Articles | Volume 12, issue 17
Research article 02 Sep 2015
Research article | 02 Sep 2015
The greenhouse gas balance of a drained fen peatland is mainly controlled by land-use rather than soil organic carbon content
T. Eickenscheidt et al.
T. Eickenscheidt, A. Freibauer, J. Heinichen, J. Augustin, and M. Drösler
Biogeosciences, 11, 6187–6207,
T. Eickenscheidt, J. Heinichen, J. Augustin, A. Freibauer, and M. Drösler
Biogeosciences, 11, 2961–2976,
C. Metzger, P.-E. Jansson, A. Lohila, M. Aurela, T. Eickenscheidt, L. Belelli-Marchesini, K. J. Dinsmore, J. Drewer, J. van Huissteden, and M. Drösler
Biogeosciences, 12, 125–146,Short summary
To identify site specific differences in CO2-related processes in open peatlands, we calibrated a process oriented model to fit to detailed measurements of carbon fluxes and compared the resulting parameter ranges between the sites. For most processes a common configuration could be applied. Site specific differences were identified for soil respiration coefficients, plant radiation-use efficiencies and plant storage fractions for spring regrowth.
T. Leppelt, R. Dechow, S. Gebbert, A. Freibauer, A. Lohila, J. Augustin, M. Drösler, S. Fiedler, S. Glatzel, H. Höper, J. Järveoja, P. E. Lærke, M. Maljanen, Ü. Mander, P. Mäkiranta, K. Minkkinen, P. Ojanen, K. Regina, and M. Strömgren
Biogeosciences, 11, 6595–6612,
T. Eickenscheidt, A. Freibauer, J. Heinichen, J. Augustin, and M. Drösler
Biogeosciences, 11, 6187–6207,
J. Hommeltenberg, H. P. Schmid, M. Drösler, and P. Werle
Biogeosciences, 11, 3477–3493,
T. Eickenscheidt, J. Heinichen, J. Augustin, A. Freibauer, and M. Drösler
Biogeosciences, 11, 2961–2976,
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Arezoo Taghizadeh-Toosi, Lars Elsgaard, Tim J. Clough, Rodrigo Labouriau, Vibeke Ernstsen, and Søren O. Petersen
Biogeosciences, 16, 4555–4575,Short summary
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Hermann W. Bange, Chun Hock Sim, Daniel Bastian, Jennifer Kallert, Annette Kock, Aazani Mujahid, and Moritz Müller
Biogeosciences, 16, 4321–4335,Short summary
Nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are atmospheric trace gases which play important roles in the climate and atmospheric chemistry of the Earth. However, little is known about their emissions from rivers and estuaries. To this end, concentrations of N2O and CH4 were measured during a seasonal study in six rivers and estuaries in northwestern Borneo. The concentrations of both gases were mainly driven by rainfall. The rivers and estuaries were an overall net source of atmospheric N2O and CH4.
Jackie R. Webb, Peter R. Leavitt, Gavin L. Simpson, Helen M. Baulch, Heather A. Haig, Kyle R. Hodder, and Kerri Finlay
Biogeosciences, 16, 4211–4227,Short summary
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Thomas Klintzsch, Gerald Langer, Gernot Nehrke, Anna Wieland, Katharina Lenhart, and Frank Keppler
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Xiao Ma, Sinikka T. Lennartz, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 16, 4097–4111,Short summary
Monthly measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas and ozone depletion agent, were conducted at Boknis Eck (BE), a time series station in the southwestern Baltic Sea, since July 2005. Low N2O concentrations were observed in autumn and high in winter and early spring. Dissolved nutrients and oxygen played important roles in N2O distribution. Although we did not observe a significant N2O trend during 2005–2017, a decrease in N2O concentration and emission seems likely in future.
Eric J. Morgan, Jost V. Lavric, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, Hermann W. Bange, Tobias Steinhoff, Thomas Seifert, and Martin Heimann
Biogeosciences, 16, 4065–4084,Short summary
Taking a 2-year atmospheric record of atmospheric oxygen and the greenhouse gases N2O, CO2, and CH4, made at a coastal site in the Namib Desert, we estimated the fluxes of these gases from upwelling events in the northern Benguela Current region. We compared these results with flux measurements made on a research vessel in the study area at the same time and found that the two approaches agreed well. The study region was a source of N2O, CO2, and CH4 to the atmosphere during upwelling events.
Hubertus Fischer, Jochen Schmitt, Michael Bock, Barbara Seth, Fortunat Joos, Renato Spahni, Sebastian Lienert, Gianna Battaglia, Benjamin D. Stocker, Adrian Schilt, and Edward J. Brook
Biogeosciences, 16, 3997–4021,Short summary
N2O concentrations were subject to strong variations accompanying glacial–interglacial but also rapid climate changes over the last 21 kyr. The sources of these N2O changes can be identified by measuring the isotopic composition of N2O in ice cores and using the distinct isotopic composition of terrestrial and marine N2O. We show that both marine and terrestrial sources increased from the last glacial to the Holocene but that only terrestrial emissions responded quickly to rapid climate changes.
Alberto V. Borges, François Darchambeau, Thibault Lambert, Cédric Morana, George H. Allen, Ernest Tambwe, Alfred Toengaho Sembaito, Taylor Mambo, José Nlandu Wabakhangazi, Jean-Pierre Descy, Cristian R. Teodoru, and Steven Bouillon
Biogeosciences, 16, 3801–3834,Short summary
Tropical rivers might be strong sources of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, although there is an enormous data gap. The origin of CO2 in lowland tropical rivers is not well characterized and can be from terra firme or from wetlands (flooded forests and aquatic macrophytes). We obtained a large field dataset of CO2, CH4 and N2O in the Congo, the second-largest river in the world, which allows us to quantity the emission of these greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and investigate their origin.
Mika Korkiakoski, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Timo Penttilä, Sakari Sarkkola, Paavo Ojanen, Kari Minkkinen, Juuso Rainne, Tuomas Laurila, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 16, 3703–3723,Short summary
We measured greenhouse gas and energy fluxes for 2 years after clear-cutting in a peatland forest. We found high carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions. However, in the second year after clear-cutting, the carbon dioxide emissions had already decreased by 33 % from the first year. Also, clear-cutting turned the site from a methane sink into a methane source. We conclude that clear-cutting peatland forests exerts a strong climatic warming effect through accelerated emission of greenhouse gas.
Kleiton R. de Araújo, Henrique O. Sawakuchi, Dailson J. Bertassoli Jr., André O. Sawakuchi, Karina D. da Silva, Thiago B. Vieira, Nicholas D. Ward, and Tatiana S. Pereira
Biogeosciences, 16, 3527–3542,Short summary
Run-of-the-river (ROR) reservoirs have reduced flooded areas that maintain natural river characteristics; however, little is known about their influence on carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. In this regard, we evaluated the spatiotemporal CO2 fluxes (FCO2) and partial CO2 pressure (pCO2) of the Belo Monte hydropower complex. Our results emphasize that ROR dams contribute to CO2) emissions. Only FCO2 varies through reservoirs; in addition, both FCO2 and pCO2 are spatially heterogeneous.
Lukas Kohl, Markku Koskinen, Kaisa Rissanen, Iikka Haikarainen, Tatu Polvinen, Heidi Hellén, and Mari Pihlatie
Biogeosciences, 16, 3319–3332,Short summary
Plants emit small amounts of methane and large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Measurements of plant methane emissions therefore require analysers that can provide accurate measurements of CH4 concentrations in the presence of changing amounts of VOCs. We therefore quantified to which degree various VOCs bias methane concentration measurements on different analysers. Our results show that some analysers are more sensitive to the presence of VOCs than others.
Petri Kiuru, Anne Ojala, Ivan Mammarella, Jouni Heiskanen, Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Heli Miettinen, Timo Vesala, and Timo Huttula
Biogeosciences, 16, 3297–3317,Short summary
Many boreal lakes emit the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. We incorporated four different gas exchange models into a physico-biochemical lake model and studied their ability to simulate lake air–water CO2 fluxes. The inclusion of refined gas exchange models in lake models that simulate carbon cycling is important to assess lake carbon budgets. However, higher estimates for inorganic carbon sources in boreal lakes are needed to balance the CO2 losses to the atmosphere.
Erkan Ibraim, Benjamin Wolf, Eliza Harris, Rainer Gasche, Jing Wei, Longfei Yu, Ralf Kiese, Sarah Eggleston, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Matthias Zeeman, Béla Tuzson, Lukas Emmenegger, Johan Six, Stephan Henne, and Joachim Mohn
Biogeosciences, 16, 3247–3266,Short summary
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and the major stratospheric ozone-depleting substance; therefore, mitigation of anthropogenic N2O emissions is needed. To trace N2O-emitting source processes, in this study, we observed N2O isotopocules above an intensively managed grassland research site with a recently developed laser spectroscopy method. Our results indicate that the domain of denitrification or nitrifier denitrification was the major N2O source.
Camilo Rey-Sanchez, Gil Bohrer, Julie Slater, Yueh-Fen Li, Roger Grau-Andrés, Yushan Hao, Virginia I. Rich, and G. Matt Davies
Biogeosciences, 16, 3207–3231,Short summary
It is estimated that natural wetlands emit approximately 30 % of all the methane released to the atmosphere; yet these estimates are highly uncertain due to the complexity of biological, chemical, and physical processes controlling methane emissions. In this study, we explore how some of these key processes drive methane emissions in a temperate peat bog. We show that the composition of microbial methane cyclers in the upper portion of the peat drives the velocity of methane release to the air.
Jocelyn E. Egan, David R. Bowling, and David A. Risk
Biogeosciences, 16, 3197–3205,Short summary
Traditionally a mass-dependent correction is made when measuring the radiocarbon composition in organic samples. This correction has not been evaluated for the soil gas environment where gas transport processes are important. Here, we show using theory that this traditional correction is not appropriate for estimating the radiocarbon composition of soil biological production. We also propose a new solution that accounts for soil gas transport processes.
Mathias Göckede, Fanny Kittler, and Carsten Schaller
Biogeosciences, 16, 3113–3131,Short summary
Methane is one of the most important greenhouse gases. Methane emissions from land sources to the atmosphere often occur in the form of short but intense outbursts, which are difficult to measure. We developed a new software tool based on wavelets which reliably quantifies such methane outbursts. Using these results as a reference, our study shows that regular data processing using the eddy-covariance technique provides solid long-term methane budgets, but short-term uncertainties can be high.
Robert W. Howarth
Biogeosciences, 16, 3033–3046,Short summary
Atmospheric methane has risen rapidly since 2008 and has become more depleted in 13C, in contrast to the trend towards more 13C enrichment in the late 20th century. Many have used this isotopic evidence to infer an increased biogenic source. Here I analyze the 13C trend with the consideration that methane from shale gas is somewhat depleted in 13C compared to other fossil fuels. I conclude that shale gas may be responsible for a third of the global increase from all sources.
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