavani Gowda, Eri Tachibana, Yoshiyuki Takahashi, and Tsutom Hiura
Biogeosciences, 16, 2181–2188,Short summary
Fatty alcohols (FAs) are major components of surface lipids and can act as surface-active atmospheric organic aerosols, influencing the cloud formation. We identified five secondary FAs in atmospheric aerosols at two temperate forest sites and revealed their distinct seasonal variation for the first time. Our results suggest that they originated mostly from plant wax and could be used as useful tracers for primary biological aerosol particles.
Claire Delon, Corinne Galy-Lacaux, Dominique Serça, Erwan Personne, Eric Mougin, Marcellin Adon, Valérie Le Dantec, Benjamin Loubet, Rasmus Fensholt, and Torbern Tagesson
Biogeosciences, 16, 2049–2077,Short summary
In the Sahel region during the wet season, CO2 and NO are released to the atmosphere, and NH3 is deposited on the soil. During the dry season, processes are strongly reduced. This paper shows the temporal variation in these soil–atmosphere exchanges of trace gases for 2 years, their sharp increase when the first rains fall onto dry soils, and how microbial processes are involved. We use a modelling approach, which is necessary when continuous measurements are not possible in remote regions.
Anne Sofie Lansø, Thomas Luke Smallman, Jesper Heile Christensen, Mathew Williams, Kim Pilegaard, Lise-Lotte Sørensen, and Camilla Geels
Biogeosciences, 16, 1505–1524,Short summary
Although coastal regions only amount to 7 % of the global oceans, their contribution to the global oceanic surface exchange of CO2 is much greater. In this study, we gain detailed insight into how these coastal marine fluxes compare to CO2 exchange from coastal land regions. Annually, the coastal marine exchanges are smaller than the total uptake of CO2 from the land surfaces within the study area but comparable in size to terrestrial fluxes from individual land cover classes of the region.
Ravshan Eshonkulov, Arne Poyda, Joachim Ingwersen, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Tobias K. D. Weber, Pascal Kremer, Petra Högy, Alim Pulatov, and Thilo Streck
Biogeosciences, 16, 521–540,Short summary
We compared the energy balance closure (EBC) under varying environmental conditions and investigated a wide range of possible reasons for the energy imbalance. As measures for the imbalance, we used ordinary linear regression, the energy balance ratio (EBR), and the energy residual. The EBR was also investigated as a function of buoyancy, friction velocity, and atmospheric stability. Moreover, the relationship between the EBC and flux source area or footprint was also investigated.
Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Mika Aurela, Juha Hatakka, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Juha Mikola, Viktor Ivakhov, Vladimir Kondratyev, and Tuomas Laurila
Biogeosciences, 16, 255–274,Short summary
We analysed ecosystem-scale measurements of methane exchange between Arctic tundra and the atmosphere, taking into account the large variations in vegetation and soil properties. The measurements are spatial averages, but using meteorological and statistical modelling techniques we could estimate methane emissions for different land cover types and quantify how well the measurements correspond to the spatial variability. This provides a more accurate estimate of the regional methane emission.
Benjamin Gaubert, Britton B. Stephens, Sourish Basu, Frédéric Chevallier, Feng Deng, Eric A. Kort, Prabir K. Patra, Wouter Peters, Christian Rödenbeck, Tazu Saeki, David Schimel, Ingrid Van der Laan-Luijkx, Steven Wofsy, and Yi Yin
Biogeosciences, 16, 117–134,Short summary
We have compared global carbon budgets calculated from numerical inverse models and CO2 observations, and evaluated how these systems reproduce vertical gradients in atmospheric CO2 from aircraft measurements. We found that available models have converged on near-neutral tropical total fluxes for several decades, implying consistent sinks in intact tropical forests, and that assumed fossil fuel emissions and predicted atmospheric growth rates are now the dominant axes of disagreement.
Archana Dayalu, J. William Munger, Steven C. Wofsy, Yuxuan Wang, Thomas Nehrkorn, Yu Zhao, Michael B. McElroy, Chris P. Nielsen, and Kristina Luus
Biogeosciences, 15, 6713–6729,Short summary
Accounting for the vegetation signal is critical for comprehensive CO2 budget assessment in China. We model and evaluate hourly vegetation carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange (mass per unit area per unit time) in northern China from 2005 to 2009. The model is driven by satellite and meteorological data, is linked to ground-level ecosystem observations, and is applicable to other time periods. We find vegetation uptake of CO2 in summer is comparable to emissions from fossil fuels in northern China.
Sophia Walther, Luis Guanter, Birgit Heim, Martin Jung, Gregory Duveiller, Aleksandra Wolanin, and Torsten Sachs
Biogeosciences, 15, 6221–6256,Short summary
We explored the timing of the peak of the short annual growing season in tundra ecosystems as indicated by an extensive suite of satellite indicators of vegetation productivity. Delayed peak greenness compared to peak photosynthesis is consistently found across years and land-cover classes. Plants also experience growth after optimal conditions for assimilation regarding light and temperature have passed. Our results have implications for the modelling of the circumpolar carbon balance.
Stefano Manzoni, Petr Čapek, Philipp Porada, Martin Thurner, Mattias Winterdahl, Christian Beer, Volker Brüchert, Jan Frouz, Anke M. Herrmann, Björn D. Lindahl, Steve W. Lyon, Hana Šantrůčková, Giulia Vico, and Danielle Way
Biogeosciences, 15, 5929–5949,Short summary
Carbon fixed by plants and phytoplankton through photosynthesis is ultimately stored in soils and sediments or released to the atmosphere during decomposition of dead biomass. Carbon-use efficiency is a useful metric to quantify the fate of carbon – higher efficiency means higher storage and lower release to the atmosphere. Here we summarize many definitions of carbon-use efficiency and study how this metric changes from organisms to ecosystems and from terrestrial to aquatic environments.
Gerardo Fratini, Simone Sabbatini, Kevin Ediger, Brad Riensche, George Burba, Giacomo Nicolini, Domenico Vitale, and Dario Papale
Biogeosciences, 15, 5473–5487,Short summary
Using a simulation study and field data, we quantify the biases that can be introduced in fluxes measured by eddy covariance (EC) if the raw high-frequency data are affected by random and systematic timing misalignments. Our study was motivated by the increasingly widespread adoption of fully digital EC systems potentially subject to such timing errors. We found biases as large as 10 %. We further propose a test to evaluate EC data logging systems for their time synchronization capabilities.
Jason A. Ducker, Christopher D. Holmes, Trevor F. Keenan, Silvano Fares, Allen H. Goldstein, Ivan Mammarella, J. William Munger, and Jordan Schnell
Biogeosciences, 15, 5395–5413,Short summary
We have developed an accurate method (SynFlux) to estimate ozone deposition and stomatal uptake across 103 flux tower sites (43 US, 60 Europe), where ozone concentrations and fluxes have not been measured. In all, the SynFlux public dataset provides monthly values of ozone dry deposition for 926 site years across a wide array of ecosystems. The SynFlux dataset will promote further applications to ecosystem, air quality, or climate modeling across the geoscience community.
Carmen Emmel, Annina Winkler, Lukas Hörtnagl, Andrew Revill, Christof Ammann, Petra D'Odorico, Nina Buchmann, and Werner Eugster
Biogeosciences, 15, 5377–5393,Short summary
It is of great interest to know whether croplands act as a net source or sink of atmospheric CO2 and if soil carbon (C) stocks are preserved over long timescales due to the role of C in soil fertility. For a cropland in Switzerland it was found that managing the field under the Swiss framework of the Proof of Ecological Performance (PEP) resulted in soil C losses of 18.0 %. Additional efforts are needed to bring Swiss management practices closer to the goal of preserving soil C in the long term.
Thomas Wutzler, Antje Lucas-Moffat, Mirco Migliavacca, Jürgen Knauer, Kerstin Sickel, Ladislav Šigut, Olaf Menzer, and Markus Reichstein
Biogeosciences, 15, 5015–5030,Short summary
Net fluxes of carbon dioxide at the ecosystem level measured by eddy covariance are a main source for understanding biosphere–atmosphere interactions. However, there is a need for more usable and extensible tools for post-processing steps of the half-hourly flux data. Therefore, we developed the REddyProc package, providing data filtering, gap filling, and flux partitioning. The extensible functions are compatible with state-of-the-art tools but allow easier integration in extended analysis.
Matthew N. Hayek, Marcos Longo, Jin Wu, Marielle N. Smith, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Raphael Tapajós, Rodrigo da Silva, David R. Fitzjarrald, Plinio B. Camargo, Lucy R. Hutyra, Luciana F. Alves, Bruce Daube, J. William Munger, Kenia T. Wiedemann, Scott R. Saleska, and Steven C. Wofsy
Biogeosciences, 15, 4833–4848,Short summary
We investigated the roles that weather and forest disturbances like drought play in shaping changes in ecosystem photosynthesis and carbon exchange in an Amazon forest. We discovered that weather largely influenced differences between years, but a prior drought, which occurred 3 years before measurements started, likely hampered photosynthesis in the first year. This is the first atmospheric evidence that drought can have legacy impacts on Amazon forest photosynthesis.
Anne-Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Christophe Boissard, Elena Ormeño, Juliette Lathière, Ilja M. Reiter, Henri Wortham, Jean-Philippe Orts, Brice Temime-Roussel, Bertrand Guenet, Svenja Bartsch, Thierry Gauquelin, and Catherine Fernandez
Biogeosciences, 15, 4711–4730,Short summary
From seasonal in situ observations on how a Mediterranean ecosystem responds to drought, a specific isoprene emission (ER, emission rates) algorithm was developed, upon which 2100 projections (IPCC RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios) were made. Emission rates were found to be mainly sensitive to future temperature changes and poorly represented by current empirical emission models. Drought was found to aggravate thermal stress on emission rates.
Vivek K. Arora, Joe R. Melton, and David Plummer
Biogeosciences, 15, 4683–4709,Short summary
Earth system models (ESMs) project future changes in climate in response to changes in anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). However, before this can be achieved the natural fluxes of a given GHG must also be modelled. This paper evaluates the natural methane fluxes simulated by the CLASS-CTEM model (which is the land component of the Canadian ESM) against observations to show that the simulated methane emissions from wetlands and fires, and soil uptake of methane are realistic.
Karl Voglmeier, Markus Jocher, Christoph Häni, and Christof Ammann
Biogeosciences, 15, 4593–4608,
Luke D. Schiferl, Colette L. Heald, and David Kelly
Biogeosciences, 15, 4301–4315,Short summary
To understand future food security, it is critical to develop realistic crop models with reliable sensitivity to environmental factors. We find that particulate matter (PM) causes a significant, but smaller, enhancement for global wheat and rice production than estimated without nutrient and physiological limitations imposed by a crop model. In contrast, maize grows near its physiological maximum, with little enhancement from PM. Nitrogen deposition leads to a small increase in crop production.
Guillaume Soulet, Robert G. Hilton, Mark H. Garnett, Mathieu Dellinger, Thomas Croissant, Mateja Ogrič, and Sébastien Klotz
Biogeosciences, 15, 4087–4102,Short summary
Oxidative weathering of sedimentary rocks can release carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Here, we designed a chamber-based method to measure these CO2 emissions directly for the first time. The chamber is drilled in the rock and allows us to collect the CO2 to fingerprint its source using carbon isotopes. We tested our method in Draix (France). The measured CO2 fluxes were substantial, with ~20% originating from oxidation of the rock organic matter and ~80% from dissolution of carbonate minerals.
Eliane G. Alves, Julio Tóta, Andrew Turnipseed, Alex B. Guenther, José Oscar W. Vega Bustillos, Raoni A. Santana, Glauber G. Cirino, Julia V. Tavares, Aline P. Lopes, Bruce W. Nelson, Rodrigo A. de Souza, Dasa Gu, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, David K. Adams, Jin Wu, Scott Saleska, and Antonio O. Manzi
Biogeosciences, 15, 4019–4032,Short summary
This study shows that leaf quantity and leaf age have an important effect on seasonal changes in isoprene emissions and that these could play an even more important role in regulating ecosystem isoprene fluxes than light and temperature at seasonal timescales in tropical forests. These results bring novelty and new insight for future research because in the past leaf phenology was not considered as an important factor that controls biological processes in the tropics.
Maite Bauwens, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Bert Van Schaeybroeck, Lesley De Cruz, Rozemien De Troch, Olivier Giot, Rafiq Hamdi, Piet Termonia, Quentin Laffineur, Crist Amelynck, Niels Schoon, Bernard Heinesch, Thomas Holst, Almut Arneth, Reinhart Ceulemans, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, and Alex Guenther
Biogeosciences, 15, 3673–3690,Short summary
Biogenic isoprene fluxes are simulated over Europe with the MEGAN–MOHYCAN model for the recent past and end-of-century climate at high spatiotemporal resolution (0.1°, 3 min). Due to climate change, fluxes increased by 40 % over 1979–2014. Climate scenarios for 2070–2099 suggest an increase by 83 % due to climate, and an even stronger increase when the potential impact of CO2 fertilization is considered (up to 141 %). Accounting for CO2 inhibition cancels out a large part of these increases.
Anishchenko, O. V., Glushchenko, L. A., Dubovskaya, O. P., Zuev, I. V., Ageev, A. V., and Ivanova, E. A.: Morphometry and metal concentrations in water and bottom sediments of mountain lakes in Ergaki Natural Park, Western Sayan Mountains, Water Resour., 42, 670–682, https://doi.org/10.1134/S0097807815050036, 2015.
APHA: Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 17th edn., American Public Health Association, Washington DC, USA, 1989.
Banks, H. H. and Nighswander, J. E.: Relative contribution of Hemlock pollen to the phosphorus loading of the Clear lake ecosystem near Minden, Ontario, Symposium on Sustainable Management of Hemlock Ecosystems in Eastern North America, Proceedings, 22–24 June 1999, Durham NH, 168–174, 2000.
Bergström, A.-K. and Jansson, M.: Atmospheric nitrogen deposition has caused nitrogen enrichment and eutrophication of lakes in the northern hemisphere, Glob. Change Biol., 12, 635–643, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01129.x, 2006.
Bergström, A.-K., Faithfull, C., Karlsson, D., and Karlsson, J.: Nitrogen deposition and warming – effects on phytoplankton nutrient limitation in subarctic lakes, Glob. Change Biol., 19, 2557–2568, https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12234, 2013.
Bergström, A. K.: The use of TN : TP and DIN : TP ratios as indicators for phytoplankton nutrient limitation in oligotrophic lakes affected by N deposition, Aquat. Sci., 72, 277–281, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00027-010-0132-0, 2010.
Bergström, A. K., Blomqvist, P., and Jansson, M.: Effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition on nutrient limitation and phytoplankton biomass in unproductive Swedish lakes, Limnol. Oceanogr., 50, 987–994, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2005.50.3.0987, 2005.
Bobbink, R., Hicks, K., Galloway, J., Spranger, T., Alkemade, R., Ashmore, M., Bustamante, M., Cinderby, S., Davidson, E., Dentener, F., Emmett, B., Erisman, J. W., Fenn, M., Gilliam, F., Nordin, A., Pardo, L., and De Vries, W.: Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: A synthesis, Ecol. Appl., 20, 30–59, https://doi.org/10.1890/08-1140.1, 2010.
Brazhnik, K., Hanley, C., and Shugart, H. H.: Simulating changes in fires and ecology of the 21st century Eurasian boreal forests of Siberia, Forests, 8, 1–27, https://doi.org/10.3390/f8020049, 2017.
Brown, L. J., Taleban, V., Gharabaghi, B., and Weiss, L.: Seasonal and spatial distribution patterns of atmospheric phosphorus deposition to Lake Simcoe, ON, J. Great Lakes Res., 37, 15–25, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2011.01.004, 2011.
Camarero, L. and Catalan, J.: Atmospheric phosphorus deposition may cause lakes to revert from phosphorus limitation back to nitrogen limitation, Nat. Commun., 3, 1118, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2125, 2012.
Carslaw, D. C. and Ropkins, K.: openair – an R package for air quality data analysis, Environ. Model. Softw., 27–28, 52–61, 2012.
Catalan, J.: The winter cover of a high-mountain Mediterranean lake (Estany Redó, Pyrenees), Water Resour. Res., 25, 519–527, 1989.
Chernov, G., Vdovin, V., Okishev, P., Petkevich, M., Mistryukov, A., Zyatkova, L., and Milyaeva, L.: Relief Altae-Sayanskoi gornoi oblasti, edited by: Nikolaev, V. and Chernov, G., Nauka Sibirskoe Otdelenie, Novosibirsk, 1988.
Clement, J. C., Robson, T. M., Guillemin, R., Saccone, P., Lochet, J., Aubert, S., and Lavorel, S.: The effects of snow-N deposition and snowmelt dynamics on soil-N cycling in marginal terraced grasslands in the French Alps, Biogeochemistry, 108, 297–315, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-011-9601-3, 2012.
Cragin, J. H., Hewitt, A. D., and Colbeck, S. C.: Grain-scale mechanisms influencing the elution of ions from snow, Atmos. Environ., 30, 119–127, https://doi.org/10.1016/1352-2310(95)00232-N, 1996.
DeForest, J. L., Zak, D. R., Pregitzer, K. S., and Burton, A. J.: Atmospheric nitrate deposition, microbial community composition, and enzyme activity in northern hardwood forests, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 68, 132, https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2004.1320, 2004.
Diaz-de-Quijano, D.: On the track of cellular ecology, Methodological improvements and contributions of single-cell phosphatase activity on the ecology of phytoplankton in Pyrenean lakes, PhD dissertation, University of Barcelona, available at: http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/57286 (last access: 1 March 2021), 2014.
Diaz-de-Quijano, D., Ageev, A., Ivanova, E. A., and Anishchenko, O. V.: Dataset for article “Winter atmospheric nutrients and pollutants deposition on West Sayan mountain lakes (Siberia)”, available at: http://elib.sfu-kras.ru/handle/2311/135098, last access: 30 December 2020.
Doskey, P. V and Ugoagwu, B. J.: Macronutrient chemistry of pollen, Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 23, 15–23, https://doi.org/10.1080/00103629209368566, 1992.
Eimers, M. C., Hillis, N. P., and Watmough, S. A.: Phosphorus deposition in a low-phosphorus landscape: sources, accuracy and contribution to declines in surface water P, Ecosystems, 21, 782–794, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10021-017-0184-2, 2018.
Elser, J. J., Andersen, T., Baron, J. S., Bergström, A.-K., Jansson, M., Kyle, M., Nydick, K. R., Steger, L. and Hessen, D. O.: Shifts in lake N : P stoichiometry and nutrient limitation driven by atmospheric nitrogen deposition, Science, 326, 835–837, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1176199, 2009.
Fagerli, H., Tsyro, S., Jonson, J. E., Nyíri, Á., Gauss, M., Simpson, D., Wind, P., Benedictow, A., Klein, H., Mortier, A., Aas, W., Hjellbrekke, A.-G., Solberg, S., Platt, S. M., Yttri, K. E., Tørseth, K., Gaisbauer, S., Mareckova, K., Matthews, B., Schindlbacher, S., Sosa, C., Tista, M., Ullrich, B., Wankmüller, R., Scheuschner, T., Bergström, R., Johanson, L., Jalkanen, J.-P., Metzger, S., Denier van der Gon, H. D. C., Kuenen, J. J. P., Visschedjik, A. J. H., Barregård, L., Molnár, P., and Stockfelt, L.: Transboundary particulate matter, photo-oxidants, acidifying and eutrophying components, EMEP status report 1/2019, 4 September 2019, Norwegian Institute of Meteorology, Oslo, 2019.
Felip, M., Sattler, B., Psenner, R., and Catalan, J.: Highly active microbial communities in the ice and snow cover of high mountain lakes, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 61, 2394–2401, 1995.
Gauss, M., Tsyro, S., Benedictow, A., Fagerli, H., Hjellbrekke, A.-G., Aas, W., and Solberg, S.: EMEP/MSC-W model performance for acidifying and eutrophying components and photo-oxidants in 2017, Supplementary material to EMEP Status Report 1/2019, Oslo, 2019.
Gladyshev, M. I., Kolmakova, O. V., Tolomeev, A. P., Anishchenko, O. V., Makhutova, O. N., Kolmakova, A. A., Kravchuk, E. S., Glushchenko, L. A., Kolmakov, V. I., and Sushchik, N. N.: Differences in organic matter and bacterioplankton between sections of the largest arctic river: Mosaic or continuum?, Limnol. Oceanogr., 60, 1314–1331, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10097, 2015.
Grasshoff, K., Ehrhamdt, M., and Kremling, K.: Methods of sea water analysis, 2nd Ed., Wiley Verlag-Chemie, Weinheim, 1983.
Güsewell, S.: N : P ratios in terrestrial plants: variation and functional significance, New Phytol., 164, 243–266, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01192.x, 2004.
Hijmans, R. J.: Geosphere: Spherical Trigonometry, available from: https://cran.r-project.org/package=geosphere (last access: 8 November 2018), 2017.
Hungate, B. A., Cole, J., Vitousek, P. M., Stewart, J., Victoria, R., Kenichi, S., and Naiman, R. J.: Disturbance and element interactions, in SCOPE 61: Interactions among the major biogeochemical cycles, edited by: Melillo, J. M., Field, C. B., and Moldan, B., Island Press, Washington DC, 47–62, 2003.
IPCC (van Oldenborgh, G. J., Collins, M., Arblaster, J., Christensen, J. H., Marotzke, J., Power, S. B., Rummukainen, M., and Zhou, T.): Annex I : atlas of global and regional climate projections, in: Climate change 2013: The physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M., 1311–1394, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, 2013.
Jambers, W. and Van Grieken, R.: Single particle characterization of inorganic suspension in Lake Baikal, Siberia, Environ. Sci. Technol., 31, 1525–1533, https://doi.org/10.1021/es9608003, 1997.
Jassby, A. D., Reuter, J. E., Axler, R. P., Goldman, C. R., and Hackley, S. H.: Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and phosphorus in the annual nutrient load of Lake Tahoe (California-Nevada), Water Resour. Res., 30, 2207–2216, 1994.
Jeffrey, S. W. and Humphrey, G. F.: New spectrophotometric equations for determining chlorophylls a, b, c1 and c2 in higher plants, algae and natural phytoplankton, Biochem. Physiol. Pfl., 167, 191–194, 1975.
Kahle, D. and Wickham, H.: ggmap: spatial visualization with ggplot2, R. J. 5, 144–161, 2013.
Kalacheva, G. S., Gubanov, V. G., Gribovskaya, I. V., Gladchenko, I. A., Zinenko, G. K., and Savitsky, S. V.: Chemical analysis of Lake Shira water (1997–2000), Aquat. Ecol., 36, 123–141, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015695813280, 2002.
Kopáček, J., Stuchlík, E., Straškrabová, V., and Pšenáková, P.: Factors governing nutrient status of mountain lakes in the Tatra Mountains, Freshw. Biol., 43, 369–384, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.2000.00569.x, 2000.
Kopáček, J., Turek, J., Hejzlar, J., and Porcal, P.: Bulk deposition and throughfall fluxes of elements in the Bohemian Forest (central Europe) from 1998 to 2009, Boreal Environ. Res., 16, 495–508, 2011a.
Kopáček, J., Hejzlar, J., Vrba, J., and Stuchlík, E.: Phosphorus loading of mountain lakes: Terrestrial export and atmospheric deposition, Limnol. Oceanogr., 56, 1343–1354, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2011.56.4.1343, 2011b.
Kuhn, M.: The nutrient cycle through snow and ice, a review, Aquat. Sci., 63, 150–167, https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00001348, 2001.
Lamarque, J.-F., Dentener, F., McConnell, J., Ro, C.-U., Shaw, M., Vet, R., Bergmann, D., Cameron-Smith, P., Dalsoren, S., Doherty, R., Faluvegi, G., Ghan, S. J., Josse, B., Lee, Y. H., MacKenzie, I. A., Plummer, D., Shindell, D. T., Skeie, R. B., Stevenson, D. S., Strode, S., Zeng, G., Curran, M., Dahl-Jensen, D., Das, S., Fritzsche, D., and Nolan, M.: Multi-model mean nitrogen and sulfur deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): evaluation of historical and projected future changes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7997–8018, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-7997-2013, 2013.
LeBauer, D. S. and Treseder, K. K.: Nitrogen limitation of net primary productivity in terrestrial ecosystems is globally distributed, Ecology, 2, 371–379, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00153104, 2008.
Logatchev, N. A.: History and geodynamics of the Lake Baikal rift in the context of the Eastern Siberia rift system: a review, Bull. Centres Rech. Explor. Elf Aquitaine, 17, 353–370, 1993.
Mahowald, N., Jickells, T. D., Baker, A. R., Artaxo, P., Benitez-Nelson, C. R., Bergametti, G., Bond, T. C., Chen, Y., Cohen, D. D., Herut, B., Kubilay, N., Losno, R., Luo, C., Maenhaut, W., McGee, K. A., Okin, G. S., Siefert, R. L., and Tsukuda, S.: Global distribution of atmospheric phosphorus sources, concentrations and deposition rates, and anthropogenic impacts, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 22, 1–19, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GB003240, 2008.
Malevsky-Malevich, S. P., Molkentin, E. K., Nadyozhina, E. D., and Shklyarevich, O. B.: An assessment of potential change in wildfire activity in the Russian boreal forest zone induced by climate warming during the twenty-first century, Clim. Change, 86, 463–474, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-007-9295-7, 2008.
Marcé, R., Obrador, B., Morguí, J.-A., Riera, J., López, P., and Armengol, J.: Carbonate weathering as a driver of CO2 supersaturation in lakes, Nat. Geosci., 8, 107–111, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo2341, 2015.
Medina-Sanchez, J. M., Villar-Argaiz, M., and Carrillo, P.: Neither with nor without you: A complex algal control on bacterioplankton in a high mountain lake, Limnol. Oceanogr., 49, 1722–1733, 2004.
Mosello, R., Berg, T., Nicuks, U., and Appleby, P.: Atmospheric deposition. Sampling and analysis of direct deposition, snow pack and soil cores, Mountain lake research (MOLAR) project manual, programme: Measuring and modelling the dynamic response of remote mountain lake ecosystems to environmental change, C.N.R. Instituto Italiano di Idrobiologia, Pallanza, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Lillestrøm, Institute of Meteorology, Innsbruck, University of Liverpool, 1–16, 1997.
Ohizumi, T., Take, N., Inomata, Y., Yagoh, H., Endo, T., Takahashi, M., Yanahara, K., and Kusakabe, M.: Long-term variation of the source of sulfate deposition in a leeward area of Asian continent in view of sulfur isotopic composition, Atmos. Environ., 140, 42–51, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.057, 2016.
Pearson, C., Schumer, R., Trustman, B. D., Rittger, K., Johnson, D. W., and Obrist, D.: Nutrient and mercury deposition and storage in an alpine snowpack of the Sierra Nevada, USA, Biogeosciences, 12, 3665–3680, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-12-3665-2015, 2015.
R Core Team: R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, available at: https://www.R-project.org/ (last access: 1 March 2021), 2017.
Rahm, L., Hakansson, B., Larsson, P., Fogelqvist, E., Bremle, G., and Valderrama, J.: Nutrient and persistent pollutant deposition on the Bothnian bay ice and snow fields, Water Air Soil Pollut., 84, 187–201, 1995.
Raison, R. J.: Modification of the soil environment by vegetation fires, with particular reference to nitrogen transformations: a review, Plant Soil, 51, 73–108, 1979.
Reinemann, S. A., Porinchu, D. F., Gustin, M. A., and Mark, B. G.: Historical trends of mercury and spheroidal carbonaceous particle deposition in sub-alpine lakes in the Great Basin, United States, J. Paleolimnol., 52, 405–418, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10933-014-9801-7, 2014.
Rockström, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K., Persson, A., Chapin, F. S., Lambin, E. F., Lenton, T. M., Scheffer, M., Folke, C., Schellnhuber, H. J., Nykvist, B., de Wit, C. A., Hughes, T., van der Leeuw, S., Rodhe, H., Sörlin, S., Snyder, P. K., Costanza, R., Svedin, U., Falkenmark, M., Karlberg, L., Corell, R. W., Fabry, V. J., Hansen, J., Walker, B., Liverman, D., Richardson, K., Crutzen, P., and Foley, J. A.: A safe operating space for humanity, Nature, 461, 472–475, https://doi.org/10.1038/461472a, 2009.
Rolph, G., Stein, A., and Stunder, B.: Real-time Environmental Applications and Display sYstem: READY, Environ. Model. Softw., 95, 210–228, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2017.06.025, 2017.
Rose, N. L.: A note on further refinements to a procedure for the extraction of carbonaceous fly-ash particles from sediments, J. Paleolimnol., 11, 201–204, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00686866, 1994.
Rose, N. L.: Quality control in the analysis of lake sediments for spheroidal carbonaceous particles, Limnol. Oceanogr., 6, 172–179, https://doi.org/10.4319/lom.2008.6.172, 2008.
Rose, N. L. and Monteith, D. T.: Temporal trends in spheroidal carbonaceous particle deposition derived from annual sediment traps and lake sediment cores and their relationship with non-marine sulphate, Environ. Pollut., 137, 151–163, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2004.12.022, 2005.
Rose, N. L. and Ruppel, M.: Environmental archives of contaminant particles, in: Environmental contaminants. Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research, Vol. 18, edited by: Blais, J., Rosen, M., and Smol, J., 187–221, Springer, Dordrecht, 2015.
Rose, N. L., Harlock, S., and Appleby, P. G.: The spatial and temporal distributions of spheroidal carbonaceous fly-ash particles (SCP) in the sediment records of european mountain lakes, Water Air Soil Pollut., 113, 1–32, 1999.
Rose, N. L., Flower, R. J., and Appleby, P. G.: Spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) as indicators of atmospherically deposited pollutants in North African wetlands of conservation importance, Atmos. Environ., 37, 1655–1663, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00012-8, 2003.
Sickman, J. O., Melack, J. M., and Clow, D. W.: Evidence for nutrient enrichment of high-elevation lakes in the Sierra Nevada, California, Limnol. Oceanogr., 48, 1885–1892, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2003.48.5.1885, 2003.
Slanina, J., Lingerak, W. A., and Bergman, L.: A fast determination of nitrate in rain and surface waters by means of UV spectrophotometry, Z. Anal. Chem. Freseniu., 280, 365–368, 1976.
Šporka, F., Štefková, E., Bitušík, P., Thompson, A. R., Agustí-Panareda, A., Appleby, P. G., Grytnes, J. A., Kamenik, C., Krno, I., Lami, A., Rose, N., and Shilland, N. E.: The paleolimnological analysis of sediments from high mountain lake Nižné Terianske pleso in the High Tatras (Slovakia), J. Paleolimnol., 28, 95–109, 2002.
Steffen, W., Richardson, K., Rockström, J., Cornell, S. E., Fetzer, I., Bennett, E. M., Biggs, R., Carpenter, S. R., Vries, W. De, Wit, C. A. De, Folke, C., Gerten, D., Heinke, J., Mace, G. M., Persson, L. M., Ramanathan, V., Reyers, B., and Sörlin, S.: Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet, Science, 347, 1259855, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1259855, 2015.
Stein, A. F., Draxler, R. R., Rolph, G. D., Stunder, B. J. B., Cohen, M. D., and Ngan, F.: Noaa's hysplit atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling system, B. Am. Meteor. Soc., 96, 2059–2077, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00110.1, 2015.
Stepanov, N. V.: Sosudistye rasteniya priyeniseiskikh Sayan, Institut Fundamentalnoy Biologii i Biotekhnologii, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 2016.
Stottlemyer, R. and Rutkowski, D.: Multiyear trends in snowpack Ion accumulation and loss, northern Michigan, Water Resour. Res., 26, 721–737, 1990.
Takhtadzhyan, A. L.: Floristicheskie oblasti zemli, Nauka leningradskoe otdelenie, Leningrad, 1978.
Tipping, E., Benham, S., Boyle, J. F., Crow, P., Davies, J., Fischer, U., Guyatt, H., Helliwell, R., Jackson-Blake, L., Lawlor, A. J., Monteith, D. T., Rowe, E. C., and Toberman, H.: Atmospheric deposition of phosphorus to land and freshwater, Environ. Sci. Proc. Imp., 16, 1608–1617, https://doi.org/10.1039/c3em00641g, 2014.
Tolomeev, A. P., Anishchenko, O. V., Kravchuk, E. S., Kolmakova, O. V., Glushchenko, L. A., Makhutova, O. N., Kolmakova, A. A., Kolmakov, V. I., Trusova, M. Y., Sushchik, N. N., and Gladyshev, M. I.: Component elements of the carbon cycle in the middle and lower Yenisei River, Contemp. Probl. Ecol., 7, 489–500, https://doi.org/10.1134/S1995425514040118, 2014.
Ventura, M., Camarero, L., Buchaca, T., Bartumeus, F., Livingstone, D. M., and Catalan, J.: The main features of seasonal variability in the external forcing and dynamics of a deep mountain lake (Redó. Pyrenees), J. Limnol., 59, 97–108, https://doi.org/10.4081/jlimnol.2000.s1.97, 2000.
Vitousek, P. M., Aber, J. D., Howarth, R. H., Likens, G. E., Matson, P. A., Schindler, D. W., Schlesinger, W. H., and Tilman, D. G.: Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: Source and consequences, Ecol. Appl., 7, 737–750, https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1891, 1997.
Voskresenskii, S.: Geomorfologia Sibirii, Izdatelstvo MGU (Moscow State University Publications), Moscow, 1962 (in Russian).
Wang, R., Balkanski, Y., Boucher, O., Ciais, P., and Tao, S.: Significant contribution of combustion-related emissions to the atmospheric phosphorus budget, Nat. Geosci., 8, 4–10, https://doi.org/10.1038/NGEO2324, 2015.
Wang, S., Shi, X., Cao, W., and Pu, T.: Seasonal variability and evolution of glaciochemistry at an Alpine temperate glacier on the southeastern Tibetan plateau, Water, 10, 1–14, https://doi.org/10.3390/w10020114, 2018a.
Wang, W., Liu, X., Xu, J., Dore, A. J., and Xu, W.: Imbalanced nitrogen and phosphorus deposition in the urban and forest environments in southeast Tibet, Atmos. Pollut. Res., 9, 774–782, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apr.2018.02.002, 2018b.
Wik, M. and Renberg: Environmental records of carbonaceous fly-ash particles from fossil-fuel combustion, J. Paleolimnol., 15, 193–206, 1996.
Williams, M. W. and Melack, J. M.: Solute chemistry of snowmelt and runoff in an Alpine basin, Sierra Nevada, Water Resour. Res., 27, 1575–1588, https://doi.org/10.1029/90WR02774, 1991.
Wright, S. W., Jeffrey, S. W., and Mantoura, R. F. C.: Evaluation of methods and solvents for pigment extraction, in: Phytoplankton pigments in oceanography: guidelines to modern methods, Vol. 48, edited by: Jeffrey, S. W., Mantoura, R. F. C., andx Wright, R. F. C., 261–282, UNESCO Publishing, Paris, 1997.
Xu, W., Liu, L., Cheng, M., Zhao, Y., Zhang, L., Pan, Y., Zhang, X., Gu, B., Li, Y., Zhang, X., Shen, J., Lu, L., Luo, X., Zhao, Y., Feng, Z., Collett Jr., J. L., Zhang, F., and Liu, X.: Spatial–temporal patterns of inorganic nitrogen air concentrations and deposition in eastern China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10931–10954, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-10931-2018, 2018.
Yang, H., Rose, N. L., and Battarbee, R. W.: Dating of recent catchment peats using spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) concentration profiles with particular reference to Lochnagar, Scotland, Holocene, 11, 593–597, https://doi.org/10.1191/095968301680223549, 2001.
Winter atmospheric nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) depositions were measured for the first time in the Western Sayan Mountains (Siberia). The low and very low atmospheric N and P depositions could be responsible for the observed lake phytoplankton N–P colimitation. We hypothesize that slight imbalances in the nutrient deposition, as expected in the context of global change (climate, forest fires and anthropogenic nitrogen emissions), could have important effects on the ecology of these lakes.
Winter atmospheric nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) depositions were measured for the first time...