Articles | Volume 12, issue 19
Research article 08 Oct 2015
Research article | 08 Oct 2015
Microtopographic variation in soil respiration and its controlling factors vary with plant phenophases in a desert–shrub ecosystem
B. Wang et al.
B. Wang, T. S. Zha, X. Jia, B. Wu, Y. Q. Zhang, and S. G. Qin
Biogeosciences, 11, 259–268,
Junyu Qi, Sheng Li, Charles P.-A. Bourque, Zisheng Xing, and Fan-Rui Meng
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 3789–3806,Short summary
The paper proposed an approach to develop a decision support tool to evaluate impacts of land use change and best management practices (BMPs) on water quantity and quality for large ungauged watersheds. It was developed based on statistical equations derived from Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) simulations in a small experimental watershed. The decision support tool reproduced annual stream discharge and sediment and nutrient loadings for another watershed fairly well.
Jinnan Gong, Ben Wang, Xin Jia, Wei Feng, Tianshan Zha, Seppo Kellomäki, and Heli Peltola
Biogeosciences, 15, 115–136,Short summary
By modelling soil CO2 production, transport and surface exchange processes (e.g. biocrust photosynthesis, respiration and photodegradation), we simulated the large variation of soil CO2 emissions from sparsely vegetated dryland ecosystem. Based on the model, we studied the roles of different processes in regulating soil C emissions. The complexity of regulation processes implied possibly high non-linearity of C responses to climatic variation, climate change and extreme climate events.
Tianshan Zha, Duo Qian, Xin Jia, Yujie Bai, Yun Tian, Charles P.-A. Bourque, Jingyong Ma, Wei Feng, Bin Wu, and Heli Peltola
Biogeosciences, 14, 4533–4544,Short summary
According to this study, Artemisia ordosica escaped water limitations by invoking a water-conservation strategy with the regulation of stomatal conductance and advancement of sap-flow peaking time, manifesting in a hysteresis effect. This study provides a significant contribution to the understanding of acclimation processes in desert-shrub species to drought-associated stress in dryland ecosystems.
Ben Wang, Tian Shan Zha, Xin Jia, Jin Nan Gong, Charles Bourque, Wei Feng, Yun Tian, Bin Wu, Yu Qing Zhang, and Heli Peltola
Biogeosciences, 14, 3899–3908,Short summary
We examined the seasonal variation in diel hysteresis between soil respiration and temperature, and its controlling factors in a desert-shrub ecosystem. Our results indicated that soil water regulated the control of photosynthesis on diel soil respiration, causing seasonal variation in diel hysteresis. The results highlight the importance of biologically based mechanisms and the role of soil water in regulating diel hysteresis.
Jingyong Ma, Tianshan Zha, Xin Jia, Steve Sargent, Rex Burgon, Charles P.-A. Bourque, Xinhua Zhou, Peng Liu, Yujie Bai, and Yajuan Wu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1259–1267,Short summary
The vortex intake significantly reduced maintenance requirements and downtime for a closed-path eddy-covariance system compared to the original inline filter design. Vortex intake kept the sample cell windows cleaner, preserving the optical signal strength of CO2 longer. Its installation also avoided the need for an inline filter in the sample path, sustaining an acceptable sample cell differential pressure over a much longer period. There was no significant attenuation of high frequencies.
Yanying Shao, Yuqing Zhang, Xiuqin Wu, Charles P.-A. Bourque, Jutao Zhang, Shugao Qin, and Bin Wu
Preprint retractedShort summary
Methods of aridity index, Mann–Kendall test and Convergent cross mapping were combined to quantify the spatiotemporal variations in precipitation, air temperature, aridity, and vegetation, and to assess plant growth with respect to climatic changes in dryland. Our results show a practically relevant in ecological restoration and implicate that future planning of new restoration projects should ideally take into account drying/wetting trends currently being observed in northern China.
I. Lehtonen, A. Venäläinen, M. Kämäräinen, H. Peltola, and H. Gregow
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 16, 239–253,Short summary
The number of large forest fires in Finland will most likely increase during the twenty-first century in response to projected climate change. This would increase the risk that some of the fires could develop into real conflagrations which have become almost extinct in Finland due to effective fire suppression. However, our results show considerable inter-model variability, demonstrating the large uncertainty related to the rate of the projected change in forest-fire danger.
M. A. Matin and C. P.-A. Bourque
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 19, 3387–3403,Short summary
This paper describes a methodology in analysing the interdependencies between components of the hydrological cycle and vegetation characteristics at different elevation zones of two endorheic river basins in an arid-mountainous region of NW China. The analysis shows that oasis vegetation has an important function in sustaining the water cycle in the river basins and oasis vegetation is dependent on surface and shallow subsurface water flow from mountain sources.
X. Jia, T. S. Zha, B. Wu, Y. Q. Zhang, J. N. Gong, S. G. Qin, G. P. Chen, D. Qian, S. Kellomäki, and H. Peltola
Biogeosciences, 11, 4679–4693,
B. Wang, T. S. Zha, X. Jia, B. Wu, Y. Q. Zhang, and S. G. Qin
Biogeosciences, 11, 259–268,
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Julia Drewer, Melissa M. Leduning, Robert I. Griffiths, Tim Goodall, Peter E. Levy, Nicholas Cowan, Edward Comynn-Platt, Garry Hayman, Justin Sentian, Noreen Majalap, and Ute M. Skiba
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Biogeosciences, 17, 3659–3667,Short summary
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Fortunat Joos, Renato Spahni, Benjamin D. Stocker, Sebastian Lienert, Jurek Müller, Hubertus Fischer, Jochen Schmitt, I. Colin Prentice, Bette Otto-Bliesner, and Zhengyu Liu
Biogeosciences, 17, 3511–3543,Short summary
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Xuefei Li, Outi Wahlroos, Sami Haapanala, Jukka Pumpanen, Harri Vasander, Anne Ojala, Timo Vesala, and Ivan Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 17, 3409–3425,Short summary
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Xiao Ma, Mingshuang Sun, Sinikka T. Lennartz, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 17, 3427–3438,Short summary
Monthly measurements of dissolved methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, were conducted at Boknis Eck (BE), a time-series station in the southwestern Baltic Sea, from June 2006. In general CH4 concentrations increased with depth. High concentrations in the upper layer were linked to saline water inflow. Eckernförde Bay emitted CH4 to the atmosphere throughout the monitoring period. No significant trend was detected in CH4 concentrations or emissions during 2006–2017.
Elizabeth León-Palmero, Alba Contreras-Ruiz, Ana Sierra, Rafael Morales-Baquero, and Isabel Reche
Biogeosciences, 17, 3223–3245,Short summary
CH4 emissions from reservoirs are responsible for the majority of the climatic forcing of these ecosystems. The origin of the recurrent CH4 supersaturation in oxic waters is still controversial. We found that the dissolved CH4 concentration varied by up to 4 orders of magnitude in the water column of 12 reservoirs and was consistently supersaturated. Our findings suggest that photosynthetic picoeukaryotes can play a significant role in determining CH4 concentration in oxic waters.
Lutz Merbold, Charlotte Decock, Werner Eugster, Kathrin Fuchs, Benjamin Wolf, Nina Buchmann, and Lukas Hörtnagl
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
Our study investigated the exchange of the three major greenhouse gases (GHG) over a temperate grassland prior and post restoration through tillage in Central Switzerland. Our results show that irregular management events, such as tillage, have considerable effects on GHG emissions in the year of tillage, while leading to enhanced carbon uptake and similar nitrogen losses via nitrous oxide in the years following tillage as observed prior to tillage.
Marcus B. Wallin, Joachim Audet, Mike Peacock, Erik Sahlée, and Mattias Winterdahl
Biogeosciences, 17, 2487–2498,Short summary
Here we show that small streams draining agricultural areas are potential hotspots for emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere. We further conclude that the variability in stream CO2 concentration over time is very high, caused by variations in both water discharge and primary production. Given the observed high levels of CO2 and its temporally variable nature, agricultural streams clearly need more attention in order to understand and incorporate these dynamics in large-scale extrapolations.
Quan Zhang, Huimin Lei, Dawen Yang, Lihua Xiong, Pan Liu, and Beijing Fang
Biogeosciences, 17, 2245–2262,Short summary
Research into climate change has been popular over the past few decades. Greenhouse gas emissions are found to be responsible for climate change. Among all the ecosystems, cropland is the main food source for mankind, therefore its carbon cycle and contribution to the global carbon balance interest us. Our evaluation of the typical wheat–maize rotation cropland over the North China Plain shows it is a net CO2 emission to the atmosphere and that emissions will continue to rise in the future.
Sheila Wachiye, Lutz Merbold, Timo Vesala, Janne Rinne, Matti Räsänen, Sonja Leitner, and Petri Pellikka
Biogeosciences, 17, 2149–2167,Short summary
Limited data on emissions in Africa translate into uncertainty during GHG budgeting. We studied annual CO2, N2O, and CH4 emissions in four land-use types in Kenyan savanna using static chambers and gas chromatography. CO2 emissions varied between seasons and land-use types. Soil moisture and vegetation explained the seasonal variation, while soil temperature was insignificant. N2O and CH4 emissions did not vary at all sites. Our results are useful in climate change mitigation interventions.
Roland Vernooij, Marcos Vinicius Giongo Alves, Marco Assis Borges, Máximo Menezes Costa, Ana Carolina Sena Barradas, and Guido R. van der Werf
Revised manuscript accepted for BGShort summary
We used drones to measure greenhouse gas emission factors from fires in the Brazilian Cerrado. We compared early dry season management fires and late dry season fires to determine if fire management can be a tool in abating emissions. Although we found some evidence of increased CO and CH4 emission factors, the seasonal effect was smaller than in previous studies. For N2O, the third most important greenhouse gas, we found opposite trends in grasses and shrub dominated areas.
Celina Burkholz, Neus Garcias-Bonet, and Carlos M. Duarte
Biogeosciences, 17, 1717–1730,Short summary
Seagrass meadows store carbon in their biomass and sediments, but they have also been shown to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4). We experimentally investigated the effect of warming and prolonged darkness on CO2 and CH4 fluxes in Red Sea seagrass (Halophila stipulacea) communities. Our results indicated that sublethal warming may lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases from seagrass meadows which may contribute to further enhance global warming.
Chris R. Flechard, Andreas Ibrom, Ute M. Skiba, Wim de Vries, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Nancy B. Dise, Janne F. J. Korhonen, Nina Buchmann, Arnaud Legout, David Simpson, Maria J. Sanz, Marc Aubinet, Denis Loustau, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Ivan A. Janssens, Mari Pihlatie, Ralf Kiese, Jan Siemens, André-Jean Francez, Jürgen Augustin, Andrej Varlagin, Janusz Olejnik, Radosław Juszczak, Mika Aurela, Daniel Berveiller, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Ulrich Dämmgen, Nicolas Delpierre, Vesna Djuricic, Julia Drewer, Eric Dufrêne, Werner Eugster, Yannick Fauvel, David Fowler, Arnoud Frumau, André Granier, Patrick Gross, Yannick Hamon, Carole Helfter, Arjan Hensen, László Horváth, Barbara Kitzler, Bart Kruijt, Werner L. Kutsch, Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Michal V. Marek, Giorgio Matteucci, Marta Mitosinkova, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Kim Pilegaard, Gabriel Pita, Francisco Sanz, Jan K. Schjoerring, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Y. Sim Tang, Hilde Uggerud, Marek Urbaniak, Netty van Dijk, Timo Vesala, Sonja Vidic, Caroline Vincke, Tamás Weidinger, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Eiko Nemitz, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1583–1620,Short summary
Experimental evidence from a network of 40 monitoring sites in Europe suggests that atmospheric nitrogen deposition to forests and other semi-natural vegetation impacts the carbon sequestration rates in ecosystems, as well as the net greenhouse gas balance including other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Excess nitrogen deposition in polluted areas also leads to other environmental impacts such as nitrogen leaching to groundwater and other pollutant gaseous emissions.
Chris R. Flechard, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Wim de Vries, Andreas Ibrom, Nina Buchmann, Nancy B. Dise, Ivan A. Janssens, Johan Neirynck, Leonardo Montagnani, Andrej Varlagin, Denis Loustau, Arnaud Legout, Klaudia Ziemblińska, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Julia Drewer, Werner Eugster, André-Jean Francez, Radosław Juszczak, Barbara Kitzler, Werner L. Kutsch, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Giorgio Matteucci, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Janusz Olejnik, Maria J. Sanz, Jan Siemens, Timo Vesala, Caroline Vincke, Eiko Nemitz, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Ute M. Skiba, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1621–1654,Short summary
Nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere to unfertilized terrestrial vegetation such as forests can increase carbon dioxide uptake and favour carbon sequestration by ecosystems. However the data from observational networks are difficult to interpret in terms of a carbon-to-nitrogen response, because there are a number of other confounding factors, such as climate, soil physical properties and fertility, and forest age. We propose a model-based method to untangle the different influences.
Pauline Sophie Rummel, Birgit Pfeiffer, Johanna Pausch, Reinhard Well, Dominik Schneider, and Klaus Dittert
Biogeosciences, 17, 1181–1198,Short summary
Chemical composition of plant litter controls C availability for biological N transformation processes in soil. In this study, we showed that easily degradable maize shoots stimulated microbial respiration and mineralization leading to high N2O formation in litter-associated hot spots. A higher share of slowly degradable C compounds and lower concentrations of water-soluble N restricted N2O emissions from maize roots. Bacterial community structure reflected degradability of maize litter.
Cynthia Soued and Yves T. Prairie
Biogeosciences, 17, 515–527,Short summary
Freshwater reservoirs emit greenhouse gases (GHGs) due to organic matter decay after landscape flooding. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we performed a comprehensive carbon footprint assessment of a tropical reservoir. Contrary to predictions, 89 % of measured emissions occurred downstream of the dam. Comparing predicted vs. measured emissions revealed weaknesses in our current modeling framework and insights to improve our ability to quantify and reduce reservoir GHG emissions.
Shimelis Gizachew Raji and Peter Dörsch
Biogeosciences, 17, 345–359,Short summary
Intercropping maize with forage legumes can benefit Ethiopian smallholder farmers by providing cheap nitrogen and valuable livestock feed. We measured N2O emissions and maize yields and found that high legume biomasses may enhance N2O emissions per unit of harvested maize but that, after mulching, legume N can partly replace expensive mineral N. Thus, legume intercropping can be a valid strategy in the framework of climate-smart agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa.
Arezoo Taghizadeh-Toosi, Lars Elsgaard, Tim J. Clough, Rodrigo Labouriau, Vibeke Ernstsen, and Søren O. Petersen
Biogeosciences, 16, 4555–4575,Short summary
Organic soils drained for crop production or grazing land have high potential for nitrous oxide emissions. The present study investigated the regulation of N2O emissions in a raised bog area drained for agriculture. It seems that archaeal ammonia oxidation and either chemodenitrification or nitrifier denitrification were considered to be plausible pathways of N2O production in spring, whereas in the autumn heterotrophic denitrification may have been more important at arable sites.
Hermann W. Bange, Chun Hock Sim, Daniel Bastian, Jennifer Kallert, Annette Kock, Aazani Mujahid, and Moritz Müller
Biogeosciences, 16, 4321–4335,Short summary
Nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are atmospheric trace gases which play important roles in the climate and atmospheric chemistry of the Earth. However, little is known about their emissions from rivers and estuaries. To this end, concentrations of N2O and CH4 were measured during a seasonal study in six rivers and estuaries in northwestern Borneo. The concentrations of both gases were mainly driven by rainfall. The rivers and estuaries were an overall net source of atmospheric N2O and CH4.
Jackie R. Webb, Peter R. Leavitt, Gavin L. Simpson, Helen M. Baulch, Heather A. Haig, Kyle R. Hodder, and Kerri Finlay
Biogeosciences, 16, 4211–4227,Short summary
Small farm reservoirs are key features within agricultural landscapes, yet these waterbodies can contribute substantial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere. This study assessed some of the environmental factors that may impact the production of these GHGs. We found promise that farm reservoirs can act as net greenhouse gas sinks and identified some of the key water quality, landscape, and design features that may support GHG mitigation.
Thomas Klintzsch, Gerald Langer, Gernot Nehrke, Anna Wieland, Katharina Lenhart, and Frank Keppler
Biogeosciences, 16, 4129–4144,Short summary
Marine algae might contribute to the observed methane oversaturation in oxic waters, but so far direct evidence for methane production by marine algae is limited. We investigated three widespread haptophytes for methane formation. Our results provide unambiguous evidence that all investigated marine algae produce methane per se and at substantial rates. We conclude that each of the three algae studied here could substantially account for the methane production observed in field studies.
Fabien Leroy, Sébastien Gogo, Christophe Guimbaud, Léonard Bernard-Jannin, Xiaole Yin, Guillaume Belot, Wang Shuguang, and Fatima Laggoun-Défarge
Biogeosciences, 16, 4085–4095,Short summary
This study demonstrates the implications of Molinia caerulea colonization in Sphagnum peatland on the C fluxes by enhancing the CO2 uptake by photosynthesis (but which led to higher CO2 and CH4 emissions) and also on the parameters controlling it (by increasing the temperature sensitivity of the CH4 emissions). Furthermore, roots and litter of Molinia caerulea could provide additional substrates for C emissions and should be taken into account in further works.
Xiao Ma, Sinikka T. Lennartz, and Hermann W. Bange
Biogeosciences, 16, 4097–4111,Short summary
Monthly measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas and ozone depletion agent, were conducted at Boknis Eck (BE), a time series station in the southwestern Baltic Sea, since July 2005. Low N2O concentrations were observed in autumn and high in winter and early spring. Dissolved nutrients and oxygen played important roles in N2O distribution. Although we did not observe a significant N2O trend during 2005–2017, a decrease in N2O concentration and emission seems likely in future.
Eric J. Morgan, Jost V. Lavric, Damian L. Arévalo-Martínez, Hermann W. Bange, Tobias Steinhoff, Thomas Seifert, and Martin Heimann
Biogeosciences, 16, 4065–4084,Short summary
Taking a 2-year atmospheric record of atmospheric oxygen and the greenhouse gases N2O, CO2, and CH4, made at a coastal site in the Namib Desert, we estimated the fluxes of these gases from upwelling events in the northern Benguela Current region. We compared these results with flux measurements made on a research vessel in the study area at the same time and found that the two approaches agreed well. The study region was a source of N2O, CO2, and CH4 to the atmosphere during upwelling events.
Hubertus Fischer, Jochen Schmitt, Michael Bock, Barbara Seth, Fortunat Joos, Renato Spahni, Sebastian Lienert, Gianna Battaglia, Benjamin D. Stocker, Adrian Schilt, and Edward J. Brook
Biogeosciences, 16, 3997–4021,Short summary
N2O concentrations were subject to strong variations accompanying glacial–interglacial but also rapid climate changes over the last 21 kyr. The sources of these N2O changes can be identified by measuring the isotopic composition of N2O in ice cores and using the distinct isotopic composition of terrestrial and marine N2O. We show that both marine and terrestrial sources increased from the last glacial to the Holocene but that only terrestrial emissions responded quickly to rapid climate changes.
Alberto V. Borges, François Darchambeau, Thibault Lambert, Cédric Morana, George H. Allen, Ernest Tambwe, Alfred Toengaho Sembaito, Taylor Mambo, José Nlandu Wabakhangazi, Jean-Pierre Descy, Cristian R. Teodoru, and Steven Bouillon
Biogeosciences, 16, 3801–3834,Short summary
Tropical rivers might be strong sources of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, although there is an enormous data gap. The origin of CO2 in lowland tropical rivers is not well characterized and can be from terra firme or from wetlands (flooded forests and aquatic macrophytes). We obtained a large field dataset of CO2, CH4 and N2O in the Congo, the second-largest river in the world, which allows us to quantity the emission of these greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and investigate their origin.
Mika Korkiakoski, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Timo Penttilä, Sakari Sarkkola, Paavo Ojanen, Kari Minkkinen, Juuso Rainne, Tuomas Laurila, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 16, 3703–3723,Short summary
We measured greenhouse gas and energy fluxes for 2 years after clear-cutting in a peatland forest. We found high carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions. However, in the second year after clear-cutting, the carbon dioxide emissions had already decreased by 33 % from the first year. Also, clear-cutting turned the site from a methane sink into a methane source. We conclude that clear-cutting peatland forests exerts a strong climatic warming effect through accelerated emission of greenhouse gas.
Kleiton R. de Araújo, Henrique O. Sawakuchi, Dailson J. Bertassoli Jr., André O. Sawakuchi, Karina D. da Silva, Thiago B. Vieira, Nicholas D. Ward, and Tatiana S. Pereira
Biogeosciences, 16, 3527–3542,Short summary
Run-of-the-river (ROR) reservoirs have reduced flooded areas that maintain natural river characteristics; however, little is known about their influence on carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. In this regard, we evaluated the spatiotemporal CO2 fluxes (FCO2) and partial CO2 pressure (pCO2) of the Belo Monte hydropower complex. Our results emphasize that ROR dams contribute to CO2) emissions. Only FCO2 varies through reservoirs; in addition, both FCO2 and pCO2 are spatially heterogeneous.
Lukas Kohl, Markku Koskinen, Kaisa Rissanen, Iikka Haikarainen, Tatu Polvinen, Heidi Hellén, and Mari Pihlatie
Biogeosciences, 16, 3319–3332,Short summary
Plants emit small amounts of methane and large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Measurements of plant methane emissions therefore require analysers that can provide accurate measurements of CH4 concentrations in the presence of changing amounts of VOCs. We therefore quantified to which degree various VOCs bias methane concentration measurements on different analysers. Our results show that some analysers are more sensitive to the presence of VOCs than others.
Petri Kiuru, Anne Ojala, Ivan Mammarella, Jouni Heiskanen, Kukka-Maaria Erkkilä, Heli Miettinen, Timo Vesala, and Timo Huttula
Biogeosciences, 16, 3297–3317,Short summary
Many boreal lakes emit the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. We incorporated four different gas exchange models into a physico-biochemical lake model and studied their ability to simulate lake air–water CO2 fluxes. The inclusion of refined gas exchange models in lake models that simulate carbon cycling is important to assess lake carbon budgets. However, higher estimates for inorganic carbon sources in boreal lakes are needed to balance the CO2 losses to the atmosphere.
Erkan Ibraim, Benjamin Wolf, Eliza Harris, Rainer Gasche, Jing Wei, Longfei Yu, Ralf Kiese, Sarah Eggleston, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Matthias Zeeman, Béla Tuzson, Lukas Emmenegger, Johan Six, Stephan Henne, and Joachim Mohn
Biogeosciences, 16, 3247–3266,Short summary
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and the major stratospheric ozone-depleting substance; therefore, mitigation of anthropogenic N2O emissions is needed. To trace N2O-emitting source processes, in this study, we observed N2O isotopocules above an intensively managed grassland research site with a recently developed laser spectroscopy method. Our results indicate that the domain of denitrification or nitrifier denitrification was the major N2O source.
Camilo Rey-Sanchez, Gil Bohrer, Julie Slater, Yueh-Fen Li, Roger Grau-Andrés, Yushan Hao, Virginia I. Rich, and G. Matt Davies
Biogeosciences, 16, 3207–3231,Short summary
It is estimated that natural wetlands emit approximately 30 % of all the methane released to the atmosphere; yet these estimates are highly uncertain due to the complexity of biological, chemical, and physical processes controlling methane emissions. In this study, we explore how some of these key processes drive methane emissions in a temperate peat bog. We show that the composition of microbial methane cyclers in the upper portion of the peat drives the velocity of methane release to the air.
Jocelyn E. Egan, David R. Bowling, and David A. Risk
Biogeosciences, 16, 3197–3205,Short summary
Traditionally a mass-dependent correction is made when measuring the radiocarbon composition in organic samples. This correction has not been evaluated for the soil gas environment where gas transport processes are important. Here, we show using theory that this traditional correction is not appropriate for estimating the radiocarbon composition of soil biological production. We also propose a new solution that accounts for soil gas transport processes.
Mathias Göckede, Fanny Kittler, and Carsten Schaller
Biogeosciences, 16, 3113–3131,Short summary
Methane is one of the most important greenhouse gases. Methane emissions from land sources to the atmosphere often occur in the form of short but intense outbursts, which are difficult to measure. We developed a new software tool based on wavelets which reliably quantifies such methane outbursts. Using these results as a reference, our study shows that regular data processing using the eddy-covariance technique provides solid long-term methane budgets, but short-term uncertainties can be high.
Robert W. Howarth
Biogeosciences, 16, 3033–3046,Short summary
Atmospheric methane has risen rapidly since 2008 and has become more depleted in 13C, in contrast to the trend towards more 13C enrichment in the late 20th century. Many have used this isotopic evidence to infer an increased biogenic source. Here I analyze the 13C trend with the consideration that methane from shale gas is somewhat depleted in 13C compared to other fossil fuels. I conclude that shale gas may be responsible for a third of the global increase from all sources.
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